WorldWideScience

Sample records for privately owned mildly

  1. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... rate based on the type of POV you actually use (privately owned airplane, privately owned automobile... HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) 0 29. The authority citation for 41...

  2. The economy of privately owned windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions of the calculation methods used and related conditions, data on individual privately owned windmills, a summary of the most important tax and duty regulations, details of conditions for private windmill owners, a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of the development of the economy of privately owned windmills since 1991. It is concluded that, based on the current values named in the 1991 report, there is a drop in the case of cooperatively owned windmills of ca. 235,000 DKr and a rise in current value in the case of one-man owned windmills of 270,000 DKr. It is concluded that the changed conditions of the economy since 1991 has resulted in a poorer economy in relation to cooperatively owned windmills and an improvement in single-ownership windmills so that the current value in the latter is now positive. (AB)

  3. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted in adjusting the...

  4. Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion

  5. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General... Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2011 rates for the...

  6. Government owning versus privatization; Estatizacao versus privatizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document covers a series of debates on the presence of the government and the private utilities in Brazilian electric power sector. The document content comprehends three weeks of debates on electric power, and analytic texts ranging the period from 1952 to 1961, allowing the identification and understanding of the challenges and determinant reasons to the presence and actuation of the State in the electric power sector in Brazil.

  7. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are........ Finally I discuss the methodological challenges of measuring activities in sports facilities – and take a closer look at the advantages and drawbacks of using manual and thermal techniques for registering activity.......This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are...

  8. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General Services... Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2013 rates for the use of privately...

  9. 77 FR 2297 - Office of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY... Bulletin 12-02, Calendar Year (CY) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate...

  10. Hospital information system institutionalization processes in indonesian public, government-owned and privately owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Budi, Indra

    2016-11-01

    The Hospital Information System (HIS) could help hospitals as a public entity to provide optimal health services. One of the main challenges of HIS implementation is an institutional change. Using institutional theory as the analytical lens, this study aims to explain the institutionalization of HIS as an instance of e-health initiatives in Indonesia. Furthermore, this paper aims for hospital management and researchers to improve the understanding of the social forces that influence hospital personnel's HIS acceptance within an organizational context. We use case studies from four public, government-owned hospitals and four privately owned (public and specialty) hospitals to explain the HIS institutionalization process by exploring the three concepts of institutional theory: institutional isomorphism, institutional logic, and institutional entrepreneurship. This study reveals that differences exist between public, government-owned and private hospitals with regard to the institutionalization process: public, government-owned hospitals' management is more motivated to implement HIS to comply with the regulations, while private hospitals' management views HIS as an urgent requirement that must be achieved. The study findings also reveal that various institutional isomorphism mechanisms and forms of institutional logic emerge during the process. Finally, three factors-self-efficacy, social influence, and management support-have a significant influence on the individual acceptance of HIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation

  12. The privately owned timber resources of western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1983-01-01

    Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...

  13. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS FOR PRIVATELY OWNED FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, a large proportion of forest biodiversity exists on private land. Legal restrictions are often inadequate to prevent loss of habitat and encourage forest owners to manage areas for biodiversity, especially when these management actions require time, money, and ...

  14. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  15. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

  16. External Finance and the Foreign Direct Investment Decision: Evidence from Privately-Owned-Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duanmu, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Access to external finance is found to be a statistically significant factor explaining the probability of privately owned enterprises (POEs) in China undertaking foreign direct investment (FDI). The significance of external finance is magnified in industries featuring a heavy dependence on external finance, high technology, low tangibility, and high inventory. The external finance and FDI linkage is weaker for POEs with group affiliation, but stronger for those with generous employment welfa...

  17. Successful Phenotype Improvement following Gene Therapy for Severe Hemophilia A in Privately Owned Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mary Beth; Haskins, Mark E; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Shangzhen; High, Katherine A; Arruda, Valder R

    2016-01-01

    Severe hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by dogs, and, like humans, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the canine model has been one of the best predictors of the therapeutic dose tested in clinical trials for hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) and other genetic diseases, such as congenital blindness. Here we report our experience with liver gene therapy with AAV-FVIII in two outbred, privately owned dogs with severe HA that resulted in sustained expression of 1-2% of normal FVIII levels and prevented 90% of expected bleeding episodes. A Thr62Met mutation in the F8 gene was identified in one dog. These data recapitulate the improvement of the disease phenotype in research animals, and in humans, with AAV liver gene therapy for hemophilia B. Our experience is a novel example of the benefits of a relevant preclinical canine model to facilitate both translational studies in humans and improved welfare of privately owned dogs.

  18. Successful Phenotype Improvement following Gene Therapy for Severe Hemophilia A in Privately Owned Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Callan

    Full Text Available Severe hemophilia A (HA is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by <1% of residual factor VIII (FVIII clotting activity. The disease affects several mammals including dogs, and, like humans, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors, the canine model has been one of the best predictors of the therapeutic dose tested in clinical trials for hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency and other genetic diseases, such as congenital blindness. Here we report our experience with liver gene therapy with AAV-FVIII in two outbred, privately owned dogs with severe HA that resulted in sustained expression of 1-2% of normal FVIII levels and prevented 90% of expected bleeding episodes. A Thr62Met mutation in the F8 gene was identified in one dog. These data recapitulate the improvement of the disease phenotype in research animals, and in humans, with AAV liver gene therapy for hemophilia B. Our experience is a novel example of the benefits of a relevant preclinical canine model to facilitate both translational studies in humans and improved welfare of privately owned dogs.

  19. Verification of new technologies introduced into the privately-owned port of Higashidori Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, Sei-ichiro; Ozaki, Tsutomu; Date, Masanao

    2005-01-01

    The privately-owned port of Higashidori Nuclear Power Station introduced the rubble-slopping breakwater as the seawall and the concrete-caisson breakwater (new caisson breakwater) as the outlet seawall. The distribution of wave pressure on the new caisson breakwater was measured by the wave pressure meteor set on it and compared with the results of the hydraulic model tests. The precast concrete armour unit used Acropod. The conditions of new caisson breakwater, measurement of wave pressure, and the optimum conditions of seawall are stated. The new caisson breakwater showed the high dispersive effect of the impact wave force on the surf zone. The construction cost was decreased by reduction of sectional area and the wave dissipating concrete block. There are no problems about the stability of breakwater confirmed by the hydraulic model test. (S.Y.)

  20. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of Australia’s native forest is privately-owned and is needing investment to maintain and improve the supply of a wide range of ecosystem services. This paper reviews mechanisms presently used in Australia to improve the supply of ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on financial mechanisms. Auction, green bond and biobanking schemes are widely and, so far, successfully used in a number of States, especially in projects where the actions required and ecosystem services can be readily measured. Measurement of biodiversity and biodiversity-based services remains problematic, despite some fairly widespread application of different measurement systems. Inadequate or variable measurement systems could engender a loss of investor interest if equivalence or gains cannot be appropriately verified. A new Biodiversity Investment Scheme is proposed, based on the structure used commercially in Managed Investment Schemes. The choice of mechanism, however, will be mainly determined by landowner attitudes to assignment of property rights, and by scale, the extent of public versus private consumption goods, and the transaction costs and risks.

  1. Investigating brand personality of state-owned and private airlines: Maham Versus Iran Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karoubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies need to create exclusion not in the market but in their own capabilities and features in order to gain distinction. The creation and maintenance of distinction through functional features is nearly impossible anymore. Thus, apart from the functional features, companies need to consider their intangible properties, among which brand is one of the most important ones. One of components researchers have detected for brand is personality, which can enhance the preference and loyalty of the customers and influence their decision process. In the service section, due to its specific features, the impacts of brand personality are more important and more complicated and airline companies, as service industries, which provide one of the most intangible products, are no exception. In the current study, using Aaker's Five-Dimension Model for brand personality, brand personality of a state-owned airline company (Iran Air and a private one (Mahan are compared from the perspective of technical directors of travel agencies. The population includes 233 technical directors whose views regarding brand personality of airline companies are studied following the distribution of questionnaires. The results of the data analysis indicate Mahan Airline is superior to Iran Air in all the five dimensions.

  2. Request of pharmaceutical care service in a private owned community pharmacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires CF

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists, more than drug producer, is being a co-responsible for drug therapy and promoter of the rational use of medicines, enhancing their role. Appearance of a new philosophy, pharmaceutical care, came to organize, enhance and allowing this new role of the pharmacist in primary health care. Objectives of the present study were to determine the existence and to characterize the request for pharmaceutical care services and to assess the wiliness to pay for these services in a privately owned community pharmacy. An interview following a check-list was used by researchers to gather data. In 236 interviewed customers, 88.1% did not know the term ‘pharmaceutical care’, 67.2% showed to be interested on the service. Regarding the wiliness to pay, 39.9% conditioned it to the amount, and 10.1% stated that they would pay for the service. This allows us to conclude than in this setting, a demand existed, what allows repeating this survey in other settings, what lead us to the necessity of defining a standard of practice in Brazil, and in the rest of the world, to provide care to those who need it.

  3. Occurrence of strongyloidiasis in privately owned and sheltered dogs: clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Paola; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Capogna, Antonio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Zucca, Daniele; Greco, Beatrice; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-07-20

    The increasing number of reports of human infections by Strongyloides stercoralis from a range of European countries over the last 20 years has spurred the interest of the scientific community towards this parasite and, in particular, towards the role that infections of canine hosts may play in the epidemiology of human disease. Data on the epidemiology of canine strongyloidiasis is currently limited, most likely because of the inherent limitations of current diagnostic methods. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectal ampulla of 272 animals of varying age and both genders living in Apulia, southern Italy. Dogs included were either privately owned (n = 210), living in an urban area but with unrestricted outdoor access (Group 1), or shelter dogs (n = 62 out of ~400) hosted in a single shelter in the province of Bari in which a history of diarrhoea, weight loss, reduced appetite and respiratory symptoms had been reported (Group 2). Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed by coproscopy on direct faecal smear and via the Baermann method. Six of 272 dogs were positive for S. stercoralis at the Baermann examination; all but one were from the shelter (Group 2) and displayed gastrointestinal clinical signs. The only owned dog (Group 1) infected with S. stercoralis, but clinically healthy, had been adopted from a shelter 1 year prior to sampling. Five infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (Panacur®, Intervet, Animal Health, 50 mg/kg, PO daily for 5 days), or with a combination of fenbendazole and moxidectin plus imidacloprid spot-on (Im/Mox; Advocate® spot-on, Bayer). Post-treatment clearance of infection was confirmed in three dogs by Baermann examination, whereas treatment failure was documented in two dogs by Baermann and/or post-mortem detection of adult parasites. This study describes, for the first time, the presence of S. stercoralis infection in sheltered dogs from southern Italy. Data indicate that S. stercoralis infection

  4. Global financial crisis, ownership and bank profit efficiency in the Bangladesh's state owned and private commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Fakarudin; Sufian, Fadzlan; Nassir, Annuar Md.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of global financial crisis focusing on State Owned Commercial Banks (SCBs) and Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) ownership and others bank specific and macroeconomics factors influencing profit efficiency level of the Bangladesh banking sector. The Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis (SBM-DEA) method employed to compute the profit efficiency of 31 commercial banks operating in the Bangladesh over the years 2004-2011. Furthermore, the multivariate panel ...

  5. 48 CFR 752.247-70 - Preference for privately owned U.S.-flag commercial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (computed separately for dry bulk carriers, dry cargo liners, and tankers) shall be transported in privately... registry. (iv) Date of loading. (v) Port of loading. (vi) Port of final discharge. (vii) Description of...

  6. Arbitrability of Disputes Related to the Privatization of State-Owned Property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Frolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of arbitrability of disputes between a privatization body and purchaser arising out of a sale and purchase agreement of a privatization object or relating thereto. Author reached a conclusion that before the Law of Ukraine on Enactment of Some Laws of Ukraine Aimed at the Improvement of Privatization Process dated 16 February 2016 No. 1005-VIII entered into force disputes in relation to alienation to privatization objects could have been referred to international commercial arbitration.Based on the analysis of court practice in relation to sale and purchase agreements which contained arbitration clauses, author reached a conclusion thatsome of the arguments against arbitrability of this category of disputes did not lose their relevance even after the said law entered into force.

  7. Depression in employees in privately owned enterprises in China: is it related to work environment and work ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-03-25

    This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18-54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture.

  8. Effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to promote mental health among employees in privately owned enterprises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.

  9. Transition and the problem of 'brain drain' from the perspective of students of a privately owned university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Blagojević Milica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of brain drain is not a new problem in underdeveloped countries and those in transition. Young educated people leave their countries seeking better future, which further damages already weakened economy while the developed countries become even stronger. According to the data of the World Economic Forum, Srbija holds the second place in brain drain. The cited problem is usually analyzed by checking the students of the state owned universities whose studies are financed by the Republic of Serbia. The authors were motivated to explore the same problem but with the students of privately owned universities. Our explorative research was aimed at revealing the attitudes of these students towards leaving the country and work or study abroad. The research included 226 graduate and master students of the Faculty of digital arts, IT Faculty, the Faculty of Management and the Metropolitan University. The sample was deliberately selected. The majority of the responders (two thirds are increasingly interested in finding jobs abroad. This initial research was aimed at identification of the reasons for leaving the country. The respondents state that the reasons are better life conditions, chances for getting job, further studying and bad political and economic situation in the country, poorly paid jobs, new experiences and possibilities of promotion.

  10. Effects of various factors on Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of radial and coccygeal arterial blood pressure in privately owned, conscious cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Nystrom, Michael R; Mawby, Dianne I

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of age, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) on radial and coccygeal systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in cats. DESIGN Prospective randomized trial. ANIMALS 66 privately owned cats enrolled between May and December 2010. PROCEDURES BCS and MCS of cats were assessed by 2 investigators; SAP was measured via Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, with cats positioned in right lateral or sternal recumbency for measurements at the radial or coccygeal artery, respectively, with order of site randomized. Associations among variables were assessed through correlation coefficients, partial correlation coefficients, and ANCOVA. RESULTS Interrater reliability for BCS and MCS assessment was high (correlation coefficients, 0.95 and 0.83, respectively). No significant effect was identified for order of SAP measurement sites. Coccygeal and radial SAP were positively correlated (ρ = 0.45). The median difference in coccygeal versus radial SAP was 19 mm Hg, but differences were not consistently positive or negative. Radial SAP was positively correlated with age (ρ = 0.48) and negatively correlated with MCS (ρ = -0.30). On the basis of the correlation analysis, the association between radial SAP and MCS reflected the confounding influence of age. Coccygeal SAP was not significantly correlated with age, BCS, or MCS. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the coccygeal artery is recommended to reduce the confounding effects of age and sarcopenia on Doppler ultrasonographic SAP measurements in cats. Additionally, monitoring for changes in MCS is recommended for cats undergoing serial SAP measurement.

  11. Hotels presence on the Internet : A comparing study of Karlstads chain owned hotels and privately owned hotels exposure on the Internet.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Peter; Kocev, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society Internet is evolving the tourism industry and it’s the pioneers that use this marketing channel to further their brands that’s that reap the benefits of early adoption. In this essay we research how well two kinds of ownership structures, private ownership and chain ownership, in the hotel market match up against each other in Internet presence and the steps they have taken to encourage guests too book via their websites.   We determined that the hotel market in Karlstad wa...

  12. Case-mix and quality indicators in Chinese elder care homes: are there differences between government-owned and private-sector facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    To assess the association between ownership of Chinese elder care facilities and their performance quality and to compare the case-mix profile of residents and facility characteristics in government-owned and private-sector homes. Cross-sectional study. Census of elder care homes surveyed in Nanjing (2009) and Tianjin (2010). Elder care facilities located in urban Nanjing (n = 140, 95% of all) and urban Tianjin (n = 157, 97% of all). A summary case-mix index based on activity of daily living (ADL) limitations and cognitive impairment was created to measure levels of care needs of residents in each facility. Structure, process, and outcome measures were selected to assess facility-level quality of care. A structural quality measure, understaffing relative to resident levels of care needs, which indicates potentially inadequate staffing given resident case-mix, was also developed. Government-owned homes had significantly higher occupancy rates, presumably reflecting popular demand for publicly subsidized beds, but served residents who, on average, have fewer ADL and cognitive functioning limitations than those in private-sector facilities. Across a range of structure, process, and outcome measures of quality, there is no clear evidence suggesting advantages or disadvantages of either ownership type, although when staffing-to-resident ratio is gauged relative to resident case-mix, private-sector facilities were more likely to be understaffed than government-owned facilities. In Nanjing and Tianjin, private-sector homes were more likely to be understaffed, although their residents were sicker and frailer on average than those in government facilities. It is likely that the case-mix differences are the result of selective admission policies that favor healthier residents in government facilities than in private-sector homes. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. [Evaluation of the efficiency and quality of hospitals publicly owned with private management and hospitals of the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário

    2007-01-01

    , and by the Garcia de Orta Hospital, which are the less efficient hospitals. In Group V, with central hospitals and hospitals with functions of central hospital, it is the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, EPE, to present the best situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator, followed by the Santo António Hospital, EPE, the Santa Maria Hospital, EPE, and the HUC, while the hospitals with a worst situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator are the Hospitals of Faro, Evora and S. José. In Group VI hospitals with a better Composite Efficiency Indicator are the hospitals of Santa Marta, Gama Pinto Institute and Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, while the Estefânia Hospital is the most inefficient. Tondela, Valongo and Peniche Hospitals (Group I), have a good value of the Composite Efficiency and Quality Indicator, while Barcelos, Oliveira de Azeméis and Póvoa de Varzim/Vila do Conde Hospitals (Group II) present also good values of this indicator. The Hospitals of Vila Franca de Xira, Bragança and Setúbal (Group III), the Hospitals of Santarém, Garcia de Orta, and Curry Cabral (Group IV), the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, the Egas Moniz Hospital and the Santa Maria Hospital (Group V), and the Gama Pinto Institute, the Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, and the Santa Cruz Hospital (Group VI) are the best classified in their groups. EPE Hospitals (Hospitals publicly owned with private management) are the best classified in their groups in what efficiency is concerned, what is a better result tan the one shown in 2003. The lower inequality in relation to management indicators, in all hospital groups, exists in the areas of expenditure with inpatient care by user, what shows the existence of a norm of proceeding, in this traditional hospital area. The higher inequalities are those of day hospital, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. In what management indicators are concerned incentives must be created. The most efficient hospitals

  14. Who owns what? Private ownership and the public interest in recombinant DNA technology in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Doogab

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes how academic institutions, government agencies, and the nascent biotech industry contested the legal ownership of recombinant DNA technology in the name of the public interest. It reconstructs the way a small but influential group of government officials and university research administrators introduced a new framework for the commercialization of academic research in the context of a national debate over scientific research's contributions to American economic prosperity and public health. They claimed that private ownership of inventions arising from public support would provide a powerful means to liberate biomedical discoveries for public benefit. This articulation of the causal link between private ownership and the public interest, it is argued, justified a new set of expectations about the use of research results arising from government or public support, in which commercialization became a new public obligation for academic researchers. By highlighting the broader economic and legal shifts that prompted the reconfiguration of the ownership of public knowledge in late twentieth-century American capitalism, the essay examines the threads of policy-informed legal ideas that came together to affirm private ownership of biomedical knowledge as germane to the public interest in the coming of age of biotechnology and genetic medicine.

  15. Sewerage Pumping Stations, City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City of Brunswick., Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of unknown. City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City...

  16. Perceiving sustainable forest spaces: governance aspects of private and company owned forests in North-Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of improved environmental or sustainable aspects in forest management is often affiliated with the rise of market-driven governance systems, such as forest certification. In terms of forest resource peripheries, like North-Karelia, Finland, these are often attributed to environmental business and consumer demands from the green Central European markets. While acknowledging these aspects related to the supply chains of wood-based products, this study evaluates the actual perceptions about environmental forest governance and its spaces in the resource peripheries themselves. It displays the perceived changes and practices in forestry by comparing private and corporate ownership and their governance networks. This is accomplished by a qualitative, interview based case study of North Karelian and Finnish forestry actors. Transnational forest governance is hereby treated as a relational space, with forest certification systems as possible technologies used to achieve improved, sustainable forest management. Utilizing the North-Karelian forestry sector, the varying positionalities of actors and institutions within such a relational space shape the knowledge networks, perceptions and decision-making. The study evaluates how these local-global positionalities of actors and individuals shapes their understanding, and guide the direction of sustainable forest management in Finland while it (re-produces opposing regimes of practice. With the discourse on forest certification being twofold, a more complex picture emerges if aspects of even- versus uneven-aged forest management in Finland are integrated. Shaped by the actor’s positionalities and related knowledge networks, perceptions regarding the quality of forest management practices and technologies used to achieve sustainability differ and thereby shape governance processes. The green markets are not perceived as the main driving force and a strong governmental influence, particularly

  17. Privately Owned Public Spaces: the Internet and the Shaping of a New Breed of Consumers. From Participants to Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Poier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Computers in the 1980s were seen as a way to liberate people from the constraints of physicality, to expand the horizons of knowledge, and to enhance access to information. But after a few somersaults, we are back to a market that closes rather than opens our horizons, one that monopolizes, and even de facto owns, our very information. With the adoption of the term “user” - as opposed to “participant” for example – an asymmetry of power is underlined. This linguistic choice enables Internet platforms (such as Twitter, Facebook, iCloud, GoogleDrive to maintain shady property rights on what users might perceive as public spaces (precisely because they are built to project a public space dynamic but are in fact spaces in which the control over users' own data (e.g. pictures, texts is often impossible, transforming such data into a commodity and reducing users to (used consumers. En la década de 1980, los ordenadores se contemplaban como una forma de liberar a la gente de las limitaciones del mundo físico, ampliar los horizontes del conocimiento, y mejorar el acceso a la información. Pero después de diversos giros, volvemos a estar en un mercado que cierra nuestros horizontes en lugar de ampliarlos, que monopoliza, e incluso posee de facto, nuestra propia información. Con la adopción del término "usuario" - en lugar de "participante", por ejemplo - se pone de manifiesto la asimetría de poder existente. Esta opción lingüística permite a las plataformas de Internet (como Twitter, Facebook, iCloud, GoogleDrive mantener derechos de propiedad poco claros sobre plataformas que los usuarios pueden percibir como espacios públicos (precisamente porque están construidas para parecer un espacio público dinámico pero son en realidad espacios en los que es a menudo imposible controlar los propios datos de los usuarios (por ejemplo, imágenes, textos, transformando estos datos en una mercancía y convirtiendo a los usuarios en

  18. Private costs almost equal health care costs when intervening in mild Alzheimer's: a cohort study alongside the DAISY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and affects about 25 million people worldwide. Recent studies have evaluated the effect of early interventions for dementia, but few studies have considered private time and transportation costs associated with the intervention. Thi...... in access to health care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74848736....... of counselling sessions, courses and informational packages. The typical duration of the intervention was 7 months. A micro-costing approach was applied using prospectively collected data on resource utilisation that included estimates of participant time and transportation. Precision estimates were calculated...... using a bootstrapping technique and structural uncertainty was assessed with sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The direct intervention cost was estimated at EUR 1,070 (95% CI 1,029;1,109). The total cost (including private costs) was estimated at EUR 2,020 (95% CI 1,929;2,106) i.e. the ratio of private...

  19. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  20. My Own Private Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the emergence of Bulgarian digital libraries with pirated literature as a form of compensation for the failure of both the state and the market to provide easy access to electronic books in Bulgarian. These grass-roots digital libraries can be understood best through an analysis of the dichotomies between formal and informal economy, law and ethics, commercial and non-commercial interest, bricolage and engineering. Sharing of books online in Bulgaria has its historical precedent in the sharing of cultural objects during socialism and is part of the larger logic of informal economy as a form of independence from/resistance to the state. While many of the books in these electronic libraries are uploaded in infringement of copyright, the creators and users of the sites defend them on the basis of what is ethically right and claim that they contribute to the spread of knowledge. The paper emphasizes the rhetorical force of the word ‘library’ which is being appropriated by both commercial and non-commercial actors. Without underestimating the value provided by many of the grass-roots digital libraries discussed, the analysis leads to the question whether the bottom-up collaborative strategy for digitizing books is the optimal one in terms of the variety of titles offered and the overall coherence of digital archives. In short, should sharing replace more traditional state policies in the field of culture?

  1. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Davis

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss. In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  3. Freud's private mini-monograph on his own dreams. A contribution to the celebration of the centenary of The interpretation of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, H P

    2001-10-01

    A virtually unknown brief commentary by Freud on the characteristics of his own dreams is described and discussed. Freud's mini-monograph, discovered after some 80 years, has autobiographical, theoretical and organisational significance in the enigmatic context of the early development of psychoanalysis. Found among papers of Alfred Adler, this extraordinary document adds to our knowledge of psychoanalytic history, including the significance of dreams in the evolution of psychoanalytic thought. Freud's commentary permitted the identification of a particular dream as his own. This dream had been presented in anonymity to the fledgling Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for interpretation. The dream was later inserted, again anonymously, into The Interpretation of Dreams with Freud's own remarkable pre-oedipal interpretation. Freud's conflicted relationships with Adler and Jung are considered in historical context.

  4. Landscape features and attractants that predispose grizzly bears to risk of conflicts with humans: A spatial and temporal analysis on privately owned agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Seth Mark

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) deaths in the US tend to be concentrated on the periphery of core habitats. These deaths were often preceded by conflicts with humans. Management removals of "nuisance" and or habituated grizzly bears are a leading cause of death in many populations. This exploratory study focuses on the conditions that lead to human-grizzly bear conflicts on private lands near core habitat. I examined spatial associations among reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986--2001, landscape features, and agricultural-attractants in north-central Montana. I surveyed 61 of a possible 64 active livestock related land users and I used geographic information system (GIS) techniques to collect information on cattle and sheep pasture locations, seasons of use, and bone yard (carcass dumps) and beehive locations. I used GIS spatial analyses, univariate tests, and logistic regression models to explore the associations among conflicts, landscape features, and attractants. A majority (75%) of conflicts were found in distinct seasonal conflict hotspots. Conflict hotspots with spatial overlap were associated with riparian vegetation, bone yards, and beehives in close proximity to one another and accounted for 62% of all conflicts. Consistently available seasonal attractants in overlapping hotspots such as calving areas, sheep lambing areas and spring, summer, and fall sheep and cattle pastures appear to perpetuate the occurrence of conflicts. I found that lambing areas and spring and summer sheep pastures were strongly associated with conflict locations as were cattle calving areas, spring cow/calf pastures, fall pastures, and bone yards. Logistic regression modeling revealed that the presence of riparian vegetation within a 1.6 km search radius strongly influenced the likelihood of conflict. After controlling for riparian vegetation, I found that unmanaged bone yards, unfenced and fenced beehives, all increased the odds of conflict. For every 1 km moved away

  5. The impacts of regulation via the allowed rate of return constraint on social welfare, input choices, and level of output in the privately-owned electric utilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phongam, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of change in price elasticity of demand for electricity on social welfare, allowed rate of return, and marginal revenue product of each input used to produce electricity. Price elasticities of demand for electricity in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are compared as well as total demand in 1987. Also compared are these price elasticities between 1982 and 1987. Several conclusions are: (1) There is an overcapitalization in privately-owned electric utilities because at the chosen level of output, marginal revenue product of capital is less than its price. (2) Elastic demand for electricity will improve values of social welfare and marginal revenue product of inputs. (3) Tightening allowed rate of return will increase the amount of capital and labor usages, but decrease fuel, output, and social welfare. (4) Both residential and industrial demand for electricity are elastic, but commercial demand is inelastic. (5) By making comparison of price elasticity of demand between 1982 and 1987, it shows that price elasticity of demand for electricity in residential, industrial, and total demand are increasing. However, for the commercial sector, the price elasticity is decreasing somewhat

  6. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  7. Physician-owned companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuik, John P

    2007-05-15

    The author relates his experience in the development of a spinal implant development company (K2M) that is significantly advised by physicians. To provide information about the development of a spinal implant company (K2M) advised by a group of professional spinal surgeons. To relate the federal laws (STARK and anti-kickback) as they pertain to surgeon-influenced companies. To discuss the role of a scientific advisory board. A self-developed company was developed together with significant, but minority physician financial input and majority scientific advice. A privately owned spinal implant development corporation (K2M) was developed 3 years ago. Physician financial participation was less than 20% (Stark laws state no more than 40%). Users of product are greater than 60% non-investor physicians. The development of a large scientific advisory board has been very influential in product development. A privately owned spinal implant company (K2M) has been developed strictly within Federal laws. Its board of scientific advisors that receives recompense commissurate only with effort significantly impacts the company policy.

  8. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  9. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  10. 23 CFR 635.106 - Use of publicly owned equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.106 Use of publicly owned equipment. (a) Publicly owned equipment should not normally compete with privately owned equipment on a project to be let to contract... publicly owned equipment is to be made available in connection with construction work to be let to contract...

  11. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological

  12. The privatization mosaic: International power development agendas and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the international trend toward private ownership of state-owned power production, transmission and distribution systems. The topics of the article include trends towards private investment in electric power systems, alternative opportunities for private sector investment, investor objectives in private power development and utility privatization, and potential investors in overseas projects

  13. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  14. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  15. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  16. Privat boligudlejning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2008-01-01

    for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...

  17. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  18. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

  19. Privatize Candu (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Thomas.

    1981-01-01

    A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources

  20. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....

  1. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  2. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  3. 税负抑制了公司投资吗?——基于国有股权私有收益的解释%Does Expected Tax Burden Discourage Corporate Investment? Explanation Based on Private Benefits of State-owned Shares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林旭; 苏宏通; 朱凯; 陈信元

    2018-01-01

    right view. We analyze state ownership structure from a tax perspective,examine the influence of the expected tax burden on corporate investment decisions,and then integrate two explanations mentioned above. In traditional corporate finance theory,both state-owned and non-state-owned controlling shareholders have indiscrimination. Both of them get returns on investment according to the proportion of shares,and the private benefits of control at the same time. However,compared with other types of shareholders,the govern-ments,as the ultimate controllers of SOEs,can not only get equity gains and control rights,but also get tax revenues paid by the companies. Although the governments can also obtain tax benefits from private enter-prises,it is difficult for the governments to ensure tax revenues by intervening directly in business decisions of the private enterprises. In contrast,in the SOEs,the governments as the controlling shareholders can directly intervene in the business decisions of SOEs,so as to ensure the implementation of the tax revenues. Unlike the equity gains and the private benefits of control rights,the tax benefits are monopolized by the state. Therefore,the tax benefits could not be incorporated in the market price,which makes the market value underestimate the overall value of the state-owned controlled shareholders to a certain extent. When there is a conflict between tax benefits and returns on equity,the governments are more inclined to get exclusive tax be-nefits. The private benefits for state-owned holding rights cause the special agency problems between state-owned controlling shareholders and minority shareholders. This paper aims to clarify and analyze how agency problem affects corporate(especially SOEs)investing decisions. This paper takes the sample of listed companies from 2004 to 2013,and compares the relationship between corporate investment and expected tax burden under different ownership structure of listed compan

  4. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  5. Pemex sets petchem privatization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.

    1993-01-01

    Last week, Mexico's state-owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), was scheduled to unveil plans for the sale of basic petrochemical plants. The first privatization package - Pemex ammonia plants at Cosoleacaque and Camargo - will involve the sale of securities on the Mexican Stock Exchange, allowing a large number of Mexican investors to acquire parts of the business

  6. 32 CFR 636.38 - Impounding privately owned vehicles (POVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... empowered to control the vehicle will be informed that the Military Police are not responsible for... place of safety for storage or safekeeping. (vii) Military Police reasonably believe the vehicle is... security of towed vehicles. One set of keys to the enclosed area will be maintained by the Military Police...

  7. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Procedure GSA posts the POV mileage reimbursement rates, formerly published in 41 CFR Chapter 301, solely on... official travel. Notices published periodically in the Federal Register, such as this one, and the changes... reimbursement rates for Federal agencies. Dated: December 12, 2013. Carolyn Austin-Diggs, Acting Deputy...

  8. Growing Women-Owned Businesse | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help women-owned businesses connect to global markets and enhance their growth prospects. WEConnect International, a leading international certification body for women's business enterprises, is leading the project. The organization connects women-owned businesses to large private companies' ...

  9. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  10. Privatization costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, I.

    2007-01-01

    The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru

  11. Physician-Owned Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 6001 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 amended section 1877 of the Social Security Act to impose additional requirements for physician-owned hospitals to...

  12. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  13. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  14. A trajetória do Banco do Brasil no período recente, 2001-2006: banco público ou banco estatal "privado"? The recent path of the bank of Brazil, 2001-2006: public bank or "private" state-owned bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Pereira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é avaliar a performance do Banco do Brasil (BB no período 2001-2006, enfatizando os seguintes aspectos: O desempenho do BB correspondeu ao de um banco público tradicional que atua como um importante instrumento de governo para a promoção do desenvolvimento? Ou, ao invés disso, a trajetória recente do banco pode ser caracterizada pelo reforço de uma lógica privada de atuação? O texto procura levantar algumas questões relativas ao papel do Estado na atividade econômica, particularmente o papel que um grande banco estatal pode e deve ter para financiar o desenvolvimento em um país periférico (e desigual como o Brasil. A conclusão mais geral é que, desde meados dos anos 1980, o Banco do Brasil tem perdido crescentemente a função básica que costumava exercer como banco público.The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Bank of Brazil (BB in the 2001-2006 period, with a focus on the following aspects: has the BB actually performed the role of a typical public bank, functioning as an important instrument to foster development in Brazil? Or, instead, has its recent path been characterised by the reinforcement of a private logic of behaviour? The paper aims at raising a few questions regarding the role of the state in the economic activity, particularly the role that a big state-owned bank can and must perform to finance development in a peripheral (and unequal country like Brazil. The general conclusion is that, since the mid-80s, the BB has increasingly lost the key function that it formerly exerted as a public bank. A distinct pattern of behaviour has emerged, characterised by the bank's transformation into a "more private, less public" institution.

  15. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  16. Does Privatization Improve Job Satisfaction? The Case of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asiedu, K.F.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impacts of privatization in Ghana on the basis of a survey of 300 workers in privatized and state-owned enterprises. The findings indicate a significant positive relationship between privatization and job satisfaction. Whereas monthly wage is an important determinant of job

  17. Does privatization improve job satisfaction? The case of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asiedu, Kofi Fred; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impacts of privatization in Ghana on the basis of a survey of 300 workers in privatized and state-owned enterprises. The findings indicate a significant positive relationship between privatization and job satisfaction. Whereas monthly wage is an important determinant of job

  18. The Impunity of Private Authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2007-01-01

    . It begins by pointing to the tension involved in any effort to hold an authority (private or public) accountable, namely the tension between the centrality of acceptance for authority and accountability measures that necessarily involve contestation. It then proceeds to analyse this tension in the case...... of private security companies (PSCs). PSCs have become authorities in their own right in the security sphere. This has raised the question of their accountability and also resulted in considerable efforts to improve the accountability of the firms. This paper looks at why these efforts bear so little fruit...

  19. Who owns the mods?

    OpenAIRE

    Kow, Yong Ming; Nardi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Modding, the development of end user software extensions to commercial products, is popular among video gamers. Modders form communities to help each other. Mods can shape software products by weaving in contributions from users themselves based on their own experience of a product. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a conflict between a modding community and a gaming company which reveals contested issues of ownership and governance. We studied an online game, World of Warcraft, a l...

  20. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  1. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  2. SWOT analysis & privatization in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Družić Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the

  3. Comparison of Performance of Public and Private Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last fifteen years, a remarkable increase in the number of privately owned. There has been an increase in the individually owned and operated boreholes within the state because it is claimed that government owned boreholes breakdown too often. Hence, this study is aimed at comparison of the performance of three ...

  4. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months

  5. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  6. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  7. Build Your Own Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-07-01

    Physicians participating in MACRA have a unique opportunity to create and submit their own alternative payment models to the government and take command of their own future payments. At least one Texas physician is taking a crack at developing his own model.

  8. To Each His Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason A.; Lind, Christine H.; Truong, M. Phuong; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    Planarians are among the most complex animals with the ability to regenerate complete organisms from small tissue pieces. This ability allows them to reproduce by splitting themselves into a head and a tail piece, making them a rare example of asexual reproduction via transverse fission in multi-cellular organisms. Due to the stochastic nature of long reproductive cycles, which range from days to months, few and primarily qualitative studies have been conducted to understand the reproductive behaviors of asexual planarians. We have executed the largest long-term study on planarian asexual reproduction to date, tracking more than 23,000 reproductive events of three common planarian species found in Europe, North America, and Asia, respectively: Schmidtea mediterranea, Dugesia tigrina, and Dugesia japonica. This unique data collection allowed us to perform a detailed statistical analysis of their reproductive strategies. Since the three species share a similar anatomy and mode of reproduction by transverse division, we were surprised to find that each species had acquired its own distinct strategy for optimizing its reproductive success. We statistically examined each strategy, associated trade-offs, and the potential regulatory mechanisms on the population level. Interestingly, models for cell cycle length regulation in unicellular organisms could be directly applied to describe reproductive cycle lengths of planarians, despite the difference in underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we examined the ecological implications of each strategy through intra- and inter-species competition experiments and found that D. japonica outcompeted the other two species due to its relatively equal distribution of resources on head and tail pieces, its cannibalistic behaviors and ability to thrive in crowded environments. These results show that this species would pose a serious threat to endogenous planarian populations if accidentally introduced in their habitats.

  9. Privatization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  10. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  11. Constraints to private sector operation: maintenance of municipal infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of the private sector to take medium- or longterm responsibility for the operation and/or maintenance of elements of infrastructure owned by municipalities....

  12. Nuclear Electric looks to the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, James.

    1995-01-01

    The state-owned utility Nuclear Electric, which is responsible for nuclear power generation in England and Wales, was created in 1990 following withdrawal of nuclear from electricity privatisation. Having successfully made itself much more commercial, Nuclear Electric would like the freedom of operating in the private sector. (author)

  13. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  14. The competitive advantage of private label branding in FMCG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Szymanowski (Maciej)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRetailer own-branded products, known as Private Labels, have been steadily gaining market share over the last few decades and now account for about one third of Fast Moving Consumer Goods’ sales. As a result, increasing attention is being paid to leveraging the most from Private

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  16. Radon in private drinking water wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otahal, P.; Merta, J.; Burian, I.

    2014-01-01

    At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq.l -1 . This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. (authors)

  17. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  18. How do employees prioritise when they schedule their own shifts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2013-01-01

    to their family life, having consecutive time off, leisure-time activities, rest between shifts, sleep, regularity of their everyday life, health and that the work schedule balanced. Thus, employees consider both their own and the workplace's needs when they have the opportunity to schedule their own shifts. Age......We investigated how employees prioritised when they scheduled their own shifts and whether priorities depended on age, gender, educational level, cohabitation and health status. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from the follow-up survey of an intervention study investigating the effect...... of self-scheduling (n = 317). Intervention group participants were asked about their priorities when scheduling their own shifts succeeded by 17 items covering family/private life, economy, job content, health and sleep. At least half of the participants reported that they were giving high priority...

  19. Stockholders' interests in the energy system privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    , learning from the existing world experience concerning state owned power sector privatization, an increasing in energy tariff could be made supportable for the consumers using other compensatory measures. Because the energy sector assets can only be sold once, the government should take care to do everything it can to maximize the success of such sales

  20. Early experience with open heart surgery in a pioneer private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: More than forty years after the first open heart surgery in Nigeria, all open heart surgeries were carried out in government-owned hospitals before the introduction of such surgeries in 2013 at Biket Medical Centre, a privately owned hospital in Osogbo, South-western Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to review ...

  1. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  2. Private and public incomes in dehesas and coniferous forests in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Ovando; Pablo Campos; Jose L. Oviedo; Alejandro Caparrós

    2015-01-01

    We apply an ecosystem accounting system to estimate the total social income accrued from private and public products in a group of agroforestry farms in Andalusia (Spain). We provide bio-physical and economic indicators for two contrasting farm types, a sub-group of 15 publicly owned coniferous forests and a sub-group of 24 privately owned dehesa farms. Total social...

  3. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled...... trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three....... At enrollment, 3%, 38%, and 59% had a hypocoagulable, normocoagulable, and hypercoagulable TEG clot strength (MA), respectively. In the hypothermia group, functional coagulopathy improved during the hypothermia phase, measured by R and MA, in patients with hypercoagulation as well as in patients...

  4. How private are Europe's private forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...

  5. Private forests, public benefits: increased housing density and other pressures on private forest contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Lisa G. Mahal; Mary A. Carr; Ralph J. Alig; Sara J. Comas; David M. Theobald; Amanda. Cundiff

    2009-01-01

    Over half (56 percent) of America’s forests are privately owned and managed and provide a vast array of public goods and services, such as clean water, timber, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. These important public benefits are being affected by increased housing density in urban as well as rural areas across the country. The Forests on the Edge...

  6. Company performance and reputation risk in state-owned italian listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Cavallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ownership structure (private vs State-owned and company performance has been deeply analyzed by scholars and practitioners. Prior studies found mixed results about this topic; some scholars demonstrated that private firms perform better than State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs and others came to opposite or undefined results. Further, during the global financial crisis, this topic gained relevance. To our best knowledge, Italian framework suffers of a lack of these studies and, in particular, no ones focused on the level of reputation risk in both SOEs and private firms. Aim of this paper is to analyse the difference in the performance and in the reputation risk between Italian SOEs and private firms. To do so we performed a t-test analysis on a sample of 18 State-owned listed firms and 212 private listed firms. Our empirical results found that SOEs have higher ROE and higher Cash flow/sales, but a lower Tobins’ Q than private firms. Further, no statistically significant differences in the reputation risk have been found; therefore financial analysts do not perceive any difference in the reputation risk between private and SOEs. Our results can help practitioners and policy-makers in making investment decisions and choices about the privatization process

  7. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...

  8. THE ESSENCE OF THE EFFECTIVE MERCHANDISING WHEN PROMOTING A PRIVATE LABEL PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Майковська, Вікторія Ігорівна; Солониченко, Тетяна Сергіївна

    2014-01-01

    The need for own goods mark is disclosed in the article in conditions of competitive retail market. The competitive benefits are grounded which the own brand affords. Characteristic features and peculiarities of the own goods mark are defined. The experience of Private Label applying in the world, Europe and Ukraine is analyzed. The lack of problem development of merchandising effectiveness study in the promoting process of Private Label products is specified. The tasks to make the analysis o...

  9. Bring Your Own Device or Bring Your Own Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Holt, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the utilisation of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technologies in the classroom to determine if students and teachers perceive that the use of a digital device increased a learner's access to learning opportunities within the classroom, and, if the use of digital devices increased their…

  10. How do employees prioritise when they schedule their own shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lund, Henrik; Ajslev, Jeppe Z; Hansen, Åse Marie; Albertsen, Karen; Hvid, Helge; Garde, Anne Helene

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how employees prioritised when they scheduled their own shifts and whether priorities depended on age, gender, educational level, cohabitation and health status. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from the follow-up survey of an intervention study investigating the effect of self-scheduling (n = 317). Intervention group participants were asked about their priorities when scheduling their own shifts succeeded by 17 items covering family/private life, economy, job content, health and sleep. At least half of the participants reported that they were giving high priority to their family life, having consecutive time off, leisure-time activities, rest between shifts, sleep, regularity of their everyday life, health and that the work schedule balanced. Thus, employees consider both their own and the workplace's needs when they have the opportunity to schedule their own shifts. Age, gender, cohabitation and health status were all significantly associated with at least one of these priorities. Intervention studies report limited health effects of self-scheduling. Therefore, we investigated to what extent employees prioritise their health and recuperation when scheduling their own shifts. We found that employees not only consider both their health and family but also the workplace's needs when they schedule their own shifts.

  11. Public Private Business Models for Defence Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Initiatives (PFIs), franchising , concessions, Joint Ventures (JVs) and outright privatisation (Grimsey & Lewis, 2004, p. 54); Off-The-Shelf (OTS...Design (D), Finance (F), Buy (B)/Rent (R)/Lease (L), Construct (C) (Build (B)), Develop (D), Own (O), Operate (O), Manage (M), Maintain (M) and Transfer...Logistics Logistics Infrastructure, and Locistics Other affected None None Equipment Eql..ipment OLoOs Finance- Buy - Desig~ - Buy - Private sector

  12. Sustainable Consumption: Analysis of Consumers’ Perceptions about Using Private Brands in Food Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Boboc; Adrian Laurentiu Ariciu; Raluca Andreea Ion

    2015-01-01

    Private brands are representing an important vector for retailers, helping them to build sustainable relationships with their customers. Usually, private brands are perceived as products differentiated by lower prices. The purpose of this research is to identify consumers’ trust level in private brands used in food retail and their perceptions about the quality of retailers’ own products. The research question is: What are consumers’ perceptions about using private brands in food retail? Purs...

  13. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  14. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  15. STATE-OWNED RURAL BANK PERFORMANCE: DO GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE UNIQUENESS MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilsyah Noerdin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely recognized that ownership structure has an impact on firm performance. This paper examines whether rural banks owned by government have poorer performance than those owned by private parties with the emphasis on corporate governance uniqueness of state-owned rural banks. 42 rural banks in Indonesia has been selected as the sample. MANOVA test is used to investigate the difference performance between the two types of the rural banks. The results show that state-owned rural banks perform poorer than their privately-owned counterparts. It is indicated by lower ROA ratio and higher OEOI and NPL ratios. The important implication of this finding suggets that government ownership impede boards of rural banks to implement good corporate governance practices in order to improve their banks performance.

  16. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  17. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs.

  18. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  19. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  20. Women and Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  1. Private pensions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.

    2011-01-01

    Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market

  2. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  3. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  4. Privatization considerations of environmental remediation of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocher, M.A.; Paananen, O.H.; Kost, K.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of privatizing the application of environmental cleanup technologies to remediate nuclear waste within the DOE complex. These wastes are the legacy of the production of nuclear materials during the cold war era. It is anticipated that the privatization strategy will result in more efficient and less expensive approaches to the cleanup of DOE wastes. Similar privatization initiatives have the potential to achieve increased efficiency and cost savings at sites under the Department of Defense (DOD) and other Federal agencies. The DOE is privatizing a major, complex portion of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program at the Hanford nuclear reservation located in eastern Washington State. This effort will involve private companies that will design, permit, construct, operate, and finally deactivate waste treatment facilities that will be owned entirely by the private sector. The DOE will purchase treated waste products on a unit cost basis from the facilities after supplying the vendors with waste from the tank farm at Hanford. The privatization of selected United States and international Government functions involve decisions that are based on accurate and valid cost information. Private firms are beginning to privatize certain corporate activities so that they may concentrate business activities along main product or mission lines. In either the public or private sector, many aspects of cost engineering are utilized to make prioritization a success

  5. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  6. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  7. Who owns the Brazilian carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Flavio L M; Englund, Oskar; Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Guidotti, Vinicius; Pinto, Luís F G; Mörtberg, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed, and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon, and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30%, and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CSR in Publicly Owned Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2011-01-01

    /value – The originality of the paper and its contribution to the CSR literature lies in its pointing out the issues in opportunities and barriers in CSR in public, hybrid organisations that need to be solved before CSR can be fully implemented in public service companies at the same level as in private businesses....... of the political decision-makers of the city. The barriers to CSR in POEs stem from the legal regulatory framework, which dictates efficiencies, price and cost reductions and limits the ethical investments of the POEs. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology of the paper is a comparative study and analysis...

  9. Build your own time machine

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2012-01-01

    There is no physical law to prevent time travel nothing in physics to say it is impossible. So who is to say it can't be done? In Build Your Own Time Machine, acclaimed science writer Brian Clegg takes inspiration from his childhood heroes, Doctor Who and H. G. Wells, to explain the nature of time. How do we understand it and why measure it the way we do? How did the theories of one man change the way time was perceived by the world? Why wouldn't H. G. Wells's time machine have worked? And what would we need to do to make a real one? Build Your Own Time Machine explores the amazing possib

  10. Water Services in Chile : Comparing Private and Public Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bitrán, Gabriel A.; Valenzuela, Eduardo P.

    2003-01-01

    In 1988, Chile put in place a new regulatory regime for water and sanitation, allowing rates to reflect the actual cost of providing services. The government then reorganized the sector under 13 state-owned regional water companies and, in 1998, started to partially privatize some of them. Four years after the first sale, it is now possible to assess the early results of privatization. Thi...

  11. Research on readiness for job creation through one's own agribusiness startup

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović Boško; Stefanović Vidoje; Vojnović Dragana; Perović Milorad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problems of jobs, employment, staff hiring in the agriindustrial complex, job description and requirements, theoretical and practical job cost indicators, and the willingness of our people to create new jobs by starting up their own private agribusiness. The results indicate a chronic lack of private funds necessary for every new business as well as the inevitability of borrowing. Potential entrepreneurs know the advantages and the disadvantages of solo and partnership...

  12. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  13. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  14. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...

  15. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  16. The Role of Foreign Investment in Korean Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is aiming at observing the privatization trend of the state-owned enterprises after the declaration of the privatization of a great number of the state-owned enterprises in 1998. This thesis analyzed and made comments on this issue, and got an enlightenment on the overseas sale of the state-owned enterprises, according to a deep analysis of POSCO’s and KEPCO’s achievement on privatization by issuing Depositary Receipts. To issue DR (deposit receipt of stock in overseas did not restrict the holding limitation of foreigners; it also has the advantage of getting the domestic premium in Korea. So it is considered to be the principal method of the overseas sale of the state-owned enterprises. The result of this thesis shows that, generally speaking, the recent issue of the DR of state-owned enterprises is successful as a blueprint of privatization. But in order to maximize the scale of sales financing, it is necessary to implement sale strategies by way of taking the pre-market stabilization, using financial experts, accepting various skills of selling.

  17. Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...

  18. Areva's privatization uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)

  19. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  20. WHO OWNS THE BROADCASTING TELEVISION NETWORK BUSINESS IN INDONESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting TV occupies a significant position in the community. Therefore, all the countries in the world give attention to TV broadcasting business. In Indonesia, the government requires TV stations to broadcast locally, except through networking. In this state, there are 763 private TV companies broadcasting free to air. Of these, some companies have many TV stations and build various broadcasting networks. In this article, the author reveals the substantial TV stations that control the market, based on literature studies. From the data analysis, there are 14 substantial free to network broadcast private TV broadcasters but owns by eight companies; these include the MNC Group, EMTEK, Viva Media Asia, CTCorp, Media Indonesia, Rajawali Corpora, and Indigo Multimedia. All TV stations are from Jakarta, which broadcasts in 22 to 32 Indonesian provinces.

  1. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  2. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  3. Mild Epicureanism: notes toward the definition of a therapeutic attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenger, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapists generally feel uncomfortable addressing patients' beliefs, particularly religious beliefs, because of the desire to respect client subjectivity and to avoid the abuse of therapeutic authority. This paper's first contention is that at some junctures, investigation of the client's belief structure can be an important catalyst for change, as exemplified by an extended case example. This stance assumes that much of the individual and collective damage rigid belief systems inflict derives from their function as a defense against death awareness, as described by terror management theory. The paper develops the concept of a therapeutic meta-attitude towards belief mild Epicureanism, related to the classical Greek philosopher Epicurus (341-270 BC). Mild Epicureanism means to soften attachments to all belief systems, even therapeutic theories, to lower their potential inhibition of personal growth. The paper presents the argument that mild Epicureanism is consistent with most therapeutic approaches, and allows addressing clients' belief without interfering with their right to make up their own minds.

  4. Private equity ownership and nursing home financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Harman, Jeffrey S; Laberge, Alex; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Private equity has acquired multiple large nursing home chains within the last few years; by 2009, it owned nearly 1,900 nursing homes. Private equity is said to improve the financial performance of acquired facilities. However, no study has yet examined the financial performance of private equity nursing homes, ergo this study. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the financial performance of private equity nursing homes and how it compares with other investor-owned facilities. It also seeks to understand the approach favored by private equity to improve financial performance-for instance, whether they prefer to cut costs or maximize revenues or follow a mixed approach. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, Area Resource File, and Brown University's Long-term Care Focus data set are combined to construct a longitudinal data set for the study period 2000-2007. The final sample is 2,822 observations after eliminating all not-for-profit, independent, and hospital-based facilities. Dependent financial variables consist of operating revenues and costs, operating and total margins, payer mix (census Medicare, census Medicaid, census other), and acuity index. Independent variables primarily reflect private equity ownership. The study was analyzed using ordinary least squares, gamma distribution with log link, logit with binomial family link, and logistic regression. Private equity nursing homes have higher operating margin as well as total margin; they also report higher operating revenues and costs. No significant differences in payer mix are noted. Results suggest that private equity delivers superior financial performance compared with other investor-owned nursing homes. However, causes for concern remain particularly with the long-term financial sustainability of these facilities.

  5. Power from your own roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haltiner, E. W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities of installing solar power modules on new and existing buildings. The situation in Switzerland, where the level of promotion for photovoltaics (PV) has dropped, is compared with neighbouring countries. The various factors influencing the decision to install one's own PV system are discussed. These factors are categorised into 'soft' factors, such as personal preferences and pioneer spirit, and 'hard' criteria of a technical nature. Tips for prospective owners and operators of PV systems are given, including requirements to be placed on the supplier of the system, details on installation and connection to the mains and building-permission topics. Questions on guarantees for the power production are discussed as are possibilities of simulating system performance and yield. An example is presented for a typical system for a single-family home and possibilities of obtaining tax concessions for the installation cost are discussed

  6. Organizational Characteristics and Employee Overall Satisfaction: A Comparison of State-Owned and Non State- Owned Enterprises in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in employee overall job satisfaction between public and private sector organizations have long been a topic of organizational academic debate. This study looks at the differences and the relationships between organizational characteristics and employee overall satisfaction between the State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs and the Non-State-OwnedEnterprises (Non-SOEs in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is threefold: 1 to examine the differences in organizational characteristics in 7 components including purposes, structure,leadership, relationships, rewards, helpful mechanisms, and attitude toward change; 2 to examine the differences in employee overall satisfaction; and 3 to explore the relationshipbetween organizational characteristics and employee overall satisfaction between the two sectors. The sample includes 20 SOEs and 20 Non-SOEs with a total of 860 employees. The findings empirically reinforce existing organization behavior literature: employee satisfaction is to some extent shaped by the settings of their organizations. Limitations and future research opportunities are also identified.

  7. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  8. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  9. Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Mehtabul

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...

  10. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  11. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  12. At private den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    ?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...

  13. The Franchising of Private Tutoring: A View from Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and…

  14. Private Studio to Public School: One Teacher's Reflection on Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Russell, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates strengths and limitations of some studio training. It focuses on values that private studio students bring to the public school setting. One teacher uses this as an opportunity to reflect on and claim her own values and desire to develop students as artists.

  15. Sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction among specialists within the public and private health sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Brown, Paul M.; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2013-01-01

    and professional development, key sources of dissatisfaction are workload pressures, mentally demanding work and managerial interference. In the private sector specialists value the opportunity to work independently and apply their own ideas in the workplace. Conclusion Sources of job satisfaction...... and dissatisfaction amongst specialists are different for the public and private sectors. Allowing specialists more freedom to work independently and to apply their own ideas in the workplace may enhance recruitment and retention of specialists in the public health system....

  16. Clinical education in private practice: an interdisciplinary project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubt, Lorna; Paterson, Margo; O'Riordan, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Education of rehabilitation professionals traditionally has occurred in acute care hospitals, rehabilitation centres, and other publicly funded institutions, but increasing numbers of rehabilitation professionals are now working in the community in private agencies and clinics. These privately owned clinics and community agencies represent underutilized resources for the clinical training of students. Historically, private practitioners have been less likely to participate in clinical education because of concerns over patient satisfaction and quality of care, workload, costs, and liability. Through a program funded by the Ministry of Health of Ontario, we conducted a series of interviews and focus groups with private practitioners, which identified that several incentives could potentially increase the numbers of clinical placements in private practices, including participation in the development of student learning objectives related to private practice, professional recognition, and improved relationships with the university departments. Placement in private practices can afford students skills in administration, business management, marketing and promotion, resource development, research, consulting, networking, and medical-legal assessments and processes. This paper presents a discussion of clinical education issues from the perspective of private practitioners, based on the findings of a clinical education project undertaken at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, and previous literature.

  17. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  18. State-Owned Enterprise Director Training: A Review of Canadian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys state-owned enterprise director training programmes in Canada at both the national and provincial levels. In Canada director training programmes have emerged to enable good private-sector corporate governance. This trend has been embraced by governments seeking to improve corporate governance among their state-owned…

  19. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  20. BYOD: Bring your own disaster

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” -  “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side.   The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...

  1. Build Your Own Particle Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To support the outreach activities of Atlas institutes and to grab people's attention in science exhibitions and during public events, we have created both a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of about Lego bricks as well as an outreach programme using Lego bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general. A large Lego model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been 'exported' to more than 55 Atlas institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of 'Build Your Own Particle Detector' programme (byopd.org) we conducted more than 15 events,either involving a competition to design and build the 'best' particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently we've added miniature models of all four LHC experiments, that will be us...

  2. The effects of privatization on wages and job satisfaction: the case of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asiedu, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : privatization, wages, job satisfaction, state owned enterprise, Ghana, Africa

    In this thesis, we examine the impact of privatization on wages and job satisfaction in selected urban-based enterprises

  3. A closer look at forests on the edge: future development on private forests in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    Privately owned forests provide many public benefits, including clean water and air, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. By 2030, 44.2 million acres of rural private forest land across the conterminous United States are projected to experience substantial increases in residential development. As housing density increases, the public benefits provided by...

  4. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  5. Family Business/Entrepreneurial Studies: A Small Private Liberal Arts College Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, M. Tony

    2004-01-01

    The Center for Women's Business Research reports that, "As of 2002, there are an estimated 10.1 million privately-held majority or 50% women-owned businesses in the U.S., accounting for 46% of all privately-held firms. These firms generate $2.3 trillion in sales and employ 18.2 million workers." Further it states, "In North…

  6. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  7. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  8. Secure quantum private comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  9. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico

  10. A positive theory of privatization for developing countries: on Jean Jacques Laffont's last lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Florio Massimo

    2006-01-01

    According to his posthumous book, Laffont (2005), suggests that when policy-makers in less developed countries have a private agenda, regulators risk to be corrupted, and ex post evaluation is costly, government privatization supply is a non linear (inverted U) function of a corruption index. Both benevolent and very corrupted governments may divest State Owned Enterprises for very different reasons. Governments with an intermediate degree of corruption may like privatization, but not always ...

  11. Inventory of Owned and Leased Properties (IOLP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Inventory of Owned and Leased Properties (IOLP) allows users to search properties owned and leased by the General Services Administration (GSA) across the United...

  12. Privatizing government operations - a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.A.; Sailor, W.C.; Schmieman, E.A.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Area is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation in Southeastern Washington, where the primary mission for nearly fifty years was production of nuclear weapons materials. It is now the nation's largest superfund site and its sole mission is environmental remediation of the mixed wastes generated during plutonium production. A large fraction of these wastes are stored in 177 underground tanks and are the subject of the DOE's Tank Waste Remediation system (TWRS) Program. Since its inception the TWRS Program has been managed by a Maintenance and Operations (M ampersand O) contractor. The DOE is now considering the privatization of a portion of this program and has recently issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) seeking new, qualified, private vendors. Successful bidders will be expected to build waste processing facilities with their own financial resources and to recover their costs by charging fixed prices for the various products delivered to the DOE. Because the TWRS Program is such a large, complex, and expensive undertaking, the privatization initiative will be conducted in two phases: a small proof-of-concept phase, followed by full-scale production. The key to a successful demonstration is establishing the right set of requirements to be satisfied by the private vendors. These requirements must be consistent with the existing requirements set developed over the past three years by the M ampersand O contractor. This paper presents the results of a systems engineering effort that was conducted in support of the RFP preparation and had to be coordinated with an ongoing program. Much of the effort was focused on the specification of new proof-of-concept requirements that are directly traceable to corresponding requirements in the M ampersand O's RDD-100 reg-sign database. A new functions and requirements database was created for this first privatization phase using CORE reg-sign, a systems engineering support tool, produced by Vitech Corporation

  13. Debt financing structure within the state-owned corporations in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Odhiambo Nyamita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current public sector financial management reforms agenda within the state-owned corporations in Kenya aimed at integrating and aligning their performance to vision 2030, has not yet achieved the traction required. This study, therefore, examined the different types of debt financing strategies applied by the various state-owned corporations in Kenya, in comparison to those applied by state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies. The study specifically revealed that private debt financing, through bank loans and payables is commonly used amongst Kenyan state-owned corporations. While, most state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies, such as in America, Europe, Asia and South Africa, use public debt financing, through financial securities, traded in both domestic and international capital markets.

  14. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  15. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  16. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  17. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  18. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  19. Virtual private network (VPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)

  20. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  1. The effect of private tubewells on income and income inequality in rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Qiuqiong; Giordano, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of private tubewells in rural Pakistan, farmers have increasingly used groundwater to supplement canal water for irrigation and improve the reliability of the water supply. Farmers obtain groundwater either from their own tubewells or from other well owners. This paper examines the effect of private tubewells on rural income, both in terms of income level and income distribution since it may differ across farmers with different irrigation status (only canal water, canal water and groundwater from own tubewell, and canal water and purchased groundwater). The results show that private tubewells work to enhance rural income and reduce income inequality in rural Pakistan.

  2. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  3. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  4. RETRAINING BY PRIVATE INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOOS, IDA R.

    SEVERAL SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA COMPANIES WERE EXAMINED FOR SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR DISPLACED EMPLOYEES. ARMOUR AND COMPANY SOUGHT TO GUIDE DISPLACED EMPLOYEES TO CLASSES OR COURSES OF ACTION OUTSIDE ITS OWN SPHERE OF OPERATION. LOCKHEED HAS PROVIDED UNUSUALLY WELL FOR UPGRADING AND RETRAINING, MAINLY BECAUSE OF INDUSTRY FLUCTUATIONS AND RAPID…

  5. Transmission pricing in privately-owned electricity grids: An illustration from the Argentine electricity pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, Manuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine electricity reform of 1992 offers an interesting example of decentralized transmission pricing arrangements within a competitive system. This paper is a shortened version of an original analysis made in 1994 of the regulation of the Argentine transmission system, with emphasis on investment cost allocation rules. To make up for the limitation of short-run marginal cost (SRMC) pricing, incentives on service quality were put in place, including penalties for lack of line availability. The mechanism for capacity expansion, based on ad-hoc rules for allocations of investment costs, had the potential to produce non-optimal investment outcomes, as such rules ignored beneficiaries on the demand side. For fine tuning of this system, I proposed an alternative rule based on traditional welfare analysis that broadens the universe of identified beneficiaries, and thus can be expected to produce a fairer outcome on investment cost allocation, reducing the potential risks of non-optimal investment. A brief postscript comments on the paper from the perspective of 2007. (author)

  6. 24 CFR 570.511 - Use of escrow accounts for rehabilitation of privately owned residential property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY... neighborhood-scale non-residential space within the same structure, if any, e.g., a store front below a... rehabilitation services costs under § 570.202(b)(9), are not permissible uses of escrowed funds. Such other...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.511 - Use of escrow accounts for rehabilitation of privately owned residential property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND... neighborhood-scale non-residential space within the same structure, if any, e.g., a store front below a... loan or grant, e.g., the grantee's administrative costs under § 1003.206 or rehabilitation services...

  8. 32 CFR 634.9 - Suspension or revocation of driving or privately owned vehicle registration privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violations or safe vehicle operation, is not limited or restricted by this part. (a) Suspension. (1) Driving... Government vehicles. (3) Immediate suspension of installation or overseas command POV driving privileges... which the vehicle is being operated if the jurisdiction imposes a suspension solely on the basis of the...

  9. Characterization of pica and chewing behaviors in privately owned cats: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny-Bédard, Isabelle; Beauchamp, Guy; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Frank, Diane

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize pica behavior in cats. Cat owners were recruited to participate in a questionnaire survey on pica behavior exhibited by their cats. Emphasis was put on the type of item ingested. Questions on early history and environment, as well as general health and gastrointestinal signs, were asked. Owners of healthy cats not showing pica were also recruited into a control group. Associations between variables and groups were statistically tested. Pica was directed most commonly at shoelaces or threads, followed by plastic, fabric, other items, rubber, paper or cardboard and wood. Some cats ingested specific items but only chewed others. A significant positive association was found between sucking and ingesting fabric (P = 0.002). Ad libitum feeding was significantly lower in the pica group than the control group (P = 0.01). Prevalence of self-sucking behavior was significantly higher in the pica group than the control group (P = 0.001). Cats with pica vomited significantly more often than control cats (P = 0.01). Pica, the ingestion of inedible items, does not seem to be the consequence of a suboptimal environment or early weaning. Cats with pica were less commonly fed ad libitum than healthy cats. As frequently reported, pica and vomiting were related, but the causative association is not well established and thus warrants further investigation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. 36 CFR 1284.20 - Does NARA exhibit privately-owned material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individuals or organizations except as part of a NARA-produced exhibit. (b) NARA may accept for temporary...) available to produce the special exhibit. (c) The Director of Museum Programs (NWE), in conjunction with the...) The Director of Museum Programs or director of the pertinent Presidential library will inform the...

  11. 78 FR 27941 - Advertising and Sponsorship in Connection With Concessions Involving Privately Owned Improvements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC41 Advertising and Sponsorship in Connection... final directive allows holders of concession permits to advertise (1) inside buildings and other... final directive [[Page 27942

  12. 22 CFR 228.31 - Individuals and privately owned commercial firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... principal management positions, and (D) Has the existing technical and financial capability in the United... institutional stockholder) whose holdings are material to the corporation's eligibility, that the certifying...

  13. Enel expects privatization to be completed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the coalition will probably mean that the sale of state-owned stakes in two distribution companies and all the heating plants will not be completed and nor will privatisation at Zapadoslovenska energetika. Most important for the energy sector is uncertainty regarding the major privatization project of this government - finding a new owner of 66% of Slovenske elektrarne shares. The state expects to receive about 32 billion Slovak crowns (842.105 million EUR) from Enel for this stake. 'The cabinet has approved the privatization under certain conditions and those have to be met now,' answered the leader of the KDH deputy's club, Pavol Minarik, to the question whether the cabinet would still be able to muster sufficient votes in parliament to pass the Act on the national nuclear account. All other so-called delaying conditions are in the competence of the cabinet or the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and the opposition, which opposes privatization, cannot influence them. The act will address the financing of debts related to the liquidation of the V1 and A1 nuclear power plants. (authors)

  14. Investigating Philosophies Underpinning Dietetic Private Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Harper

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians’ practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the ‘philosophies’ as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes. Semi-structured interviews with dietitians in private practice were undertaken and data were collected and analysed concurrently. The results show that dietitians form collaborative relationships with their clients, in order to nurture change over time. They use intrinsic and intertwined forms of episteme, techne, and phronesis, which allow them to respond both practically and sensitively to their clients’ needs. The learning and integration of these forms of knowledge are situated in their own practice experience. Dietitians adapt through experience, feedback, and reflection. This study highlights that private practice offers a unique context in which dietitians deal with complex issues, by utilising and adapting their philosophies.

  15. Privatization an a national business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tokarski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.

  16. PRIVATIZATION OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICE ENTERPRISES: PRIVATIZATION MECHANISM AND PROPERTY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing and communal services in Russia are provided by state or municipality owned so-called unitary enterprises. At present, most of these enterprises are at the brink of bankruptcy. Privatization in the field of housing and communal economy (HCE sector is one of most efficient instruments of improvement thereof. Particular feature of the author’s approach to evaluation of the total or partial cost of such enterprises is summing up the values of the element-to-element property assessment on the basis of the enterprise’s net assets. Described in the article is a system and succession of steps to be followed by private entities formed on the basis of HCE enterprises’ whole or partial property or acquiring rights thereupon.

  17. The privatization of EEB: From cash drain to major contributor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, Christianne; Larsen, Erik R.; Dyner, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the successful part-privatization of Empresa de Energia de Bogota (EEB), the city-owned electricity company in Bogota, Colombia. We describe the reason, the preparation and the actual sale process as well as the outcome following the part-privatization. EEB went from being a company on the edge of bankruptcy to one of the most financially secure electricity companies in South America. We also place the case in relation to the standard views on direct foreign investment and their social benefit. Finally, we aim to generalize the experience to see what other organizations in a similar position can learn

  18. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  19. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  20. THE EFFICIENCY OF IMPLEMENTING PRIVATE MANAGEMENT IN STATE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungiu-Pupăzan Mariana Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, nine state-owned companies are expected to have private management giving up the statemanagement. Therefore, a full debate of this issue is required, taking into consideration the fact that, in ouropinion, this process involves more than just the replacement of a manager with another. The implementationof private management in companies of national strategy, currently in state ownership, is desired to be aprofound and also very complex process, aiming to change organizational culture in depth, both verticallyand horizontally, so as to increase efficiency in these companies.Implementation of private management could be a good opportunity for an efficient development ofthese companies, for an increasing level of competitiveness on the international market, but only in terms ofa leadership team chosen on performance criteria, with a coherent set of objectives and a high independencelevel of decision.There are some opinions from people with experience in managing both private and statecompanies. They believe that the idea of establishing a private management in state companies, is, in themain, good, but it is essential to take into consideration the idea of a team trained to lead the company,instead of one person as a general manager.Another element to be taken into account, so that this idea of private management may have thedesired effect, is to precisely determine companies where private management teams should be installed. Notall companies are suitable for the same private management strategy. This type of leadership is better forcompanies with a real international perspective, such as Tarom, while strategic companies should be ratherreformed, including management privatization, and kept as state strategic areas. However, strict criteria ofstate intervention in decision-making process should be established, a striking question concerning thecircumstances under which such a management team could be successful, given that state firms are

  1. The performance of newly privatized firms: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vaz Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the pre and post privatization financial, social and operational performance of forty two Portuguese companies in most of sectors of economic activity that experience full or partial privatization through public share offering, direct sale or public contest, for the period from 1989 to 2009. That is, this work investigates, whether or not, the privatization of sate-owned enterprises (SOE’s had caused improvements on the economic and financial health of those privatized companies, as it is suggested by the literature of property rights, public choice and agency theory. First, we document significant improvements on profitability, operating efficiency, capital investment, real output, dividend payout, treasury applications, activity levels and capital structure. Secondly, we experience significant decreases in employment after privatization. Third, we observe that, following privatization, the financial equilibrium (short and long of firms was negatively affected. Lastly, our results are generally robust surviving the partition of the dataset into various sub-samples.

  2. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  3. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby Petersen, Ole

    This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...

  4. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information

  6. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  7. Getting started with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Patawari, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  8. Factors impacting hunter access to private lands in southeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Eric; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.

    2018-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have important socioeconomic and ecological impacts in the United States. Hunting is considered to be important for the effective management of deer and relies on access to privately owned lands. In 2013, we surveyed nonindustrial private landowners in southeast Minnesota and created two logit models to examine factors that impact landowners’ decision to (a) allow public hunting access and (b) post private property. Parcel characteristics were found to impact landowner decisions to allow hunting access, particularly the size of the property and whether it was posted. Hunting access to small properties was more likely to be restricted to family, friends, and neighbors (83%) compared to medium (74%) or large properties (60%). Hunter concerns (e.g., liability) and knowledge about deer management was significant in both models, suggesting there are opportunities to educate landowners about the importance of allowing public hunting access and available liability protections.

  9. The Effect of Private Brands on Business Performance in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the length of time many new retail features were developed, as a part of the total value chain (from manufacturer to customer. One such feature is: the development of private brands (private-label merchandise, private-label brands, store brands, house brands, own brands. Because of economic importance, both in theory and in practice, more complex stress was put on its research from various perspectives: the individual countries and regions - geographic, retail companies and formats (types of stores, product categories, as well as from the perspective of the perception of customers / consumers. In the context of it, special empirical emphasis was placed on the effects of private brands on business performance in retail, in particular, on cost, gross margin, profit, in other words, on profit indicators, such as: rate of profits from sales, profit rate of assets and the rate of profit of the share capital. Having such starting point, this paper attempts to, as thoroughly as it can, primarily empirically, investigate the impact of the development of private brands in the retail business performance. Using the latest available relevant data gathered from various scientific and professional sources, including well-known agencies that primarily conduct empirical analysis of private brands in some countries, companies and retail formats and product categories. The results should serve as a reliable basis for creating the most efficient strategy for managing the development of private brands in order to improve business performance in retail. This is especially true of the so-called "emerging market" private brands, as it is the case with Serbia.

  10. Market Positioning of Public and Private Universities:Students Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Kahar ADAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on universities strategies for admitting students and the rate at which private sector universities expand in today’s higher educational setups. This paper answers the following question: to what extend are the public universities different from the private universities? In an attempt to find the answers, the whole study is developedtowards students’ perception of the universities positioning in terms of what they are offering to the customers, through what they prompt people to apply for admission? Therefore, thispaper looks at the prevailing admission strategies and potential students’ entry requirements at both public and private universities to determine the theoretical systems that are used by these universities in competition for customers (students. A quantitative survey of students in both public and private universities in Ghana was undergone In all, a total number of 255 questionnaires were printed. Only 187 were answered and returned out of 200 distributed questionnaires to the public sector universities whereas 55 questionnaires were distributed to the private sector students and 51 were answered and returned. This research was based on sampling data collection methods. The findings show that there are three categories of universities such as Publicly/Fully Independent Chartered Universities, Privately Owned Universities and Personal/Sole Proprietorship University Colleges. All these affect students’ choices for admission application. The findings clearly indicate that both public and private universitiespurposes are related using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient formulae to that of the sole proprietorship colleges. Also, the admission requirement strategies differ between public and private universities.

  11. Research on readiness for job creation through one's own agribusiness startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović Boško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the problems of jobs, employment, staff hiring in the agriindustrial complex, job description and requirements, theoretical and practical job cost indicators, and the willingness of our people to create new jobs by starting up their own private agribusiness. The results indicate a chronic lack of private funds necessary for every new business as well as the inevitability of borrowing. Potential entrepreneurs know the advantages and the disadvantages of solo and partnership business; however, they do not have any potential partners in sight. Almost a half of them have their own facilities and arable land etc. as a material base; however, they do not know what else is needed for a business to operate properly. In general, they understand the importance of education and training for any future business.

  12. The state-owned company: “State failure” or “market failure”?1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radygin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the activity of state-owned companies and their place in the structure of market relations from the standpoint of contemporary approaches to the study of “state failure” and “market failure”. It will also consider the implications of the systematic embedding of private property rights. In addition to considering the costs of the functions of state-owned companies, the authors address the actual experience of the Russian economy in the present day, the experience of forming state corporations and the risks associated with their operation. Particular attention will be paid to the inhibition of incentives to improve the general institutional environment and, conversely, to the increasing incidence of direct state intervention in matters that affect economic development. We will examine the various ways in which the growth of the public sector, de jure and de facto, reduces opportunities for implementing private property rights.

  13. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  14. Quantum Private Comparison via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The first quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed in this paper by making full use of the evolution law of atom via cavity QED, where the third party (TP) is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with either of the two users. The proposed protocol adopts two-atom product states rather than entangled states as the initial quantum resource, and only needs single-atom measurements for two users. Both the unitary operations and the quantum entanglement swapping operation are not necessary for the proposed protocol. The proposed protocol can compare the equality of one bit from each user in each round comparison with one two-atom product state. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attack and the participant attack. Particularly, it can prevent TP from knowing two users’ secrets. Furthermore, the qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is as high as 50%. (paper)

  15. Radioactive contamination in a private residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, W.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief report is given of the contamination of a private house and garden belonging to a deceased medical physicist who had been employed by a large teaching hospital and major research organization and who had his own home laboratory. Gamma dose rates about 1.5 μSvh -1 in the laboratory, 1-2 μSvh -1 in the lounge, 0.4-0.8 μSvh -1 on items of furniture and a fireplace, 0.1 mSvh -1 in the garden shed and 0.15 to 2.0 μSvh -1 in the garden were measured. The decontamination measures performed by the NRPB to clear the area are described. (U.K.)

  16. Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD): An Evaluation of Associated Risks to Corporate Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Boaten, Francis Edmund

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the cyber-risks to Business Information Assets posed by the adoption of Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) to the workplace. BYOD is an emerging trend where employees bring and use personal computing devices on the companys network to access applications and sensitive data like emails, calendar and scheduling applications, documents, etc. Employees are captivated by BYOD because they can have access to private items as well as perform certain job functions while being unrestric...

  17. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  18. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  19. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  20. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  1. Entrepreneurial Crowdfunding without Private Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...

  2. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...

  3. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  4. Ethics in family vs nonfamily owned businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Frederic J; Bass, Kenneth E; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    2002-12-01

    This study investigated the ethical judgments in family vs nonfamily owned businesses. Respondents rated their ethical evaluations of 5 scenarios which involved ethical issues, e.g., promotion of a family member ahead of an equally qualified nonfamily employee. Analysis of responses from 120 participants yielded no statistically significant differences between the ethical judgment ratings of owner/managers of family and nonfamily owned firms.

  5. Argentina set for privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year

  6. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  7. Deregulation, privatization and the Ontario power failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) has examined the history of deregulation of the electricity industry in the United States and presents lessons that could be learned from the California electricity crisis, the collapse of Enron, and the massive blackout that occurred in August 2003 across Ontario and northeastern United States. Unlike the United States, Canada's electricity system is mostly publicly owned and operated. This report emphasized that the need for public investment in the electricity system is greater than ever, and offers suggestions on how to strengthen the Canadian electricity system. It examines the attempts made to deregulate and privatize the electricity system in Ontario, Alberta, New Brunswick and British Columbia and exposes the reality of price caps and the debt of public utilities. It demonstrates that privatization has failed to provide a safe, reliable, affordable and adequate supply of electricity. The report claims that profit-seeking power producers want to keep supply and demand in their favour to sell electricity at the highest possible price. In addition to emphasizing the need for public investment in the electricity system, this report emphasizes the need for Canadian electricity cooperation, with particular mention of the large energy supplies in Manitoba and Quebec. 37 refs

  8. Possibilities for private facility gain momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, B.

    1994-01-01

    In a resounding show of support for the development of a private monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the storage of spent commercial nuclear fuel, 33 utilities and two nuclear industry contractors have signed on with the Mescalero Apache Tribe and Northern States Power Company to further explore such a project. Representatives from 34 utilities gathered on the Mescalero Apache Reservation in southern New Mexico on March 10-11 to hear the tribe's proposal for a privately owned and operated MRS. The preliminary business plan developed for the project sets forth the terms of facility use for utilities that are interested in joining, estimates implementation costs, and describes storage capacity requirements. The Mescaleros would have majority ownership in the venture, and a board of directors would represent equity holders. Completion of the project would be contingent on the ability of NSP and the Mescaleros to site and license the facility; to agree on a design; to finish construction and begin operation; to ensure an adequate system for transport of spent fuel to the site; and to plan for site remediation

  9. Owning and letting of second homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten; Bloze, Gintautas

    2017-01-01

    use of the homes and for their importance for a country’s tourism industry. This paper investigates the drivers of the decision to rent out private second homes, an area which is much less studied than second homeownership. The empirical analysis is carried out on survey data from 2386 randomly...

  10. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  11. Wine quality, reputation, denominations: How cooperatives and private wineries compete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2014-01-01

    wineries specialize in specific wine denomination for which they receive a relative price premium (e.g. Alto Adige cooperatives specialize in DOC relative to private wineries in the region; private wineries in Trentino specialize in IGT denominated wines emphasizing their own brands. Our results indicate regional differences in terms of how cooperatives compete with private wineries with respect to wine quality and reputation. If cooperatives are able to implement incentive schemes to induce individual growers to raise grape quality, they may also gain a wine quality and reputation premium in the market. Specialization in local denomination rules allows private wineries and cooperatives to capture premium prices in different market segments.

  12. State Government, Its Relationship to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan

    1982-01-01

    In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)

  13. Income value of private amenities assessed in California oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Oviedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landowners in California were surveyed using a contingent valuation technique to assess its usefulness in estimating the monetary income value of private amenities from their oak woodland properties. Private amenities - such as recreation, scenic beauty and a rural lifestyle - are considered an important influence on rangeland owners, but few studies have attempted to place a monetary income value on them. Landowners were asked to estimate the maximum amount of earnings that they were willing to forgo before selling their property to invest in more commercially profitable, nonagrarian assets, and the proportion of the land price that they thought was explained by private amenities from their land. On average, landowners were willing to pay $54 per acre annually for private amenities, and they attributed 57% of the land price to them. Regression analysis revealed that the landowners' willingness to pay per acre decreased as property size increased. This approach sheds light on how landowners value the benefits of land owner-ship and offers insights for outreach and policy development for privately owned oak woodlands.

  14. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  15. Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    U.S.S.R. and France rounding out the top three recipients. China, the focus of this study, received about 7...Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2010), 356-57. 43 James Pattison, The Morality of Private War: The Challenge of Private Military...Own Words. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2010. Hoover, Mark. “AAI wins $475M contract for UAV ISR support.” Washington

  16. Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials, and Gender in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Avsit

    2005-01-01

    There is no evidence on the extent of public versus private wage differentials in Turkey. The main objective of this paper is to examine the factors which explain the employment choice and the wage differentials in the public administration, state owned enterprises and the formal private wage sector in Turkey. Selectivity corrected wage equations are estimated for each sector for men and women separately. Oaxaca decomposition of the wage differentials between sectors for men and women are car...

  17. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  18. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private...

  19. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  20. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Woodside

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.

  1. ownCloud project at CNRS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CNRS will launch next November an ownCloud based service with the intend to serve CNRS research units. The first step is to deploy this service as a beta solution for 2 months and 2 000 end users, and then to generalize this offer to the whole CNRS users (potentialy 100 000 users). Our platform is based on ownCloud 7 community edition, with VMWare for virtualization, a Galera/MariaDB cluster database and Scality for the distributed storage backend. We will try to present during this workshop our service implementation in detail, and discuss about our choices, our concerns, … our troubles :)

  2. [Philanthropic hospitals and the operation of provider-owned health plans in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Gerschman, Silvia; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat

    2007-02-01

    To describe the management performance of philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans, in comparison with philanthropic hospitals as a whole in Brazil. The managerial structures of philanthropic hospitals that operated their own health plans were compared with those seen in a representative group from the philanthropic hospital sector, in six dimensions: management and planning, economics and finance, human resources, technical services, logistics services and information technology. Data from a random sample of 69 hospitals within the philanthropic hospital sector and 94 philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans were evaluated. In both cases, only the hospitals with less than 599 beds were included. The results identified for the hospitals that operate their own health plans were more positive in all the managerial dimensions compared. In particular, the economics and finance and information technology dimensions were highlighted, for which more than 50% of the hospitals that operated their own health plans presented almost all the conditions considered. The philanthropic hospital sector is important in providing services to the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The challenges in maintaining and developing these hospitals impose the need to find alternatives. Stimulation of a public-private partnership in this segment, by means of operating provider-owned health plans or providing services to other health plans that work together with SUS, is a field that deserves more in-depth analysis.

  3. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  4. Business associations and private ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens

    We study the capacity of business associations—private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members—to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework connects the

  5. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  6. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, II, James M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...

  7. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  8. House Calls in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  9. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...

  10. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  11. STATE PENSION OR PRIVATE PENSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANGRA MĂDĂLINA GIORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of sustainability of the public pension system brings into attention the private pension system, either mandatory (Pillar II or optional (Pillar III. Young employees do not perceive the future in bright colours while seeking solutions to shift from consumption to saving for retirement period. As long as the public pension system is weak, an important milestone for individual savings is represented by the private pension.

  12. Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Five-Particle Cluster State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Zhang Shi-Bin; Wang Hai-Chun; Yan Li-Li; Han Gui-Hua; Sheng Zhi-Wei; Huang Yuan-Yuan; Suo Wang; Xiong Jin-Xin; Zhang Wen-Bo

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) is proposed based on five-particle cluster state with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). In our protocol, TP is allowed to misbehave on its own but can not conspire with either of two parties. Compared with most two-user QPCE protocols, our protocol not only can compare two groups of private information (each group has two users) in one execution, but also compare just two private information. Compared with the multi-user QPCE protocol proposed, our protocol is safer with more reasonable assumptions of TP. The qubit efficiency is computed and analyzed. Our protocol can also be generalized to the case of 2N participants with one TP. The 2N-participant protocol can compare two groups (each group has N private information) in one execution or just N private information. (paper)

  13. Crushing data silos with ownCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    More and more people store their personal files and documents in cloud services like Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive or iCloud. The reason is that they provide convenient features to sync your files between devices and share them with others. We are heading full speed into a future where a huge piece of the personal information of the world is stored in very few centralized services. Questions emerge what the impact on user privacy, surveillance, lawfulness of content and storage cost will be in in the long run. I don't think that a world where most of the personal data of the world is stored on servers of a hand full companies is a good one. This talk will discuss the problems of a future with centralized cloud file sync and share services and will present ownCloud as a possible solution. ownCloud is a free software project that offers a decentralized alternative to proprietary cloud services where everybody can run an own cloud service comparable with Dropbox but on own hardware and with full ...

  14. Growing Women-Owned Businesses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help women-owned businesses connect to global markets and ... also conduct an analysis of a sample of businesses to understand the data gaps. ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific ...

  15. The "Make Your Own Religion" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Chad M.; Hege, Brent A. R.; Kleckley, Russell; Willsky-Ciollo, Lydia; Lopez, Davina C.

    2016-01-01

    The "Make Your Own Religion" class project was designed to address a perceived need to introduce more theoretical thinking about religion into a typical religion survey course, and to do so in such a way that students would experience the wonder of theoretical discovery, and through or because of that discovery hopefully both better…

  16. Market and own load bulletin - November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors, and in the five Brazilian regions, during January-November 93, and December 92-November 93 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption, the evolution of own load energy and energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  17. Produce Your Own: A Community Gardening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…

  18. Build your own simulator; save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation that could cost the company millions of dollars, and even threaten the continued operation of one of its nuclear power stations, officials at Consumers Power Company's Big Rock Point plant in the US came to a unique conclusion: that they would construct their own reactor simulator - something that has never been done in the industry before. (author)

  19. Market and own load bulletin - October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors, and in the five Brazilian regions, during January-October 93, and November 92-October 93 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption, the evolution of own load energy and energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  20. Market and own load bulletin - June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors and in the five Brazilian regions during the month of June 1993 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption and the evolution of own load energy and the energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  1. Market and own load bulletin - December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors and in the five Brazilian regions during december of 1993 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption and the evolution of own load energy and the energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  2. Market and own load bulletin - August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors and in the five Brazilian regions during the month of August 1993 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption and the evolution of own load energy and the energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  3. The psychology of own versus others’ treatment:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den; Lind, E. Allan

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on how people interpret their own versus others’ treatment. Two experiments investigate how perceived procedural justice is affected by procedures that are experienced personally versus those seen to have been experienced by others. The studies show that, at least under some

  4. Market and own load bulletin - July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors and in the five Brazilian regions during the month of July 1993 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption and the evolution of own load energy and the energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  5. Market and own load bulletin - December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The electric power consumption in the residential, commercial and industrial Brazilian sectors and in the five Brazilian regions during december of 1992 is described. The industrial production indexes, the cost of tariffs and fuel consumption and the evolution of own load energy and the energy demand are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  6. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  7. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  8. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  9. Business Problems Encountered when Developing an Own ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the macroeconomic environment of the poorest areas in Namibia, the Caprivi and Kavango regions, and to empirically investigate the problems experienced in developing an own business, specifically in the two largest towns Katima Mulilo and Rundu. First, a macroeconomic ...

  10. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  11. From the Private to the Public to the Private?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    A central assumption in much contemporary scholarship is that a central shift has taken place over the course of the last four decades: a shift from a world largely centered on public authority to a world that is increasingly dominated by private authority. The central expression of this shift...... is seen to be a concurring move from public to private law and thus from legislation to contract as the central legal instrument structuring economic as well as other social processes. While developments in this direction can certainly be observed, this article provides a more nuanced perspective....... Outlining a long-term historical perspective, this article reconstructs the manifold and volatile dynamic between institutionalized forms of public and private authority. It does soon the basis of the argument that, in the course of this evolutionary process, the very function and meaning of both public...

  12. Private Animal Welfare Standards—Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary In all European countries, farmers keeping animals must comply with European and national animal welfare legislation. Each government has a responsibility to make sure that the legislation is complied with by the farmers. However, during the last decades it has become increasingly common that private organisations, such as the industry, farmers’ organisations, or animal welfare organisations, develop additional animal welfare regulations (‘private standards’) that the farmers also need to comply with. These private standards have the opportunity to improve animal welfare above the legislative level, however, in our study we have shown that this is not always the case and that all of these different private standards, in addition to the legislation, makes it difficult to get an overview of the animal welfare regulation and control arena. For the sake of the farmers, the animal welfare inspectors, the consumers, and the animals we conclude that it is important that policymakers consider this arena as a whole and not their own regulation as a single phenomenon. Abstract The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to

  13. Comparing public and private hospitals in China: evidence from Guangdong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Karen; Lu, Mingshan; Li, Congdong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Quan, Hude

    2010-03-23

    The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect vulnerable patients, regardless of

  14. Comparing public and private hospitals in China: Evidence from Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation. Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital

  15. Understanding Teacher Practice using their own Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses ways of understanding teacher practice in educational settings. An educational setting consists of cultural, social and historical elements that all influence the teacher’s practice and, how she experiences this practice. It is argued that teaching science and technology...... is a socially conditioned practice. The teachers’ practice are formed by their previous education and experience but also influenced by their private life. This way of looking at teacher knowledge and experience requires attention to teachers’ perception of these aspects. Teachers seldom talk about...

  16. Videographic Education: Owning the Polar Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, R. W.; Buhr, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Television and internet-served video is an increasingly important media tool for reaching into society. This talk will present clips from a film designed to educate the public about warming in the polar regions, the socioeconomic and environmental implications of this warming; and the actions we can take to slow down human contributions to climate change. This talk will present a short film Owning the Polar Crisis, which is drawn from footage for Polar Visions, a four segment film available for educational audiences and the public.. The films are unique in that they draw from the perspectives of well-known climate scientists, citizens from all over the planet and natives of the Arctic. The compelling images were taken from numerous locations around the Arctic, including Alaska and Greenland. Owning the Polar Crisis was filmed, directed and produced by Dr. Ryan Vachon, a climate scientist and videographer with an intimate knowledge of the subject matter.

  17. Owning, letting and demanding second homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand elasticities...... for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group....

  18. Understanding and defining bullying ? adolescents? own views

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstr?m, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents? own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents? definitions of bullying. Methods A qu...

  19. Energy privatization: sensitivities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy

    1997-12-31

    It is a commonly held belief at present that privatization will improve the efficiency of the state run energy sector, and benefit customers as well as the new owners, and the government selling the industry. Experience so far has been in well run Western economies, in particular in the UK, and even here many mistakes have been made, leading to increasingly strong intervention by regulators. In developing countries, where corruption is pervasive, efficient regulation is unlikely. Thus, privatisation may prove to be far worse for the consumer than the original state monopoly. The drive for privatization appears to be part ideological, part greed, as far as developing countries are considered. Certainly, political reform is needed before privatization can work in favour of the consumer. Examples are given from the UK electricity, gas, coal and rail industries.

  20. David and Goliath : the procedures for selling ENEL distribution lines to city-owned companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzed the economic impacts of the provisions under Article 9 of the Bersani Decree, relating to the sale of the ENEL distribution networks to city-owned companies, with particular reference to the ENEL-AEM Milano case. The Bersani Decree states that the sale of networks must be made according to normal market rules, but also rules that ENEL is obliged to sell its own distribution network. Through the use of analytical instruments inspired by the contract theory, this study highlighted several contradictions in the decree. It was noted that the deferment to private parties bargaining to perform the sale was contradictory, as it was counterbalanced and blocked by the legal compulsion to sell. The Bersani Decree influences the bargaining power of the parties by handing it over to the city-owned company, who then make as low an evaluation of the contract as possible. This has prompted several companies to seek arbitration. If the arbitrators are unable to arrive at a satisfactory price, the contract will not be completed. The refusal to accept a proposed price may be seen as an attempt to negotiate a different purchase price. In addition, magistrates undertake the bargaining power that would be be granted to both parties to respect the Bersani Decree, in that the magistrate has the power to order one or both parties to conclude the contract. The independent setting of the sale is compromised and does not necessarily reflect the evaluations of parties involved. Appeals to appraisers, hearings and research mean that the costs to both parties, and society, increases. It was suggested that legislators should allow the market to work independently, without mandating the terms of private companies' transactions, and without additional procedural phases. A market-oriented formulation could avoid useless extensions and costs in the sale of ENEL-owned distribution networks to city-owned companies. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  2. [Definition and clinical characteristics of mild hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Takao

    2008-08-01

    Mild hypertension is defined as blood pressure level of 140-159 mmHg systolic and/or 90-99 mmHg diastolic. The patients with blood pressure level of mild hypertension occupy about 60% of total hypertensive patients in Japan, and most of them are free of subjective symptoms except elevated blood pressure. However, some of the patients with mild hypertension develop cardiovascular events, since thay have occasionally cardiovascular damages on this level of blood pressure and several risk factors of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

  3. Public private co-operation in urban regeneration investment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    development. However, we believe that municipalities can become much better at attracting private investors and developers, partly because there is knowledge about the motives and backgrounds for the developers' engagement in the urban regeneration. Based on data from a number of case studies and interviews......Increasing renovation costs and ever more limited public funding for urban regeneration in combination with a political desire to stimulate the development of a sense of ownership in urban regeneration neighbourhoods has brought about a growing interest in attracting private sector funding...... with developers we argue that developers own networks are more likely to lead them to the urban regeneration areas, than knowledge of the urban regeneration itself. Also, the study reveals a mutual knowledge-gap between the municipal planners and developers; planners have limited knowledge of developers...

  4. Assessment of NDE needs for aging corporate and private aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Eugene R.

    1998-03-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the life extension of ageing military and commercial aircraft by the government and major aircraft fabricators. A vital, but often neglected segment of the aircraft industry is the are of inspecting ageing fleets of corporate and privately-owned aircraft. Many of these aircraft are inspected and maintained by the various FAA-approved repair stations located around the country. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods, equipment, and trained inspectors are a key aspect of maintaining these aircraft; however, there are currently several issues that need to be addressed by the private sector NDI community. Personnel training and certification to an accepted standard is critically needed in this industry since experience and capability in NDI can vary considerably between FAA stations and inspectors. Also, the updating of NDI methods are standards is needed. A review of these issues and suggestions for improvement are presented.

  5. An empirical study on empowering private bank workers using EFQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Beikzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Empowering workers play an essential role on increasing productivity in any organization. The service industries such as insurance companies or banks mostly rely on their own people to retain their customers and incomes. The recent increasing trend on the number of private banks in Iran has increased competition among existing banks. The banking industry strives to empower its employees as much as possible in an attempt to maintain market share by not losing its customers. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect the most important factors empowering bank employees. The study is implemented for a recently established private bank with 228 people with 32 questions where 15 questions are focused on empowering employees. The results are analyzed using statistical tests and descriptive methods. The results indicate that leadership, academic qualification, appropriate policy and strategy, cooperation and processes play important role on empowering and enabling bank's employee.

  6. Privatization of Brazil's petroleum sector on track despite scandal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the push to privatize Brazil's petroleum sector remains on track despite the taint of scandal that hit state oil company Petroleos Brasileiro SA and the ensuing political crisis for the administration of President Fernando Collor de Mello. Collor's efforts to reform Brazil's beleaguered economy have focused heavily on privatizing state-owned companies by selling assets or ending monopolies. Nowhere is that task more daunting than with Petrobras, one of the world's biggest petroleum companies, which has an entrenched monopoly over most upstream and downstream operations in the country. Collor and the energy ministers and chiefs of Petrobras during his administration have pressed measured to inject free market principles in Brazil's petroleum sector. The Collor administration earlier this year sent a bill to Brazil's Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to end Petrobras monopoly over exploration, production, transportation, refining, and exports and imports of oil and gas. The amendment is expected to be voted upon in 1993

  7. Private equity and public-to-private transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhat considerations lie behind the decision to mount a management buy-out of a publicly listed firm, and should third party investors be involved? Indeed, does the involvement of private equity investors actually aid company performance after a deal is done?

  8. Privately issued money reduces GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...

  9. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  10. Survival of Private Sector Manufacturing Establishments in Africa: The Role of Productivity and Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shiferaw (Admasu)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the risk of exit for privately-owned manufacturing establishments in a small African economy. It shows that changes in the structure of ownership following an economic reform have important implications on stablishment survival. The risk of exit is lower for

  11. A system for optimizing of private house owner's spending and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Ruokolainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Investment decisions about privately-owned houses are usually based on limited investment budget and vague information about choice alternatives available. Since a household buying a dwelling has to compare the housing expenditure with other expenditures, the financial consequences of the housing

  12. The Year in Forestry State and Private Forestry in the Northeast and Midwest Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    The geographic region we call the Northeast and Midwest stretches from Maine to Minnesota, south to Missouri, and east to Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nearly half of the Nation's population lives here on slightly less than 20 percent of the Nation's land area. Representing one of the largest concentrations of privately owned forests in the world,...

  13. Students' Perceived Quality of Library Facilities and Services in Nigerian Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwunmi, A. O.; Durodola, O. D.; Ajayi, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    In a highly competitive academic environment, students are becoming more selective and demanding in their choice of University. Hence, it is essential for educational institutions, particularly privately-owned institutions, to be interested in getting feedback on the quality of their facilities and services. With a focus on four private…

  14. Toward Building a Sustainable Retirement System for Private Colleges and Universities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi P.

    2010-01-01

    As retiring personnel of Japan's private higher educational institutions (HEIs) take a large portion of the accumulated retirement funds at their career exit today, their younger colleagues are left with a bleak future with a quickly depleting reserve for their own retirement allowances. The fact that many insolvent organizations are on the verge…

  15. How to create a public-private partnership: a replicable project associated with business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    In an age of political turmoil and mistrust of governments, having an outlet for creative problem solving that involves all aspects of communities during disasters is critical. Additionally, there is a need for outlets that save taxpayer money for particular projects, such as road construction or infrastructure protection. Public-private partnerships are one way to accomplish these goals. Utilised correctly, a public-private partnership is a win-win situation for all participants. This paper will make the case for the continued support from all sectors for public-private partnerships. A description of public-private partnerships will be given to show the broad spectrum of opportunities for such a partnership. In addition, a case study of a public-private partnership called SAFER Santa Rosa is explored as the programme is oriented towards disasters, but keeps the community engaged all year round. Finally, an example is presented of an initiative that not only exemplifies the spirit of public-private partnerships, but has attracted international recognition because it is simple, replicable, cost-effective and valuable to both the private sector and the public sector. The Business Emergency Response Toolkit bag is a true public-private success story. It is hoped that the reader will be able to replicate the ideas discussed herein in their own community.

  16. Sustainable Consumption: Analysis of Consumers’ Perceptions about Using Private Brands in Food Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Boboc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Private brands are representing an important vector for retailers, helping them to build sustainable relationships with their customers. Usually, private brands are perceived as products differentiated by lower prices. The purpose of this research is to identify consumers’ trust level in private brands used in food retail and their perceptions about the quality of retailers’ own products. The research question is: What are consumers’ perceptions about using private brands in food retail? Pursuing this question, a survey based on a questionnaire was carried out. Research findings showed that the main reason why people buy private brands’ products is lower price rather than high quality. The interviews showed that the typical private brand user is male, aged between 45 and 65 years old, with middle-level income, and employees with secondary education. These results are useful for retailers in their efforts to decide strategies for their private brands and for building consumers’ trust. The findings are useful for food producers as well, because they should reconsider their marketing strategies in order to adapt themselves to the continuous growth of retailers’ private brands.

  17. The Role of Private Health Sector for Tuberculosis Control in Debre Markos Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Alemayehu; Simachew, Addis

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis has been declared to be a global epidemic. Despite all the effort, only less than half the annual estimated cases are reported by health authorities to the WHO. This could be due to poor reporting from the private sector. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis has also been a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the private health sector in tuberculosis control in Debre Markos. An institution based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in private health facilities. A total of 260 tuberculosis suspects attending the private clinics were interviewed. Focus group discussion, checklist, and structured questionnaire were used. Majority of the private clinics were less equipped, poorly regulated, and owned by health workers who were self-employed on a part-time basis. Provider delay of 4 and more months was significantly associated higher likelihood of turning to a private provider (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = (1.20, 6.08)). There is significant delay among tuberculosis patients. Moreover, there is poor regulation of the private health sector by public health authorities. The involvement of the private sector in tuberculosis control should be limited to identification and refer to tuberculosis cases and suspects.

  18. Private prayer associations with depression, anxiety and other health conditions: an analytical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Nunnelley, Paige A

    2016-09-01

    To critically analyze appropriate clinical studies to assess the relationship between health conditions and the frequency of private prayer. Private prayer is defined as individuals praying for themselves. Using PubMed and other search engines, we identified over 300 articles reporting relationships between prayer and health conditions. We identified 41 observational clinical studies that evaluated the relationship between private prayer and health conditions. Prayer scores of 5 to 1 were assigned to studies, with 5 being private prayer for health and 1 being prayer in combination with meditation or Bible study. Frequency scores ranged from 3 to 1 with 3 being twice daily or more and 0 when frequency was not assessed. Studies were ranked from 8 to 1 based on the sum of Prayer and Frequency Scores. Twenty-one studies had Prayer-Frequency scores of 5 to 8, indicating that they evaluated private prayer (praying for one's own health) of suitable frequency in association with health conditions. Nine of 11 studies indicated that private prayer was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P value, prayer in four studies (P value, P prayer (P prayer did not have a significant effect on physical health or blood pressure. The reported observational studies suggest that frequent private prayer is associated with a significant benefit for depression, optimism, coping, and other mental health conditions such as anxiety. Controlled clinical trials are required to critically assess the associations of private prayer and health conditions.

  19. Probable mild Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2011-12-11

    Dec 11, 2011 ... brachycephaly shape to the skull, hypoplastic scrotum and bilateral undescended testes, and mild generalised ... It may occur isolated or syndromic involving other abnor- ..... [12] Sargent C, Burn J, Baraitser M, Pembrey ME.

  20. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  1. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat

  2. Mild TBI Diagnosis and Management Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Diagnosis and Management Strategies will assist in the study of TBI issues, such as the Influence of Concussion on Persistent...

  3. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    . This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  4. What drives innovation in public-private partnerships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Lena

    2016-01-01

    In our Research to Practice series, we profile academic research for an audience of practitioners, with an emphasis on extracting actionable takeaways that they can use in their everyday cross-sector work. As part of this series, we invite academics to write about their own research, asking them...... to highlight the key pieces of their work that might resonate in a real world context. This month, Lena Brogaard discusses her article “Drivers and Barriers in Public-Private Innovation Partnerships (PPI) in Healthcare and Eldercare in Denmark.”...

  5. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  6. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and

  7. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  8. Contemporary Public-private Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical and...

  9. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.

  10. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  11. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  12. Private lenders’ demand for audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baylis, R.M.; Burnap, P.; Clatworthy, M.A.; Gad, Mahmoud; Pong, C.K.M.

    We study clauses in private lending agreements requiring auditors to assure lenders of borrowers’ compliance with financial covenants. Auditors are required under general purpose financial reporting to review covenant compliance. However, by informing lenders directly that they have no knowledge of

  13. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  14. Security for Virtual Private Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Nicoleta Iacob

    2015-01-01

    Network security must be a permanent concern for every company, given the fact that threats are evolving today more rapidly than in the past. This paper contains a general classification of cryptographic algorithms used in today networks and presents an implementation of virtual private networks using one of the most secure methods - digital certificates authentication.

  15. The Problem of Private Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.

  16. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  17. Public interests in private hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, W.; Poort, J.; Schuurman, A.

    2003-03-01

    In this study several actual problems with respect to privatization in the Netherlands are discussed, focusing on the production and distribution of electricity, the harbour in Rotterdam and the airport Schiphol, the railway sector, and the waste management and processing sector. For each sector it is discussed what level of government and market involvement is required to give the best results [nl

  18. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  19. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  20. Private governance of ocean resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available

  1. The effect of Store Image and Service Quality on Private Label Brand Image and Purchase Intention. Case Study: Lotte Mart Gandaria City

    OpenAIRE

    Nosica Rizkalla; Leis Suzanawaty

    2012-01-01

    Retailers produce their own private label brand as a strategy to distinguish their products from competitors’. Based on previous research, store image and service quality can be used to improve private label brand image and purchase intention. A Research is conducted at Lotte Mart, Gandaria City Mall in Jakarta to find out whether store image and service quality could influence private label brand image and purchase intention. This research adopts Wu et.al.'s framework (2010). Data processing...

  2. Digging Our Own Holes: Institutional Perspectives on Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Tomasello, J.

    2005-12-01

    It has been observed that there are no true students of the earth; instead, we each dig our own holes and sit in them. A similar situation arises in attempts to assess the hazards of earthquakes and other natural disasters and to develop strategies to mitigate them. Ideally, we would like to look at the interests of society as a whole and develop strategies that best balance hazard mitigation with alternative uses of resources. Doing so, however, is difficult for several reasons. First, estimating seismic hazards requires assumptions about the size, recurrence, and shaking from future earthquakes, none of which are well known. Second, we have to chose a definition of seismic hazard, which is even more arbitrary and at least as significant about future earthquakes. Third, mitigating the risks involves economic and policy issues as well as the scientific one of estimating the hazard itself and the engineering one of designing safe structures. As a result, different public and private organizations with different institutional perspectives naturally adopt different approaches. Most organizations have a single focus. For example, those focusing on economic development tend to discount hazards, whereas emergency management groups tend to accentuate them. Organizations with quasi-regulatory duties (BSSC, FEMA, USGS) focus on reducing losses in future earthquakes without considering the cost of mitigation measures or how this use of resources should be balanced with alternative uses of resources that could mitigate other losses. Some organizations, however, must confront these tradeoffs directly because they allocate resources internally. Hence hospitals implicitly trade off more earthquake resistant construction with treating uninsured patients, highway departments balance stronger bridges with other safety improvements, and schools balance safer buildings with after school programs. These choices are complicated by the fact that such infrastructure typically has longer

  3. Seminar on setting up your own business

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    Organised by the French-Swiss Foundation for Research and Technology (FFRST), in partnership with CERN, and open to all CERN personnel: Friday 7 March 2008, from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation Are you interested in setting up your own business? Have you already taken any steps in that direction? Do you wish to develop a business plan based on your own professional expertise? If so, you are cordially invited to take part in this seminar, at which you will have the opportunity to: hear first-hand accounts from former members of the CERN personnel who have become entrepreneurs and talk about their experience and needs in terms of financial support, find out about the possibilities for obtaining support at the national level (in Switzerland and France) through presentations of the CTI Start-up and OSEO programmes, have discussions with the relevant Swiss and French regional authorities responsible for supporting start-ups in innovative technolog...

  4. Seminar on setting up your own business

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    Organised by the French-Swiss Foundation for Research and Technology (FFRST), in partnership with CERN, and open to all CERN personnel: Friday 7 March 2008, from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation Are you interested in setting up your own business? Have you already taken any steps in that direction? Do you wish to develop a business plan based on your own professional expertise? If so, then you are cordially invited to take part in this seminar at which you will have the opportunity to: hear first-hand accounts from former members of the CERN personnel who have become entrepreneurs and talk about their experience and needs in terms of financial support, find out about the possibilities of obtaining support at national level (in Switzerland and France) through presentations of the CTI Start-up and OSEO programmes, have discussions with the relevant Swiss and French regional authorities responsible for supporting start-ups in innovative technologies...

  5. Dividend Policy In Indonesia State Owned Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaeman Rahman Nidar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an explanatory study to determine the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. As the dependent variable is the dividend payout ratio. Meanwhile the independent variable is the variable that is measured by the growth of the companys capital expenditure ratio proxy state ownership firm size profitability cash flow and the ratio of dividends last year as a control variable. The study uses panel data with a sample of 46 state-owned companies in the form of a limited liability company engaged non-financial sector with the financial period 2005-2009. The sample selection was purposive sampling that samples deposited SOE dividends during the study period. Hypothesis testing using a fixed-effect regression analysis models. As for overcoming heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation using the method of generalized least squares GLS. The results found that the companys growth variables and firm characteristics variables simultaneously significant effect on dividend policy. To model the dividend policy partial variable capital expenditures capital structure firm size and cash-flow negative and significant to dividend payout ratio while profitability and state ownership variables having an positive and significant to dividend payout ratio. The study also found that non-listed state-owned companies have an average dividend payout ratio lower than the listed SOEs.

  6. Young children's preference for unique owned objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination of women in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Arbenita Kosumi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research on the topic set forth, "Discrimination of women in the private sector" has resulted in a detailed picture of the role and place of women in the overall socio-economic and political life in post-war Kosovo, by emphasising the problem of the employment process and other current problems, which women face on daily basis. Women, who constitute half of humanity, since the beginning of the era of patriarchy have faced discrimination, in social as well as economic and political aspects, and since then appeared barriers to their career development. This problem is present even today, in almost all countries of the world and is not peculiar only for Kosovo, however the problem in Kosovo appears to be more acute. This kind of discrimination comes as a result of various “reasons“: religious, social and cultural. In subsequent periods, especially during the last decade, women‘s participation in everyday life has begun to improve in all sectors of life, however it is still far from the desirable one. Our findings, which helped the completion of this research, lead us to conclude that women have been, are and continue to be discriminated against in all walks of life and so it will be, until the woman does not realise that her fate is in her own hands, namely not to ask a man to free space for her, but to fight in order to conquer it herself.

  8. Total expenditures per patient in hospital-owned and physician-owned physician organizations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Miller, Kelly

    Hospitals are rapidly acquiring medical groups and physician practices. This consolidation may foster cooperation and thereby reduce expenditures, but also may lead to higher expenditures through greater use of hospital-based ambulatory services and through greater hospital pricing leverage against health insurers. To determine whether total expenditures per patient were higher in physician organizations (integrated medical groups and independent practice associations) owned by local hospitals or multihospital systems compared with groups owned by participating physicians. Data were obtained on total expenditures for the care provided to 4.5 million patients treated by integrated medical groups and independent practice associations in California between 2009 and 2012. The patients were covered by commercial health maintenance organization (HMO) insurance and the data did not include patients covered by commercial preferred provider organization (PPO) insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid. Total expenditures per patient annually, measured in terms of what insurers paid to the physician organizations for professional services, to hospitals for inpatient and outpatient procedures, to clinical laboratories for diagnostic tests, and to pharmaceutical manufacturers for drugs and biologics. Annual expenditures per patient were compared after adjusting for patient illness burden, geographic input costs, and organizational characteristics. Of the 158 organizations, 118 physician organizations (75%) were physician-owned and provided care for 3,065,551 patients, 19 organizations (12%) were owned by local hospitals and provided care for 728,608 patients, and 21 organizations (13%) were owned by multihospital systems and provided care for 693,254 patients. In 2012, physician-owned physician organizations had mean expenditures of $3066 per patient (95% CI, $2892 to $3240), hospital-owned physician organizations had mean expenditures of $4312 per patient (95% CI, $3768 to $4857), and

  9. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  10. Responsibility for private sector adaptation to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007 indicates that vulnerable industries should adapt to the increasing likelihood of extreme weather events along with slowly shifting mean annual temperatures and precipitation patterns, to prevent major damages or periods of inoperability in the future. Most articles in the literature on business management frame organizational adaptation to climate change as a private action. This makes adaptation the sole responsibility of a company, for its sole benefit, and overlooks the fact that some companies provide critical goods and services such a food, water, electricity, and medical care, that are so vital to society that even a short-term setback in operations could put public security at risk. This raises the following questions: (1 Who is responsible for climate change adaptation by private-sector suppliers of critical infrastructure? (2 How can those who are identified to be responsible, actually be held to assume their responsibility for adapting to climate change? These questions will be addressed through a comprehensive review of the literature on business management, complemented by a review of specialized literature on public management. This review leads to several conclusions. Even though tasks that formerly belonged to the state have been taken over by private companies, the state still holds ultimate responsibility in the event of failure of private-sector owned utilities, insofar as they are "critical infrastructure." Therefore, it remains the state's responsibility to foster adaptation to climate change with appropriate action. In theory, effective ways of assuming this responsibility, while enabling critical infrastructure providers the flexibility adapt to climate change, would be to delegate adaptation to an agency, or to conduct negotiations with stakeholders. In view of this theory, Germany will be used as a case study to demonstrate how private-sector critical infrastructure

  11. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  12. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 20 USE OF PRIVATE VEHICLES FOR OFFICIAL DUTY - INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division - Tel. 73634

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 20 on the use of private vehicles for official duty is shortly to be revised with a view to making certain procedures more flexible. CERN no longer requires members of the personnel to take out optional private insurances (insurance for official journeys, legal assistance insurance) in the case of duty travel for the Organization, since the associated risks are covered by CERN's own insurance. Pending the above mentioned revision, members of the personnel may continue to use their private vehicles for official duty in accordance with the others provisions laid down in the Circular Reminder: Owners of private vehicles must of course be insured by the normal compulsory car insurance required by the laws of the Host States when driving on and off the CERN sites.

  13. FDI and Telecommunications Privatization: Case Studies of Latin America, United Kingdom, and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyung Yun

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This thesis observed the recent trend of privatization and the effect of foreign investment, and the example of the overseas experience of sale of the state-own enterprises. To study the enlightenment of the strategy which attracted foreign investment by way of privatization or the issue the Korean government needs to be paid attention to when foreigners invest in public sections. The most important enlightenment getting from the foreign instances is that although it takes a long time before privatization, the foreign investment could be effectively attracted and the price could be risen maximum only when the stable and transparent restriction system is established. In order to get a price as high as possible, the sell of stocks should be done in many times. Promote the competition of demand between investment institutions and private investors. Control and make use of the financial institutions properly by way of various attractive economic policies. And so on.

  14. Private duty home care: what it means to real people across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Private duty home care is growing rapidly to accommodate the needs of more and more seniors, disabled persons, and those with chronic conditions as these populations themselves are fast expanding and projected to continue to do so in the coming years and decades. The services that private duty/privately paid home care providers deliver each day to individuals across the United States can be absolutely essential to allowing them to remain in their own homes and communities leading as active and healthy lives as possible and continuing to contribute in the work force and to society as they are able. Requirements vary from state to state, and while most private duty agencies provide nonmedical companionship, homemaker, and personal care services--often described as assistance with activities of daily living--some incorporate licensed medical care as well.

  15. Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying. A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis. The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students. The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying

  16. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment. Faces matching the observers’ own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e. the face inversion effect, was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one’s own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness.

  17. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  18. Mining their own Business in the Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    , has kept attention away from the fact that as a nation Australians live beyond their means (just as the rest of the West), and they do so in one of the most catastrophically unsustainable societies in the world. In my paper I wish to look at how mining companies operating in Australia and beyond...... construct story-telling of what they are, and what they do. I want to relate this story-telling to broader issues, or let’s say competing narratives about corporate achievement, such as CSR, environmental protection and the effect on local communities where they operate. I am particularly interested...... on – in this case - an indigenous community. I also wish to look at the presence in Greenland of a large Australian owned and managed mining company involved in the exploration of ‘specialty metals’ in an area that also contains deposits of uranium. In this paper I wish to position myself between the two ways...

  19. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  20. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  1. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  2. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  3. Private Practice Is Alive and Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Arnold M.

    1976-01-01

    Is private practice a superior service delivery mechanism? The author contends that, in affording the client his choice of a helper, private practice embodies the basic values of social work and stimulates workers to become more responsible and knowledgeable.

  4. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  5. Privatization, political risk and stock market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test which gradually resolves uncertainty

  6. Offentlig privat samarbejde i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...

  7. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...

  8. Social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of an extension of Self-Discrepancy Theory (SDT) to the social aspect of the self (A. Bizman, Y. Yinon, & S. Krotman, 2001), the authors examined the relationships between social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem. The authors assessed perceptions of actual, ideal, and ought attributes of Israelis from own and other standpoints; perceived importance of others' evaluation of Israel; and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) among 114 Israelis. The results revealed that the association of the discrepancy between actual Israelis and ideal Israelis from the other standpoint with the public Collective Self-Esteem (CSE) subscale was negative among participants with high perceived importance and positive among those with low perceived importance. In addition, the discrepancy between actual and ideal Israelis from the own standpoint was related to the private, public, and membership CSE subscales. Overall, the findings suggest that the SDT distinction between the own and other standpoints on the self is applicable to the social self.

  9. Preferential treatment in transition economy the case of state-owned enterprises in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Hege Merete; Nguyen, Cuong Manh

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the role and contribution of preferential treatment of state enterprises to growth in the textile and garment industry. State enterprises are still the largest single sector in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam, but are losing market shares to private Vietnamese enterprises and foreign-owned enterprises despite the benefits that they enjoy. However, in the present context of economic transition and keen competition in the global market, well-managed state enterp...

  10. Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...

  11. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  12. Private school location and neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Barrow

    2002-01-01

    Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...

  13. Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels. These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy. Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. PMID:25063228

  14. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  15. European Private Law - Survey 1998-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    From its conception, the European Review of Private Law has tried, sometimes in vain, to publish Chronicles (‘Chroniques’) or Surveys of the main areas of private law: Contract, Inheritance, Property, Tort, etc. The idea of these Chronicles or Surveys is that, within a specific area of private

  16. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...

  17. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  18. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  19. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  20. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  2. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  3. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  4. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)

  5. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  6. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eLeder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006. Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others’ taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art—and especially abstract art—crystallizes private taste.

  7. [Personalized medicine, privatized medicine? legal and public health stakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Personalized medicine is booming. It tends to provide a medical management "tailored" for groups of patients, or for one unique patient, but also to identify risk groups to develop public health strategies. In this context, some radicalization phenomenon can emerge, leading to not only personalized medicine but also privatized medicine, which can lead to a capture of the medical public resource. If the "privatization" of medicine is not limited to producing adverse effects, several potentially destabilizing phenomena for patients still remain. First, some objective factors, like the adjustment of scientific prerequisites, are emerging from personalized medicine practices (clinical trial, public health policy) and are interfering with the medical doctor/patient relationship. Another risk emerges for patients concomitantly to their demand for controlling their own health, in terms of patients' security although these risks are not clearly identified and not effectively communicated. These practices, related to a privatized medicine, develop within the healthcare system but also outside, and the government and legislators will have to take into account these new dimensions in drafting their future regulations and policies. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  8. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  9. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  10. MBA sudents' satisfaction and loyality: state vs. private universities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Kamil Anil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. A 45-item Turkish questionnaire adapted from literature, to which the authors added several items, was administered to MBA students of state- and private, foundation-owned universities located in Istanbul, as the largest city of Turkey. In this study, a two-step confirmative modeling strategy was chosen to test the hypotheses of the theoretical model by using LISREL 8. As the first step of the mentioned approach, a congruent and congeneric measurement model was established for each type of universities; then, in the second stage, hypotheses were tested by analyzing structural models. Research findings show a positive correlation between satisfaction and loyalty. The most important factors of satisfaction for the students attending state-owned universities are academic quality, teaching quality, and appropriateness of career opportunities; however, at private universities teaching quality and supportive services and appropriateness of career opportunities are the most significant factors. Administrative and the quality of library services turned out to be unimportant factors for MBA students both at state and private universities in this study. The distinguishing point of this study, which enhances its originality, was examining the difference between state and private universities separately.

  11. Social franchising for community owned renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, K. [Community Renewable Energy, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    In some European Union (EU) States community owned renewable projects have made a major contribution to the development of renewables as a whole, and this project wishes to build on their success. Other states have yet to establish relatively significant community renewable sectors. Community Renewable Energy (CoRE) has developed a new social enterprise franchise model to accelerate the take-up of renewable energy technologies across the EU. The model focuses on the three difficulties faced by communities wishing to develop renewable energy in a globalized and deregulated energy market. CoRE provides support in the forms of time, money and expertise, as a central function, to a federated or cooperative membership. In return CoRE takes a share of profits from each community project that it works with to cover its running costs, work with more communities and develop financial mechanisms to fund futher projects. The plan is to set up CoRE Europe to enable communities to become part of a decentralized energy network and share resources and knowledge. It will add to community sustainability and resilience, develop and support a range of other community benefits, for example: job creation, tackling fuel poverty and empowering communities in meeting the climate change challenge.

  12. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  13. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  14. When the business of nursing was the nursing business: the private duty registry system, 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Jean C

    2012-05-31

    In the initial decades of the 20th century, most nurses worked in the private sector as private duty nurses dependent on their own resources for securing and obtaining employment with individual patients. To organize and systematize the ways in which nurses sought jobs, a structure of private duty registries, agencies which connected nurses with patients, was established via professional nurse associations. This article describes the origins of the private duty nurse labor market as the main employment field for early nurses and ways in which the private duty registry system connected nurses and patients. The impact of professional nurses associations and two registries, (New York and Chicago) illustrates how the business of nursing was carried out, including registry formation, operation, and administration. Private duty nurses are compelling examples of a previous generation of nurse entrepreneurs. The discussion identifies problems and challenges of private nursing practice via registries, including the decline and legacy of this innovative nurse role. The story of early 20th century nurse owned and operated registries provides an early and critical historical illustration of the realization of nurse power, entrepreneurship, and control over professional practice that we still learn from today.

  15. Privatization, Corporatization, Ownership Forms and their Effects on the Performance of the World’s Major Airports

    OpenAIRE

    Oum, Tae H.; Adler, Nicole; Yu, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of ownership forms and management structure on the performance of airports around the world. Specifically, we focus on measuring and comparing productive efficiency and profitability among airports owned and operated by government departments, 100% government-owned corporations, independent airport authorities, mixed enterprises with government majority ownership and mixed enterprises with private majority ownership. The key results of our analysis based on...

  16. The effect of Store Image and Service Quality on Private Label Brand Image and Purchase Intention. Case Study: Lotte Mart Gandaria City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosica Rizkalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retailers produce their own private label brand as a strategy to distinguish their products from competitors’. Based on previous research, store image and service quality can be used to improve private label brand image and purchase intention. A Research is conducted at Lotte Mart, Gandaria City Mall in Jakarta to find out whether store image and service quality could influence private label brand image and purchase intention. This research adopts Wu et.al.'s framework (2010. Data processing uses Structure Equation Modeling. Research outcome reveals that service quality is a significant factor in influencing private label brand image and purchase intention.

  17. Syntetiske pyrethroider i private hjem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2015-01-01

    A number of different methods are tested to elucidate the accumulation of synthetic pyrethroids in private homes. When the target pest is resistant, there is a potential risk that persistent synthetic pyrethroids accumulate because of repeated treatments. The highest residue found was 8260 µg lam...... lambda-cyhalothrin in a vacuum-cleaner sample (vacuumed for 10 minutes) and 1252 µg lambda-cyhalothrin in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample. Similar data for deltamethrin was 805 µg in a vacuum-cleaner sample and 806 µg in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample....

  18. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  19. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  20. Inviting In the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  1. Do we over treat mild hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetti, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    The important question whether 'mild' hypertension should or should not be treated by drugs is difficult to answer, because the only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this question were conducted when the definition of 'mild' hypertension was based on diastolic blood pressure only, whereas the present definition of grade 1 hypertension includes both systolic and diastolic values (SBP/DBP), and the concept of 'mild' hypertension also includes that of low-moderate cardiovascular risk (hypertension only on the basis of expert opinion. However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk (events occurring despite treatment) markedly increases. Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions.

  2. The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... antiretroviral therapy among people living with human .... larger than 0.05.26 This is as shown below: = +. −. 1. 1 ..... HAND in general, and did not focus on the mild forms of .... Poster exhibition: Sydney – IAS 2007: Abstract no.

  3. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and covered with dental acrylic . Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1.0-atm fluid-percussion...thought to play roles in the regulation of extracellular concentrations of water, potassium and other ions, and glutamate and other transmitters and

  4. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  5. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the

  6. Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Albert M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...

  8. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  9. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  10. Financial statistics of major investor-owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues

  11. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17 Section 14.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port...

  12. Own-Race-Absent Racism | Martin | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    racepresent racism, the race of the racist figures as a term in her racist thinking; in own-race-absent racism it does not. While own-race-present racism might conform readily to commonsense understandings of racism, own-race-absent racism less clearly ...

  13. Meeting the brain on its own terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHaueis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary human brain mapping, it is commonly assumed that the mind is what the brain does. Based on that assumption, task-based imaging studies of the last three decades measured differences in brain activity that are thought to reflect the exercise of human mental capacities (e.g., perception, attention, memory. With the advancement of resting state studies, tractography and graph theory in the last decade, however, it became possible to study human brain connectivity without relying on cognitive tasks or constructs. It therefore is currently an open question whether the assumption that the mind is what the brain does is an indispensable working hypothesis in human brain mapping. This paper argues that the hypothesis is, in fact, dispensable. If it is dropped, researchers can meet the brain on its own terms by searching for new, more adequate concepts to describe human brain organization. Neuroscientists can establish such concepts by conducting exploratory experiments that do not test particular cognitive hypotheses. The paper provides a systematic account of exploratory neuroscientific research that would allow researchers to form new concepts and formulate general principles of brain connectivity, and to combine connectivity studies with manipulation methods to identify neural entities in the brain. These research strategies would be most fruitful if applied to the mesoscopic scale of neuronal assemblies, since the organizational principles at this scale are currently largely unknown. This could help researchers to link microscopic and macroscopic evidence to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the human brain. The paper concludes by comparing this account of exploratory neuroscientific experiments to recent proposals for large-scale, discovery-based studies of human brain connectivity.

  14. The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this “supernumerary hand illusion”. In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand ‘borrows’ some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb. PMID:21383847

  15. The illusion of owning a third arm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Guterstam

    Full Text Available Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this "supernumerary hand illusion". In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand 'borrows' some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb.

  16. Neural correlates of own name and own face detection in autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna B Cygan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition clinically characterized by social interaction and communication difficulties. To date, the majority of research efforts have focused on brain mechanisms underlying the deficits in interpersonal social cognition associated with ASD. Recent empirical and theoretical work has begun to reveal evidence for a reduced or even absent self-preference effect in patients with ASD. One may hypothesize that this is related to the impaired attentional processing of self-referential stimuli. The aim of our study was to test this hypothesis. We investigated the neural correlates of face and name detection in ASD. Four categories of face/name stimuli were used: own, close-other, famous, and unknown. Event-related potentials were recorded from 62 electrodes in 23 subjects with ASD and 23 matched control subjects. P100, N170, and P300 components were analyzed. The control group clearly showed a significant self-preference effect: higher P300 amplitude to the presentation of own face and own name than to the close-other, famous, and unknown categories, indicating preferential attentional engagement in processing of self-related information. In contrast, detection of both own and close-other's face and name in the ASD group was associated with enhanced P300, suggesting similar attention allocation for self and close-other related information. These findings suggest that attention allocation in the ASD group is modulated by the personal significance factor, and that the self-preference effect is absent if self is compared to close-other. These effects are similar for physical and non-physical aspects of the autistic self. In addition, lateralization of face and name processing is attenuated in ASD, suggesting atypical brain organization.

  17. Neural correlates of own name and own face detection in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan, Hanna B; Tacikowski, Pawel; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Chojnicka, Izabela; Nowicka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition clinically characterized by social interaction and communication difficulties. To date, the majority of research efforts have focused on brain mechanisms underlying the deficits in interpersonal social cognition associated with ASD. Recent empirical and theoretical work has begun to reveal evidence for a reduced or even absent self-preference effect in patients with ASD. One may hypothesize that this is related to the impaired attentional processing of self-referential stimuli. The aim of our study was to test this hypothesis. We investigated the neural correlates of face and name detection in ASD. Four categories of face/name stimuli were used: own, close-other, famous, and unknown. Event-related potentials were recorded from 62 electrodes in 23 subjects with ASD and 23 matched control subjects. P100, N170, and P300 components were analyzed. The control group clearly showed a significant self-preference effect: higher P300 amplitude to the presentation of own face and own name than to the close-other, famous, and unknown categories, indicating preferential attentional engagement in processing of self-related information. In contrast, detection of both own and close-other's face and name in the ASD group was associated with enhanced P300, suggesting similar attention allocation for self and close-other related information. These findings suggest that attention allocation in the ASD group is modulated by the personal significance factor, and that the self-preference effect is absent if self is compared to close-other. These effects are similar for physical and non-physical aspects of the autistic self. In addition, lateralization of face and name processing is attenuated in ASD, suggesting atypical brain organization.

  18. Sale of anti-tuberculosis drugs through private pharmacies: a cross sectional study in Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoo Divakaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies.

    Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included.

    Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years.

    Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives

  19. 76 FR 71888 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Storage of a Privately Owned Vehicle When Assigned a Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR), and allows agencies to establish...-307; Docket Number 2011-0025, sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ18 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Storage of a...

  20. Reclamation of oil and gas well sites on privately-owned land in Alberta: An evaluation of benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Alberta, ca 24,000 oil/gas well sites will be abandoned over the next 10 years. There is concern that the expense to reclaim the surface lands at these sites to current standards represents a substantial opportunity cost to industry and the provincial economy. The economic costs and benefits associated with regulation of such reclamation activity are examined and the impacts of surface access regulations on the reclamation process are discussed. Cost benefit analysis is not easily applied to environmental regulation where some extra-market benefits and costs are intangible and/or unmeasurable. Although this qualifies the results, it appears that the costs of wellsite reclamation exceed the benefits. Costs are defined as reclamation expenses; benefits are defined as the real estate value of the land, or the net present value of agricultural land rentals. An effort has been made to provide a proxy for the extra-market value of the land to the landowner. The continuation of full surface access compensation for nonproducing wells can result in negative incentive effects that reduce allocative efficiency of reclamation regulation. Reclamation costs are correlated with well age and surface access payments, but not with agricultural land use or geographic region. This suggests that reclamation standards designed to reclaim well sites to the same productive capacity as site-adjacent land is not driving reclamation effort. Rather, landowners have negotiated substantial annual surface lease payments and may also be demanding greater reclamation effort, either to maximize compensation due to higher expectations. Methods of reducing these negative incentive effects to better achieve reclamation goals are suggested. 49 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Global financial crisis, ownership and bank profit efficiency in the Bangladesh’s state owned and private commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Fakarudin Kamarudin; Fadzlan Sufian; Annuar Md. Nassir

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio investiga el impacto de la crisis financiera global enfocándose en la propiedad de los bancos comerciales del Estado (SCB) y privados (PCB) y otros factores específicos de la banca y macroeconómi- cos que influyen en el nivel de eficiencia de las ganancias del sector bancario de Bangladesh. Se empleó el método de análisis envolvente de datos basado en el déficit ( Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis [SBM-DEA]) para calcular la eficiencia en las ganancias de los 31 bancos comerc...

  2. Global financial crisis, ownership and bank profit efficiency in the Bangladesh’s state owned and private commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakarudin Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio investiga el impacto de la crisis financiera global enfocándose en la propiedad de los bancos comerciales del Estado (SCB y privados (PCB y otros factores específicos de la banca y macroeconómi- cos que influyen en el nivel de eficiencia de las ganancias del sector bancario de Bangladesh. Se empleó el método de análisis envolvente de datos basado en el déficit ( Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis [SBM-DEA] para calcular la eficiencia en las ganancias de los 31 bancos comerciales que operaron en Bangladesh en los a ̃ nos 2004 a 2011. Por otra parte, el marco de análisis de regresión multivariante del panel basado en los métodos de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO y de mínimos cuadrados generalizados (MCG que comprenden los modelos de efecto fijo (EF y de efecto aleatorio (EA se adoptó para examinar los determinantes de la eficiencia de las ganancias de los bancos. Los resultados indican que los niveles de eficiencia de las ganancias en los SCB y los PCB son crecientes en un 3.7 y un 5.8% durante los a ̃ nos de crisis financiera. Sin embargo, durante el período de a ̃ nos posteriores a la crisis financiera exhibida, los niveles de eficiencia en beneficios en los SCB y los PCB son decrecientes en un 38.7 y un 9.9%. Aunque los niveles de eficiencia en las ganancias de los bancos de ambos tipos de propiedad muestran disminución a lo largo de los a ̃ nos posteriores a la crisis financiera, en los PCB son más altos que en los SCB (67,8% > 60,1%, pero no significativamente distintos. Además, los resultados revelan que las relaciones del tama ̃ no del banco, la liquidez, el crecimiento económico y la concentración del mercado son significativamente negativas con la eficiencia en las ganancias de los SCB pero positivas para los PCB. Mientras tanto, los factores de capi- talización, el riesgo de crédito y la inflación son significativos con el signo positivo y negativo solo para la eficiencia de las ganancias de los SCB durante el período de la post-crisis financiera global.

  3. Best Practices for Repositioning, towards Global Competitiveness in Academic Libraries of Privately-Owned Universities (ALPUS) in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghe-Ohenmwen, Aghama

    2015-01-01

    Information is a bedrock of any developing society and that is the core purpose of university libraries. This enables staff and student to learn and teach students not just in theory but in practice. However, without well-established libraries the above role may not be implemented. Therefore, there is need for globally competitive libraries in…

  4. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  5. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  6. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  7. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-01-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  8. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackerbauer, Johann [Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: wackerbauer@ifo.de

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to

  9. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  10. The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the history of the introduction and use of light and mild labeled cigarettes in Japan, the "lightest" market in the world. Systematic keyword and opportunistic Web site searches were conducted on tobacco industry internal documents relevant to Japan, supplemented with relevant material from the tobacco trade and sociological literatures. Certain "market quirks" of the Japanese society benefited the tobacco industry in promoting its light and mild cigarettes. Japan's is a trend-conscious society with a penchant for new fashion and products. The Japanese are innovative, with the propensity to transform concepts into something characteristically their own marked by a distinct cultural style, such as the concept of keihaku tansho ("light-thin-short-small"). With big-budget sophisticated advertising, tobacco companies developed a lucrative market for mild, light, and ultra-low-tar cigarettes. Smokers had a preference for charcoal filters, which they believed protected them. Tar numbers meant little to smokers. The transnational tobacco companies capitalized on consumer concerns about the health hazards of smoking to promote low-tar cigarettes as a safer alternative. This may be one factor that explains why smoking prevalence in Japan remains high. Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking.

  11. Quantified self and comprehensive geriatric assessment: older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest of individuals in quantifying their own health and functional status. The aim of this study was to examine the concordance of answers to a self-administered questionnaire exploring health and functional status with information collected during a full clinical examination performed by a physician among cognitively healthy adults (CHI and older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD.Based on cross-sectional design, a total of 60 older adults (20 CHI, 20 patients with MCI, and 20 patients with mild-to-moderate AD were recruited in the memory clinic of Angers, France. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire in paper format composed of 33 items exploring age, gender, nutrition, place of living, social resources, drugs daily taken, memory complaint, mood and general feeling, fatigue, activities of daily living, physical activity and history of falls. Participants then underwent a full clinical examination by a physician exploring the same domains.High concordance between the self-administered questionnaire and physician's clinical examination was showed. The few divergences were related to cognitive status, answers of AD and MCI patients to the self-administered questionnaire being less reliable than those of CHI.Older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status, regardless of their cognitive status. This result needs to be confirmed and opens new perspectives for the quantified self-trend and could be helpful in daily clinical practice of primary care.

  12. Quantified self and comprehensive geriatric assessment: older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Merjagnan, Christine; Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Annweiler, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest of individuals in quantifying their own health and functional status. The aim of this study was to examine the concordance of answers to a self-administered questionnaire exploring health and functional status with information collected during a full clinical examination performed by a physician among cognitively healthy adults (CHI) and older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). Based on cross-sectional design, a total of 60 older adults (20 CHI, 20 patients with MCI, and 20 patients with mild-to-moderate AD) were recruited in the memory clinic of Angers, France. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire in paper format composed of 33 items exploring age, gender, nutrition, place of living, social resources, drugs daily taken, memory complaint, mood and general feeling, fatigue, activities of daily living, physical activity and history of falls. Participants then underwent a full clinical examination by a physician exploring the same domains. High concordance between the self-administered questionnaire and physician's clinical examination was showed. The few divergences were related to cognitive status, answers of AD and MCI patients to the self-administered questionnaire being less reliable than those of CHI. Older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status, regardless of their cognitive status. This result needs to be confirmed and opens new perspectives for the quantified self-trend and could be helpful in daily clinical practice of primary care.

  13. inhibition performance of mild ste thiophene ac rmance of mild steel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    d Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Bayero University, Kan. P. M. B. 3011 ..... chemical studies on the inhibition potentials of some ... Efficiency of Thiophene Derivatives on. Mild Steel : A QSAR Model. International. Journal.

  14. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  15. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  17. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  18. Privatization and Political Power in Representative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes...... it important to study the consequences of this development. In the present article, privatization is understood as the use of private service providers to provide services and focus is on what privatization means for the power of local political players. The point of departure is an expectation that a high...... degree of privatization can have far-reaching consequences for the distribution of local political power. This is illustrated empirically by a questionnaire survey of 896 municipal leaders. The main findings are that the local political actors generally have less power in municipalities with high degrees...

  19. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  20. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  1. PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...

  2. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  3. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  4. The emergence of integrated private reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Jill; Solomon, A.; Norton, S. D.; Joseph, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Private social and environmental reporting (SER) has grown considerably in recent years, consistent with a rise in institutional investor engagement and dialogue with investee companies. We interpret the emergence of integrated private reporting through the lens of institutional logics. We frame the emergence of integrated private reporting as a merging of two hitherto separate and possibly rival institutional logics.\\ud Methodology/Approach: We interviewed 19 companies listed on the...

  5. Review of Private Sector Personnel Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor

  6. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  7. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  8. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....

  9. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  10. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  11. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  12. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenheer, Jorna; Nooij, Michiel de; Sheikh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  13. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  14. The hydroelectric power plant as a project of private investment; La central hidroelectrica como proyecto de inversion privada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Eduardo [Industrias Metalurgicas Pescarmona S.A. (IMPSA), Mendoza (Argentina)]. E-mail: guerra@impsa.com.ar

    2001-07-01

    The paper describes the process to be followed for the performance, construction and operation of a hydroelectric investment from the view point of a private investor. The paper demonstrates that it is possible to finance the project through the 'project finance', where the finance has as guarantee the own assets and the fund fluxes of the investment.

  15. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  16. Legitimacy, trustee incentives, and board processes: the case of public and private non-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaelheyns, Nico; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Hulle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique data set, this study explores how type of ownership (government/private) is related to processes of governance. The findings suggest that the neo-institutional perspective and the self-interest rationale of the agency perspective are helpful in explaining processes of governance in both government- and privately owned non-profit organizations. Due to adverse incentives and the quest for legitimacy, supervising governance bodies within local government-owned non-profit institutions pay relatively less attention to the development of high quality supervising bodies and delegate little to management. Our findings also indicate that governance processes in private institutions are more aligned with the business model and that this alignment is likely driven by a concern to improve decision making. By contrast, our data also suggest that in local government-owned institutions re-election concerns of politicians-trustees are an important force in the governance processes of these institutions. In view of these adverse incentives - in contrast to the case of private organizations - a governance code is unlikely to entail much improvement in government-owned organizations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Climate Change Education: Engaging Family Private Forest Owners on Issues Related to Climate Change: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexandra S.; Feder, Michael; Storksdieck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The forested land in the United States is an asset that is owned and managed not only by federal, state, and local governments, but also by families and other private groups, including timber investment management organizations and real estate investment trusts. The more than 10 million family forestland owners manage the largest percentage of…

  18. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu

  19. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...

  1. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  2. Private Label on Food Market. Comparing Spain and Europe. How will be the next 10 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Buisan de la Figuera, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing of PL`s market share is reinforced with the current trend of retailing concentration, the global economic recession and even with the changing consumer habits. These brands to manufacturer brands based on lower prices and less quality. Nowadays, there are a huge range of products in the big supermarket chains and other types of retailing shorts. Consumers can find different types: Manufacturer brands, distributor own brands or private labels. All of them have rem...

  3. "SOE Reform and Privatization in China---A note on several theoretical and empirical issues"

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuji Nakagane

    2000-01-01

    State owned enterprise (SOE) reform is one of the biggest issues for every transition economy. Even the Chinese economy, which is widely known as a successful case for "gradualist" economic transition, has been faced with poor management and low efficiency of many SOEs. As in the case for well-known arguments on transition strategies, i.e. gradualism vs. shock therapy, there has been a heated debate centering on the effectiveness of privatization of state enterprises. Conventional wisdom is t...

  4. Challenges of local public services management through public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TINCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the legislation currently in force in the Republic of Moldova, public administration shall not bear the exclusive “burden” of organizing and managing public services on its own. Such a responsibility could be delegated to subjects outside the system of public administration. Scholars in the field call it an “indirect or delegated management” of public services. Public-private partnership is a new manner of delegating public services management. International experience has proven that such a partnership can be beneficial for public administration, contributing to improvements in public services quality. The reason is obvious: the private sector is competitive and client/user-oriented. However, the public-private partnership, which are not sufficiently operated in the legislation in force, also involves serious risks for the public partners.

  5. Private Protected Areas as policy instruments to tackle environmental challenges: discussing potentialities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas owned and managed by private actors are expected to have a relevant role in nature conservation policy as an additional tool to public-run protected sites. By reducing natural habitats destruction and degradation, well designed and well governed private protected areas (PPAs can have a key role in tackling two intertwined global threats: biodiversity loss and climate change. In this article we will present PPAs diffusion in Europe basing on data collected from the European Common Database on Nationally Designated Areas. In addition, an assessment framework will be proposed, with the purpose of contributing to a broader understanding of PPAs potentialities and pitfalls. The main challenges for PPAs effectiveness deal with their geographical distribution and their ability to provide strong and stable legal structures for private protection, assuring adequate and inclusive governance.

  6. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  7. Interests and Advantages of the Private Sector in the State-Private Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Brailovskiy Ilya A.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of interests that stimulate a private partner to joint activity with the state and advantages they obtain from realisation of projects of the state-private partnership (SPP). It marks out main features and fields of application of the state-private partnership. It underlines that an important prerequisite for motivation of the private sector to enter into partnership relations with the state is observance of clear law competent formal rules in the institutio...

  8. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  9. The growth of corporate private hospitals in Malaysia: policy contradictions in health system pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1997-01-01

    The rapid growth of corporate investment in the Malaysian private hospital sector has had a considerable impact on the health care system. Sustained economic growth, the development of new urban areas, an enlarged middle class, and the inclusion of hospital insurance in salary packages have all contributed to a financially lucrative investment environment for hospital entrepreneurs. Many of Malaysia's most technologically advanced hospitals employing leading specialists are owned and operated as corporate business ventures. Corporate hospital investment has been actively encouraged by the government, which regards an expanded private sector as a vital complement to the public hospital system. Yet this rapid growth of corporately owned private hospitals has posed serious contradictions for health care policy in terms of issues such as equity, cost and quality, the effect on the wider health system, and the very role of the state in health care provision. This article describes the growth of corporate investment in Malaysia's private hospital sector and explores some of the attendant policy contradictions.

  10. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  11. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  12. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  13. Job satisfaction of nurses who work in private psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the job satisfaction of nurses who work in private psychiatric hospitals. In 1998 and 1999 an anonymous employee satisfaction survey was completed by all 3,024 employees of 39 for-profit psychiatric hospitals owned by the same hospital corporation. Of this total, 546 were registered nurses (RNs). Generally RNs reported fair levels of satisfaction. They reported high levels of pride in their hospitals but low levels of satisfaction with the parent company. Differences in satisfaction were noted as a function of work shift, supervisory role, work setting, and tenure. RNs were less satisfied than employees in all other hospital job classifications. RNs' low level of satisfaction relative to other positions is concerning.

  14. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  15. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  16. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  17. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  18. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  19. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  20. Children's Satisfaction with Private Music Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Nora A.; Shnek, Zachary M.; Lauby, Jennifer L.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    2001-01-01

    Determines the language children use to express their feelings of satisfaction with private music lessons. Offers a list of statements from children about private music lessons to be used to assess those feelings. Discusses the effects of age, gender, and musical instruments on satisfaction for music educators. Includes references. (DAJ)

  1. Hospital sector: further trends in privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel

    2009-01-01

    Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...

  2. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C... final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. Section 47134 establishes...

  3. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. 47134. The... application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. 47134 establishes an airport...

  4. PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES: ETHICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    The section on ethics covers the question “ What is mercenaries?, whether private contractors can be ethical, regulating private militaries, bringing just war theory into step with shifts in warfare proper, and efforts to point out the social responsibilities that now seem to accrue. The authors covering policies and law primarily ...

  5. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  6. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  7. Reputational Sanctions in Private and Public Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. van Erp (Judith)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses how reputation functions as a mechanism for social control in private and public regulation. It discusses three cases of private markets where reputation is a powerful and effective mechanism for social control. From the case studies, four characteristics of markets

  8. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  9. Privatization and Economic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...

  10. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  11. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2010-N-11] Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal... Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is proposing to issue a Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee... fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse to liquidity, affordability and stability in the housing...

  12. Private Source Funding for FCS Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchip, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Financial difficulties have prompted institutions of higher education to explore private sources of funding. In recent years, public institutions have significantly increased their focus on private giving, with several campaigns having more than $1 billion as a goal. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be actively involved in…

  13. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  14. Applied research and development private sector accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Erickson, M.D.; Zielke, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector

  15. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  16. Private Schooling and Productivity in Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Juan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the debate between equity theorists (Adam Swift and Harry Brighouse) and adequacy theorists (Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz) over elite private schooling and productivity. It challenges the view, presupposed but never defended by adequacy theorists, that private schools can be justified on social productivity grounds, that…

  17. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs and...) or (d), preliminary proposals for financing submitted by private applicants shall be accompanied by... Environmental Examination. The Threshold Decision shall be made by the Mission Director for the country to which...

  18. Local government grants for private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Orlikowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the educational grants from budget of local government. Author presented procedures about establish private schools and educational institutions and explained selected concepts about units of education. The article presents selected judgment from SN and NSA in disputes about grants for private schools.

  19. On Public–private Partnership Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Greve, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Private finance-based infrastructure public–private partnerships (P3s) are globally popular, including renewed interest in the United States, but their performance remains contested. This article explores the meaning of P3 and the notion of P3 success, and points to multiple interpretations of both...

  20. Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard, Tina

    I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...

  1. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  2. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  3. Private sector approaches to workforce enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Wayne R

    2010-06-01

    This paper addresses the private practice model of dental care delivery in the US. The great majority of dental care services are delivered through this model and thus changes in the model represent a means to substantially change the supply and availability of dental services. The two main forces that change how private practices function are broad economic factors, which alter the demand for dental care and innovations in practice structure and function which alter the supply and cost of services. Economics has long recognized that although there are private market solutions for many issues, not all problems can be addressed through this model. The private practice of dentistry is a private market solution that works for a substantial share of the market. However, the private market may not work to resolve all issues associated with access and utilization. Solutions for some problems call for creative private - public arrangements - another form of innovation; and market-based solutions may not be feasible for each and every problem. This paper discusses these economic factors and innovation as they relate to the private practice of dentistry, with special emphasis on those elements that have increased the capacity of the dental practice to offer services to those with limited means to access fee-based care. Innovations are frequently described as new care delivery models or new workforce models. However, innovation can occur on an ongoing and regular basis as dental practices examine new ways to combine capital and human resources and to leverage the education and skill of the dentists to a greater number of patients. Innovation occurs within a market context as the current and projected economic returns reward the innovation. Innovation can also occur through private-public arrangements. There are indications of available capacity within the existing delivery system to expand service delivery. The Michigan Medicaid Healthy Kids Dental program is discussed as

  4. The role of Facebook in the process of acquiring information. Own research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Popiołek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the social network sites (SNSs, especially on Facebook, and their role in people’s daily life. It focuses on people who are statistically not at risk of the digital exclusion (young and still educating. Here are presented conclusions of the author's own research focusing on the role of Facebook in daily life of a group of its users. Research was done as an experiment. The purpose of the study was to find out if students, who use Facebook, could stop to do it temporarily. Facebook is here regarded as a main source of various kinds of information, both private and public. In this article the author tries to prove that Facebook is one of the primary channels of information flow

  5. Private Computer in der Schule: Zwischen schulischer Infrastruktur und Schulentwicklung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Schiefner-Rohs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel diskutiert die Implikationen eines schulischen IT-Konzepts, das darauf basiert, dass die Schülerinnen und Schüler explizit von der Schule aufgefordert werden, ihre privaten Geräte mit in den Unterricht zu bringen (Bring your own devices, BYOD. In einer Fallstudie wurden schulische Akteure einer Gymnasialklasse in Deutschland gefragt, wie sich die Nutzung privater Geräte von Schülerinnen und Schüler im Unterricht, zu der sich die Klasse gemeinsam entschieden hat, auswirkt. Untersucht werden sollte, ob sich dabei Unterschiede zu bisherigen Ansätzen einer 1:1-Ausstattung an Schulen zeigen, bei denen jede Schülerin und jeder Schüler ein Gerät (i. d. Regel Laptop nutzt, das von der Schule organisiert und administriert wird. Als ein Ergebnis dieser Fallstudie kann festgehalten werden, dass von den Befragten keine inhaltlichen oder didaktischen Unterschiede zwischen der Nutzung privater Geräte und einer 1:1-Ausstattung mit schulisch organisierten Laptops wahrgenommen werden. Es zeigt sich vielmehr, dass organisatorische Prozesse bei der Integration digitaler Medien in Schulen erleichtert werden: Der Gerätesupport ist nicht mehr in dem bisherigen Umfang erforderlich, Ressourcen werden frei, um Fokus auf den didaktischen Einsatz digitaler Medien im Unterricht zu legen. Implikationen dieser Weiterentwicklung schulischer Infrastruktur werden vorgestellt und in Diskussionen um mediengestützte Schulentwicklung eingebettet.

  6. Sudbury District Energy - a public/private partnership model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhomme, H.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of public/private partnership as it relates to the Sudbury District Energy Project was discussed. When completed, it will be the first cogeneration-based district heating and cooling project involving private sector/public sector partnership in Canada. The equal partners include Toromont Energy and Sudbury Hydro. Sudbury Hydro is a community owned energy and communications utility. It was the first electric utility in Ontario to retail natural gas in the new competitive market place. The Sudbury District Energy Project began in 1996, when the utility began the development of a community district energy system in partnership with the City of Sudbury. At the time, the downtown district heating/cooling system supplied cold and hot water to Sudbury's Wellness Centre. In 1998, Toromont Energy accepted a 50/50 partnership arrangement between themselves and the public sector partners to form the Sudbury District Energy Corporation. Sudbury Hydro will benefit from the project because it will reduce their peak loads and it will also be an alternate source of revenue. It is expected that the project will displace 39,600 tons of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming

  7. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  8. (Case Study: Management of Loans by Private Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsijani Farsijani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the right choice of investment projects is very clear in our own country so that if the correct method based on pattern and scientific criteria for assessing specific plans and measures suitable for budgeting and resource allocation and planning had already seen half the work, or stay and become many non-economic plans. Private sector profitability condition as the criterion of governmental authorities saw the necessity of other factors including political considerations and design. Investment banks and commercial evaluation of projects in one hand and plan to be profitable categories on the other hand should develop programs and projects coordinated macro country. In this study, using the experiences of Iranian experts in providing loans to customers, a model was provided to be an expert system. The expert system presented in this study based on quantitative and qualitative factors considered in the evaluation process, experts from the banking loan requests is a private bank. To provide the expert system, the Bank study documents and research in the world and using interviews and questionnaires framework decision proposed expert system evaluation criteria for acceptance or rejection of requests bank customers are offered loans.

  9. Innovative private micro-hydro power development in Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigaht, Maurice; Plas, Robert J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Under the 'Private Sector Participation in Micro-Hydro Development Project in Rwanda', four newly registered Rwandan companies are each constructing a micro-hydro electricity plant (100-500 kW) and building a low-voltage distribution grid. These companies financed their plants through their own equity and debt with support from the PSP Hydro project. This support comprised a subsidy of 30-50% of investment costs, technical and business development assistance, project monitoring and financial controlling. The experiences gained so far have important implications for similar future micro-hydro energy sector development projects and this paper puts forward three key messages: (i) institutional arrangements rather than technical quality determine the success of such projects; (ii) truly sustainable rural electrification through micro-hydro development demands a high level of local participation at all levels and throughout all project phases, not just after plant commissioning; and (iii) real impact and sustainability can be obtained through close collaboration of local private and financial sector firms requiring only limited external funds. In short, micro-hydro projects can and will be taken up by local investors as a business if the conditions are right. Applying these messages could result in an accelerated uptake of viable micro-hydro activities in Rwanda, and in the opinion of the authors elsewhere too.

  10. Innovative private micro-hydro power development in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigaht, Maurice; Van der Plas, Robert J. [MARGE-Netherlands, Brem 68, 7577 EW Oldenzaal (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Under the 'Private Sector Participation in Micro-Hydro Development Project in Rwanda', four newly registered Rwandan companies are each constructing a micro-hydro electricity plant (100-500 kW) and building a low-voltage distribution grid. These companies financed their plants through their own equity and debt with support from the PSP Hydro project. This support comprised a subsidy of 30-50% of investment costs, technical and business development assistance, project monitoring and financial controlling. The experiences gained so far have important implications for similar future micro-hydro energy sector development projects and this paper puts forward three key messages: (1) institutional arrangements rather than technical quality determine the success of such projects; (2) truly sustainable rural electrification through micro-hydro development demands a high level of local participation at all levels and throughout all project phases, not just after plant commissioning; and (3) real impact and sustainability can be obtained through close collaboration of local private and financial sector firms requiring only limited external funds. In short, micro-hydro projects can and will be taken up by local investors as a business if the conditions are right. Applying these messages could result in an accelerated uptake of viable micro-hydro activities in Rwanda, and in the opinion of the authors elsewhere too. (author)

  11. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  12. Life stories of people on sick leave from work because of mild mental illness, pain and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brataas, Hildfrid V; Evensen, Aud E

    2015-01-01

    Many people experience some form of mild mental illness, chronic pain and fatigue feelings that lead to long-term absences from the workplace. The article examines narrations about developmental experiences and adult life of people in need of back to work rehabilitation. Narrative interviews were analyzed within a qualitative content analyses design. The sample was purposive, with 16 working-age adults at rehabilitation because of mild mental illnesses, chronic pain, and fatigue feelings. Ethical approval, was obtained from The Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics, Health Region Central Norway. Reference no.: 2010/1323. There were stories about more or less stressful childhoods. In adult life, there were turns at various ages from meaningful work engagement, to struggle in private life from long lasting strain, stressful family situations or crises. Illness may develop when experiencing crises or strain over time in private situations, this in combination with expectations and requirements in working life. Not only working environments, but also the private situations, life history events, and self-esteem of individuals, should be taken into consideration in the rehabilitation program. There is a need of research on working life that support the employee's positive self-image, and on effective rehabilitation when needed.

  13. Mild trigonocephaly. Report of 300 operative cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoji, Takeyoshi; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Nagamine, Tomoaki; Kawakubo, Junichi; Shimoji, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999, we have reported mild trigonocephaly with symptoms mainly accompanied with developmental delays. We would like to report the operative results of 300 patients. All patients had some kind of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis made recognizing ridge of the fused metopic suture by palpation and a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Most patients (287 among 300) could not be diagnosed because of the mild changes of their facial features and their natural development as infants. They suffered from symptoms such as mental retardation, delayed language development, hyperactivity, autistic tendencies, panic and irritability, motor dysfunctions, self-mutilation and sleeping disturbances. Two hundred thirteen patients were recorded intracranial pressure (ICP). Developmental quotients (D.Q) were also measured. Two hundred fifteen (73.6%) of 292 patients with delays of language development were improved within a year after surgery. Other symptoms also improved: 91.6% in hyperactivity, 76.5% in autistic tendencies, 92% in panic, 90.4% in motor dysfunctions, 88.6% in self-mutilation and 93% in sleeping disturbances. The chronological scores in D.Q maintained parallel in most patients. Measurements of ICP resulted in 10 cases (5%) under mean 10 mmHg, 33 cases (15%) between 11 to 15 mmHg and 170 cases (80%) over 16 mmHg. The mean pulse pressure calculated around 9 mmHg in each group. Decompressive cranioplasty was applied to all patients. Patients with mild trigonocephaly may have a possibility to show clinical symptoms. Since the ICP seems to be high, decompressive cranioplasty may be a reasonable treatment for these patients. (author)

  14. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  15. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  16. Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth

  17. Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, W.R.; Carter, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel 400. Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel 400. Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals. Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed

  18. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  19. Perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding their own body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a risk factor for obesity. It is important to focus on the health of this group of workers, on whom the health of South Africans depends and who should be the drivers of healthy living for all. Correct classification of their own body weight will encourage people to take action in a bid to combat their own and others' obesity.

  20. Green Energy Options for Consumer-Owned Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co-opPlus of Western Massachusetts

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project was to define, test, and prototype a replicable business model for consumer-owned cooperatives. The result is a replicable consumer-owned cooperative business model for the generation, interconnection, and distribution of renewable energy that incorporates energy conservation and efficiency improvements.