WorldWideScience

Sample records for private lands koa

  1. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; James B. Friday; Janis Haraguchi; Travis Idol; Nicklos S. Dudley

    2010-01-01

    Providing economic incentives to landholders is an effective way of promoting sustainable forest management, conservation and restoration. In Hawaii, the main native hardwood species with commercial value is Acacia koa (koa), but lack of successful examples of koa plantation forestry hinders private investment. Financial models, which have been offered to encourage...

  2. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  3. Wildlife Private Lands Specialist Support Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...

  4. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  5. Characterizing Virginia's private forest owners and their forest lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  6. Private lands and outdoor recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Paul Gentle

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor recreation on private land is influenced by myriad factors. To provide background and context on these factors, this chapter first overviews the private land situation in the United States and provides general information and discussion related to ownership and tenure, land-use patterns, legal restrictions, and economic conditions, including taxation issues....

  7. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Carey Miller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited period and the right to cross land. Access can be taken only on foot or by horse or bicycle. As a starting point clarification of the misunderstood pre-reform position is attempted. The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right. A critical aspect of the new right is that it is one of responsible access; provided a landowner co-operates with the spirit and system of the Act access can be denied on the basis that it is not being exercised responsibly. But the onus is on the landowner to show that the exercise of the right is not responsible.Although the right applies to all land a general exception protects the privacy of a domestic dwelling. Early case law suggests that the scope of this limit depends upon particular circumstances although reasonable 'garden ground' is likely to be protected. There are various particular limits such as school land.Compliance with the protection of property under the European Convention on Human Rights is discussed. The article emphasises the latitude, open to nations, for limitations to the right of ownership in land in the public interest. The extent of the Scottish access inroad illustrates this. This leads to the conclusion that 'land governance' – the subject of the Potchefstroom Conference at which the paper was initially presented – largely remains a matter for domestic law; the lex situs concept is alive

  8. Privatization of Land Plot Under Integral Real Estate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchek A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions concerning the privatization of a land plot under integral real estate complex. The authors come to conclusion that a number of legislation norms relating to privatization of a land plot do not take into account the construction of an integral real estate complex that could cause some problems in the realization of the right to privatization of the land plot

  9. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  10. Public access to private land in Scotland | Miller | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited ...

  11. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  12. 77 FR 61535 - Private Land Mobile Radio Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... technology that we believe can provide valuable benefits to land mobile radio users. III. Summary of..., GPS equipment, pagers, cellular phones, mobile communications equipment, and radio and television...-114] Private Land Mobile Radio Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule...

  13. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David

    The Forum's work led to advice to the Scottish Government concluding that ... respect of the facilitation and upholding of access rights. This is ...... particular protection of a person's rights in respect of private and family life and the home under ... jurisprudence emphasising the necessity of a balancing-of-interests approach.

  14. Incentive mechanisms for ecosystem protection on private lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.; Perali, F.; Veronesi, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study has the objective to bring to the fore the importance of appropriate incentive schemes for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems on private lands. The analysis describes the effectiveness of the regulations implemented in advanced countries. In particular, first the study presents some examples and discusses the implications of the actual legislation in developed countries for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Then, the study analyses the legal doctrine regarding compensation, and the available economic instruments for ecosystem services protection. Finally, the study presents the best economic tools capable to align private behavior with the social goals of protecting the services offered by the ecosystems and favoring the participation of private owners to projects for sustainable production and conservation. Special attention is paid to the institution of Community Foundations using as models those implemented in the United States. [it

  15. Factors impacting hunter access to private lands in southeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Eric; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.

    2018-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have important socioeconomic and ecological impacts in the United States. Hunting is considered to be important for the effective management of deer and relies on access to privately owned lands. In 2013, we surveyed nonindustrial private landowners in southeast Minnesota and created two logit models to examine factors that impact landowners’ decision to (a) allow public hunting access and (b) post private property. Parcel characteristics were found to impact landowner decisions to allow hunting access, particularly the size of the property and whether it was posted. Hunting access to small properties was more likely to be restricted to family, friends, and neighbors (83%) compared to medium (74%) or large properties (60%). Hunter concerns (e.g., liability) and knowledge about deer management was significant in both models, suggesting there are opportunities to educate landowners about the importance of allowing public hunting access and available liability protections.

  16. 7 CFR 701.57 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.57 Section 701... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.57 Private non-industrial forest land. (a..., assistance made available under this section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in an...

  17. Private lands habitat programs benefit California's native birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.

  18. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Landowner and practitioner perspectives on private land conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L.; Gillespie, Caitlyn R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Martin, Dustin R.

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to reverse declines in native grasslands benefit from agricultural policies that encourage private land conservation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) improved conservation across landscapes but enrollment has declined. We used sequential exploratory mixed methods to compare landowner and conservation practitioners’ perceptions, evaluate perceived benefits, and identify potential improvements to CRP. Focus groups of practitioners informed a quantitative survey of landowners who had properties >160 total acres in Nebraska. Results suggest potential misalignment in perceptions between practitioners and landowners. Practitioners were concerned that conservation, especially of wildlife, was secondary to profit. But the majority of landowners valued CRP-related ecosystem services, including native pollinators. Practitioners posited that younger landowners were primarily profit motivated, but CRP enrollment did not differ by demographics. Practitioners and landowners identified rule complexity as a major challenge and practitioner–landowner relationships as critical to success. Findings suggest that practitioners may underestimate non-economic motivations and illuminate opportunities to encourage private land conservation.

  1. Evaluating recreational hunting as an incentive for habitat conservation on private land in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke T. Macaulay

    2015-01-01

    Private land plays a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity in California, yet these lands are the least protected and most prone to environmental degradation. In 1930, Aldo Leopold recognized the potential to better conserve private land by an incentive scheme where recreational users would pay landowners for access to conserved wildlife habitat. While...

  2. Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, P.A.; Havemann, C.P.; Lines, R.M.; Price, A.E.; Retief, T.A.; Rhebergen, T.; Waal, van der C.; Romanach, S.

    2013-01-01

    Legislative changes during the 1960s–1970s granted user rights over wildlife to landowners in southern Africa, resulting in a shift from livestock farming to wildlife-based land uses. Few comprehensive assessments of such land uses on private land in southern Africa have been conducted and the

  3. Effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on private lands in eastern Oregon, 1980-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; David L. Overhulser

    2008-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis data from three inventory periods were used to examine the effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on private lands in eastern Oregon. Growth was negatively related to defoliation with differences between crown ratio and species. The mortality and salvage harvesting caused changes in stand structure on private lands. Although many...

  4. Influence of restored koa in supporting bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation of Hawaiian forests has adversely impacted native wildlife, including forest birds, bats and arthropods. Restoration activities have included reforestation with the native koa (Acacia koa), a dominant canopy tree species that is easy to propagate, has high survivorship, and has fast growth rates. We review recent research describing the ecological benefits of koa restoration on wildlife colonization/use, plant dispersal, and native plant recruitment. In general, planting monotypic koa stands can provide forest habitats for species that need them but does not automatically lead to natural regeneration of a diverse forest species assemblage and may require additional restoration activities such as outplanting of other native plants and alien grass control to achieve more natural forest systems. Although early signs of forest and wildlife recovery have been encouraging, the goals of restoration for wildlife conservation versus commercial grade harvesting require different restoration methods.

  5. Molecular genetic characterization of the koa-wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum): Application of molecular genetic tools toward improving koa restoration in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; Nicklos Dudley; John Dobbs; Tyler Jones; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. James; Kas Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Several forest diseases are causing serious threats to the native Hawaiian forest. Among them, koawilt disease (caused by Fusarium oxysporum) is damaging to native populations of koa (Acacia koa), and it also hinders koa restoration/reforestation. Because F. oxysporum likely represents a complex of species with distinct pathogenic activities, more detailed...

  6. Reasserting the commons: Pastoral contestations of private and state lands in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Galaty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory that land holding is inexorably evolving from common to private or state tenure is challenged by facts on the ground that this paper will examine. ‘Tenure’ is interpreted both in terms of formal law and informal practices. While the association between privatization and land fragmentation is clear, property theory has influenced privatization so the process cannot be used to validate the evolutionary model of transitions from open access to common property to private property. Although in many settings common and state property has given way to privatization, in other cases private or state property has reverted to common holdings. A dynamic tenure model would demonstrate the conditions under which tenure transitions occur between common, private and state property, as the balance between transaction and exclusion costs shifts, or when the boundaries of tenure forms weaken to allow open access to occur. Examining three scenes of tenure transitions involving Kenyan pastoralists (Laikipia County, the Rift Valley, Narok County and Kajiado County, this paper examines cases in which transaction and exclusion dynamics – which are metaphors for the institutional effects of social and territorial relations- lead to changing land-use practices and tenure transitions. In semi-arid pastoral regions, we find more fluid systems of tenure than the inexorable spread of privatization through formalized land rights and increasing land fragmentation would have suggested should occur in the 21st century.

  7. Private forest-land owners of the Western United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Western United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  8. Private forest-land owners of the Southern United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Southern United States. Landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning are discussed.

  9. Private forest-land owners of the Northern United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Northern United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  10. African Indigenous Land Rights in a Private Ownership Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WJ Du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often stated that indigenous law confers no property rights in land. Okoth-Ogenda reconceptualised indigenous land rights by debunking the myth that indige-nous land rights systems are necessarily "communal" in nature, that "ownership" is collective and that the community as an entity makes collective decisions about the access and use of land.1 He offers a different understanding of indigenous land rights systems by looking at the social order of communities that create "reciprocal rights and obligations that this binds together, and vests power in the community members over land". To determine who will be granted access to or exercise control over land and the resources, one needs to look at these rights and obligations and the performances that arise from them. This will leave only two distinct questions: who may have access to the land (and what type of access2 and who may control and manage the land resources on behalf of those who have access to it?3There is a link with this reconceptualisation and the discourse of the commons. Os-trom's classification of goods leads to a definition of the commons (or common pool of resources as "a class of resources for which exclusion is difficult and joint use in-volves subtractablity".4 The questions this article wishes to answer are: would it firstly be possible to classify the indigenous land rights system as a commons, and sec-ondly would it provide a useful analytical framework in which to solve the problem of securing land tenure in South Africa?

  11. On track. Spontaneous privatization of public urban land in Bandung, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurman, Ari; Lund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The history of land control in Indonesia is overwhelmingly one of colonial conquest, government enclosure and expropriation of traditional property rights. However, beneath these great transformations, counter-currents also flow. Encroachment on state land and its gradual privatization by ordinary...

  12. Evaluating forest land development effects on private forestry in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that forest land development can reduce the productivity of remaining forest land because private forest owners reduce their investments in forest management. We developed empirical models describing forest stocking, thinning, harvest, and postharvest tree planting in eastern Oregon, as functions of stand and site characteristics, ownership, and...

  13. Wildfire Mitigation and Private Lands: Managing Long-Term Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Muller; Stacey Schulte

    2006-01-01

    Long-term management of wildfire vulnerability requires strategies that address complex interactions between fire ecology and human settlement. In this paper, we examine the integration of wildfire mitigation and land use planning in county governments in the western U.S. This research relies on data from two sources. First, we conducted a survey of land use...

  14. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  15. Framing conservation on private lands: conserving oak in Oregon's Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; John C. Bliss

    2009-01-01

    Conserving threatened habitats on private lands requires policies that advance the interests of landowners and natural resource professionals alike. Through qualitative analysis of individual and focus-group interviews, we compared how family forest owners and natural resource professionals frame conservation of threatened habitat: the oak woodlands and savanna in...

  16. Forests on the edge: evaluating contributions of and threats to America's private forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Hatfield; Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mike Dechter; < i> et al< /i>

    2007-01-01

    The Forests on the Edge project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, uses geographic information systems to construct and analyze maps depicting ecological, social, and economic contributions of America's private forest lands and threats to those contributions. Watersheds across the conterminous United States are ranked relative to the...

  17. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  18. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 [DA 11-1838] Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection and Assignment of Frequencies, and Transition of the Upper 200 Channels in the 800 MHz Band to EA Licensing AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  19. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  20. Threats to private forest lands in the U.S.A.: a forests on the edge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hatfield; Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Sara. Comas

    2010-01-01

    The Forests on the Edge project, sponsored by the USDA Forest Service, uses geographic information systems to construct and analyze maps depicting threats to the contributions of America’s private forest lands. For this study, watersheds across the conterminous United States are evaluated with respect to the amount of their private forest land. Watersheds with at least...

  1. Forest harvest patterns on private lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Walker, Jessica; Griffith, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC) products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  2. Forest Harvest Patterns on Private Lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  3. Influence of Private Forest Land to Farmers Welfare in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    The research shows that in general people forest land use has been sucessfully implemented in the province. It is important to note that a more successfull implementation of people forest land use is found in the private rather than government initiated forest. In the less accessible areas people forest land use activities are much more successfull than in the accessible ones. Social forestry land use in the volcanic slope physiography is much better than that in either undulating or karst areas. Among important factors affecting the success of people forest land use are land ownership, education level, technology, land accessibility and percentage of plant growth. It is also confirmed that accessibility is the most important factor affecting the success of an people forest land use. The research also reveals that people forest land use has been very important in improving the farmers welfare. A composite indicator shows that the welfare of farmers is much improved after the adoption of people forest land use, with the highest achievement is obtained by farmers in the volcanic slopes.

  4. Public-Private Partnerships Working Beyond Scale Challenges toward Water Quality Improvements from Private Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Stephanie K.; Schulte, Lisa A.; Tyndall, John C.

    2017-10-01

    In recognition that Iowa agriculture must maintain long-term production of food, fiber, clean water, healthy soil, and robust rural economies, Iowa recently devised a nutrient reduction strategy to set objectives for water quality improvements. To demonstrate how watershed programs and farmers can reduce nutrient and sediment pollution in Iowa waters, the Iowa Water Quality Initiative selected the Boone River Watershed Nutrient Management Initiative as one of eight demonstration projects. For over a decade, diverse public, private, and non-profit partner organizations have worked in the Boone River Watershed to engage farmers in water quality management efforts. To evaluate social dynamics in the Boone River Watershed and provide partners with actionable recommendations, we conducted and analyzed semi-structured interviews with 33 program leaders, farmers, and local agronomists. We triangulated primary interview data with formal analysis of Boone River Watershed documents such as grant applications, progress reports, and outreach materials. Our evaluation suggests that while multi-stakeholder collaboration has enabled partners to overcome many of the traditional barriers to watershed programming, scale mismatches caused by external socio-economic and ecological forces still present substantial obstacles to programmatic resilience. Public funding restrictions and timeframes, for example, often cause interruptions to adaptive management of water quality monitoring and farmer engagement. We present our findings within a resilience framework to demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaboration can help sustain adaptive watershed programs to improve socio-ecological function in agricultural watersheds such as the Boone River Watershed.

  5. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  6. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirac Twidwell

    Full Text Available Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1 a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2 a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3 an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands.

  7. Public Regulation of the Use of Private Land : Opportunities and Challenges in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Sifuna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya land is not only one of the most valuable belongings of any person, but a natural heritage that sustains all life forms and one that has to pass on from generation to generation by inheritance. Besides, land is a rather sensitive and emotive issue, for instance, having been central issue in the struggle for independence from colonialism. It is imperative therefore that land be used efficiently and responsibly to ensure it is available to posterity and in a form equitable and beneficial to the present as well as the future generations. Despite its importance, however, land in Kenya is a scarce resource that has to be available to competing uses and needs. It is also a resource whose use may result in environmental harm and degradation, jeopardise the interests of future generations in such land or negatively impact on its various uses. To ensure its efficient use and appropriate distribution of its benefits in the country, there is need for regulation of the use of any land irrespective of its regime of tenure in the public interest-whether is under state ownership, community (communal ownership or private ownership. The power to regulate the use of private land is generally vested in state and is usually exercised by public institutions and officers on behalf of the state and for the citizenry. Indeed a legitimate government especially that which has been popularly and democratically elected by the people is a custodian of the public interest and welfare of the citizens, with the mandate to act on their behalf. Apart from state and governmental entities, this regulation is also exercised by local management institutions, most of which are informal. Despite its beneficial value in terms of promoting the public good, the exercise of the power of public regulation of private land in Kenya faces numerous challenges. Indeed this power if properly employed can not only enforce and promote the public good but ensure sustainable land use

  8. Predators on private land: broad-scale socioeconomic interactions influence large predator management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of private land conservation areas (PLCAs is placing increasing pressure on conservation authorities to effectively regulate their ecological management. Many PLCAs depend on tourism for income, and charismatic large mammal species are considered important for attracting international visitors. Broad-scale socioeconomic factors therefore have the potential to drive fine-scale ecological management, creating a systemic scale mismatch that can reduce long-term sustainability in cases where economic and conservation objectives are not perfectly aligned. We assessed the socioeconomic drivers and outcomes of large predator management on 71 PLCAs in South Africa. Owners of PLCAs that are stocking free-roaming large predators identified revenue generation as influencing most or all of their management decisions, and rated profit generation as a more important objective than did the owners of PLCAs that did not stock large predators. Ecotourism revenue increased with increasing lion (Panthera leo density, which created a potential economic incentive for stocking lion at high densities. Despite this potential mismatch between economic and ecological objectives, lion densities were sustainable relative to available prey. Regional-scale policy guidelines for free-roaming lion management were ecologically sound. By contrast, policy guidelines underestimated the area required to sustain cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, which occurred at unsustainable densities relative to available prey. Evidence of predator overstocking included predator diet supplementation and frequent reintroduction of game. We conclude that effective facilitation of conservation on private land requires consideration of the strong and not necessarily beneficial multiscale socioeconomic factors that influence private land management.

  9. The role of non-industrial private forest lands in the conservation of southern fire-dependent wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; Peter T. Bromley; Mark A. Megalos; David Drake

    2002-01-01

    Although scientific support for fire as a land management tool has grown, non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners often fail to burn on their properties. These lands comprise approximately 70 percent of southern forests, making them critical to the long-term conservation of wildlife and plant species. Natural resource professionals must overcome key constraints...

  10. Applying landscape genomic tools to forest management and restoration of Hawaiian koa (Acacia koa) in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F; Liang, Christina T; Sork, Victoria L; Hodgskiss, Paul; Wright, Jessica W

    2018-02-01

    Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa . Admixture and principal components analyses showed that trees from different islands are genetically distinct in general, with the exception of some genotypes that match other islands, likely as the result of recent translocations. Gradient forest and generalized dissimilarity models both revealed a strong association between genetic structure and mean annual rainfall. Utilizing a model for projected future climate on the island of Hawaii, we show that predicted changes in rainfall patterns may result in genetic offset, such that trees no longer may be genetically matched to their environment. These findings indicate that knowledge of current and future rainfall gradients can provide valuable information for the conservation of existing populations and also help refine seed transfer guidelines for reforestation or replanting of koa throughout the state.

  11. Common–interest community agreements on private lands provide opportunity and scale for wildlife management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Private lands are critical to conservation planning for wildlife, worldwide. Agriculture subsidies, tax incentives, and conservation easements have been successfully used as tools to convert cropland to native vegetation. However, uncertain economies threaten the sustainability of these incentives. The wildlife management profession is in need of innovative models that support effective management of populations. I argue that biologists should consider the option of facilitating the development of private reserves to reduce the dependence of conservation on public investment. Private reserves can be enhanced by creating common–interest communities, which reduce the problem posed by limited size of individual properties. Cross–property agreements between landowners can provide economic incentives through forms of ecotourism, energy production, and/or enhanced agricultural production. I share two case studies that demonstrate how cross–property agreements may be beneficial to landowner’s finances and conservation of diverse wildlife communities, as well as providing an efficient structure for NGOs and management agencies to engage and support landowners.

  12. Traps and transformations influencing the financial viability of tourism on private-land conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2018-04-01

    The ability of private conservation organizations to remain financially viable is a key factor influencing their effectiveness. One-third of financially motivated private-land conservation areas (PLCAs) surveyed in South Africa are unprofitable, raising questions about landowners' abilities to effectively adapt their business models to the socioeconomic environment. In any complex system, options for later adaptation can be constrained by starting conditions (path dependence). We tested 3 hypothesized drivers of path dependence in PLCA ecotourism and hunting business models: (H1) the initial size of a PLCA limits the number of mammalian game and thereby predators that can be sustained; (H2) initial investments in infrastructure limit the ability to introduce predators; and (H3) rainfall limits game and predator abundance. We further assessed how managing for financial stability (optimized game stocking) or ecological sustainability (allowing game to fluctuate with environmental conditions) influenced the ability to overcome path dependence. A mechanistic PLCA model based on simple ecological and financial rules was run for different initial conditions and management strategies, simulating landowner options for adapting their business model annually. Despite attempts by simulated landowners to increase profits, adopted business models after 13 years were differentiated by initial land and infrastructural assets, supporting H1 and H2. A conservation organization's initial assets can cause it to become locked into a financially vulnerable business model. In our 50-year simulation, path dependence was overcome by fewer of the landowners who facilitated natural ecological variability than those who maintained constant hunting rates and predator numbers, but the latter experienced unsustainably high game densities in low rainfall years. Management for natural variability supported long-term ecological sustainability but not shorter term socioeconomic sustainability for

  13. Stakeholder Perceptions of an Ecosystem Services Approach to Clearing Invasive Alien Plants on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Urgenson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Incentivizing private landowners and other stakeholders is central to the effective conservation of ecosystem services in working landscapes. To better understand how to design effective incentives, the perceptions of landowners and other stakeholders are explored regarding a proposed approach to clearing invasive alien plants on private land in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The public funded national program, Working for Water, conserves ecosystem services while employing and training people from marginalized sectors of society to clear these plants. Private landowner involvement is a key conservation challenge, because without adequate landowner involvement, invasive alien plants persist on the landscape and continuously reinvade cleared areas. We collected interview data from private landowners in three study sites, and web-survey data from conservation professionals and Working for Water managers, in order to compare stakeholder perceptions of (1 government and landowners' responsibilities for clearing invasive alien plants; (2 existing and proposed policy tools; and (3 the extent to which stakeholders consider the proposed financial incentive to be sufficient. There was significant consensus among stakeholders concerning their preference for shared landowner and government responsibility and for a policy mix that combines incentives with disincentives. Landowners from the three study sites differed in the level of responsibility they were willing to assume. Stakeholders also diverged in terms of their perceptions of the proposed financial incentives. Furthermore, the perspectives of landowners were strongly associated with ecological and social features of the landscapes in which they are located. Understanding stakeholders' points of view within their differing contexts is shown to be a valuable means of gaining insight into the opportunities and constraints that face ecosystem service conservation in working landscapes.

  14. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  15. Meeting renewable energy and land use objectives through public–private biomass supply partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galik, Christopher S.; Abt, Robert C.; Latta, Gregory; Méley, Andréanne; Henderson, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing encroachment and increased use of renewable energy are U.S. military goals. • Strong forest markets and high forest land rent can affect land use change patterns. • Military bioenergy demand may stimulate forest markets and expand forest area. • GHG benefits of increased bioenergy demand accrue regionally but not nationally. • Targeted bioenergy market development may be preferable to region-wide deployment. - Abstract: Bioenergy is a significant source of renewable energy in the U.S. and internationally. We explore whether creation of localized bioenergy markets near existing military installations in the southeastern U.S. could simultaneously address military renewable energy generation objectives while reducing urban encroachment. We model the use of public–private partnerships to stimulate the creation of these markets, in which stable installation demand is paired with stable supply from surrounding landowners. We employ two economic models – the SubRegional Timber Supply (SRTS) model and the Forest and Agricultural Sector Model with Greenhouse Gases (FASOMGHG) – to assess how markets influence forest and agriculture land use, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation at the regional and national levels. When all selected installations increase bioenergy capacity simultaneously, we find increased preservation of forest land area, increased forest carbon storage in the region, and increased renewable energy generation at military installations. Nationally, however, carbon stocks are depleted as harvests increase, increasing GHG emissions even after accounting for potential displaced emissions from coal- or natural gas-fired generation. Increasing bioenergy generation on a single installation within the southeast has very different effects on forest area and composition, yielding greater standing timber volume and higher forest carbon stock. In addition to demonstrating the benefits of linking two

  16. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A landholder-based approach to the design of private-land conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Many ecosystems exist primarily, or solely, on privately owned (freehold) or managed (leasehold) land. In rural and semirural areas, local and regional government agencies are commonly responsible for encouraging landholders to conserve native vegetation and species on these private properties. Yet these agencies often lack the capacity to design and implement conservation programs tailored to rural and semirural landholdings and instead offer one program to all landholders. Landholders may elect not to participate because the program is irrelevant to their property or personal needs; consequently, vegetation-retention objectives may not be achieved. We differentiated landholders in Queensland, Australia, according to whether they derived income from the land (production landholders) or not (nonproduction landholders). We compared these two groups to identify similarities and differences that may inform the use of policy instruments (e.g., voluntary, economic, and regulatory) in conservation program design. We interviewed 45 landholders participating in three different conservation agreement programs (price-based rate [property tax] rebate; market-based tender; and voluntary, permanent covenant). Production landholders were more likely to participate in short-term programs that offered large financial incentives that applied to 75% of their property. These results may be explained by significant differences in the personal circumstances of production and nonproduction landholders (income, education, health) and differences in their norms (beliefs about how an individual is expected to act) and attitudes. Knowledge of these differences may allow for development of conservation programs that better meet the needs of landholders and thus increase participation in conservation programs and retention of native vegetation. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Personal Moral Norms and Attitudes Toward Endangered Species Policies on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research across multiple disciplines has shown that personal moral norms can play an important role in shaping individuals′ attitudes and behaviour. Despite this, we know relatively little about patterns of support among landowners for either a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of private ownership, or a moral duty to prevent extinction. In addition, we know even less about the ability of such norms to predict attitudes toward species protection on private lands, especially for non-charismatic species with few qualities that typically generate positive attitudes for conservation. Results from a mail survey of central Indiana landowners suggest broad support for a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of ownership as well as a personal moral norm to prevent extinction, and that these norms are better predictors of attitudes toward endangered species policies than partisan identification, identification as an environmentalist, strong religious beliefs, or several other demographic factors. The results suggest that those seeking to influence landowner attitudes toward species protection policies should pay closer attention to the influence of these personal moral norms.

  19. From Public to Private Standards for Tropical Commodities: A Century of Global Discourse on Land Governance on the Forest Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Byerlee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and commodity exports have a long history in affecting land use changes and land rights on the tropical forest frontier. This paper reviews a century of social and environmental discourse around land issues for four commodities grown in the humid tropics—rubber, cocoa, oil palm and bananas. States have exercised sovereign rights over land and forest resources and the outcomes for deforestation and land rights of existing users have been quite varied depending on local institutional contexts and political economy. In the current period of globalization, as land use changes associated with tropical commodities have accelerated, land issues are now at center stage in the global discourse. However, efforts to protect forests and the rights of local communities and indigenous groups continue to be ad hoc and codification of minimum standards and their implementation remains a work in progress. Given a widespread failure of state directed policies and institutions to curb deforestation and protect land rights, the private sector, with the exception of the rubber industry, is emphasizing voluntary standards to certify sustainability of their products. This is an important step but expectations that they will effectively address concerns about the impact of tropical commodities expansion might be too high, given their voluntary nature, demand constraints, and the challenge of including smallholders. It is also doubtful that private standards can more than partially compensate for long standing weaknesses in land governance and institutions on the forest frontier.

  20. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across environmental gradients in Hawai'i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai'ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600-1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua'i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17-20 °C mean annual temperature and 750-1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai'i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  1. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species. PMID:22163920

  2. A comparative institutional evaluation of public-private partnerships in Dutch urban land-use and revitalisation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; van der Burch, M.; Vindigni, G.

    2002-01-01

    In the spirit of the devolution of public policy, we have recently witnessed an increasing popularity of decentralised forms of decision-making in urban land-use policy, in which both local (or regional) authorities and the private sector play a more prominent joint role in the preparation and

  3. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  4. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  5. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  6. Evaluating land-use and private forest management responses to a potential forest carbon offset sales program in western Oregon (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Latta; Darius M. Adams; Kathleen P. Bell; Jeff Kline

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of linked land-use and forest sector models to simulate the effects of carbon offset sales on private forest owners' land-use and forest management decisions inwestern Oregon (USA). Our work focuses on forest management decisions rather than afforestation, allows full forest sector price adjustment to land-use changes, and incorporates time-...

  7. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land-conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2017-06-01

    In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystem goods and services in the short term but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass initially but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system. Analyses of this phenomenon have focused largely on how management actions influence slow-changing biophysical system attributes (such as vegetation composition). Data on the frequency of management actions that reduce natural ecological variation on 66 private land-conservation areas (PLCAs) in South Africa were used to investigate how management actions are influenced by manager decision-making approaches, a largely ignored part of the problem. The pathology of natural resource management was evident on some PLCAs: increased focus on revenue-generation in decision making resulted in an increased frequency of actions to stabilize short-term variation in large mammal populations, which led to increased revenues from ecotourism or hunting. On many PLCAs, these management actions corresponded with a reduced focus on ecological monitoring and an increase in overstocking of game (i.e., ungulate species) and stocking of extralimitals (i.e., game species outside their historical range). Positives in natural resource management also existed. Some managers monitored slower changing ecological attributes, which resulted in less-intensive management, fewer extralimital species, and lower stocking rates. Our unique, empirical investigation of monitoring-management relationships illustrates that management decisions informed by revenue monitoring versus ecological monitoring can have opposing consequences for natural resource productivity and

  8. An examination of the feasibility of using time-of-flight based non-destructive evaluation to assess the soundness of standing Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Eini. Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) trees are native to the islands of Hawaii but occur nowhere else in the world. It is the most important timber species for the manufacture of wood products in Hawaii and one of the most valuable species worldwide. Most koa trees harvested today are standing dead or are already on the ground (relic logs). Lumber recovery in milling...

  9. Characterization of the chromosomal inversion associated with the Koa mutation in the mouse revealed the cause of skeletal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hiroetsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Koala (Koa is a dominant mutation in mice causing bushy muzzle and pinna, and is associated with a chromosomal inversion on the distal half of chromosome 15. To identify the gene responsible for the Koa phenotypes, we investigated phenotypes of Koa homozygous mice and determined the breakpoints of the inversion with a genetic method using recombination between two different chromosomal inversions. Results Skeletal preparation of Koa homozygotes showed marked deformity of the ribs and a wider skull with extended zygomatic arches, in addition to a general reduction in the lengths of long bones. They also had open eyelids at birth caused by a defect in the extension of eyelid anlagen during the embryonic stages. The proximal and distal breakpoints of the Koa inversion were determined to be 0.8-Mb distal to the Trsps1 gene and to 0.1-Mb distal to the Hoxc4 gene, respectively, as previously reported. The phenotypes of mice with the recombinant inverted chromosomes revealed the localization of the gene responsible the Koa phenotype in the vicinity of the proximal recombinant breakpoint. Expression of the Trsps1 gene in this region was significantly reduced in the Koa homozygous and heterozygous embryos. Conclusion While no gene was disrupted by the chromosomal inversion, an association between the Koa phenotype and the proximal recombinant breakpoint, phenotypic similarities with Trps1-deficient mice or human patients with TRSP1 mutations, and the reduced expression of the Trsps1 gene in Koa mice, indicated that the phenotypes of the Koa mice are caused by the altered expression of the Trps1 gene.

  10. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, leopards (Panthera pardus and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and lions (Panthera leo are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world

  11. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  12. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  13. Public-Private Partnership’s Contract in Malaysia: Some Areas of Concern in a Land Swap Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Muhamad Said

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper seeks to explore the public-private partnership initiative and salient provisions of government contracts in Malaysia. This paper further examines some areas of concern emphasising on a land swap type of contract. There are still many other provisions that need to be addressed for example on obligations, design and constructions, choosing the right type of contracts, operations and maintenance, sub-contracts, relief events, liability and damages, performance security, default and termination and dispute resolutions which is not dealt in this paper.

  14. Constancy and cover of plants in the Petersburg and Wrangell Districts, Tongass National Forest and associated private and other public lands, southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2002-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive and inclusive description and inventory of the vegetation within the Stikine area of southeast Alaska. Private and other public lands were included as well as Tongass National Forest lands contained in the Petersburg and Wrangell Ranger Districts. Previous inventories have concentrated almost exclusively on tree species within forest...

  15. THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS: LAND TITLING, CREDIT, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1998-01-01

    Land titles can increase agricultural productivity by increasing access to collateralized credit. However, increased credit use depends on the assumption that farmers face asset-based credit rationing. This assumption is tested using data from Mexico's voluntary land titling program. The results do not support the existence of widespread credit rationing.

  16. Dynamics and ecological consequences of the 2013−2014 koa moth outbreak at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Foote, David

    2014-01-01

    A massive outbreak of the koa moth (Geometridea: Scotorythra paludicola) defoliated more than a third of the koa (Acacia koa) forest on Hawai‘i Island during 2013−2014. This was the largest koa moth outbreak ever recorded and the first on the island since 1953. The outbreak spread to sites distributed widely around the island between 800−2,000 m elevation and in wet rainforest to dry woodland habitats. We monitored the outbreak at two windward forest sites (Laupāhoehoe and Saddle Road Kīpuka) and one leeward forest site (Kona), and we studied the dynamics of the outbreak and its impacts on the forest ecosystem at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, our higher elevation windward site. Study sites at Hakalau included two stands of koa that were planted (reforestation stands) in former cattle pastureland about 20 years earlier and two stands of koa that were dominated by ‘ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and that were naturally recovering from cattle grazing (forest stands). We observed one outbreak at Hakalau, multiple outbreaks at the two other windward sites, but no outbreak at the leeward site. Caterpillars at Hakalau reached peak estimated abundances of more than 250,000 per tree and 18,000,000 per hectare, and they removed between 64−93% of the koa canopy in managed forest stands. Defoliation was more extensive in naturally recovering forest, where ‘ōhi‘a dominated and koa was less abundant, compared to the planted stands, where koa density was high. Koa trees were still growing new foliage six months after being defoliated, and leaves were produced in greater proportion to phyllodes, especially by small koa (≤ 8 cm dbh) and by larger trees in forest stands, where light levels may have remained relatively low after defoliation due to the high cover of ‘ōhi‘a. Small branches of many trees apparently died, and canopy regrowth was absent or low in 9% of koa trees and seedlings, which indicates the likely level of mortality. Between 2

  17. State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Paul B. Ellefson; Travis J. Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2017-01-01

    Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of...

  18. Habitat Restoration on Private Lands in the United States and the EU:
    Moving from Contestation to Collaboration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current nature conservation laws, which are still mainly based on a traditional ‘command and control approach’, are falling short in delivering the much-anticipated rebound for many of the imperilled species, on both sides of the Atlantic. The reasons that the recovery targets are not being reached are diverse and manifold, ranging from poor enforcement to lack of additional funding. However, one of the causes is the inability of conservation law to involve private landowners in the attempts to save the most endangered and threatened species. In the US new policy tools have been created offering promising alternatives to the traditional ‘command and control approach’ towards nature conservation. The Safe Harbor Agreement, arguably one of the most novel instruments of the past decades in nature conservation, is the main theme of this paper. This newly coined concept offers some interesting prospects for restoration efforts on privately owned plots of land. In return for restoring natural habitats of endangered species, the landowner is provided with a so-called ‘safe harbor guarantee’, ensuring them that no additional conservation measures will be required if the number of listed species increases as a result of the landowner’s actions. Knowing that in some EU Member States a similar policy tool has emerged, which specifically aims at fostering so-called ‘temporary nature’ on lands which are currently lying unused, merely awaiting their residential, infrastructural or industrial purpose, this paper will analyse to what extent such novel regulatory instruments fit in with the requirements of the existing nature conservation laws. By focusing on the parallel developments of both tools in a changing regulatory context, this paper endeavours to outline their main strengths and weaknesses. Although they are not a panacea for all ills, this paper concludes that, if applied with caution and with some insight into the ecological

  19. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  20. Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra D. Syphard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region

  1. Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Butsic, Van; Bar-Massada, Avi; Keeley, Jon E.; Tracey, Jeff A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region. These results likely

  2. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  3. Variabilité journalière de la qualité physico-chimique du lac M'koa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'enrichissement en matières organique, azote et phosphore capables d'influer sur la teneur de saturation en oxygène dissous. La Figure 4 montre des lavandiers communément appelés "fanico" exerçant leur activité quotidienne au lac. Cette activité est source d'enrichissement des eaux du lac. M'koa en phosphore et ...

  4. Landing performance by low-time private pilots after the sudden loss of binocular vision - Cyclops II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. E., Jr.; Swaroop, R.; Mcmurty, T. C.; Blakeley, W. R.; Masters, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Study of low-time general aviation pilots, who, in a series of spot landings, were suddenly deprived of binocular vision by patching either eye on the downwind leg of a standard, closed traffic pattern. Data collected during these landings were compared with control data from landings flown with normal vision during the same flight. The sequence of patching and the mix of control and monocular landings were randomized to minimize the effect of learning. No decrease in performance was observed during landings with vision restricted to one eye, in fact, performance improved. This observation is reported at a high level of confidence (p less than 0.001). These findings confirm the previous work of Lewis and Krier and have important implications with regard to aeromedical certification standards.

  5. Identifying policy target groups with qualitative and quantitative methods: the case of wildfire risk on nonindustrial private forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...

  6. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  7. Reclamation of oil and gas well sites on privately-owned land in Alberta: An evaluation of benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Alberta, ca 24,000 oil/gas well sites will be abandoned over the next 10 years. There is concern that the expense to reclaim the surface lands at these sites to current standards represents a substantial opportunity cost to industry and the provincial economy. The economic costs and benefits associated with regulation of such reclamation activity are examined and the impacts of surface access regulations on the reclamation process are discussed. Cost benefit analysis is not easily applied to environmental regulation where some extra-market benefits and costs are intangible and/or unmeasurable. Although this qualifies the results, it appears that the costs of wellsite reclamation exceed the benefits. Costs are defined as reclamation expenses; benefits are defined as the real estate value of the land, or the net present value of agricultural land rentals. An effort has been made to provide a proxy for the extra-market value of the land to the landowner. The continuation of full surface access compensation for nonproducing wells can result in negative incentive effects that reduce allocative efficiency of reclamation regulation. Reclamation costs are correlated with well age and surface access payments, but not with agricultural land use or geographic region. This suggests that reclamation standards designed to reclaim well sites to the same productive capacity as site-adjacent land is not driving reclamation effort. Rather, landowners have negotiated substantial annual surface lease payments and may also be demanding greater reclamation effort, either to maximize compensation due to higher expectations. Methods of reducing these negative incentive effects to better achieve reclamation goals are suggested. 49 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Connecting communities and business: Public-private partnerships as the panacea for land reform in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Cousins, B.; Bos, A.; Ntsholo, M.; Bruijn, M. de; Dijk, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Scattered among large-scale citrus orchards and game farms in Limpopo Province lie the densely populated former homelands of Venda, Gazankulu, and Lebowa. With few possibilities for development in these barren areas, many communities have lodged claims for the restitution of land from which they

  9. Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, P.A.; Havemann, C.P.; Lines, R.M.; Palazy, L.; Price, A.E.; Retief, T.A.; Rhebergen, T.; Waal, van der C.

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large

  10. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Kirkby

    Full Text Available Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism could be as large as US$ 210×10(12, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges: US$ 1,158 ha(-1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  11. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-09-29

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  12. The Market Triumph of Ecotourism: An Economic Investigation of the Private and Social Benefits of Competing Land Uses in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A.; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×1012, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha−1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000–5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone. PMID:20927377

  13. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-05

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation.

  14. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  15. A Bayesian approach to infer nitrogen loading rates from crop and land-use types surrounding private wells in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Bell, Andrew M.; Barber, Quinn E.; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study is focused on nitrogen loading from a wide variety of crop and land-use types in the Central Valley, California, USA, an intensively farmed region with high agricultural crop diversity. Nitrogen loading rates for several crop types have been measured based on field-scale experiments, and recent research has calculated nitrogen loading rates for crops throughout the Central Valley based on a mass balance approach. However, research is lacking to infer nitrogen loading rates for the broad diversity of crop and land-use types directly from groundwater nitrate measurements. Relating groundwater nitrate measurements to specific crops must account for the uncertainty about and multiplicity in contributing crops (and other land uses) to individual well measurements, and for the variability of nitrogen loading within farms and from farm to farm for the same crop type. In this study, we developed a Bayesian regression model that allowed us to estimate land-use-specific groundwater nitrogen loading rate probability distributions for 15 crop and land-use groups based on a database of recent nitrate measurements from 2149 private wells in the Central Valley. The water and natural, rice, and alfalfa and pasture groups had the lowest median estimated nitrogen loading rates, each with a median estimate below 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Confined animal feeding operations (dairies) and citrus and subtropical crops had the greatest median estimated nitrogen loading rates at approximately 269 and 65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In general, our probability-based estimates compare favorably with previous direct measurements and with mass-balance-based estimates of nitrogen loading. Nitrogen mass-balance-based estimates are larger than our groundwater nitrate derived estimates for manured and nonmanured forage, nuts, cotton, tree fruit, and rice crops. These discrepancies are thought to be due to groundwater age mixing, dilution from infiltrating river water, or denitrification

  16. Private business: the uptake of confidential HIV testing in remote aboriginal communities on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P J; Torzillo, P J

    1998-10-01

    Despite a concentration of risk factors for HIV transmission, many remote Aboriginal communities in central Australia have a low uptake of HIV testing. We studied the uptake of HIV testing in six clinics in remote Aboriginal communities following the introduction of voluntary confidential testing to assess the impact of the intervention and to determine if the program was reaching people most at risk of HIV infection and transmission. The study was conducted by Nganampa Health Council, an Aboriginal-controlled health service on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands in the far north-west of South Australia. Since the introduction of confidential coded testing in August 1994 the number of HIV tests provided through the remote clinics has increased from 83 tests/year to 592 tests/year. In the 12-month audit period (August 1, 1995, to July 31, 1996) 62.7% of women aged 20-24 years, 44.6% of people aged 12-40 years and 24% of the total population had an HIV test. Fifty per cent of tests were accounted for by the 15-25 year age groups and 60% of tests related to an STD consult. This study shows that a high uptake of HIV testing in high-risk groups can be achieved in remote Aboriginal communities where a high level of confidentiality is maintained.

  17. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  18. Landscape features and attractants that predispose grizzly bears to risk of conflicts with humans: A spatial and temporal analysis on privately owned agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Seth Mark

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) deaths in the US tend to be concentrated on the periphery of core habitats. These deaths were often preceded by conflicts with humans. Management removals of "nuisance" and or habituated grizzly bears are a leading cause of death in many populations. This exploratory study focuses on the conditions that lead to human-grizzly bear conflicts on private lands near core habitat. I examined spatial associations among reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986--2001, landscape features, and agricultural-attractants in north-central Montana. I surveyed 61 of a possible 64 active livestock related land users and I used geographic information system (GIS) techniques to collect information on cattle and sheep pasture locations, seasons of use, and bone yard (carcass dumps) and beehive locations. I used GIS spatial analyses, univariate tests, and logistic regression models to explore the associations among conflicts, landscape features, and attractants. A majority (75%) of conflicts were found in distinct seasonal conflict hotspots. Conflict hotspots with spatial overlap were associated with riparian vegetation, bone yards, and beehives in close proximity to one another and accounted for 62% of all conflicts. Consistently available seasonal attractants in overlapping hotspots such as calving areas, sheep lambing areas and spring, summer, and fall sheep and cattle pastures appear to perpetuate the occurrence of conflicts. I found that lambing areas and spring and summer sheep pastures were strongly associated with conflict locations as were cattle calving areas, spring cow/calf pastures, fall pastures, and bone yards. Logistic regression modeling revealed that the presence of riparian vegetation within a 1.6 km search radius strongly influenced the likelihood of conflict. After controlling for riparian vegetation, I found that unmanaged bone yards, unfenced and fenced beehives, all increased the odds of conflict. For every 1 km moved away

  19. Study on the Cooperation Mechanism of Agricultural Land Consolidation Project Based on Public-Private Partnership%基于PPP模式的农地整理项目合作机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴九兴; 杨钢桥; 汪文雄

    2012-01-01

    采用比较分析法和规范分析法探究了公私合作(PPP)模式农地整理项目合作主体的职能分工、发起方式、资源整合和收益分配.结果表明,PPP模式农地整理项目的职能分工比传统模式更合理,有利于提高项目的效率;项目的发起方式与资源整合对项目的效率产生影响;收益分配结果取决于政府部门和私人部门各自对项目的贡献率.%Employing comparison and normative analysis, the function division of main cooperation bodies, the initiation means of projects, resources integration and benefits distribution in agricultural land consolidation projects based on public -private partnership (PPP) were explored. The results indicated that the functions division of PPP agricultural land consolidation projects was more reasonable than that of traditional mode, and could improve the efficiency of the projects. The launching ways and resources integration efforts in PPP agricultural land consolidation projects could affect the projects' investment efficiency. The outcomes of benefits allocation in PPP agricultural land consolidation projects was depended on the government and private sector's contribution to the project.

  20. Private forest owners of the Central Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A recently completed survey of woodland owners provides insight into the owners of private forest lands in the Central Hardwood Region. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the numbers of nonindustrial private forest-land owners. Over half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some time in the past, they...

  1. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  2. Privat boligudlejning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2008-01-01

    for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...

  3. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  4. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  5. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  6. A Real Options Method for Estimating the Adoption Potential of Forestry and Agroforestry Systems on Private Lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2010-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV), once was the largest forested bottom-land area in the continental United States, but has undergone widespread loss of forest through conversion to farmland. Restoration of forest functions and values has been a key conservation goal in the LMAV since the 1970s. This study utilizes a partial differential real options...

  7. Privatization costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, I.

    2007-01-01

    The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru

  8. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  9. Report made on behalf of the Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the private bill introducing an ecological planning (n. 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This report of the French National Assembly first outlines and comments the need for a commitment to preserve the planet, which encompasses the struggle against climate change within the frame of the several existing international agreements. The author then stresses the fact that the French commitments must be met, and that the French national policy must be a model in order France to have a bigger weight in international conferences, particularly in the field of greenhouse gas emission reduction. Then, after having recalled the historical background of planning practices in France, and described the various planning instruments ('contrats de Plan Etat-Regions') and institutions (DIACT, previously named DATAR), the author presents an example of ecological land planning: the 'Schema Directeur 2008 de la Region Ile-de-France' (Ile-de-France regional guiding plan for 2008), which defines the future of the Ile-de-France region by 2030 in terms of space planning as well as in terms of social, economical and environmental evolutions. The report then discusses the various aspects of an ecological planning: an environment-friendly energy, an efficient housing policy which is in relationship with transport networks, an economy taking the ecological factor into account. A transcription of the debate of the Commission is given

  10. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  11. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  12. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  13. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  14. Productivity of nonindustrial private forests in western Washington: alternative futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams

    1995-01-01

    Nonindustrial private timberlands in western Washington have high productive potential and contribute harvest amounts somewhat more than proportional to their area. Of all private ownerships they are influenced the most by land use shifts and are affected in important ways by forest practice regulations. About 1 million acres of nonindustrial private timberland contain...

  15. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture...

  16. LAND GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEALS IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It starts with an examination of the recent increase in land investments in ... postcolonial name for the former colonial “native reserves” in which the majority of ... in the north-northwest corner of Zimbabwe would receive a proportion of .... 7 See, for example, Hany Besada, Doing Business in Fragile States: The private sector ...

  17. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  18. Compulsory Acquisition and Urban Land Delivery in Customary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E O Akrofi

    shows that this is a major hindrance to urban land delivery in customary areas. ..... also be acceptable when government assists private companies to acquire land ..... cash from the Land Valuation Board but they cannot conclusively state that ...

  19. Privatization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  20. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  1. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in Senegal work on the land in agriculture. Senegal is a country ... the private sphere of the family, by the head of the household, following the ... Diop Sall led an IDRC-supported study covering Senegal's six ... ment is in the balance, she says.

  2. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Brett J. Butler

    2004-01-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest...

  3. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  4. 43 CFR 19.7 - Private contributions and gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private contributions and gifts. 19.7... National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.7 Private contributions and gifts. (a) The Secretary is... contributions and gifts to be used to further the purposes of the act. The Secretary, under the authorization of...

  5. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  6. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  7. How private are Europe's private forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...

  8. 為環境信託開啟新視野:論私部門從事土地保育的法律工具類型 Broadening the Horizon of Environmental Trust: Legal Instruments of Private Approaches to Land Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳仲嶙 Chung-Lin Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 以民間自己的力量進行棲地之圈護與保育,而非僅寄望政府對管制區域的劃設與執法,在英、美等國已有長久歷史且成績斐然。此一理念在我國雖仍屬起步階段,但經過十多年的醞釀,近年以環境信託為號召的倡議已吸引愈來愈多的關注。本文認為,私部門對土地管領或監護以直接達成土地保育,可作為國土治理的重要環節,而可能運用於取得土地之管理或監護的法律工具繁多,非僅公益信託一端;對相關法律工具更全面的理解,將有助於考量不同脈絡與需求,於個案中尋求適切可行的法律工具,也將有助於在立法政策上進行更完整的思索。 The idea and practices that the private sector devotes to land conservation by directly acquiring and managing land have developed for a long time and reached great achievements in many countries such as the U.K. and the U.S. In recent years, this idea, in the name of the “environment trust,” has drawn more and more attention in Taiwan. This article intends to show that private approaches to land conservation could play a critical role in Taiwan’s environmental governance and argue that the legal instruments to be used in private land conservation are potentially diverse, rather than only a charitable trust can be invoked. The comprehensive understanding and comparison of the potential legal instruments in this article will help practitioners to match adequate instruments to specific real contexts and help the legislature to devise a comprehensive law reform.

  9. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  10. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  11. A sensitivity analysis of "Forests on the Edge: Housing Development on America's Private Forests."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Ralph J. Alig; Lisa G. Mahal; David M. Theobald

    2009-01-01

    The original Forests on the Edge report (FOTE 1) indicated that 44.2 million acres of private forest land was projected to experience substantial increases in residential development in the coming decades. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the FOTE 1 results to four factors: (1) use of updated private land and forest cover spatial data and a revised model...

  12. Forests on the edge: housing development on America’s private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Ralph J. Alig; Mark D. Nelson; David M. Theobald; Mike Eley; Mike Dechter; Mary. Carr

    2005-01-01

    The private working land base of America’s forests is being converted to developed uses, with implications for the condition and management of affected private forests and the watersheds in which they occur. The Forests on the Edge project seeks to improve understanding of the processes and thresholds associated with increases in housing density in private forests and...

  13. Public Land Survey System of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2003) [plss_la_usgs_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  14. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  15. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  16. Women and Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  17. Private pensions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.

    2011-01-01

    Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market

  18. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  19. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  20. 43 CFR 20.401 - Interests in Federal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management. (1) In accordance with 43 U.S.C. 11, employees of the Bureau of Land Management are prohibited from voluntarily acquiring a direct or indirect interest in Federal lands. (2... Survey are prohibited from having any personal or private interests in the lands or mineral wealth of the...

  1. 36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land. (iv) Commercial land. (2) Not later than August 12, 1994, a map or maps displaying the privately... availability of this map or maps in the local newspapers of record. (b) Changes in land category assignment.../grazing land so long as the intended use or development is consistent with the standards in § 292.23 and...

  2. TRENDS OF LAND SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tretiak

    2017-02-01

    strategic development of land reforms and bringing them to a new level - the volume and long-term task that requires scientific substantiation of a rational state land policy. The study justified that the land order - a land system, i.e. a set of measures for the territorial organization of land and other natural resources of the country, land relations, that is determined by system of ownership and use of land, as well as by the principles of organization of territory. In the process of land reform the land system have been changed several times: from the system of administrative-territorial division and respective to it forms of land use and methods of land use (collective and state farms as of year 1990, to the system of the administrative-territorial division with the respective forms of land ownership (state, collective, private and the forms and methods of land use (collective and state farms, collective farms, peasant (farmer farms, subsidiary farms, collective gardens, agricultural research institutions, subsidiary agriculture enterprices, etc. as of 1991 - 2001. As of the 2002 - 2016 , the land order in Ukraine was defined: by the natural-resource-based division and natural-economic-based division (zoning; by the administrative-territorial division; by the forms of land ownership (state, municipal, property of foreign countries, co-ownership, private ownership of individuals and of legal entities; by the forms and methods of land use (for example, in agriculture there were the non-state agricultural enterprises such as collective, cooperative, corporate (agricultural holdings, companies, private-rental farms, subsidiary farms, private (family and individual, state and municipal scientific research and others. Today, due to the decentralization of power, the new model for land order is developed, which will be presented in subsequent studies.

  3. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  4. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  5. Ukraine Agricultural Land Market Formation Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Dankevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical land relations reforming principles were reviewed.Land relations in agriculture transformation process was studied. The land use features were detected and agricultural land use efficiency analysis was conducted.Ukraine land market formation research problems results have been shown. It was established that private land ownership institution ambiguous attitude, rent relations deformation, lack of the property rights ensure mechanism inhibit the land market development. Sociological research of Ukrainian Polesie region to determine the prerequisites for agricultural land marketformation preconditions has been conducted. 787 respondents from Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions were interviewed. Land shares owners age structure, their distribution by education level, their employment, land shares owners and agricultural enterprises executives to the agricultural land sale moratorium cancellation attitudes, land purchase financial resources, directions of Ukrainian Polissya region land shares use, shares owners land issues level of awareness have been determined during the research. Was substantiated that agricultural land market turnover includes not only land sale moratorium cancellation but also the adoption of the legislative framework and the appropriate infrastructure development, one of the key elements of which is land relations regulation specialized state agency – State Land Bank.

  6. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  7. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  8. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...

  9. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  10. Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...

  11. Areva's privatization uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  13. Recreation and protected land resources in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the public and private land and water resources of the United States. Described is use of natural and developed land as recreation resources with an emphasis on nature-based recreation. Also described is land protection through conservation organizations and public funding programs, with an emphasis on protecting private land through...

  14. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  15. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  16. 75 FR 35083 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $14,000. The private land... fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 6 S., R. 22 E, Sec. 29, SW\\1/4\\SW\\1/4\\. The area described contains 40 acres in Lincoln County. The appraised fair market value is $14,000. The public land is...

  17. Income value of private amenities assessed in California oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Oviedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landowners in California were surveyed using a contingent valuation technique to assess its usefulness in estimating the monetary income value of private amenities from their oak woodland properties. Private amenities - such as recreation, scenic beauty and a rural lifestyle - are considered an important influence on rangeland owners, but few studies have attempted to place a monetary income value on them. Landowners were asked to estimate the maximum amount of earnings that they were willing to forgo before selling their property to invest in more commercially profitable, nonagrarian assets, and the proportion of the land price that they thought was explained by private amenities from their land. On average, landowners were willing to pay $54 per acre annually for private amenities, and they attributed 57% of the land price to them. Regression analysis revealed that the landowners' willingness to pay per acre decreased as property size increased. This approach sheds light on how landowners value the benefits of land owner-ship and offers insights for outreach and policy development for privately owned oak woodlands.

  18. Urban land planning in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the capitalization, urban land management and planning routine have been explored. The focus dwells on the praxis and urban planning perspectives as a link and means for realizing the public interest in space and the role of 'urban transplants' as a lever of urban development. It has also been pointed to a certain discrimination of the property status and property rights through the category of 'public interest', which is articulated by way of urban planning. The unfairness of the existing planning system towards private property and 'taxation' of entrepreneurial activities is evident, especially in urban land use i.e. installing the height of the land rent. It is expected that urban planning is competent upon the background of societal democratization, privatization and introduction of market institutions where the perspectives shift towards democratic transformation, the regulatory role and protection of property rights and different actors’ interests in using urban land. The conclusion is that changes in the management of urban land are required with recommendations to consider public-private sector partnerships.

  19. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  20. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  1. Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Mehtabul

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...

  2. REDD+: Ready to engage private investors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda

    2011-11-15

    The prospect of gaining carbon credits by acquiring land to implement REDD+ has caught the eye of the private sector. In many countries, including Papua New Guinea and Republic of Congo, there are reports of a carbon rush. In Mozambique, private investors have expressed an interest in acquiring more than 22 per cent of the country's land — an area that is larger than the 16 per cent of protected areas and that covers 42 per cent of forests — for REDD+. But Mozambique, like many developing countries, is still in the early stages of preparing a REDD+ strategy. Stakeholder consultations are ongoing and the country's REDD+ Working Group is still assessing social, technical and institutional capacities available to deliver REDD+ in a way that helps reduce emissions while also serving environment and social development needs. Encouraging private sector involvement before the country has the right policies and institutions in place to safeguard local environments and people risks undermining the potential of REDD+ for sustainable development.

  3. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  4. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  5. At private den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    ?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...

  6. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  7. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  8. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  9. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  10. Secure quantum private comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  11. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico

  12. A fruitful partnership with the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, D.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's successful partnership with the private sector, in particular with the consulting engineering profession, was highlighted, as an indication of the unprecedented economic activity generated by the public utility throughout its fifty year existence, and most noticeably since the 1960s, when the 'Quiet Revolution' of the Lesage government set the tone for favoring Quebec consulting firms. The Corporation's rapid growth also stimulated the development of the province's private engineering sector, and served as the incentive for electrical equipment manufacturers, and the source of new skills and enterprises emerging from environmental concerns. Special mention was made of the economic advances made by native peoples through their involvement in land clearing, excavation, construction, and provision and transportation of supplies to remote construction sites

  13. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    s adoption appeared legal framework that allows you to create land market. The Land Code of Ukraine solved question of compliance of Constitution of Ukraine, harmony between rules of the Land Code with rules of land laws and decrees of President of Ukraine. It contains rules of directly of direct action, in contrast to the general declarations. The next step in the development of land relations on the period of 2011 - 2020 years became Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine from 26.10.2011 y. № 1072-р «On approval of the action plan for land reform and create a transparent market of agricultural land» This plan envisages simplification of procedures for establishing of the boundaries of settlements, on amendments to some legislative acts of Ukraine concerning the abolition of free land privatization, about analyzing, systematization, organizing, organizing and bringing to a common electronic format of cadastral information; draft resolution on approval of documents regulating the administration of state land cadastre, approval of the Concept of the National Program of land use and protection, ect. One of the final stages of the land reform in agriculture should be the implementation of land market. The historical review of land reform, evaluation of its positive results and negative effects allow asserting, that in general it was carried overly inconsistently and not always scientifically substantiated. Its end result, due to the transition to a market economy, would be sharing and transfer of land to peasants to private ownership, establishment on this basis of market-oriented farms, implementation of fully functioning land market. The intermediate stages (the transfer of land to collective ownership, issuance of land certificates only slowed reform, the numerous laws and regulations confused its essence and caused many irregularities in land relations.

  14. Judicial Protection of Private Property Rights in Ethiopia: Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hailu_Elias_&_Muradu

    “Property Rights Protection and Private Sector Development in Ethiopia” which was .... Even if land has come under public ownership in Ethiopia since 1975, these ... may be capital contributions and in effect, the ownership of the use right over ..... Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) did not hesitate to register this.

  15. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS FOR PRIVATELY OWNED FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, a large proportion of forest biodiversity exists on private land. Legal restrictions are often inadequate to prevent loss of habitat and encourage forest owners to manage areas for biodiversity, especially when these management actions require time, money, and ...

  16. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  17. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  18. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  19. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

  20. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  1. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  2. Privatize Candu (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Thomas.

    1981-01-01

    A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources

  3. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  4. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....

  5. Virtual private network (VPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)

  6. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  7. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A...

  8. A closer look at forests on the edge: future development on private forests in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    Privately owned forests provide many public benefits, including clean water and air, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. By 2030, 44.2 million acres of rural private forest land across the conterminous United States are projected to experience substantial increases in residential development. As housing density increases, the public benefits provided by...

  9. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  10. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  11. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  12. TWRS Privatization Phase 1 Master Site Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARAZIN, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two privatization phases. Phase I, a 'proof of concept' phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary far privatization to proceed. Once established, privatization will be expanded in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. In conjunction with preparation of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP)(RL, 1996), a location was selected for the Phase I demonstration facilities (Shord, 1996). The location selected was the area previously developed and characterized for the Grout Disposal Site, adjoining the 200 East Area. The site is of sufficient size for a Private Contractor (PC) to carry out pretreatment, immobilization, and vitrification operations and possesses the required characteristics (e.g., close to feed tanks) to best facilitate the Phase I operations. This overall long-range Master Site Plan (MSP) has been developed to establish a ''baseline'' for the (TWRS) Privatization Phase I (TPPI) PC Site. The MSP depicts the planned layout for the PC Site along with various interfaces between the site and other Hanford utilities and functions. The complete integration of TPPl MSP with overall Hanford Site planning process will assist in establishing the PC site and the necessary priorities to meet the Hanford cleanup mission. The MSP has been developed systematically into a comprehensive, safe, flexible, logical and cost-effective plan. The general philosophy behind the preparation of a MSP for the TPPl program is that it will serve as a single source documentation of the planning for the development of the TPPl complex. The effort will plan temporary and permanent land use, utilities, and traffic flow for the overall program. It will identify needs

  13. Land expropriation in urbanizing China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Pengyu; Chen, Xiao Qing

    2017-01-01

    A driving force of urban development is “accumulation by dispossession” which occurs through expropriation, privatization, and commodification of land. While the macro theory is now well refined, there is still much we do not know about how the underlying processes occur and how they shape economic...... development and urbanization. In this study, we analyze 2009 survey data of land expropriation cases across 12 Chinese cities, and find that expropriation takes different forms leading to specific outcomes. In half the cases, local governments followed central government policies requiring them to pay...... undermines urban development leading to social instability....

  14. Privatization an a national business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tokarski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.

  15. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  16. LEGEND Analytical Paper 1: Tackling corruption in land governance

    OpenAIRE

    Koechlin, Lucy; Quan, Julian; Mulukutla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    International surveys such as the Global Corruption Barometer and the East African Bribery Index have shown that institutions responsible for land management are among the most corrupt. The paper analyses the causes, types and effects of corruption in land governance and provides evidence-based recommendations on how governments, donors and the private sector can address land corruption, with a particular focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies prevalence of discretionary power within land...

  17. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  18. Role Conflict between Land Allocation and Municipal Functions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of private investors to the use of land on the basis of payment arrangements established by law. ..... compensation in a blocked bank account in the name of the woreda or urban ..... 1, Ethiopian Legal Information Consortium (December. 2013) ...

  19. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  20. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  1. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  2. The politics of land deals : Cargill’s acquisition agendas in Indonesia and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salerno, T.N.

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, a global revaluation of land and agriculture has occurred. Following the convergence of the financial, food, and fuel crises in 2008, public and private sector actors sought control over agricultural land leading to a ‘global land rush’. The land rush is explored here with a

  3. 78 FR 48626 - Private Land Mobile Radio Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Commission's copy contractor, Best Copy and Printing, Inc., 445 12th Street SW., Room CY-B402, Washington, DC... technology on all channels in the 809-824/854-869 MHz band, and permit any technology that meets the technical criteria adopted in the Report and Order, whether or not it is TETRA technology. 2. On September...

  4. Public access to private land in Scotland | Miller | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Public access to private land in Scotland | Miller | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does) but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right.

  6. 77 FR 1661 - Private Land Mobile Radio Service Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Mobile Radio Service Regulations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... airport personnel and airline passengers and can have a negative impact on airport logistics and operations. We seek comment on service and technical rules, and on whether such operations should be...

  7. Approaches to Ecologically Based Forest Management on Private Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kotar

    1997-01-01

    The management philosophy advocated by many public agencies today has become known as "ecosystem management." Under this philosophy, maintenance of ecosystem structure and functions becomes the primary goal, while production of commodities and services is viewed as a useful byproduct. However, any effort to assure sustainability and health of American forests...

  8. Reducing hazardous fuels on nonindustrial private forests: factors influencing landowner decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    In mixed-ownership landscapes, fuels conditions on private lands have implications for fire risk on public lands and vice versa. The success of efforts to mitigate fire risk depends on the extent, efficacy, and coordination of treatments on nearby ownerships. Understanding factors in forest owners' decisions to address the risk of wildland fire is therefore...

  9. 75 FR 39580 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Minidoka County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... the owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $85,200. The private... amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719), at not less than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 6 S... fair market value is $85,200. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the 1985 BLM...

  10. 75 FR 444 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $28,000. The private land surrounding the... not less than the appraised fair market value: Mount Diablo Meridian, T. 27 N., R. 2 W., Sec. 8, lots 3, 4, and 5. The area described contains 70.72 acres in Tehama County and its appraised fair market...

  11. The forest-land owners of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1980-01-01

    Ninety perrent of the commercial forest land in Maryland--2,280,000 acres-is in the hands of some 95,800 owners. Eighty-seven percent of these owners are individuals. The average individual owner is middle aged, well educated, relatively affluent, and from a rural or farm background. Twenty-two percent of the private owners have harvested timber from their land. These...

  12. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  13. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  14. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  15. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby Petersen, Ole

    This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...

  16. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  17. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information

  18. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  19. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  20. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological

  1. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  2. Entrepreneurial Crowdfunding without Private Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...

  3. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...

  4. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  5. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  6. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    numerous pathways of citizen empowerment via the LandSense Engagement Platform, i.e. tools for discussion, online voting collaborative mapping, as well as events linked to public consultation and cooperative planning. In addition to creating tools for data collection, quality assurance, and interaction with the public, the project aims to drive innovation through collaboration with the private sector. LandSense will build an innovation marketplace to attract a vast community of users across numerous disciplines and sectors and boost Europe's role in the business of ground-based monitoring. The anticipated outcomes of LandSense have considerable potential to lower expenditure costs on ground-based data collection and greatly extend the current sources of such data, thereby realizing citizen-powered innovations in the processing chain of LULC monitoring activities both within and beyond Europe.

  7. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  8. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  9. Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Davy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Land uses are what land users do. When spatial planners and other policymakers promote or preclude certain land uses, they interfere with the rights of the users of land, most notably with property. The technical term for what connects land uses, planning, and property is land policy. My paper has a simple message: Good land policy provides a diversity of land uses with plural property relations. No single kind of property rules fits the purposes of all types of land uses. A detached single family house is not like a community garden, nor a highway like a retail chain. Each land use needs its own property “fingerprint.” In everyday practice, private and common property relations often accommodate a wide variety of demands made by the owners and users of land. Many theories of property and land policy, however, fail to recognize plural property relations. The simple message of my paper seeks to reconcile practice and theory. A polyrational theory of planning and property identifies eight types of land uses, each type needing its own kind of property rules. The eight types of land uses are: insular, opportunistic, kinship, collaborative, corporate, structural, container, and environmental uses of land. Polyrational land policy makes sure that desirable land uses are enveloped by appropriate property relations.

  10. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  11. State Government, Its Relationship to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan

    1982-01-01

    In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)

  12. BEFORE THE SALE RIGHTS TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the Ukrainian economy is the formation of a civilized land market. We have to admit that the process of formation of private ownership of land in Ukraine entered into a protracted and uncertain nature. Another introduction in Ukraine of the moratorium on sale of agricultural land due to the lack of resolution of many land issues and not sformovat market infrastructure. Because for the majority of producers of agricultural products the sale of lease rights is an innovation. On the sale of lease rights still they are almost not heard, and especially not used in practice, although the possibility of disposal of property rights, which is owned and leasehold, provided by norms of the Civil code of Ukraine. The issue of land bidding (auction is relevant, because the law of Ukraine set the priority of this method of trading in the sale or lease of land. The auction is open and transparent way the exclusion of land resources of the territorial community, that is, eliminates the influence of corruption and receipt of funds in local budgets adds the ability to invest in the economy of human settlements and agriculture. Among the economic benefits to the development industry is not only improving the investment climate, replenishment of budgets of all levels and approaching the level of EU countries in matters of land. Holding of auctions is very attractive from the point of view of filling the local budget, the sale of land has its advantages, namely a quick and significant revenue. The lease right may be alienated in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine and some legislative solution is not needed. The procedure of land auctions includes the following steps: 1. The organizer of land sales (public authority or local authority determines the list of land plots of state or municipal property and rights thereto, which are exposed at the land auction as separate lots. 2. The decision of a public authority or

  13. Women Using Physics: Alternate Career Paths, The Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit

  14. Trip Generation by Transportation Mode of Private School, Semi-private and Public. Case Study in Merida-Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Petit, A.M.; Diaz Gallardo, M.I.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    The trip generation model (TGM) is the first step in transportation forecasting, this is useful for estimating travel demand because it can predict travel from or to a particular land use. Typically, the analysis focuses in residential trip generation as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, but nonresidential land use suggests others variables. Travel generator poles such as: Private school, Semi-private and Public, have not been studied in Venezuela. The TGMs that shows the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), EE.UU, are used typically and could be not appropriate. By using stepwise regression and transformation of data, high correlation coefficients and substantial improvements in the variability of data from several schools they were found. The trip generation rates (TGRs) by transportation mode: walking, motorcycle, public transport and cars, can be compared and be included in the Ibero-American Network of travel attractors poles. (Author)

  15. Private Property Rights and Compulsory Acquisition Process in Nigeria: the Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde OTUBU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A property right is the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals. In the context of land, it is the authority of the land owner to determine its use or otherwise. On the other hand, compulsory acquisition is the process by which government obtain land from private owners for development purposes in the best interest of the community. These diametrically opposed concepts of property rights and compulsory acquisition is reconciled with the payment of compensation for the extinguishment of private property rights. Implications: In Nigeria, these two concepts have a history of mutual conflicts, resulting in congruous resolutions most of the time, until the introduction of the Land Use Act 1978. With the coming of the Act, the pendulum has tilted in favors of compulsory acquisition to the detriment of private property rights; as compensation fails to assuage the loss occasioned by expropriation. Value: The paper explored the dichotomy between private property rights and compulsory acquisition in Nigeria in the last 50 years and submitted that the process under the Land Use Act changed the equilibrium that existed between these two concepts and produced a skewed and unfavorable result to the detriment of private property rights and National economy. It finally proposed a new equitable arrangement to the quagmire.

  16. SWOT analysis & privatization in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Družić Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the

  17. LAND PRICE MAPPING OF JABODETABEK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisti Madella Elmanisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Land provision is one of the biggest challenges for development in urban area. Most of the available urban land will be the object of speculation to be resold at a higher price when the time is right. In Jabodetabek, where the pace of urban development is faster than other parts of Indonesia, the prices of land show an abnormal increase; they seem to rise too fast. This paper discusses the increasing land prices in Jabodetabek area and argues that the increasing land price has encourages the private developer to bank the land in the area. Based on land price survey in Jabodetabek, urban activity is moving to south Jakarta. The highest land prices were found at East Kuningan, Setiabudi, and South Jakarta. By constrast, the lowest prices were observed in Sumur Batu and Cimuning (Bantar Gebang, Bekasi.It can be concluded that the land price increase also triggered land banking practice in Jabodetabek reaching in total approximately 60% of total area of Jakarta.

  18. Private forest landowners’ harvest and regeneration decisions—effect of proximity to primary wood-using mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuelo Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    Ownership of the U.S. southern timberland rests largely on private forest landowners’ hands. As such, their harvest and regeneration choices can significantly impact the region’s roundwood supply. In most cases, private forest landowners do not consider timber production among the top reasons for holding their lands. However, most research indicates that favorable...

  19. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  20. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private...

  1. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  2. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  3. Business associations and private ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens

    We study the capacity of business associations—private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members—to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework connects the

  4. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  5. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, II, James M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...

  6. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  7. House Calls in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  8. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  9. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...

  10. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  11. STATE PENSION OR PRIVATE PENSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANGRA MĂDĂLINA GIORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of sustainability of the public pension system brings into attention the private pension system, either mandatory (Pillar II or optional (Pillar III. Young employees do not perceive the future in bright colours while seeking solutions to shift from consumption to saving for retirement period. As long as the public pension system is weak, an important milestone for individual savings is represented by the private pension.

  12. Water Rights on Community Lands: LandMark’s Findings from 100 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether national laws acknowledge indigenous peoples and other rural communities in 100 countries as owners of waters that arise within their lands. Results derive from information collected by LandMark to score the legal status of community land tenure. Findings are positive; half of all countries recognize communities as lawful possessors of water on their lands. Three quarters permit communities to manage the distribution and use of water on their lands. While 71 percent of countries declare water to be a public resource, this belies the substantial existence of privately owned water. In 29 percent of countries, private water is an identified legal category, and in many other countries obtainable rights to water are sufficiently substantial to imply lawful possession. Communities are beneficiaries mainly where customary rights are accorded status as property rights, or where ownership of public lands and water are devolved to rural collectives. However, opposite trends of nationalization and regulation of water suggest that while legal recognition of community land ownership may rise in the future, this will not necessarily include waters on the land. Irrespective of tenure, rural communities in 72 of 77 countries (93.5 percent are legally assured access to water for domestic purposes. This is consistent with the rising definition of safe drinking water as a human right, although access does not necessarily come free of cost.

  13. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  14. Business-State Relations in the Differentiated Private Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines private businesses' access to land and capital in Vietnam. It finds that the allocation of these resources to private firms is still excessively state-driven and personalised, and examines the links that business people of different ethnical and regional backgrounds...... have with the state and how this facilitates or hinders their access to land and capital. Lacking relationships with the state may have profound consequences for unconnected private enterprises, which are accordingly subject to uneven competition from connected ones. The paper suggests that private...... businesses' uneven opportunities are basically a consequence of the general history of the country and the role that individual business people have played in it, in such respects as having had former state-sector employment, party membership, the 'side' they were on before and during the Vietnam War etc...

  15. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  16. From the Private to the Public to the Private?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    A central assumption in much contemporary scholarship is that a central shift has taken place over the course of the last four decades: a shift from a world largely centered on public authority to a world that is increasingly dominated by private authority. The central expression of this shift...... is seen to be a concurring move from public to private law and thus from legislation to contract as the central legal instrument structuring economic as well as other social processes. While developments in this direction can certainly be observed, this article provides a more nuanced perspective....... Outlining a long-term historical perspective, this article reconstructs the manifold and volatile dynamic between institutionalized forms of public and private authority. It does soon the basis of the argument that, in the course of this evolutionary process, the very function and meaning of both public...

  17. Three-dimensional woody vegetation structure across different land-use types and land-use intensities in a semi-arid savanna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Factors influencing woody savanna vegetation structure across a land-use gradient of intensity (highly and lightly utilized communal rangeland) and type (national protected area, private game reserve and communal rangelands) were investigated. Small...

  18. Energy privatization: sensitivities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy

    1997-12-31

    It is a commonly held belief at present that privatization will improve the efficiency of the state run energy sector, and benefit customers as well as the new owners, and the government selling the industry. Experience so far has been in well run Western economies, in particular in the UK, and even here many mistakes have been made, leading to increasingly strong intervention by regulators. In developing countries, where corruption is pervasive, efficient regulation is unlikely. Thus, privatisation may prove to be far worse for the consumer than the original state monopoly. The drive for privatization appears to be part ideological, part greed, as far as developing countries are considered. Certainly, political reform is needed before privatization can work in favour of the consumer. Examples are given from the UK electricity, gas, coal and rail industries.

  19. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    -quality regional land cover maps on a regular basis that are consistent and continuous across the landscape. The system is being designed to facilitate improved policy, planning, and decision making by a wide range of users (such as government agencies, local community groups, non-profit organizations, and the private sector).

  20. DESIGNING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR BONTANG INDUSTRIAL ESTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjie Pamungkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries.  The estate will need investment for about IDR. 2.27 Trillion while the total annual local government budget is near to IDR 2 Trillion. Moreover, the estate has to be operated in a business manner while the local government officers have a culture in non-profit organisation as part of bureaucracy. However, the BIE feasibility study 2013 has determined that the estate will generate economic multipliers boosting the city development.  Therefore, a partnership among government and private parties should be determined and accommodated in a proper cooperation arrangement. To design the partnership, we review literature, interview related private parties and confirm opinions of the private parties to the governments. A content analysis was used to assess information from the interviews. Considering the final outputs, BIE should be organised by a pure private enterprise or Ltd. to ensure the economic viable of the estate. The Ltd. is a partnership among the government and private parties via shareholders. The government can still hold a majority share with special arrangement in investment scheme. For the initial investments, the government can use its assets valued as 51% of total share while private parties can inject cash money equal to 49% of the total.  With this capital arrangement, the estate can be operated with initial investment for about IDR. 267.11 Billion on 244.97 Ha land. This initial investment can be profitable with IDR. 650 Billion NPV, 19.93% IRR and 13.95 year PP.Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries.

  1. Private equity and public-to-private transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhat considerations lie behind the decision to mount a management buy-out of a publicly listed firm, and should third party investors be involved? Indeed, does the involvement of private equity investors actually aid company performance after a deal is done?

  2. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine

  3. Privately issued money reduces GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...

  4. The Impunity of Private Authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2007-01-01

    . It begins by pointing to the tension involved in any effort to hold an authority (private or public) accountable, namely the tension between the centrality of acceptance for authority and accountability measures that necessarily involve contestation. It then proceeds to analyse this tension in the case...... of private security companies (PSCs). PSCs have become authorities in their own right in the security sphere. This has raised the question of their accountability and also resulted in considerable efforts to improve the accountability of the firms. This paper looks at why these efforts bear so little fruit...

  5. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  6. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  7. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  8. Pemex sets petchem privatization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.

    1993-01-01

    Last week, Mexico's state-owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), was scheduled to unveil plans for the sale of basic petrochemical plants. The first privatization package - Pemex ammonia plants at Cosoleacaque and Camargo - will involve the sale of securities on the Mexican Stock Exchange, allowing a large number of Mexican investors to acquire parts of the business

  9. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and

  10. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  11. Contemporary Public-private Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical and...

  12. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.

  13. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  14. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  15. Private lenders’ demand for audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baylis, R.M.; Burnap, P.; Clatworthy, M.A.; Gad, Mahmoud; Pong, C.K.M.

    We study clauses in private lending agreements requiring auditors to assure lenders of borrowers’ compliance with financial covenants. Auditors are required under general purpose financial reporting to review covenant compliance. However, by informing lenders directly that they have no knowledge of

  16. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  17. Security for Virtual Private Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Nicoleta Iacob

    2015-01-01

    Network security must be a permanent concern for every company, given the fact that threats are evolving today more rapidly than in the past. This paper contains a general classification of cryptographic algorithms used in today networks and presents an implementation of virtual private networks using one of the most secure methods - digital certificates authentication.

  18. The Problem of Private Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.

  19. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  20. Public interests in private hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, W.; Poort, J.; Schuurman, A.

    2003-03-01

    In this study several actual problems with respect to privatization in the Netherlands are discussed, focusing on the production and distribution of electricity, the harbour in Rotterdam and the airport Schiphol, the railway sector, and the waste management and processing sector. For each sector it is discussed what level of government and market involvement is required to give the best results [nl

  1. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  2. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  3. Private governance of ocean resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available

  4. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  5. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibulnikova, M R; Pogharnitskaya, O V; Strelnikova, A B

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners

  6. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Caldarone, Giorgio; Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Ennaanay, Driss; Hannahs, Neil; Mendoza, Guillermo; Polasky, Stephen; Wolny, Stacie; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystem-service values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O’ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environment...

  7. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1997-01-01

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities

  8. The Year in Forestry State and Private Forestry in the Northeast and Midwest Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    The geographic region we call the Northeast and Midwest stretches from Maine to Minnesota, south to Missouri, and east to Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nearly half of the Nation's population lives here on slightly less than 20 percent of the Nation's land area. Representing one of the largest concentrations of privately owned forests in the world,...

  9. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  10. Production Economics of Private Forestry: A Comparison of Industrial and Nonindustrial Forest Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Newman; David N. Wear

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the producrion behavior of industrial and nonindustrial private forestland owners in the southeastern U.S. using a restricted profit function. Profits are modeled as a function of two outputs, sawtimber and pulpwood. one variable input, regeneration effort. and two quasi-fixed inputs, land and growing stock. Although an identical profit function is...

  11. Exploring co-investments in sustainable land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support

  12. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  13. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  14. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  15. Private Practice Is Alive and Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Arnold M.

    1976-01-01

    Is private practice a superior service delivery mechanism? The author contends that, in affording the client his choice of a helper, private practice embodies the basic values of social work and stimulates workers to become more responsible and knowledgeable.

  16. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  17. Privatization, political risk and stock market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test which gradually resolves uncertainty

  18. Offentlig privat samarbejde i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...

  19. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...

  20. Land consolidation and the expansion of game farming in South Africa: Impacts on farm dwellers' livelihoods and rights to land in the Eastern Cape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrew, N.; Brandt, F.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Mkhize, M.; Snijders, D.; Evers, S.J.T.M.; Seagle, C.; Krijtenburg, F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which two forms of wildlife-based tourism in South Africa, hunting farms and private luxury game reserves, have accelerated land consolidation and shifting land use and access patterns. It also shows that the spread of game farming and wildlife-based tourism is

  1. Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...

  2. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  3. Private school location and neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Barrow

    2002-01-01

    Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...

  4. Using biodiversity stewardship as a means to secure the natural wild values on communal land in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McCann; Roelie Kloppers; Andrew Venter

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is one of the most biodiversity-rich countries in the world, with much valuable biodiversity situated on a range of different land tenure types, including state, private and communal land. Despite this, these wild lands are being lost at an unprecedented rate, with the resultant loss of natural areas and associated ecosystem services. The challenge lies in...

  5. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  6. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  7. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  8. Impact of Rainfall, Sales Method, and Time on Land Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...

  9. European Private Law - Survey 1998-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    From its conception, the European Review of Private Law has tried, sometimes in vain, to publish Chronicles (‘Chroniques’) or Surveys of the main areas of private law: Contract, Inheritance, Property, Tort, etc. The idea of these Chronicles or Surveys is that, within a specific area of private

  10. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...

  11. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  12. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  13. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  14. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  15. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  16. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  17. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  18. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  19. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  20. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)

  1. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  2. Trade-Offs in Multi-Purpose Land Use under Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. G. Vlek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land provides a host of ecosystem services, of which the provisioning services are often considered paramount. As the demand for agricultural products multiplies, other ecosystem services are being degraded or lost entirely. Finding a sustainable trade-off between food production and one or more of other ecosystem services, given the variety of stakeholders, is a matter of optimizing land use in a dynamic and complex socio-ecological system. Land degradation reduces our options to meet both food demands and environmental needs. In order to illustrate this trade-off dilemma, four representative services, carbon sinks, water storage, biodiversity, and space for urbanization, are discussed here based on a review of contemporary literature that cuts across the domain of ecosystem services that are provided by land. Agricultural research will have to expand its focus from the field to the landscape level and in the process examine the cost of production that internalizes environmental costs. In some situations, the public cost of agriculture in marginal environments outweighs the private gains, even with the best technologies in place. Land use and city planners will increasingly have to address the cost of occupying productive agricultural land or the conversion of natural habitats. Landscape designs and urban planning should aim for the preservation of agricultural land and the integrated management of land resources by closing water and nutrient cycles, and by restoring biodiversity.

  3. Land, ecology, and democracy. A twenty-first century view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Julianne Lutz; Freyfogle, Eric T; Sullivan, William C

    2006-01-01

    Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by the application of lessons drawn from ecological research. We identify five such lessons and apply them in six ways to the institution of private-property rights in nature--the main legal institution that allocates and perpetuates power over land--and to modern assumptions about liberal individualism and rights to health. We conclude that people can live well on land, promoting both human and land health, only in governmental forms engaging more citizens more deliberatively than now typical even in democracies. Implications for political institutions and human welfare are discussed under conditions of globalizing interdependence.

  4. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual T. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.

  5. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  6. Conditions for successful land reform in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Land reform has traditionally had two objectives: equity and productivity. Food insecurity and the need for agriculture to contribute to development emphasise the need to maintain and improve productivity while improving equitability. Land must foster production and agriculture must attract good human material. The following areas need to be considered in policy formulation and delivery: an effective institutional framework involving all the relevant public and private bodies; efficient fiscal planning is essential; potentially successful farmers must be selected and given special support, including extension and adult education; complementary services and infrastructure are needed; prioritisation of functions and land tenure reform is often necessary. In addition, international agricultural markets are very important for Africa.  Wealthy nations should cease trade-distorting protection of their own farmers.

  7. The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe): a decision support system for comprehensive screening of local land-use development proposals and comparative evaluation of proposed land-use plans

    OpenAIRE

    K P White; A P Sage; F A Rodammer; C T Peters

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe) is a decision support system which can provide assistance to local planning agencies in selecting land-development alternatives or in formulating land-use plans. EASe offers a comprehensive and consistent procedure for rating either a development proposal or a proposed plan. This procedure is based upon qualitative assessments of the impact of developments or plans on the natural environment, zoning and land use. public and private services, transport...

  8. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  9. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  10. Land market feedbacks can undermine biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C; Kareiva, Peter; Sanchirico, James N

    2006-04-04

    The full or partial purchase of land has become a cornerstone of efforts to conserve biodiversity in countries with strong private property rights. Methods used to target areas for acquisition typically ignore land market dynamics. We show how conservation purchases affect land prices and generate feedbacks that can undermine conservation goals, either by displacing development toward biologically valuable areas or by accelerating its pace. The impact of these market feedbacks on the effectiveness of conservation depends on the ecological value of land outside nature reserves. Traditional, noneconomic approaches to site prioritization should perform adequately in places where land outside reserves supports little biodiversity. However, these approaches will perform poorly in locations where the countryside surrounding reserves is important for species' persistence. Conservation investments can sometimes even be counterproductive, condemning more species than they save. Conservation is most likely to be compromised in the absence of accurate information on species distributions, which provides a strong argument for improving inventories of biodiversity. Accounting for land market dynamics in conservation planning is crucial for making smart investment decisions.

  11. Syntetiske pyrethroider i private hjem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2015-01-01

    A number of different methods are tested to elucidate the accumulation of synthetic pyrethroids in private homes. When the target pest is resistant, there is a potential risk that persistent synthetic pyrethroids accumulate because of repeated treatments. The highest residue found was 8260 µg lam...... lambda-cyhalothrin in a vacuum-cleaner sample (vacuumed for 10 minutes) and 1252 µg lambda-cyhalothrin in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample. Similar data for deltamethrin was 805 µg in a vacuum-cleaner sample and 806 µg in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample....

  12. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  13. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  14. Inviting In the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  15. Buying land for conservation purposes in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lucia Perez-Weil; Juan Carlos G. Bravo

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Jaguar Reserve is 50,000 acres and one of the largest privately owned wildlife preserves in Sonora. Buying land in remote parts of Sonora takes special knowledge as ownership rules may not be clear and boundaries may not be defined in the records. There are complex legal procedures to guarantee ownership in which letters of intent play a crucial role, and...

  16. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  18. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of $5,600. DATES... fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public land is identified as...

  19. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  20. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  1. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Privatization and Political Power in Representative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes...... it important to study the consequences of this development. In the present article, privatization is understood as the use of private service providers to provide services and focus is on what privatization means for the power of local political players. The point of departure is an expectation that a high...... degree of privatization can have far-reaching consequences for the distribution of local political power. This is illustrated empirically by a questionnaire survey of 896 municipal leaders. The main findings are that the local political actors generally have less power in municipalities with high degrees...

  3. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  4. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  5. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  6. PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...

  7. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  8. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  9. The emergence of integrated private reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Jill; Solomon, A.; Norton, S. D.; Joseph, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Private social and environmental reporting (SER) has grown considerably in recent years, consistent with a rise in institutional investor engagement and dialogue with investee companies. We interpret the emergence of integrated private reporting through the lens of institutional logics. We frame the emergence of integrated private reporting as a merging of two hitherto separate and possibly rival institutional logics.\\ud Methodology/Approach: We interviewed 19 companies listed on the...

  10. Review of Private Sector Personnel Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor

  11. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  12. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....

  13. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  14. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  15. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation areas, both public and private, are critical tools to protect biodiversity and deliver important ecosystem services (ES) to society. Although societal benefits from such ES are increasingly used to promote public support of conservation, the number of beneficiaries, their identity, and the magnitude of benefits are largely unknown for the vast majority of conservation areas in the United States public-private conservation network. The location of conservation areas in relation to people strongly influences the direction and magnitude of ES flows as well as the identity of beneficiaries. We analyzed benefit zones, the areas to which selected ES could be conveyed to beneficiaries, to assess who benefits from a typical conservation network. Better knowledge of ES flows and beneficiaries will help land conservationists make a stronger case for the broad collateral benefits of conservation and help to address issues of social-environmental justice. To evaluate who benefits the most from the current public-private conservation network, we delineated the benefit zones for local ES (within 16 km) that are conveyed along hydrological paths from public (federal and state) and private (easements) conservation lands in the states of North Carolina and Virginia, USA. We also discuss the challenges and demonstrate an approach for delineating nonhydrological benefits that are passively conveyed to beneficiaries. We mapped and compared the geographic distribution of benefit zones within and among conservation area types. We further compared beneficiary demographics across benefit zones of the conservation area types and found that hydrological benefit zones of federal protected areas encompass disproportionately fewer minority beneficiaries compared to statewide demographic patterns. In contrast, benefit zones of state protected areas and private easements encompassed a much greater proportion of minority beneficiaries (~22–25%). Benefit zones associated with

  16. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  17. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  18. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  19. Ubuntu and the quest for land reform in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Holtzhausen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I ask the question how we can relate ubuntu to South African land reform from a practical-theological point of view. I will look at researchers� efforts to understand ubuntu and how these efforts do and do not integrate into the conversation around land reform.Referring to land reform, I will focus on two private narratives as opposed to dominant public narratives. An in-depth discussion on legislation and research on perspectives of land ownership therefore falls outside of the ambit of this article. In conclusion, I will argue that the relationship between a landowner and his or her dispossessed coworkers can be the fertile soil which ubuntu requires to find sustainable local answers to land reform.

  20. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... rate based on the type of POV you actually use (privately owned airplane, privately owned automobile... HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) 0 29. The authority citation for 41...

  1. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  2. Interests and Advantages of the Private Sector in the State-Private Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Brailovskiy Ilya A.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of interests that stimulate a private partner to joint activity with the state and advantages they obtain from realisation of projects of the state-private partnership (SPP). It marks out main features and fields of application of the state-private partnership. It underlines that an important prerequisite for motivation of the private sector to enter into partnership relations with the state is observance of clear law competent formal rules in the institutio...

  3. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  4. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  5. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  6. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  7. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  8. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  9. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  10. PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION AND FORMATION LAND OF AVIATION TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovska I. O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Independent Ukraine had 50 permanently operating airports in 1991. Nowdays there are currently only 20 operating airports in Ukraine, 2/3 of which require reconstruction and substantial technical re-equipment. Without proper investment, Ukraine is able to lose its status as a transit state, as it is unable to recover its transport infrastructure independently. In connection with this, the international experience of the development of airports, particularly in the Baltic States, Georgia, Norway, Poland, deserves special attention. There are the involvement of foreign companies in the management and reconstruction of airports, especially for the development of tourism and recreation, the coordination of the network of airports with the creation of funds for the development of air routes, the implementation of integrated airport development programs, reducing the base of aviation fees due to the growth of non-aviation revenue, increasing competition in the air transport market through the successful functioning of not only national carriers, but also low-cost carriers. The land-resource potential of different types of transport is the basis of development of the transport system of the country, and also the spatial base. Regulation of land use are conducted depend on the main purpose of the land. A feature of aviation land use transport is the concentration on a small area of land of a significant number of objects and structures of various functional purposes, which provide the work of aviation transport, and require appropriate planning of the territories of airfields and airports. Proceeding from the fact that the airfield belongs to strategic objects, and the airport terminal is considered the object of investment, the separation of land of aviation transport by ownership (state, communal, private and types of use (concession, rent, superficiencies, servitude are rather complex and extremely important task of land management of the respective

  11. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  12. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  13. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  14. Children's Satisfaction with Private Music Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Nora A.; Shnek, Zachary M.; Lauby, Jennifer L.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    2001-01-01

    Determines the language children use to express their feelings of satisfaction with private music lessons. Offers a list of statements from children about private music lessons to be used to assess those feelings. Discusses the effects of age, gender, and musical instruments on satisfaction for music educators. Includes references. (DAJ)

  15. Hospital sector: further trends in privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel

    2009-01-01

    Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...

  16. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C... final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. Section 47134 establishes...

  17. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. 47134. The... application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. 47134 establishes an airport...

  18. PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES: ETHICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    The section on ethics covers the question “ What is mercenaries?, whether private contractors can be ethical, regulating private militaries, bringing just war theory into step with shifts in warfare proper, and efforts to point out the social responsibilities that now seem to accrue. The authors covering policies and law primarily ...

  19. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  20. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  1. Reputational Sanctions in Private and Public Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. van Erp (Judith)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses how reputation functions as a mechanism for social control in private and public regulation. It discusses three cases of private markets where reputation is a powerful and effective mechanism for social control. From the case studies, four characteristics of markets

  2. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  3. Privatization and Economic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...

  4. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  5. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2010-N-11] Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal... Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is proposing to issue a Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee... fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse to liquidity, affordability and stability in the housing...

  6. Private Source Funding for FCS Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchip, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Financial difficulties have prompted institutions of higher education to explore private sources of funding. In recent years, public institutions have significantly increased their focus on private giving, with several campaigns having more than $1 billion as a goal. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be actively involved in…

  7. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  8. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  9. Applied research and development private sector accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Erickson, M.D.; Zielke, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector

  10. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  11. Private Schooling and Productivity in Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Juan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the debate between equity theorists (Adam Swift and Harry Brighouse) and adequacy theorists (Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz) over elite private schooling and productivity. It challenges the view, presupposed but never defended by adequacy theorists, that private schools can be justified on social productivity grounds, that…

  12. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs and...) or (d), preliminary proposals for financing submitted by private applicants shall be accompanied by... Environmental Examination. The Threshold Decision shall be made by the Mission Director for the country to which...

  13. Local government grants for private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Orlikowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the educational grants from budget of local government. Author presented procedures about establish private schools and educational institutions and explained selected concepts about units of education. The article presents selected judgment from SN and NSA in disputes about grants for private schools.

  14. On Public–private Partnership Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Greve, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Private finance-based infrastructure public–private partnerships (P3s) are globally popular, including renewed interest in the United States, but their performance remains contested. This article explores the meaning of P3 and the notion of P3 success, and points to multiple interpretations of both...

  15. Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard, Tina

    I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...

  16. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  17. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  18. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  19. The right of servitude between public interest and undisturbed use of private property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petovar Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For obtaining the land in order to build the magistral pipeline a specific form of land expropriation is applied, namely the Right of servitude. The Right of servitude can be realized on the basis of established public interest, which can be defined according to the spatial plan of the relevant area. The Right of servitude is analyzed from the point of its influence on the respect of basic human rights of property owners to enjoy their property in safety and without disturbance. Current legal framework in Serbia that regulates procedures for acquiring land for the purpose of public interest allows for breach of private property rights. There is a mutual inconsistency between a number of decrees that regulate property rights for large infrastructural development projects. A specific, and possibly a greater problem, is the status of the local population, the land owner and other real estate. It concerns their awareness of their private and individual rights, as well as technical and other legal standards, which must be applied during the preparation, construction and working stages of an energy facility. Applying the Right of servitude as a way to acquire land for construction of the Pipeline, there is direct breach of the basic human right as stated in the first Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, namely that ‘every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions’ (Article 1, Protocol 1. The Right of servitude allows the investor to use ‘public interest’ as a way of gaining access to another’s land, and under better financial conditions than if he were to apply permanent expropriation. While the owner retains his/her ownership of the land, inconvenienced by numerous limitations of its use, usability and market value of the land becomes substantially reduced.

  20. The Prospects for Development of the Agricultural Land Market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Nina B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the basic aspects of establishment and development of the land market. A mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate and a model of an agricultural land market have been proposed. It has been specified that the most important component on formation of land market in our State is to work to change public opinion, people attitudes regarding the private ownership of land and deals with it. The proposed mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate has not only economic, but also social significance, which, above all, is that securing against the leasehold estate does not change the owner of the land, and, consequently, does not threaten villagers with dispossession of land. With introduction of the presented model of an agricultural land market it can be argued that such a market is an open, complex system based on the interaction between its actors over the use, disposal and market turnover of agricultural lands.

  1. Stockholders' interests in the energy system privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the benefits and objectives of competition and privatization in the power sector. The reasons for electric utility privatization are numerous and vary from country to country. Some of the more evident reasons include the following: - Raising revenues for the state through asset sales; - Acquiring investment capital; - Improving managerial performance; - Moving toward market-determined prices; - Technology transfer; - Reducing the frequency of power shortages; - Reducing the cost of electricity to consumers through efficiency gain; - Taking advantage of creating national and regional power grids. Several objectives commonly associated with privatization, includes: - Improving access to private capital resources for the rehabilitation, replacement and eventual expansion of the electric power infrastructure; - Improving access to new technology and management practices designed to improve the performance of the sector; - Reducing corruption through the introduction of commercial practices which will lead to strengthened collections, transparent and accountable delivery of electricity and reduced political interference in commercial operations; - Improving customer service and customer choice through continued reform of the power sector as a result of innovation and reform introduced by the new owners; - Human resources development; - Improving environmental performance . The paper addresses the following items: - Some elements of a successful power sector privatization; - Stockholders' position versus privatization in Romania; - Managing 'The Change'; - Power sector privatization in Romania. The paper demonstrates that the power sector privatization is a key condition for EU's support for Romania accession. The international organization push towards this essential economic change, which will guarantee a real competition and a liberalized energy market in facto. Strategic privatization can be a positive step in improving energy service and

  2. Private sector approaches to workforce enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Wayne R

    2010-06-01

    This paper addresses the private practice model of dental care delivery in the US. The great majority of dental care services are delivered through this model and thus changes in the model represent a means to substantially change the supply and availability of dental services. The two main forces that change how private practices function are broad economic factors, which alter the demand for dental care and innovations in practice structure and function which alter the supply and cost of services. Economics has long recognized that although there are private market solutions for many issues, not all problems can be addressed through this model. The private practice of dentistry is a private market solution that works for a substantial share of the market. However, the private market may not work to resolve all issues associated with access and utilization. Solutions for some problems call for creative private - public arrangements - another form of innovation; and market-based solutions may not be feasible for each and every problem. This paper discusses these economic factors and innovation as they relate to the private practice of dentistry, with special emphasis on those elements that have increased the capacity of the dental practice to offer services to those with limited means to access fee-based care. Innovations are frequently described as new care delivery models or new workforce models. However, innovation can occur on an ongoing and regular basis as dental practices examine new ways to combine capital and human resources and to leverage the education and skill of the dentists to a greater number of patients. Innovation occurs within a market context as the current and projected economic returns reward the innovation. Innovation can also occur through private-public arrangements. There are indications of available capacity within the existing delivery system to expand service delivery. The Michigan Medicaid Healthy Kids Dental program is discussed as

  3. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  4. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    on fieldwork in a village in the new lands; it is inhabited by graduates who have received land under the Mubarak Project. The analysis shows that they move there in hope of making a better life especially for their children. Nevertheless, the settlers have difficulties building a sense of belonging to the new....... This paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based...

  5. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  6. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  7. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  8. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  9. International Land Coalition: Women's access to land

    OpenAIRE

    International Land Coalition (ILC)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Land Coalition (ILC) started as the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty. This is a global alliance of intergovernmental, governmental and civil-society organizations committed to rural poverty eradication. On their website, (on the left click on documents) the link presents a list of resources related to the role of women and access to land. There are case studies and country reports in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Nepal, as wel...

  10. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  11. The privatization mosaic: International power development agendas and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the international trend toward private ownership of state-owned power production, transmission and distribution systems. The topics of the article include trends towards private investment in electric power systems, alternative opportunities for private sector investment, investor objectives in private power development and utility privatization, and potential investors in overseas projects

  12. The privately owned timber resources of western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1983-01-01

    Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...

  13. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... land-based livelihoods. The paper presents an empirical case study of the village of Na Nhang Neua in Nambak District, Luang Prabang Province, using a mixed methods approach to investigate the positive and negative implications for household agricultural strategies, income generation and food security...

  14. Land use/land cover in Swisher County and Deaf Smith County locations, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Agriculture is the major land use/land cover in the Swisher and Deaf Smith County locations. Most of the agricultural land is irrigated. Furrow, center pivot, and lateral-wheel irrigation systems are in common use. Rangeland is the second most abundant land use/land cover; it is typically associated with stream valleys and playas. The rangeland supports cattle, which are an important source of income. The main urban areas in or near the locations are Tulia and Happy, in Swisher County, and Hereford and Vega, in Deaf Smith County. Most of the land within the locations is privately owned - corporate and government ownership is extremely limited - and large portions are currently under lease for oil exploration. County and regional agencies have no authority to regulate land-use patterns in the locations, although the Panhandle Regional Planning Commission can provide guidance to local jurisdictions. Land use within the corporate limits and extraterritorial jurisdictions of Tulia and Hereford is controlled by zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations. According to projections for the locations, agriculture will remain the major land use in the foreseeable future. Dryland farming and rangeland will become more prevalent as irrigation costs increase and marginal areas are taken out of production

  15. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  16. Creating a commodified wilderness: Tourism, private game farming, and 'third nature' landscapes in KwaZulu-Natal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, S.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Brakel, L.; Kolk, A.; Lukhozi, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores contemporary cultural geographies and underlying histories of change on private land in post-apartheid South Africa. Its focus is the expansion of wildlife-based tourism and related forms of commodified wilderness consumption in KwaZulu-Natal province. The article explores the

  17. Climate Change Education: Engaging Family Private Forest Owners on Issues Related to Climate Change: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexandra S.; Feder, Michael; Storksdieck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The forested land in the United States is an asset that is owned and managed not only by federal, state, and local governments, but also by families and other private groups, including timber investment management organizations and real estate investment trusts. The more than 10 million family forestland owners manage the largest percentage of…

  18. Project Selection and Transparency Factors in Housing Public-Private Partnerships in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of Public-Private Partners (PPPs in housing provisioning is on the increase across the world. However, there is a paucity of empirical studies on the specific factors considered at the initiation, and measures taken to ensure transparency at the procurement stages, of PPP housing projects. This study examined project selection factors and transparency measures in PPP housing projects using data sourced from oral interviews with 27 experts in nine PPP housing schemes in Nigeria. Results of the content analysis revealed that the top two selection factors considered by both the public and private sector operators of PPP housing projects in Nigeria are the availability of land and viability of the funding arrangements. Whereas the public-sector partners also consider the availability of competent private sector to deliver the projects, the private developers are concerned with the location of proposed projects. It was also found that the two key measures taken to ensure transparency at the procurement stage of the projects are transparent and competitive bidding and open advertisements of tender opportunities. These imply that before embarking on PPP housing projects, operators should ensure that there is available land in good locations, sound funding arrangements, and measures for achieving transparency in the schemes.

  19. Motivations to leave coarse woody debris in private forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik; Andersen, Anne Sofie Kirkegaard

    2014-01-01

    costs and benefits incurred? Based on the theory of planned behaviour, the aim of this study is to investigate forest owners’ motivation to integrate nature concerns in forest management. As criteria for choosing a relevant case, we looked for a measure that has a potential to significantly improve...... biodiversity, has political attention, is tangible, constitutes something any forest owner can do even on a small area of land, involves potential trade-offs with other management goals, and, preferably something that most forest owners and their personal network would have an opinion about.......Based on these criteria, we selected the case of leaving coarse woody debris on the forest floor. A survey questionnaire was designed and sent to 1434 private forest owners in Denmark, 686 of whom answered. The presentation includes the first results of the analysis....

  20. Bounds on the sample complexity for private learning and private data release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beime, Amos [BEN-GURION UNIV.; Nissim, Kobbi [BEN-GURION UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

  1. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  2. Housing provision in the Kathmandu Valley: Public agency and private sector initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The haphazard growth of settlements in the Kathmandu Valley is the result of rapid urbanisation, growing poverty, the high cost of land and construction, and dependence on the traditional practice of owner-built housing. This growth has resulted in huge housing deficits and poor home conditions. The government’s implementation of the site and services programme as well as land-pooling projects in the 1970s and 1980s benefitted local landowners, but private-sector developments in the 1990s and 2000s were only accessible to upper-middle and high-income groups. This has forced the urban poor and economically disadvantaged groups to live in slum and squatter developments. Planned development organisation has been weak in terms of physical layout, the creation of socialisation opportunities and a sense of community, and in achieving a desirable population density. The existing legal and institutional framework is inadequate and ineffective for addressing these issues. To fill the gap between the efforts of the public and private sectors and meet the high demands for housing in the valley, clear-cut policies and planning are required. This must be done in order to link housing supply with demand and to ensure the participation of various public and private-sector agencies in land-development and housing projects that will incorporate the urban poor. Local municipalities should also be equipped for managing local resources, coordinating the agencies involved and monitoring development.

  3. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Nolan, Bernard T; Flory, Abigail R; DellaValle, Curt T; Ward, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square=0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square=0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Flory, Abigail R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Ward, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square = 0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square = 0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort.

  5. REFORMING OF LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER AUTHORITY OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the

  6. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months

  7. The Lure of the Private Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag

    2017-01-01

    colleagues -- who now work as lobbyists -- are. I document that when private sector career prospects improve, so does the probability that the average US senator leaves office to take a lobbying job. There is no effect immediately before a senator's pension scheme improves, and senators, who retire from...... working life after Congress or are elected to a safe seat, are unaffected by private sector career prospects. This indicates that senators react to opportunity costs associated with being in office. Finally, while the results suggest that certain ideological types are more attracted by private sector...

  8. Public-private partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bruun, Peter

    2004-01-01

    element of this project, this report presents an inventory of public-private partnerships in Denmark. More specifically, it provides an inventory of past, present and proposed research projects related to food quality and food safety involving both public and private partners. Furthermore it points...... to a number of opportunities for developing public-private partnerships.......Food safety and food quality are issues that are high on the public agenda. To ensure that consumers are able to buy and consume safe and high quality foods is not a trivial matter. It involves numerous actors in the food chain, often from several countries as many food products cross national...

  9. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  10. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  11. an examination of risk allocation preferences in public-private

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikara Onda

    tension in many negotiations between the public and private sector in PPPs ... compensates for higher cost of capital used by private sector partners .... this study, both the public sector client and private sector contractor should share the risks.

  12. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  13. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate-concentration data are used in conjunction with land-use and land-cover data to estimate median nitrate concentrations in groundwater underlying the New Jersey (NJ) Highlands Region. Sources of data on nitrate in 19,670 groundwater samples are from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the NJ Private Well Testing Act (PWTA).

  14. Current challenges and realities for forest-based businesses adjacent to public lands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Davis; Jesse Abrams; Eric M. White; Cassandra Moseley

    2018-01-01

    Through contracting and timber sales, the private sector is engaged in management of national forest lands and local community economies in the United States. But there is little recent research about current relationships between these lands and timber purchasers that could better inform future timber and biomass sale and business assistance policies and programs. We...

  15. Prognostic framing of stakeholders' subjectivities: A case of all-terrain vehicle management on state public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Leif. DeVaney

    2012-01-01

    Management of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use on Minnesota state forest lands has a contentious history and land managers are caught between ATV riders, nonmotorized recreationists, private landowners, and environmental advocates. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of framing distinct perspectives about ATV management on Minnesota state public forests,...

  16. The legacy of social conflicts over property rights in rural Brazil and Mexico : Current land struggles in historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara-Camus, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an approach to the agrarian question that focuses on the establishment of absolute private property rights over land in Brazil and Mexico. The author argues that current land struggles are conditioned by the property regimes inherited from past struggles. The author examines

  17. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Levitt, Pam; Deikman, Doug; Vlahos, Bob

    1999-01-01

    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 26,800 square miles in northwestern Colorado. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three Colorado State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) former district offices at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Project in the Uinta-Piceance Basin Province and the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment Project in the Colorado Plateau.

  18. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  19. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  20. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  1. Lands directorate publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The directorate has a lead role in providing advice to the federal government on land use policy in Canada. The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) Program has produced significant amounts of data pertaining to the capability of Canadian lands to support agriculture, forestry, recreation, wildlife and sport fish. A list of CLI reports is presented in this publication. In addition, and capability maps have been compiled for agricultural, forestry, recreation and wildlife and are listed and described in this publication. (KRM)

  2. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  3. Opportunities for investment. National privatization plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, A.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Introduction to EBRD; Investment opportunities; Requirements for successful privatization; Challenges; How EBRD can help. 30 EBRD offices in 27 countries of operations (former Soviet and Socialist countries) are presented. (R.P.)

  4. Investigating the barriers on media privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghiyeh Jame

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing interests in reducing cost of products and services among developing countries. Privatization is believed to be one of the most important techniques to increase relative efficiencies of publically held organizations. In this paper, we study important barriers on privatization of television (TV media industry in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire using a sample of 234 out of 600 graduate students who were enrolled in media communication studies and examined six hypotheses based on one-side t-student. The survey considers different factors influencing privatization of TV media industry. The results of the investigation indicate that the cost of TV production, short and long-term investment security, people's interest on investing on TV media industry, building appropriate culture, cultural obstacles and economic barriers influence media privatization, significantly.

  5. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.

  6. Private sector engagement in refugee education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeena Zakharia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the private sector in providing education for Syrian refugees has much to commend it but greater consideration needs to be paid to the ethical and practical concerns that may arise.

  7. Job Satisfaction in Public and Private Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær

    2017-01-01

    is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....

  8. Outsourcing and Privatization: An Essential USAF Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newbold, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    ...." The reason outsourcing and privatization is so important---moneyZ A conscientious decision to fund operations and maintenance accounts to maintain readiness in light of a very high operations tempo...

  9. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and

  10. USAID Public-Private Partnerships Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset brings together information collected since 2001 on PPPs that have been supported by USAID. For the purposes of this dataset a Public-Private...

  11. Radon in private drinking water wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otahal, P.; Merta, J.; Burian, I.

    2014-01-01

    At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq.l -1 . This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. (authors)

  12. Public-private partnership in theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Vrhnjak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In political and other debates much of attention is paid to public – private partnerships (PPPs. These partnerships are perceived as a tool of meeting public demand by private supply. In theory there are at least four different forms of contract partnerships according to the amount of risks transferred to the private sector.Conclusions: Public – private partnerships are neither the only neither the preferred way of providing public service. On one hand they tend to lower financial burden of the public sector but on the other hand PPPs require complex ways of management and monitoring. It is highly important to consider specific circumstances of individual projects in question.

  13. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  14. IN GHANA: MAKING PUBLICuPRIVATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... and the manager of public utilities gains comparative adVantages in capturing ... managerial decision—making,and makes evaluation and monitoring .... tion, since in theory the private company should be concerned about.

  15. Private sector data for performance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  17. Portugal's Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Portugal's recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal's energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal's partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal's energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal's downstream petroleum sector and in the country's continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal's participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry

  18. Private healthcare quality: applying a SERVQUAL model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Mohsin Muhammad; de Run, Ernest Cyril

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality. The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three-month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity. Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice. Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups. The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.

  19. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  20. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  1. Mozambique - Rural Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation strategy for the Land Project is comprised of four components-an impact evaluation of the institutional strengthening activity (Activity II),...

  2. Privatization and Financial Market Development: Theoretical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Chiesa; Giovanna Nicodano

    2003-01-01

    Stock market capitalization in developed countries grew while massive privatization plans were in progress. It is however possible that stock market development would have occurred anyway. Below we identify features that are specific to share-issue privatizations (SIPs) and should a priori impact on market liquidity and market size. A positive correlation between such features and market development in a cross section of countries would support the claim that certain types of SIPs contribute ...

  3. Contractual Networks In European Private International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Grušić, U.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines private international law issues raised by transnational contractual networks. The focus is on choice-of-law questions that arise in the context of 1) relations between network members who are contractually bound to one another, 2) relations between network members not connected directly by bonds of contract, and 3) relations between the network and the outsiders. The aim is to assess whether, and to what extent, European private international law is capable of dealing w...

  4. Private banking : an international and local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Since the creation of private banking in the 16th century, it has evolved from a discreet service for the wealthy few to a broader base of services provided for high net worth individuals. Private banking today offers a complex, highly diverse array of personalised wealth preservation, -creation and —management services for a growing population of sophisticated and affluent individuals. Such people have multiple needs that range from banking services to investment and estate planni...

  5. Medical Progress and Supplementary Private Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner Leidl

    2003-01-01

    In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...

  6. Privatization in the U.S. Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Perritt, Stuart E.

    1990-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Privatization does save money for the vast majority of functions. The clearest evidence to support this is a Pentagon study of 235 separate privatization competitions between 1980 and 1982. Follow-up studies indicated that competitive contracting saved 22%. A side benefit was that the in-house organizations that won their competitions improved on their precompetition costs by 18%. Publ...

  7. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  8. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  9. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    conceptualization and planning are required when pursuing privatization projects. In fact, privatization project proponents need to know how to...selection of projects for analysis, methods of acquiring information about these projects, and the analysis framwork . Chapter IV includes the analysis. A...performed an analysis to determine cormion conceptual and creative approaches and lessons learned. This analysis was then used to develop criteria for

  10. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  11. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  12. Blogging how our private thoughts went public

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Kristin Roeschenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Public vs. private is an ongoing concern in communication. This book examines this phenomenon through self-representational writing and the philosophical lens of Hannah Arendt's public vs. private theory, the Boundary Management theory, and the Parasocial Framework theory to examine the first social networking platform: personal blogs. By starting with a look back at self-representational writing, the book also examines how much information individuals have shared with each other through this format historically.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten

    The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....

  14. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-01-01

    Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...

  15. Restoring Bottomland Hardwood Forests on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lands: 2016 Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not...1970s and 1980s, public and private organizations recognized the negative impacts of wetland functional degradation and began promoting wetland... promotes long-term protection of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic resources within a region dominated by private land ownership. 1.2.3 USACE

  16. [Private health insurance in Brazil: approaches to public/private patterns in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestelo, José Antonio de Freitas; Souza, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes de; Bahia, Lígia

    2013-05-01

    This article draws on a previous review of 270 articles on private health plans published from 2000 to 2010 and selects 17 that specifically address the issue of the relationship between the public and private healthcare sectors. Content analysis considered the studies' concepts and terms, related theoretical elements, and predominant lines of argument. A reading of the argumentative strategies detected the existence of a critical view of the modus operandi in the public/private relationship based on Social Medicine and the theoretical tenets of the Brazilian Health Reform Movement. The study also identified contributions based on neoliberal business approaches that focus strictly on economic issues to discuss private health insurance. Understanding the public/private link in healthcare obviously requires the development of a solid empirical base, analyzed with adequate theoretical assumptions due to the inherent degree of complexity in the public/private healthcare interface.

  17. Energy privatization in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The issue of energy privatization in the Middle East was discussed with particular examples from Kuwait. The development of Kuwait's domestic political institutions is unique in the Arab Gulf which makes privatization more complicated than in other Middle Eastern countries. The major issue in Kuwait is whether foreign investors and domestic private investors will be allowed equity participation in oil and gas production projects. It was suggested that the answer depends on general assessments of national financial and state security interests and on individual case judgements respecting each potential partnership. Historically, one of the main reasons for nationalization of private investment in oil and gas in the Middle East was the desire of governments to increase state revenues. Nationalization permitted states to set prices and production levels themselves and to keep the difference between costs and prices instead of sharing it with corporate owners. However, nationalization is not without its problems as indicated by the difficulties encountered by governments in trying to make the the OPEC-managed hydrocarbon regime work. The three main reasons for the current willingness of Middle Eastern governments to consider re-admitting private companies as equity participants in their energy industries, namely market share and terms of access, interstate disputes, and desire to minimize corruption, were also discussed. It was suggested that these are strong arguments that support taking another look at privatization as a strategy that is in the long-term interest of Middle Eastern oil producing states. 19 refs

  18. The crucial role of the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M; Paxman, J M

    1986-12-01

    Private support for the development of family planning programs continues to grow and now includes industries that provide family planning services, commercial outlets that distribute contraceptives, community groups that help to build demand, private medical practitioners who include contraception as a part of health care, organizations that provide technical and financial assistance to developing country programs, pharmaceutical firms, and foundations that underwrite contraceptive research. Although the mix of private and public programs differs from country to country, these 2 family planning programs complement each other and often work in close partnership. The private sector has the advantages of being able to pioneer innovative programs the public sector is unwilling or unable to pursue, to bring foreign financial and technical assistance to developing countries without political implications, and to achieve financially self-sustaining family planning efforts that are linked to other development efforts. In many countries, the private sector has been instrumental in developing a national family planning program and in eliminating barriers to family planning in countries with restrictive laws and policies. The private sector has been especially important in pioneering grassroots programs that improve the status of women through education, health care, training, and economic opportunity.

  19. Does Society Win or Lose as a Result of Privatization? The Case of Water Sector Privatization in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Olivera; Felipe Barrera

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of water sector privatization on consumers’ welfare in 46 municipalities in Colombia. First, the privatization process is described. Second, the paper evaluates the impact of privatization on access, price, and quality of water as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology with variation across time (before and after privatization) and between treatment and control groups (privatized and non-privatized municipalities) and controlling fo...

  20. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  1. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    are carried out on the land usually effect changes in its cover. ... The FAO document on land cover classification systems, (2000) partly answers this ... over the surface land, including water, vegetation, bare soils and or artificial structures. ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover ...

  2. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  3. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  4. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  5. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian, E-mail: rcolbeck@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: a.p.a.kent@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  6. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  7. Private and Non-Private Disc Herniation Patients: Do they Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregebo, Birgitta; Dai, Deliang; Schillberg, Birgitta; Baehr, Martin; Nyström, Bo; Taube, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In the 2006 yearly report from the Swedish National Register for Lumbar Spine Surgery it was claimed that international studies show obvious differences between private and non-private patients with regard to results from back surgery. Therefore our aim was to reveal such possible differences by comparing the two categories of patients at a private clinic. The material comprises 1184 patients operated on for lumbar disc herniation during the period of 1987 to 2007. Basic pre-operative data were obtained from the medical records and follow-up was performed by a questionnaire around 5 years post-operatively. Small but statistically significant differences between private and non-private patients were seen pre-operatively regarding the proportions of a/ men and women in the samples, b/ those with physically demanding jobs, c/ those on sick leave and d/ those with lumbar pain. Over the years the admitted private patients had a decreasing mean duration of symptoms which was not seen in the non-private patients. No apparent differences (n.s.) were seen between the two categories of patients pre-operatively regarding age, presence and level of leg pain or the proportion who smoked. Post-operative improvement in leg and lumbar pain was very similar in private and non-private patients as was satisfaction with the results and the proportion of patients returning to work. Despite small pre-operative differences concerning some variables and a significant difference in symptom duration between private and non-private disc herniation patients, the final clinical results were very similar.

  8. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  9. Аccounting and methodological aspects of capital expenditure for land improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Melnychuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the process of reflection in accounting the capital costs for land improvement. The main legislation governing this issue is covered. Also the article has agreed the key issues that ensure in accounting for capital expenditures for farmland improving. The survey has benefited such general scientific methods as: induction and deduction, dialectic, historical and systematic methods and specific methods of accounting. Due to the land reform the ownership of the land was changed. Lands which were owned by farms have been privatized and have received a particular owner. Now privatized lands constitute a significant part of farmland. The land managers require quality accounting information about composition and state of the land and improvements that occur to make an effective management. The numerous changes in legislation generate controversies in their interpretation and, consequently, it results in appearance of the discrepancies in the conduct of cost accounting for capital land improvement which will effect on the amount of net profit in future. The article reflects the economic substance of the process and fundamentally describes the implementation method of accounting for capital expenditure for land in accordance with the applicable law.

  10. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  11. Nuclear power and the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The world scene is sketched in which nuclear power already contributes 600 Mtce/year to world energy but where public attitudes in the developed world have become largely hostile. This is despite the proven technology of nuclear power, its safety record (Chernobyl notwithstanding) and its environmentally benign aspects. The United Kingdom government's determination to ensure a continuing role for nuclear power in a privatized electricity supply industry is seen against this background. The structure of the British nuclear power industry undoubtedly presents difficulties for privatization but solutions are available and precedents for private sector nuclear power exist in other countries. Private sector operators will be required to meet the exacting standards set by the independent licensing authority but in view of the public concern redoubled efforts and new approaches will be necessary in public persuasion. Waste disposal is another issue which may have implications for the acceptability of nuclear power in the public sector. Finally, the prospects for investment in new nuclear plant by private generation companies are examined. (U.K.)

  12. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  13. Why Quorum Sensing Controls Private Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schuster

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication, also termed quorum sensing (QS, is a widespread process that coordinates gene expression in bacterial populations. The generally accepted view is that QS optimizes the cell density-dependent benefit attained from cooperative behaviors, often in the form of secreted products referred to as “public goods.” This view is challenged by an increasing number of cell-associated products or “private goods” reported to be under QS-control for which a collective benefit is not apparent. A prominent example is nucleoside hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a periplasmic enzyme that catabolizes adenosine. Several recent studies have shown that private goods can function to stabilize cooperation by co-regulated public goods, seemingly explaining their control by QS. Here we argue that this property is a by-product of selection for other benefits rather than an adaptation. Emphasizing ecophysiological context, we propose alternative explanations for the QS control of private goods. We suggest that the benefit attained from private goods is associated with high cell density, either because a relevant ecological condition correlates with density, or because the private good is, directly or indirectly, involved in cooperative behavior. Our analysis helps guide a systems approach to QS, with implications for antivirulence drug design and synthetic biology.

  14. Some controversy about law on private security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the last countries that legally regulate the private security sector, which is a new conceptual system of the national security system. Since the law is expected to solve many issues and dilemmas, and bring order to the area, which by some accounts is a very profitable branch of economy. Expectations were that by the end to regulate issues such as: 1 the need for institutionalization of partnership between the public and private sectors for mutual benefit, 2 the need of expressing mutual interest to establish the desired condition of security in the entire society and 3 the need to define the mechanisms and authority to achieve mentioned above. Based on this, legal framework of private security should explicitly provide: 1 a new role of the private sector, 2 communication and data exchange between the public and private sector, 3 mandatory notification about prepared or committed criminal acts on which there is information, 4 cooperation in the tasks of necessarily protected facilities, 4 cooperation in crisis situations including natural disasters, traffic accidents, strikes, sabotage, terrorist attacks, etc., 5 cooperate in the selection and training of staff and 6 cooperation in planning activities and project design of security. This paper presents a critical review of some theoretical and professional controversies in the solutions provided by law, for the purpose of answering whether it is achieving the purpose of passing of such a legal act.

  15. Of Private, Common, and Public Property and the Rationale for Total Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Hermann Hoppe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, I want to clarify the nature and function of private property. Second, I want to clarify the distinction between “common” goods and property and “public” goods and property, and explain the construction error inherent in the institution of public goods and property. Third, I want to explain the rationale and principle of privatization.

  16. Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…

  17. Public by Day, Private by Night: Examining the Private Lives of Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global…

  18. Reconsidering Privatization in Cross-Border Engagements: The Sometimes Public Nature of Private Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Privatization trends in higher education have typically been analyzed from the perspective of the institution and its relationship with the sponsoring state. The recent phenomenon of international cross-border higher education, however, represents a more complicated picture of privatization. Geographic separation from the sponsoring state is an…

  19. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  20. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…