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Sample records for pristine peat soils

  1. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zambri Nadhirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  2. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambri, Nadhirah Mohd; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  3. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  4. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis...... for this study is (i) the release of phosphorus in peat is controlled by the geochemistry; (ii) the mobilisation of phosphorus is controlled by both geochemistry and hydro-physics of the soil. For this study, 10 Danish riparian lowland areas with peat soil were selected based on their geochemical characteristics...

  5. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... environment. Lowland soils are primarily peat soils, and only a minor part of the total soil volume of peat soils is occupied by macropores (>30 µm). Since water primarily flows in these macropores, the majority of the soil matrix is bypassed (the immobile domain). Phosphorus released in the immobile domain...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  6. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  7. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  8. Nitrogen Release in Pristine and Drained Peat Profiles in Response to Water Table Fluctuations: A Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merjo P. P. Laine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern hemisphere, variability in hydrological conditions was suggested to increase as a consequence of climate warming, which may result in longer droughts than the area has experienced before. Due to their predominately anoxic conditions, peatlands are expected to respond to changes in hydrological conditions, such as successive drying and rewetting periods. As peatlands are rich in organic matter, any major changes in water table may influence the decomposition of it. The hydrological conditions may also influence release of nutrients from peat profiles as well as affect their transport to downstream ecosystems. In our mesocosm experiment, artificial water table fluctuations in pristine peat profiles caused an increase in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON and ammonium (NH4+-N concentrations, while no response was found in drained peat profiles, although originating from the same peatland complex.

  9. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  10. Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated a remediation process for diesel-contaminated soil, in which water was used to remove the diesel from the soil and peat was used to absorb the diesel layer formed on the surface of the water. The percolation of water through the soil was uniform. The time required for water to percolate the soil and for the layers (soil, water, and diesel) to separate depended on the soil depth. Both the depth of soil and mixing affected the thickness of the diesel layer and thus diesel recovery from the contaminated soil. Higher diesel recovery was achieved with smaller soil depth and mixing. The initial moisture content and the lower heating value of the peat were 7.1% and 17.65 MJ/kg, respectively. The final moisture content and lower heating value of the diesel-contaminated peat obtained from the experiment with mixing were 8.65 - 10.80% and 32.57 - 35.81 MJ/kg, respectively. The energy content of the diesel-contaminated peat is much higher than that of coal, and the moisture content is within the range recommended for biomass gasification. (author)

  11. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  12. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Peat Soil with Different Humification Levels using FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teong, I. T.; Felix, N. L. L.; Mohd, S.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Peat soil is defined as an accumulation of the debris and vegetative under the water logging condition. Soil organic matter of peat soil was affected by the environmental, weather, types of vegetative. Peat soil was normally classified based on its level of humification. Humification can be defined as the transformation of numerous group of substances (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) and individual molecules present in living organic matter into group of substances with similar properties (humic substances). During the peat transformation process, content of soil organic matter also will change. Hence, that is important to determine out the types of the organic compound. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a machine which is used to differential soil organic matter by using infrared. Infrared is a types of low energy which can determine the organic minerals. Hence, FTIR can be suitable as an indicator on its level of humification. The main objective of this study is to identify an optimized method to characterization of the soil organic content in different level of humification. The case study areas which had been chosen for this study are Parit Sulong, Batu Pahat and UCTS, Sibu. Peat soil samples were taken by every 0.5 m depth until it reached the clay layer. However, the soil organic matter in different humification levels is not significant. FTIR is an indicator which is used to determine the types of soil, but it is unable to differentiate the soil organic matter in peat soil FTIR can determine different types of the soil based on different wave length. Generally, soil organic matter was found that it is not significant to the level of humification.

  13. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg-1.K-1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg-1.K-1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of specific heat

  14. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  15. Agricultural management impact on physical and chemical functions of European peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel; Buschmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils offer numerous functions from the global to the local scale: they constitute the biggest terrestrial carbon storage on the globe, form important nutrient filters for catchments and provide hydrological buffer capacities for local ecosystems. Peat soils represent a large share of soils suitable for agriculture in temperate and boreal Europe, pressurized by increasing demands for production. Cultivated peat soils, however, show extreme mineralization rates of the organic substance and turn into hotspots for green house gas emissions, are highly vulnerable to land surface subsidence, soil and water quality deterioration and thus crop failure. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of past agricultural management on soil physical and chemical functions of peat soils in six European countries. We conducted standardized soil mapping, soil physical/chemical analysis, ground water table monitoring and farm business surveys across 7 to 10 sites in Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The results show a strong impact of past agricultural management on peat soil functions across Europe. Peat soil under intensive arable land use consistently offer lowest bearing capacities in the upper 10 cm compared to extensive and intensive grassland use, which is a major limiting factor for successful agricultural practice on peat soils. The difference can be explained by root mat stabilization solely, since soil compaction in the upper 25cm is highest under arable land use. A strong decrease of available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is consequently observed under arable land use, further intensifying hydrological problems like ponding, drought stress and reductions of hydrological buffer capacities frequently present on cultivated peat soils. Soil carbon stocks clearly decrease with increasing land use intensity, showing highest carbon stocks on extensive grassland. This is supported by the degree of decomposition, which

  16. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  17. Mineral capacity of peat soils organic matter and entry of Cs137 into perennial grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Arastovich, T.V.; Zajtsev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the study of peat soils organic substance structure with various peat ash content are given. Contents of active organic substance and carbon of microbial biomass in peat and boggy soil with 20% peat ash content is 3.0-3.5 and 1.6-1.8 times higher correspondingly, than thus in peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. At peat and boggy soil with low peat ash content Cs137 transition into hay is minimal. 14 times higher than at peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. Application of fertilizers at peat and boggy soil reduces Cs137 transition factor 4.7-6.4 times if compared to peaty-gley soil (2.1-4.7 times). Close positive interconnection between Cs137 transition factors from soil into the plants and organic carbon soil contents, absolute contents of potentially mineralized carbon and mineralization degree

  18. Immobilization of Lead from Pb-Contaminated Soil Amended with Peat Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ji Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of lead (Pb using soil amendments can reduce Pb toxicity and bioavailability in soil. This study evaluated Pb immobilization in a Pb-contaminated soil by using peat moss through various tests. The Pb-contaminated soil (2000 mg Pb·kg−1 was amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss to immobilize Pb in the soil. The immobilization properties of Pb in the contaminated soil were evaluated by a column leaching experiment, a microcosm test, and a batch incubation test. Peat moss significantly reduced the Pb leaching in all of the experiments and more effectively reduced mobility and toxicity of Pb in the column leaching and microcosm tests than bioavailability in the batch incubation test. The immobilized lead from the soils amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss was 37.9%, 87.1%, and 95.4% from the column leaching test, 18.5%, 90.9%, and 96.4% from the microcosm test, and 2.0%, 36.9%, and 57.9% from the NH4NO3 extraction method, respectively, indicating that peat moss can be effectively used for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  19. Peat origin and land use effects on microbial activity, respiration dynamics and exo-enzyme activities in drained peat soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Keuskamp, Joost; Potkamp, Gerrit; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Hefting, Mariet M.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the risk of decomposition-driven soil subsidence in drained peat soils in the Netherlands, contrasting in peat origin and current land use. In a full factorial design, fen peat and bog peat were sampled from sites in use for nature conservation and for dairy farming, which

  20. How do peat type, sand addition and soil moisture influence the soil organic matter mineralization in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Don, Axel; Burkart, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. As a consequence of both drainage induced mineralization and anthropogenic sand mixing, large areas of former peatlands under agricultural use contain soil organic carbon (SOC) at the boundary between mineral and organic soils. Studies on SOC dynamics of such "low carbon organic soils" are rare as the focus of previous studies was mainly either on mineral soils or "true" peat soil. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance and therefore, we have yet to understand the reasons behind the relatively high CO2 emissions of these soils. Peat properties, soil organic matter (SOM) quality and water content are obviously influencing the rate of CO2 emissions, but a systematic evaluation of the hydrological and biogeochemical drivers for mineralization of disturbed peatlands is missing. With this incubation experiment, we aim at assessing the drivers of the high variability of CO2 emissions from strongly anthropogenically disturbed organic soil by systematically comparing strongly degraded peat with and without addition of sand under different moisture conditions and for different peat types. The selection of samples was based on results of a previous incubation study, using disturbed samples from the German Agricultural Soil Inventory. We sampled undisturbed soil columns from topsoil and subsoil (three replicates of each) of ten peatland sites all used as grassland. Peat types comprise six fens (sedge, Phragmites and wood peat) and four bogs (Sphagnum peat). All sites have an intact peat horizon that is permanently below groundwater level and a strongly disturbed topsoil horizon. Three of the fen and two of the bog sites have a topsoil horizon altered by sand-mixing. In addition the soil profile was mapped and samples for the determination of soil hydraulic properties were collected. All 64 soil columns (including four additional reference samples) will be installed

  1. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL......), i.e., 0, 10, 20 cm below the soil surface, representing rewetted peat soils, and 30 and 40 cm below the soil surface, representing drained peat soils. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured during the growing period of RCG (May to September) using transparent and opaque...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  2. Carbon leaching from tropical peat soils and consequences for carbon balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rixen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drainage and deforestation turned Southeast (SE Asian peat soils into a globally important CO2 source, because both processes accelerate peat decomposition. Carbon losses through soil leaching have so far not been quantified and the underlying processes have hardly been studied. In this study, we use results derived from nine expeditions to six Sumatran rivers and a mixing model to determine leaching processes in tropical peat soils, which are heavily disturbed by drainage and deforestation. Here we show that a reduced evapotranspiration and the resulting increased freshwater discharge in addition to the supply of labile leaf litter produced by re-growing secondary forests increase leaching of carbon by ~200%. Enhanced freshwater fluxes and leaching of labile leaf litter from secondary vegetation appear to contribute 38% and 62% to the total increase, respectively. Decomposition of leached labile DOC can lead to hypoxic conditions in rivers draining disturbed peatlands. Leaching of the more refractory DOC from peat is an irrecoverable loss of soil that threatens the stability of peat-fringed coasts in SE Asia.

  3. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidah Adon; Ismail Bakar; Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera; Adnan Zainorabidin

    2013-01-01

    Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010). More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006...

  4. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  5. Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties: Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...ERDC 6.2 GRE ARTEMIS STO-R DRTSPORE ERDC TR-17-9 August 2017 Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic...Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat Stacey L. Jarvis, Karen L. Foley, Robert M. Jones, Stephen D. Newman, and Robyn A. Barbato

  6. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from a rubber plantation on tropical peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhid, Nur; Hirano, Takashi; Okimoto, Yosuke; Nurzakiah, Siti; Nursyamsi, Dedi

    2017-03-01

    Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO 2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO 2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply. Total soil respiration (SR) and oxidative peat decomposition (PD) were separately quantified by trenching. In addition, peat surface elevation was measured to determine annual subsidence along with GWL. With GWL, SR showed a negative logarithmic relationship (p0.05). Peat surface elevation varied seasonally in almost parallel with GWL. After correcting for GWL difference, annual total subsidence was determined at 5.64±3.20 and 5.96±0.43cmyr -1 outside and inside the trenching, respectively. Annual subsidence only through peat oxidation that was calculated from the annual PD, peat bulk density and peat carbon content was 1.50cmyr -1 . As a result, oxidative peat decomposition accounted for 25% of total subsidence (5.96cmyr -1 ) on average on an annual basis. The contribution of peat oxidation was lower than those of previous studies probably because of compaction through land preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  8. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  9. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  10. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on greenhouse gas fluxes from peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H. D.; Rezanezhad, F.; Markelov, I.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ongoing displacement of climate zones by global warming is increasing the frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles in middle and high latitude regions, many of which are dominated by organic soils such as peat. Repeated freezing and thawing of soils changes their physical properties, geochemistry, and microbial community structure, which together govern the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. In this presentation, we focus on how freeze-thaw cycles influence greenhouse gas fluxes from peat using a newly developed experimental soil column system that simulates realistic soil temperature profiles during freeze-thaw cycles. We measured the surface and subsurface changes to gas and aqueous phase chemistry to delineate the diffusion pathways and quantify soil greenhouse gas fluxes during freeze-thaw cycles using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a conservative tracer. Three peat columns were assembled inside a temperature controlled chamber with different soil structures. All three columns were packed with 40 cm of undisturbed, slightly decomposed peat, where the soil of two columns had an additional 10 cm layer on top (one with loose Sphagnum moss and one with an impermeable plug). The results indicate that the release of SF6 and CO2 gas from the soil surface was influenced by the recurrent development of a physical ice barrier, which prevented gas exchange between the soil and atmosphere during freezing conditions. With the onset of thawing a pulse of SF6 and CO2 occurred, resulting in a flux of 3.24 and 2095.52 µmol/m2h, respectively, due to the build-up of gases in the liquid-phase pore space during freezing. Additionally, we developed a model to determine the specific diffusion coefficients for each peat column. These data allow us to better predict how increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles will affect greenhouse gas emissions in northern peat soils.

  11. Structure of peat soils and implications for biogeochemical processes and hydrological flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Gharedaghloo, B.; Kleimeier, C.; Milojevic, T.; Liu, H.; Weber, T. K. D.; Price, J. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Lenartz, B.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon and play major roles in global water, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. The structure of peatland soils (i.e., peat) are highly complex with unique physical and hydraulic properties; where significant, and only partially reversible, shrinkage occurs during dewatering (including water table fluctuations), compression and/or decomposition. These distinct physical and hydraulic properties controls water flow, which in turn affect reactive and non-reactive solute transport (such as, sorption or degradation) and biogeochemical functions. Additionally, peat further attenuates solute migration through molecular diffusion into the inactive pores of Sphagnum dominated peat. These slow, diffusion-limited solute exchanges between the pore regions may give rise to pore-scale chemical gradients and heterogeneous distributions of microbial habitats and activity in peat soils. Permafrost peat plateaus have the same essential subsurface characteristics as other widely organic soil-covered peatlands, where the hydraulic conductivity is related to the degree of decomposition and soil compression. Increasing levels of decomposition correspond with a reduction of effective pore diameter and consequently restrict water and solute flow (by several orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity between the ground surface and a depth of 50 cm). In this presentation, we present the current knowledge of key physical and hydraulic properties related to the structure of globally available peat soils and discuss their implications for water storage, flow and the migration of solutes.

  12. The Characteristics of Electrical and Physical Properties of Peat Soil in Rasau Village, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminudin, A.; Hasanah, T. R.; Iryati, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Electrical and physical properties can be used as indicators for measuring soil conditions. One of the methods developed in agricultural systems to obtain information on soil conditions is through measuring of electrical conductivity. Peat soil is one of the natural resources that exist in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the characteristics of peat soil in Rasau village, West Kalimantan. This research was conducted by the properties of electrical conductivity and water content using 5TE Water Contents and EC Sensor equipment, but also to know the change of physical nature of peat soil covering peat soil and peat type. The results showed that the electrical conductivity value of 1-4 samples was 0.02 -0.29 dS/m and the volume water content value (VWC) was 0.255-0.548 m3/m3 and the physical characteristics obtained were peat colour brown to dark brown that allegedly the soil still has a very high content of organic material derived from weathering plants and there are discovery of wood chips, wood powder and leaf powder on the ground. Knowing the information is expected to identify the land needs to be developed to be considered for future peat soil utilization.

  13. Effect of soil properties and hydrology on Archaeal community composition in three temperate grasslands on peat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Conrad, Ralf; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands established on drained peat soils are regarded as negligible methane (CH4) sources; however, they can still exhibit considerable soil CH4 dynamics. We investigated archaeal community composition in two different fen peat soils and one bog peat soil under permanent grassland in Denmark........ Overall, there seemed to be a significant coupling between peat type and archaeal community composition, with local hydrology modifying the strength of this coupling....

  14. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  15. Effectiveness of lime and peat applications on cadmium availability in a paddy soil under various moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Xie, Tuanhui; Liang, Qiaofeng; Liu, Mengjiao; Zhao, Mingliu; Wang, Mingkuang; Wang, Guo

    2016-04-01

    In paddy soils, amendments and moisture play important role in the immobilization of cadmium (Cd). The effects of applying lime, peat, and a combination of both on soil Eh, pH, and Cd availability in contaminated soils were investigated under wetted (80 ± 5 % of water holding capacity) and flooded (completely submerged) conditions. In wetted soils, there was little change in Eh, compared to flooded soils where Eh reduced rapidly. Amendments of lime only or in a mixture with peat increased soil pH to different degrees, depending on the lime application rate. However, peat addition only slightly affected soil pH. The decreased Cd availability in flooded soils was related to submergence duration and was significantly lower than that in wetted soils after 14 days. Liming wetted and flooded soils decreased exchangeable Cd and increased carbonates or Fe-Mn oxides bound fractions, while peat addition transformed Cd from carbonates to organic matter bound fractions. The combined application of peat and lime generally showed better inhibitory effects on the availability of Cd than separately application of lime or peat. Higher application rates of lime, peat, or their mixture were more effective at reducing Cd contamination in flooded soil. This indicates that application of peat and lime mixture under flooded conditions was most effective for in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Further studies are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of the peat and lime mixture on Cd availability in paddy soils.

  16. Rice husk ash (RHA) as a partial cement replacement in modifying peat soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Norsyahariati Nik; Daud, Mohd Nazrin Mohd; Muhammed, Abubakar Sadiq

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the effect of rice husk ash (RHA) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a potential binder for modifying the properties of peat soil. The amounts RHA and OPC added to the peat soil sample, as percentage of the dry soil mass were in the range of 10-15% and 15%, respectively. Observations were made for the changes in the properties of the soil such as maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and shear strength. Scanning Electron Micrograph-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) test were also conducted to observe the microstructure of treated and untreated peat soil. The results show that the modified soil of MDD and OMC values are increased due to the increment amount of binder material. Shear strength values of modified peat showing a good result by assuming that it is relative to the formation of major reaction products such as calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). The presence of C-S-H formation is indicated by the results produced from microstructural analysis of peat before and after modification process. This depicts the potential usage of RHA as a partial cement replacement in peat soil which is also improving its engineering properties.

  17. Changes in Flow and Transport Patterns in Fen Peat as a Result of Soil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haojie; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The preferential movement of water and transport of substances play an important role in soils and are not yet fully understood especially in degraded peat soils. In this study, we aimed at deducing changes in flow and transport patterns in the course of soil degradation as resulting from peat drainage, using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer. The dye tracer experiments were conducted on columns of eight types of differently degraded peat soils from three sites taken both in vertical and horizontal directions. The titanium dioxide suspension (average particle size of 0.3 μm; 10 g l-1) was applied in a pulse of 40 mm to each soil core. Twenty-four hours after the application of the tracer, cross sections of the soil cores were prepared for photo documentation. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was determined. Preferential flow occurred in all investigated peat types. From the stained soil structural elements, we concluded that undecomposed plant remains are the major preferential flow pathways in less degraded peat. For more strongly degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm channels, operated as the major transport domain. Results show that Ks and the effective pore network in less degraded peat soils are anisotropic. With increasing peat degradation, the Ks and cross section of effective pore network decreased. The results also indicate a strong positive relationship between Ks and number of macropores as well as pore continuity. Hence, we conclude that changes in flow and transport pathways as well as Ks with an increasing peat degradation are due to the disintegration of the peat forming plant material and decrement of number and continuity of macropores after drainage.

  18. Transport properties and pore-network structure in variably-saturated Sphagnum peat soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Dissanayaka, Shiromi Himalika; Kawamoto, K.

    2016-01-01

    Gas and water transport in peat soil are of increasing interest because of their potentially large environmental and climatic effects under different types of land use. In this research, the water retention curve (WRC), gas diffusion coefficient (Dg) and air and water permeabilities (ka and kw......) of layers in peat soil from two profiles were measured under different moisture conditions. A two-region Archie's Law (2RAL)-type model was applied successfully to the four properties; the reference point was taken at -9.8kPa of soil-water matric potential where volume shrinkage typically started to occur....... For WRC in the very decomposed peat soil, the 2RAL saturation exponents (n) obtained for both the wetter (nw) and drier regions (nd) were smaller than those for the less decomposed peat. For Dg, the saturation exponent in the wetter region was larger than that in the drier one for all layers, which...

  19. Effects of copper and aluminum on the adsorption of sulfathiazole and tylosin on peat and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Zhiguo; Yang, Shuang; Li, Lingyun; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-quan; Wen, Bei; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) on the adsorption of sulfathiazole (STZ) and tylosin (T) to peat and soil were investigated using a batch equilibration method. Results show that Cu suppressed STZ adsorption onto peat and soil at pH 5.0 due to the formation of STZ–Cu complexes and/or Cu bridge. In contrast, Al only decreased STZ adsorption at pH 6.0. As for T, both Cu and Al suppressed its adsorption over the entire pH range owing to three reasons: 1) electrostatic competition between Cu/Al and T + ; 2) Cu/Al adsorption made the soil and peat surface less negatively charged, which was unfavorable for T + adsorption; 3) the shrunken pore size of peat and soil retarded the diffusion of large-sized T into these pores. -- Highlights: • Cu decreases STZ adsorption at pH 5.0. • Al decreases STZ adsorption at pH 6.0. • Cu and Al suppress T adsorption. • Cu and Al change partial properties of peat and soil. -- Cu and Al changed the adsorption behavior of STZ and T in soil and peat via complexation and/or change in partial properties of peat and soil

  20. Sorption distribution coefficients of uranium, thorium and radium of selected Malaysian peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Phillip, Esther

    2010-01-01

    A study on sorption of uranium, thorium and radium on Malaysian peat soils was conducted to determine their distribution coefficient (K d ) values. Batch studies were performed to investigate the influence of pH and the concentrations of radionuclides. Peat soil samples used in this study were collected from Bachok, Batu Pahat, Dalat, Hutan Melintang and Pekan. The peat samples from different location have different chemical characteristics and K d values. No correlation was found between chemical characteristics and the K d values for radium and thorium, but K d value for uranium was found correlated with humic and organic content. The K d value was found to be influenced by soluble humic substances or humic substances leach out from peat soils. (author)

  1. Methane and CO2 fluxes from peat soil, palm stems and field drains in two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Borneo, on different tropical peat soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Frances; Lip Khoon, Kho; Hill, Tim; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm plantations have been expanding rapidly on tropical peat soils in the last 20 years, with 50 % of SE Asian peatlands now managed as industrial or small-holder plantations, up from 11% in 1990. Tropical peat soils are an important carbon (C) store, containing an estimated 17 % of total peatland C. There are large uncertainties as to the soil C dynamics in oil palm plantations on peat due to a shortage of available data. It is therefore essential to understand the soil C cycle in order to promote effective management strategies that optimise yields, whilst maintaining the high C storage capacity of the soil. Here we present CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia on peat soils. Data were collected from different surface microforms within each plantation that experienced different surface management practices. These included the area next to the palm, in bare soil harvest paths, beneath frond piles, underneath cover crops, from the surface of drains, and from palm stems. Data were collected continuously over one year and analysed with different environmental variables, including soil temperature, WTD, O2, soil moisture and weather data in order to best determine the constraints on the dataset. Total soil respiration (Rtot) varied between 0.09 and 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1. The largest fluxes (0.59 - 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1) were measured next to the palms. Larger CO2 fluxes were observed beneath the cover crops than in the bare soil. This trend was attributed to priming effects from the input of fresh plant litter and exudates. Peat soil type was shown to have significantly different fluxes. The different plantations also had different environmental drivers best explaining the variation in Rtot - with soil moisture being the most significant variable on Sabaju series soil and soil temperature being the most significant environmental variable in the plantation with the Teraja series soil. Rtot was shown to reduce significantly with increasing

  2. Estimating methane gas production in peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William; Comas, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in production and release of greenhouse gases (such as methane) in peat soils remains uncertain, particularly for low-latitude peatlands like the Everglades. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a hydrogeophysical tool that has been successfully used in the last decade to noninvasively investigate carbon dynamics in peat soils; however, application in subtropical systems is almost non-existent. This study is based on four field sites in the Florida Everglades, where changes in gas content within the soil are monitored using time-lapse GPR measurements and gas releases are monitored using gas traps. A weekly methane gas production rate is estimated using a mass balance approach, considering gas content estimated from GPR, gas release from gas traps and incorporating rates of diffusion, and methanotrophic consumption from previous studies. Resulting production rates range between 0.02 and 0.47 g CH4 m-2 d-1, falling within the range reported in literature. This study shows the potential of combining GPR with gas traps to monitor gas dynamics in peat soils of the Everglades and estimate methane gas production. We also show the enhanced ability of certain peat soils to store gas when compared to others, suggesting that physical properties control biogenic gas storage in the Everglades peat soils. Better understanding biogenic methane gas dynamics in peat soils has implications regarding the role of wetlands in the global carbon cycle, particularly under a climate change scenario.

  3. Development of low thermal mass cement-sand block utilizing peat soil and effective microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Hameeda Mohamad Idris

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of low thermal mass cement-sand block by incorporating peat soil and Effective Microorganism (EM was studied systematically. In total, seven mixtures of cement-sand block targeted at a 28-days compressive strength of 7 MPa are designed. One control sample is made with a water/cement ratio (w/c of 0.5, three mixes using 3%, 6% and 10% peat soil replacing sand and three mixes using 10%, 20% and 30% EM replacing water. Modified blocks with 6% of peat soil and 30% of EM are the most optimum blocks to be used in the construction of masonry as they successfully reduced the thermal conductivity of the blocks with the value of 1.275 W/mK and 1.792 W/mK respectively when being compared to the thermal conductivity of the control sample which is 2.400 W/mK. Besides, they are also able to achieve higher strength than the desired compressive strength which is 7 MPa. The compressive strength of the samples with 6% of peat soil is 16.48 MPa at 28-days while 30.39 MPa for samples with 30% of EM. On the other hand, the water absorption rate of samples with 6% of peat soil is 7.6% while 6.1% for samples with 30% EM and both are okay since their rate of water absorption is lower than 20%. In conclusion, the addition of peat soil and EM in the cement-sand mix show promising performance as a low cost material to produce low thermal mass cement-sand block. Keywords: Effective microorganism, Peat soil, Thermal conductivity, Cement brick

  4. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01 with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash

  5. Soil ecology and ecosystem services of dairy and semi-natural grasslands on peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, Joachim G.C.; Bloem, Jaap; Goede, de Ron; Keidel, Harm; Kloen, Henk; Rutgers, Michiel; Akker, van den Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; Eekeren, van Nick

    2018-01-01

    Peat wetlands are of major importance for ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water regulation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, peat drainage for farming leads to CO2 emission, soil subsidence and biodiversity losses. In the peat areas in the Netherlands, solutions are sought in

  6. OSPW contamination transport through peat soils : laboratory and greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Price, J.S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Rochefort, L.; Pouliot, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Andersen, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large portions of northern Canada are covered by peatlands, and the majority of post-mined landscapes have increased salinity, heavy metals and naphthenic acids (NA). This PowerPoint presentation discussed laboratory and greenhouse studies conducted to determine oil sands process water (OSPW) contamination transport through peat soils. Peat is a highly complex porous media. The presence of sodium and NA has a toxic effect on aquatic life. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the changes caused by OSPW in the microbial community of a peat matrix over 2 growing seasons. The study showed that peat has an exceptional ability to absorb the contaminants in OSPW water. NA and sodium transport through peat was significantly delayed by sorption, and by diffusion into immobile water contained in the peat matrix. The vegetation in the study was healthy and tolerant to the contaminants in the OSPW. tabs., figs.

  7. Reuse of Ablution Water to Improve Peat Soil Characteristics for Ornamental Landscape Plants Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reuse of ablution water for washing peat soil in order to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in these soils which might effect negatively on the plant growth. The washing process design was similar to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW consist of layers of peat and sand soil and surrounded by gravel on both sides. Strelitzia sp. was used to detect the presence negative effect of the washing process on the morphological characteristics of the plants. The physical and chemical characteristics of ablution water was examined before and after the washing process by using Inductively Couple Plasma- Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The characteristics of peat soil before and after the washing process were examined by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The results revealed that the percentage of FeO3in peat soil reduced from 45.80 to 1.01%. The percentage of SiO2 in sand soil dropped from 87.7 to 67.10%. Parameters of ablution water resulted from the washing process which including Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and heavy metals have increased but still within the standard limits for the disposal of ablution water into the environment. No atrophy was observed in Strelitzia sp. leaves, indicating the ability of plant to grow normally. It can be concluded that the utilization of ablution water in the washing of peat soil has improve the characteristics of the soil without effect on their organic constitutes.

  8. Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the U.S. peat market as of July 2013. Peat is produced from deposits of plant organic materials in wetlands and includes varieties such as reed-sedge, sphagnum moss, and humus. Use for peat include horticultural soil additives, filtration, and adsorbents. Other topics include effects of environmental protection regulations on peat extraction, competition from products such as coir, composted organic waste, and wood products, and peatland carbon sinks.

  9. [Oil degradation by basidiomycetes in soil and peat at low temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N A; Klein, O I; Pivchenko, D V; Landesman, E O; Pozdnyakova, N N; Turkovskaya, O V; Zaichik, B Ts; Ruzhitskii, A O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-01-01

    A total of 17 basidiomycete strains causing white rot and growing on oil-contaminated substrates have been screened. Three strains with high (Steccherinum murashkinskyi), average (Trametes maxima), and low (Pleurotus ostreatus) capacities for the colonization of oil-contaminated substrates have been selected. The potential for degrading crude oil hydrocarbons has been assessed with the use of fungi grown on nonsterile soil and peat at low temperatures. Candida sp. and Rhodococcus sp. commercial strains have been used as reference organisms with oil-degrading ability. All microorganisms introduced in oil-contaminated soil have proved to be ineffective, whereas the inoculation of peat with basidiomycetes and oil-degrading microorganisms accelerated the destruction of oil hydrocarbons. The greatest degradation potential of oil-aliphatic hydrocarbons has been found in S. murashlinskyi. T. maxima turned out to be the most successful in degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. It has been suggested that aboriginal microflora contributes importantly to the effectiveness of oil-destructing microorganisms. T. maxima and S. murashkinskyi strains are promising for further study as oil-oxidizing agents during bioremediation of oil-contaminated peat soil under conditions of low temperatures.

  10. Perennial grasses as the ecological link for preserving the fertility of the peat soils polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Saraseko, E.G.; Arastovich, T.V.; Suzko, O.V.; Tagaj, S.A.; Lasko, T.V.; Goloveshkin, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of degradation of peat soils polluted with 137Cs and 90Sr and cultivation of the crop production on them is considered. Distribution of grasslands and pastures on polluted peat soils by the regions of the Republic of Belarus is presented. Characteristics of the peat soils are shown. Coefficients of migration of radionuclides in perennial grasses' hay depending on mobile potassium availability (for 137Cs) and soil reaction pHkci (for 90sr) are evaluated. Inadequacy of the hay, harvested on polluted territories, to the main quality characteristics is presented and analyzed. Crop mixtures recommended for grasslands and pastures reseeding on polluted territories are suggested. The list of cultivars suitable for the conditions of over wetting is offered. It is recommended to use shallow peat soils as grasslands. Permanent cereal grasses restore organic matter of these soils and provide economic efficiency of agricultural use. According the results of the research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr to plants are relatively low. This fact is explained by the time that has passed since the accident on Chernobyl nuclear power plant and by the variations of mobile potassium and exchangeable acidity in peat soils

  11. Soil temperature response to 21st century global warming: the role of and some implications for peat carbon in thawing permafrost soils in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands contain a large terrestrial carbon pool that plays an important role in the Earth's carbon cycle. A considerable fraction of this carbon pool is currently in permafrost and is biogeochemically relatively inert; this will change with increasing soil temperatures as a result of climate warming in the 21st century. We use a geospatially explicit representation of peat areas and peat depth from a recently-compiled database and a geothermal model to estimate northern North America soil temperature responses to predicted changes in air temperature. We find that, despite a widespread decline in the areas classified as permafrost, soil temperatures in peatlands respond more slowly to increases in air temperature owing to the insulating properties of peat. We estimate that an additional 670 km3 of peat soils in North America, containing ~33 Pg C, could be seasonally thawed by the end of the century, representing ~20 % of the total peat volume in Alaska and Canada. Warming conditions result in a lengthening of the soil thaw period by ~40 days, averaged over the model domain. These changes have potentially important implications for the carbon balance of peat soils.

  12. Organic carbon transformations in high-Arctic peat soils: key functions and microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Alexander; Schwacke, Rainer; Svenning, Mette M; Urich, Tim

    2013-02-01

    A substantial part of the Earths' soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in Arctic permafrost peatlands, which represent large potential sources for increased emissions of the greenhouse gases CH(4) and CO(2) in a warming climate. The microbial communities and their genetic repertoire involved in the breakdown and mineralisation of SOC in these soils are, however, poorly understood. In this study, we applied a combined metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach on two Arctic peat soils to investigate the identity and the gene pool of the microbiota driving the SOC degradation in the seasonally thawed active layers. A large and diverse set of genes encoding plant polymer-degrading enzymes was found, comparable to microbiotas from temperate and subtropical soils. This indicates that the metabolic potential for SOC degradation in Arctic peat is not different from that of other climatic zones. The majority of these genes were assigned to three bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes. Anaerobic metabolic pathways and the fraction of methanogenic archaea increased with peat depth, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. A population of CH(4)-oxidising bacteria closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum was the dominating active group of methanotrophs. Based on the in-depth characterisation of the microbes and their genes, we conclude that these Arctic peat soils will turn into CO(2) sources owing to increased active layer depth and prolonged growing season. However, the extent of future CH(4) emissions will critically depend on the response of the methanotrophic bacteria.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Land Management on Organic Matter Composition in Peat Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A.; Holden, J.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands are seen as important stores of terrestrial carbon, accounting for up to one-third of global soil carbon stocks. In some cases peatlands are shown to be emitters of carbon, in other cases carbon sinks depending on the site conditions and nature of degradation. However, carbon budget calculations carried out to date have a number of uncertainties associated with them and the composition of the carbon is generally not considered when determining carbon budgets. Carbon cycling in peat is driven by four key factors (Laiho, 2006):, environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, water table level), substrate quality (e.g. how recalcitrant the peat is), nutrients (e.g. nitrogen required to synthesis the carbon stocks) and microbial community (e.g. are the microbes present able to utilise the available substrate). Land management is also recognised as an additional driver, but the impacts of many types of management are poorly understood. Among the four drivers listed by Laiho (2006) substrate quality is seen as the most significant. To date, little work has been carried out to characterise the quality of organic matter in peat soils; rather crude estimates have been made as to the quantity of carbon that is stored in peatlands, yet without understanding the composition of the peat, limitations are imposed on calculations of rates of carbon loss from peatlands. This work seeks to examine how variations in the chemical composition of organic matter in peat varies with land use. The method published by Wieder and Starr (1998) was followed to determine eight fractions: soluble fats and waxes, hot water soluble, hollocellulose, cellulose, soluble phenolics, acid insoluble carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and lignin. Samples were taken from burnt, grazed, drained, afforested and undisturbed sites at the Moor House UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Northern England. The method was used to identify if differences were present in the recalcitrance of the peat and linked

  14. Evaluating the hydraulic and transport properties of peat soil using pore network modeling and X-ray micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghloo, Behrad; Price, Jonathan S.; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Quinton, William L.

    2018-06-01

    Micro-scale properties of peat pore space and their influence on hydraulic and transport properties of peat soils have been given little attention so far. Characterizing the variation of these properties in a peat profile can increase our knowledge on the processes controlling contaminant transport through peatlands. As opposed to the common macro-scale (or bulk) representation of groundwater flow and transport processes, a pore network model (PNM) simulates flow and transport processes within individual pores. Here, a pore network modeling code capable of simulating advective and diffusive transport processes through a 3D unstructured pore network was developed; its predictive performance was evaluated by comparing its results to empirical values and to the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. This is the first time that peat pore networks have been extracted from X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of peat deposits and peat pore characteristics evaluated in a 3D approach. Water flow and solute transport were modeled in the unstructured pore networks mapped directly from μCT images. The modeling results were processed to determine the bulk properties of peat deposits. Results portray the commonly observed decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth, which was attributed to the reduction of pore radius and increase in pore tortuosity. The increase in pore tortuosity with depth was associated with more decomposed peat soil and decreasing pore coordination number with depth, which extended the flow path of fluid particles. Results also revealed that hydraulic conductivity is isotropic locally, but becomes anisotropic after upscaling to core-scale; this suggests the anisotropy of peat hydraulic conductivity observed in core-scale and field-scale is due to the strong heterogeneity in the vertical dimension that is imposed by the layered structure of peat soils. Transport simulations revealed that for a given solute, the effective

  15. The relationship between dissolved organic carbon and hydro-climatic factors in peat-muck soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaszczyński Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in soil solution related to groundwater table, soil temperature, moisture, redox potential and intensive storm rain and their changes during ten years (2001–2010. The studies were localized in drained and agriculturally used Kuwasy Mire situated in the middle basin of the Biebrza River, north-eastern Poland. The study site was situated on a low peat soil managed as intensively used grassland. The soil was recognized as peat-muck in the second stage of the mucking process. DOC concentration was determined by means of the flow colorimetric method using the Skalar equipment.

  16. Nitrogen loss from grassland on peat soils through nitrous oxide production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, J.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Oenema, O.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) in soils is produced through nitrification and denitrification. The N2O produced is considered as a nitrogen (N) loss because it will most likely escape from the soil to the atmosphere as N2O or N2. Aim of the study was to quantify N2O production in grassland on peat soils in

  17. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  18. Microbial Activity in Peat Soil Treated With Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Coal Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is a cumulative of decayed plant fragment which developed as a result of microbial activity. The microbes degrade the organic matter in the peat soils by the production of hydrolysis enzyme. The least decomposed peat, known as fibric peat has big particles and retain lots of water. This made peat having high moisture content, up to 1500 %. The most decomposed peat known as sapric peat having fines particles and less void ratio. The present study aimed to understand the effects of solidification process on the bacterial growth and cellulase (CMCase) enzyme activity. Two types of mixing were designed for fibric, hemic and sapric peats; (i) Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at an equal amount of dry peat, with 25 % of fly ash (FA) and total of coarse particle, a combination of bottom ash and fibre of 22 – 34 %, (ii) fibric peat was using water-to-binder ratio (w/b) = 1, 50% OPC, 25 % bottom ash (BA) and 25 % FA. For hemic and sapric peat, w/b=3 with 50 % OPC and 50 % BA were used. All samples were prepared triplicates, and were cured for 7, 14, 28 and 56 days in a closed container at room temperature. The results revealed that the first mix design giving a continuous strength development. However, the second mix design shows a decreased in strength pattern after day 28. The influence of the environment factors such as alkaline pH, reduction of the water content and peat temperature has no significant on the reduction amount of native microbes in the peat. The microbes survived in the solidified peat but the amount of microbes were found reduced for all types of mixing Fibric Mixed 1 (FM1), Hemic Mixed 1(HM1) and Sapric Mixed 1 (SM1) were having good strength increment for about 330 – 1427 % with enzymatic activity recorded even after D56. Nevertheless, with increase in the strength development through curing days, the enzymatic activities were reduced. For the time being, it can be concluded that the microbes have the ability to adapt with new environment

  19. Does Miscanthus cultivation on organic soils compensate for carbon loss from peat oxidation? A dual label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage and thereby changes conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, organic carbon that had been accumulated over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils are converted from a CO2 sink to a source. The peat mineralization rate depends mainly on drainage depth, but also on crop type. Various studies show that Miscanthus, a C4 bioenergy plant, shows potential for carbon sequestration in mineral soils because of its high productivity, its dense root system, absence of tillage and high preharvest litterfall. If Miscanthus cropping would have a similar effect in organic soils, peat consumption and thus CO2 emissions might be reduced. For our study we compared two adjacent fields, on which organic soil is cultivated with Miscanthus (since 20 years) and perennial grass (since 6 years). Both sites are located in the Bernese Seeland, the largest former peatland area of Switzerland. To determine wether Miscanthus-derived carbon accumulated in the organic soil, we compared the stable carbon isotopic signatures of the experimental soil with those of an organic soil without any C4-plant cultivation history. To analyze the effect of C4-C accumulation on peat degradability we compared the CO2 emissions by incubating 90 soil samples of the two fields for more than one year. Additionally, we analysed the isotopic CO2 composition (13C, 14C) during the first 25 days of incubation after trapping the emitted CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3. The ∂13C values of the soil imply, that the highest share of C4-C of around 30% is situated at a depth of 10-20 cm. Corn that used to be cultivated on the grassland field before 2009 still accounts for 8% of SOC. O/C and H/C ratios of the peat samples indicate a stronger microbial imprint of organic matter under Miscanthus cultivation. The amount of CO2 emitted was not affected by the cultivation type. On average 57% of the CO2 was C4 derived in the

  20. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drainage of peatlands leads to the decomposition of peat, resulting in substantial losses of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. The conservation and restoration of peatlands can provide a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change. Improvements to guidance and capacity for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands will be valuable in the context of the current negotiations towards a post-2012 climate agreement. This article evaluates IPCC approaches to greenhouse gas emissions from managed organic (peat soils and presents a summary table comparing IPCC default values with best estimates based on recent literature. Inconsistencies are pointed out with regard to the IPCC definitions of organic soils and climate zones. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines use a definition of organic soil that is not totally consistent with FAO definitions, use climate zones that are not fully compatible, present default CO2 values that are substantially (often an order of magnitude too low, and present a default N2O value for tropical cropland that is also an order of magnitude too low. An update of IPCC default values is desirable. The IPCC Emission Factor Database offers a platform for establishing more accurate emission factors, but so far contains little information about emissions from peat soils.

  2. GIS-based examination of peats and soils in Surfers Paradise, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ani Haider

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subsoil conditions of Surfers Paradise in Southeast Queensland of Australia have been examined in terms of soil stiffness by using geographic information system (GIS. Peat is a highly organic and compressible material. Surfers Paradise (as a study area has problematic peat layer due to its high water content, high compressibility, and low shear strength. This layer has various thicknesses at different locations ranging between R.L. . 10 to R.L. -19.6 m. Buildings in Surfers Paradise are using piled foundations to avoid the high compressibility and low shear strength peat layer. Spatial Analyst extension in the GIS ArcMap10 has been utilised to develop zonation maps for different depths in the study area. Each depth has been interpolated as a surface to create Standard Penetration Test SPT-N value GIS-based zonation maps for each depth. In addition, 8 interpolation techniques have been examined to evaluate which technique gives better representation for the Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Inverse Distance weighing (IDW method in Spatial Analyst extension gives better representation for the utilised data with certain parameters. Two different cross sections have been performed in the core of the study area to determine the extent and the depth of the peat layer underneath already erected buildings. Physical and engineering properties of the Surfers Paradise peat have been obtained and showed that this peat falls within the category of tropical peat.

  3. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-01-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E 4 /E 6 ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO 2 content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E 4 /E 6 ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  4. Seasonal methane dynamics in three temperate grasslands on peat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Carolyn; Elsgaard, Lars; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Drained peatlands are considered to be insignificant CH4 sources, but the effect of drainage on CH4 dynamics has not been extensively studied. We investigated seasonal dynamics of CH4 in two fen peat soils and one bog peat soil under permanent grassland in Denmark. Methods Soil......, even though soil CH4 concentrations of up to 155 and 1000 μmol CH4 dm−3 were measured in one of the fen peats and in the bog peat, respectively. Significant CH4 concentrations were observed above the water table. Methane production assays confirmed the presence of viable methanogens in the upper parts...... of the bog peat soil. The aerenchymous plant Juncus effusus L. liberated CH4 from the peat at rates of up to 3.3 mg CH4 m−2 h−1. No CH4 dynamics were observed in the second fen peat which, in contrast to the other two sites, had high sulfate concentrations. Conclusions Peat type and the distribution...

  5. Bearing capacity of helical pile foundation in peat soil from different, diameter and spacing of helical plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnanta, F.; Satibi, S.; Muhardi

    2018-03-01

    In an area dominated by thick peat soil layers, driven piles foundation is often used. These piles are generally skin friction piles where the pile tips do not reach hard stratum. Since the bearing capacity of the piles rely on the resistance of their smooth skin, the bearing capacity of the piles are generally low. One way to increase the bearing capacity of the piles is by installing helical plates around the pile tips. Many research has been performed on helical pile foundation. However, literature on the use of helical pile foundation on peat soil is still hardly found. This research focus on the study of axial bearing capacity of helical pile foundation in peat soil, especially in Riau Province. These full-scale tests on helical pile foundation were performed in a rectangular box partially embedded into the ground. The box is filled with peat soil, which was taken from Rimbo Panjang area in the district of Kampar, Riau Province. Several helical piles with different number, diameter and spacing of the helical plates have been tested and analysed. The tests result show that helical pile with three helical plates of uniform diameter has better bearing capacity compared to other helical piles with varying diameter and different number of helical plates. The bearing capacity of helical pile foundation is affected by the spacing between helical plates. It is found that the effective helical plates spacing for helical pile foundation with diameter of 15cm to 35cm is between 20cm to 30cm. This behaviour may be considered to apply to other type of helical pile foundations in peat soil.

  6. Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rob F. A.; van den Akker, Jan J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands In the Netherlands, about 8% of the area is covered by peat soils. Most of these soils are in use for dairy farming and, consequently, are drained. Drainage causes decomposition of peat by oxidation and accordingly leads to surface subsidence and greenhouse gas emission. Submerged drains that enhance submerged infiltration of water from ditches during the dry and warm summer half year were, and are still, studied in The Netherlands as a promising tool for reducing peat decomposition by raising groundwater levels. For this purpose, several pilot field studies in the Western part of the Dutch peat area were conducted. Besides the effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing peat decomposition and subsidence by raising groundwater tables, some other relevant or expected effects of these drains were studied. Most important of these are water management and loading of surface water with nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphate. Because most of these parameters are not easy to assess and all of them are strongly depending on the meteorological conditions during the field studies some of these studies were modelled. The SWAP model was used for evaluating the hydrological results on groundwater table and water discharge and recharge. Effects of submerged drains were assessed by comparing the results of fields with and without drains. An empirical relation between deepest groundwater table and subsidence was used to convert effects on groundwater table to effects on subsidence. With the SWAP-ANIMO model nutrient loading of surface water was modelled on the basis of field results on nutrient concentrations . Calibrated models were used to assess effects in the present situation, as thirty-year averages, under extreme weather

  7. Time-scales of hydrological forcing on the geochemistry and bacterial community structure of temperate peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Flavia L. D.; Aquilina, Luc; De Ridder, Jo; Francez, André-Jean; Quaiser, Achim; Caudal, Jean-Pierre; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Dufresne, Alexis

    2015-10-01

    Peatlands are an important global carbon reservoir. The continued accumulation of carbon in peatlands depends on the persistence of anoxic conditions, in part induced by water saturation, which prevents oxidation of organic matter, and slows down decomposition. Here we investigate how and over what time scales the hydrological regime impacts the geochemistry and the bacterial community structure of temperate peat soils. Peat cores from two sites having contrasting groundwater budgets were subjected to four controlled drought-rewetting cycles. Pore water geochemistry and metagenomic profiling of bacterial communities showed that frequent water table drawdown induced lower concentrations of dissolved carbon, higher concentrations of sulfate and iron and reduced bacterial richness and diversity in the peat soil and water. Short-term drought cycles (3-9 day frequency) resulted in different communities from continuously saturated environments. Furthermore, the site that has more frequently experienced water table drawdown during the last two decades presented the most striking shifts in bacterial community structure, altering biogeochemical functioning of peat soils. Our results suggest that the increase in frequency and duration of drought conditions under changing climatic conditions or water resource use can induce profound changes in bacterial communities, with potentially severe consequences for carbon storage in temperate peatlands.

  8. Emissions of N2O from peat soils under different cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Lisbet; Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture use leads to an increase in nitrogen turnover rate causing emissions of N2O to the atmosphere. Agriculture contributes to a substantial part of the anthropogenic emissions of N2O therefore mitigation options for the farmers are important. Here we present a field study with the aim to investigate if the choice of cropping system can mitigate the emission of N2O from cultivated organic soils. The sites used in the study represent fen peat soils with a range of different soil properties located in different parts of southern Sweden. All sites are on active farms with good drainage. N2O emissions from the soil under two different crops grown on the same field, with the same soil type, drainage intensity and weather conditions, are compared by gas sampling. The crops included are oat, barley, carrot, potato and grassland. Three or four sampling occasions during the growing season in 2010 were carried out with static chambers. The N2O emission is calculated from the linear increase of gas concentration in the chamber headspace during the incubation time of 40 minutes. Parallel to the gas sampling soil temperature and soil moisture are measured and some soil properties determined. The result from the gas sampling and measurements show no significant difference in seasonal average N2O emission between the compared crops at any site. There are significant differences in N2O emissions between the compared crops at some of the single sampling occasions but the result vary and no crop can be pointed out as a mitigation option. The seasonal average N2O emissions varies from 16±17 to 1319±1971 μg N2O/m2/h with peaks up to 3317 μg N2O/m2/h. The N2O emission rate from peat soils are determined by other factors than the type of crops grown on the field. The emission rates vary during the season and especially between sites. Although all sites are fen peat soil the soil properties are different, e.g. carbon content varies between 27-43% and

  9. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation

  10. Soil Fungal Community Associated with Peat in Sarawak Identified Using 18S rDNA Marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali; Sakinah Safari; Mohd Shawal Thakib; Shamsilawani Ahamed Bakeri; Nur Aziemah Ab Ghani

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are principal decomposing microorganisms in acidic environment of peat lands. A useful tool for molecular screening of soil fungal communities using the 18S ribosomal DNA primer has been proven capable of identifying a broad range of fungi species within Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. Currently, very little information is available on fungal communities in deep peat of Sarawak, Malaysia. In this study, we have isolated the fungi from soil samples taken in deep peat forests and oil palm cultivated areas. The fungal identity was undertaken using 18S ribosomal DNA primer which is EF4-F/ fung5-R. The microscopic structures were conducted to confirm the identity of the isolates. Based on this study, the fungal division most commonly found in deep peat is the Ascomycota. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common species and more dominant in oil palm cultivated areas and logged-over forest than in primary forest. In the primary forest, the dominant species was the A. flavus, while Hypocrea atroviridis was commonly associated with oil palm cultivated areas and logged-over forest. Other species of fungi isolated in peat primary forests were Penicillium chrysogenum, Trichoderma sp., Phanerochaete sp., Mortierella chlamydospora, A. niger, A. alliaceus, etc. The in-depth difference in the fungal communities for the different sites will be further investigated using the next generation sequencing technology. (author)

  11. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Different Peat Size and Pre-Consolidation Pressure of Reconstituted Peat on Effective Undrained Shear Strength Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Ezree, AM; Nizam, ZM

    2017-08-01

    Shear strength of the soil is one of the most important parameters in engineering design, especially during the pre- or post-construction periods, since it is mainly used to measure and evaluate the foundation or slope stability of soil. Peat normally known as a soil that has a very low value of shear strength, and in order to determine and understand the shear strength of the peat, it is a difficult task in geotechnical engineering due to several factors such as types of fabrics, the origin of the soil, water content, organic matter and the degree of humification. The aim of this study is to determine the effective undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat of different sizes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed the opening sieve of 0.425 mm (effective undrained shear strength properties for reconstituted peat effective shear strength properties for the reconstituted peat effective undrained shear strength properties result obtained from the tests show that the reconstituted peat pore pressure, Δu, show both of peat

  13. Phosphorus in virgin peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the total and organic P content of virgin peat soils is studied on the basis of 217 peat samples mostly collected from Northern Finland and consisting of 32 Sp, 34 CSp, 62 SCp, 12 EuSCp, 36 BCp, and 41 Cp samples. The material was found to be satisfactorily typical for a study of Finnish peat soils as to the pH, ash and N contents. Only the BCp samples were, in some respect, of a poorer quality than in general. The total P content of the 217 samples ranged from 190 to 2350 ppm or from 30 to 2440 kg/ha. In the Sp and BCp groups the mean P content was equal, 580 ± 80 ppm and 560 ± 90 ppm resp., and significantly lower than the corresponding value in all the other groups which was 950 ±120 ppm in the Cp-group, 980 ± 290 in the EuSCp-group, 800 ± 60 in the SCp-group, and 800 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group. A low but significant correlation was found to exist between the degree of land quality estimated on the basis of the surface vegetation and the P content of the surface samples: r = 0.361***. When the BCp samples were excluded an even closer correlation was detected: r = 0.481***. The correlation coefficient between the total P content and the degree of humification was r = 0.317***, that between the total P and the ash contents r = 0.289**, and that between the total P and N contents r = 0.206*. The organic P content of the 217 samples ranged from 130 to 1950 ppm with an average of 600 ± 40 ppm. The Sp and BCp groups showed significantly lower means, 430 ± 60 ppm and 440 ±7O ppm resp., than the other groups with averages of 630 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group, 620 ± 50 ppm in the SCp-group, 770 ± 100 ppm in the Cp-group and 820 ± 280 in the EuSCp-group. The organic P content was very closely correlated with the total P content; the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.934***. The connection with the degree of humification was not distinct: the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.336***, but the partial correlation

  14. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  15. A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Warren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of belowground carbon stocks in tropical wetland forests requires funding for laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple analytical tools to assist belowground carbon estimation where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (kgC m−3; Cd as a function of bulk density (gC cm−3; Bd, which can be used to rapidly estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 495.14 + 5.41, R2 = 0.93, n = 151 for soils with organic C content > 40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted belowground C stocks to within 0.92% to 9.57% of observed values. Average bulk density of collected peat samples was 0.127 g cm−3, which is in the upper range of previous reports for Southeast Asian peatlands. When original data were included, the revised equation Cd = Bd × 468.76 + 5.82, with R2 = 0.95 and n = 712, was slightly below the lower 95% confidence interval of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well-developed peat soils where C content > 40%.

  16. Contaminated lead environments of man: reviewing the lead isotopic evidence in sediments, peat, and soils for the temporal and spatial patterns of atmospheric lead pollution in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard

    2011-08-01

    atmospherically deposited lead is ~2-5 g Pb m(-2) and ~1 g Pb m(-2) in the "pristine" north. Half of this cumulative total was deposited before industrialization. (4) In the vicinity of the Rönnskär smelter in northern Sweden, a major point source during the twentieth century, there is an isotopic pattern that deviates from the general trends elsewhere, reflecting the particular history of ore usage at Rönnskär, which further demonstrates the chronological record of lead loading recorded in peat and in soil mor horizons.

  17. Halogens in pore water of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Halogens are strongly enriched in peat and peatlands and such they are one of their largest active terrestrial reservoir. The enrichment of halogens in peat is mainly attributed to the formation of organohalogens and climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release of halogens from the peat substrate and the distribution of halogens in the peat pore water. In this study we have investigated the distribution of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water of three pristine peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat pore waters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth greater than 6m. Halogens and halogen species in pore water were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in pore water are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123 μg l−1, and 10–20 μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organobromine and organoiodine were the predominant species in pore waters, whereas chlorine in pore water was mostly chloride. Advection and diffusion of halogens were found to be generally low and halogen concentrations appear to reflect release from the peat substrate. Release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. It has been concluded that the release of halogenated dissolved organic matter (DOM is the predominant mechanism of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  18. The effects of salinization on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition and mineralization in peat meadows : the roles of peat type and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Hefting, Mariet M

    2014-01-01

    Peat soils comprise a large part of the western and northern Netherlands. Drainage for agriculture has caused increased soil aeration which has stimulated decomposition and, hence, soil subsidence, currently amounting to 1-2 cm/yr. River water is supplied to these peat areas in summer to prevent

  19. Changes in vegetation, peat properties and peat accumulation in Swedish peatlands as revealed by archive data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoning, Kristian; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation we have studied patterns in peat accumulation and changes in mire status since the early 1900s for two areas in Sweden. In the early 1900s the Geological Survey of Sweden collected a vast amount of peat and peatland data, including information on vegetation and land-use. We have used this archive data to evaluate changes in mire vegetation, mire wetness and surface peat properties, rates of peat accumulation, succession in young wetlands and the effects of cultivation on peatlands. In total 156 mires in an uplift area of eastern middle Sweden were included in the data-set, including both pristine mires and peatlands used for agricultural purposes. In this area new peatlands have continuously been formed during the past 7 000 years making it possible to evaluate changes in peat accumulation over time. The other study area is situated in the south Swedish Uplands where we have revisited some larger bogs. The results from our investigation show that many of the peatlands have underwent major changes since the early 1900s. In most of the small peatlands we have found important changes in vegetation where mire vegetation has been replaced by nutrient demanding and/or dry species flora while the tree stand on large mires in south Sweden have increased. In some mires humification has increased in the uppermost peat-layers and the mire surface have become drier compared to the early 1900s. In eastern middle Sweden there are indications that the peat accumulation is lower 0,5 mm/year in older peatlands compared with younger ones 1,2 mm/year, although the mire vegetation in the older peatlands is dominated by sphagnum. The peat depth of the cultivated mires in this area shows a mean decrease of 40 cm since the early 1900s.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of fibrous peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutejo, Yulindasari; Saggaff, Anis; Rahayu, Wiwik; Hanafiah

    2017-11-01

    Banyuasin is one of the regency in South Sumatera which has an area of 200.000 Ha of peat land. Peat soil are characterized by high compressibility parameters and low initial shear strength. Block sampling method was used to obtain undisturbed sample. The results of this paper describe the characteristics of peat soil from physical and chemical testing. The physical and chemical characteristics of peat include water content (ω), specific gravity (Gs), Acidity (pH), unit weight (γ), and ignition loss tests. SEM and EDS test was done to determine the differences in fiber content and to analyze chemical elements of the specimen. The average results ω, Gs, and pH are 263.538 %, 1.847, and 3.353. Peat is classified in H4 (by Von Post). The results of organic content (OC), ash content (AC), and fiber content (FC) are found 78.693 %, 21.310 %, and 73.703 %. From the results of physical and chemical tests, the peat in Banyuasin is classified as fibrous peat. All the results of the characteristics and classification of fibrous peat compared with published data were close.

  1. Influence of pore structure on solute transport in degraded and undegraded fen peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kleimeier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In peat soils, decomposition and degradation reduce the proportion of large pores by breaking down plant debris into smaller fragments and infilling inter-particle pore spaces. This affects water flow and solute migration which, in turn, influence reactive transport processes and biogeochemical functions. In this study we conducted flow-through reactor experiments to investigate the interplay between pore structure and solute transport in samples of undegraded and degraded peat collected in Canada and Germany, respectively. The pore size distributions and transport parameters were characterised using the breakthrough curve and two-region non-equilibrium transport model analyses for a non-reactive solute. The results of transport characterisation showed a higher fraction of immobile pores in the degraded peat with higher diffusive exchanges of solutes between the mobile and immobile pores associated with the dual-porosity structure. The rates of steady-state potential nitrate reduction were compared with pore fractions and exchange coefficients to investigate the influence of pore structure on the rates of nitrate reduction. The results indicated that the degraded peat has potential to provide the necessary boundary conditions to support nitrate removal and serves as a favourable substrate for denitrification, due to the nature of its pore structure and its lower organic carbon content compared to undegraded peat.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the effect of rock phosphate and monoammonium phosphate on plant P: Nutrition in Sod-podzolic and peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.; Putyatin, Yu.; Seraya, T.

    2002-01-01

    The direct application of finely ground rock phosphate (RP) imported from Russia has been suggested as an alternative to the almost twice more expensive water-soluble monoammonium phosphate (MAP) on acid (moderately limed) Sod-podzolic and peat soils. A pot experiment was conducted in 1997-1998 for a comparative evaluation of P availability from RP and MAP using the 32 P isotope dilution technique. The lupine was grown on Sod-podzolic silty clay loam soil with pH 6.0 and a medium level of available P. Ryegrass plants were grown on peat soil with pH 4.9 and a low level of native soil P fertility. Application of RP and MAP at a rate of 40 mg P/kg soil supplied similar moderate mount of P to lupine plants. The Pdff values, i.e. the fractions of P in the plants derived from the applied RP and MAP, were 7.4 and 8.4%, respectively. The application of the same P fertilizers to the peat soil had different effects on P nutrition of ryegrass plants. The Pdff values were 14.9% for RP and 22.1% for MAP. It may be concluded that for most annual crops water-soluble P forms such as MAP should be preferred. Direct application of RP is recommended for plants with an adequate rhizosphere ability to utilize P, such as lupine on acid Sod-podzolic silty clay loam soils (pH 137 Cs on contaminated, moderately limed Sod-podzolic silty clay loam and peat soils. These soils are widely spread in the radioactive contaminated area of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. Direct application of RP may be one of the effective countermeasures for the decrease of 137 Cs transfer from the contaminated acid soils to crop production. (author)

  3. Modulation of hexavalent chromium toxicity on Οriganum vulgare in an acidic soil amended with peat, lime, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Zanni, Anna A; Levizou, Efi; Shaheen, Sabry M; Dimirkou, Anthoula; Bolan, Nanthi; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2018-03-01

    Dynamics of chromate (Cr(VI)) in contaminated soils may be modulated by decreasing its phytoavailability via the addition of organic matter-rich amendments, which might accelerate Cr(VI) reduction to inert chromite (Cr(III)) or high-cation exchange capacity amendments. We studied Cr(VI) phytoavailability of oregano in a Cr(VI)-spiked acidic soil non-treated (S) and treated with peat (SP), lime (SL), and zeolite (SZ). The addition of Cr(VI) increased the concentrations of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in soils and plants, especially in the lime-amended soil. The plant biomass decreased in the lime-amended soil compared to the un-spiked soil (control) due to decreased plant phosphorus concentrations and high Cr(VI) concentrations in root at that treatment. Oregano in the peat-amended soil exhibited significantly less toxic effects, due to the role of organic matter in reducing toxic Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and boosted plant vigour in this treatment. In the lime-amended soil, the parameters of soil Cr(VI), soil Cr(III), and root Cr(III) increased significantly compared to the non-amended soil, indicating that Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) was accelerated at high pH. Added zeolite failed to decreased Cr(VI) level to soil and plant. Oregano achieved a total uptake of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) of 0.275 mg in plant kg -1 soil in a pot in the non-amended soil. We conclude that peat as soil amendment might be considered as a suitable option for decreasing Cr(VI) toxicity in soil and plant, and that oregano as tolerant plant species has a certain potential to be used as a Cr accumulator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of grassland management on the emission of methane from grassland on peat soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project on the title subject is to provide insight into the major controlling factors that contribute to the net exchange rates of methane (CH4) between grassland and atmosphere, and to provide quantitative net CH4 emission rates. Net CH4 emissions have been monitored with vented closed flux chambers on both intensively managed grasslands and grasslands in a nature preserve on peat soil in the Netherlands. Net CH4 emissions from intensively managed grasslands (Zegveld, Netherlands) were low in the period January-December 1994, in general in the range of -0.2 to 0.2 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Only in the relatively warm summer of 1994, consumption of atmospheric CH4 of about 0.4 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} was measured. Effects of ground water level in the range of 30-60 cm below surface were very small. There were also no clear effects of nitrogen fertilization and grazing versus mowing on CH4 emission from the soil. Net CH4 emissions from three extensively managed grasslands in a nature preserve (Nieuwkoopse Plassen area in the Netherlands) ranged from 0-215 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in the period January 1994-June 1995. Differences between the three sites were quite large, as were the spatial variations at each of the sites. The results presented here indicate that a shift of intensively managed peat grasslands into more natural ecosystems will significantly increase the contribution of Dutch peat soils to the total CH4 emission. refs.

  5. Experimental evaluation of drainage filters sealing in peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzorov Aleksandr Leonidovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research results of the sealing of pores in drainage filters by organic particles. Permeability tests were carried out with the constant gradient 1.5. The water flow through the sample of soil was top-down.The tests were carried out with 2 types of samples: the first part of samples had layers (from up to down 300 mm peat and 2 layers of geotextile, the second part consisted of 250 mm peat, 200 mm fine sand and 2 layers of geotextile. Well decomposed peatsamples were used. Peat had the following characteristics: density is 1,05...1,06 g/cm3, specific density — 1,53...1,56 g/cm3, void ratio — 12,0...12,5. The duration of each test was 15 days. During testing the hydraulic conductivity of samples was decreased by 1.3...1.9.After completing the tests the hydraulic conductivity of sand and geotextile were measured. The content of organic matter in geotextile and fine sand was determined as well. Dry mass of organic matter in the first layer of geotextile in the first type of samples were 1,0…1,3 g per 75 cm2. The organic matter in the second layer of geotextile in the first type of samples and in the first layer of geotextile in the second type wasn’t exposed. Fine sands protected the drainage geotextile as a result of sealing of pore space of sands by organic matter.

  6. Biological Chlorine Cycling in Arctic Peat Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamal, J. E.; Raab, T. K.; Lipson, D.

    2014-12-01

    . Incubations were conducted in the laboratory providing arctic soils with Clorg, and measurements taken to assess rates of organohalide respiration show an increase in chloride production due to microbial activity. Investigating these soils with diverse techniques affirms the importance of Cl-cycling in a pristine arctic tundra ecosystem.

  7. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTION OF THE SPECIES BRASSICA JUNCEA (L. CZERN. ON SALINIZED SOILS AMELIORATED WITH ZEOLITIC TUFF, PEAT AND PERLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cătălina PASTIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological reaction of saline stress which Brassica juncea (L. Czern. plants undergo shows a greater growth and fresh substance gain process on previously cultivated soils that were fined with 20% zeolitic tuff and 5.09 g of neutral peat than the ones that had a substrate which hasn’t been cultivated on before that was fined with 5% zeolitic tuff and 1.39 g of perlite. The dry substance values obtained present a positive correlation with the values of fresh substance. Analysis of stomatal conductance enhances the hydric stress of plants which respond to saline stress with osmotic adjustment, accumulating high quantities of water comparing to the witness plant, which induces lower values of stomatal conductance and implicitly values are decreasing for photosynthesis, determining a low productivity. Higher values of stomatal conductance are reached at plants grown on previously cultivated soils fined with 20% zeolitic tuff and peat, and also at the ones grown on uncultivated soils fined with peat (29.45, respectively 30.05 mmol/m2/s.

  9. The Role of Peat Layers on Iron Dynamics in Peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Fahmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of peat thickness and humification stage of the peat material on Fe solubility at the peatlands with sulfidic material as substratum. The research was conducted at three conditionals of ombrogen peatlands ie ; deep, moderate and shallow peat. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer (the border layer of peat and mineral layer and conditional of soil horizons. The sample point depth were (cm G.s2 : 25, G.s1 : 50, Int.s : 70, M.s1 : 90 and M.s2 : 100 for shallow peat, G.m2 : 47, G.m1 : 100, Int.m : 120 and M.m1 : 135 for moderate peat and G.d3 : 50, G.d2 : 150, G.d1 : 200, Int.d : 220 and M.d1 : 235 for deep peat respectively. The results showed that most of Fe on the tested soils was found in organic forms. The peat layers above the sulfidic material decreased the Fe2+ solubility at peatlands. Fe2+ concentration in peat layer decreased with its increasing distance from sulfidic material. There was any other processes beside complexation and chelation of Fe2+ by humic material and its processes was reduction of Fe3+ and this conditions was reflected in redox potential values (Eh.

  10. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bader

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM, typically increasing in the order forest < grassland < cropland. However, there is also large variation in decomposition due to differences in hydrological conditions, climate and specific management. Here we studied the role of SOM composition on peat decomposability in a variety of differently managed drained organic soils. We collected a total of 560 samples from 21 organic cropland, grassland and forest soils in Switzerland, monitored their CO2 emission rates in lab incubation experiments over 6 months at two temperatures (10 and 20 °C and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C. CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g−1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g−1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57

  11. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  12. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Nilsson, Mats

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  13. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  14. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  15. Peat in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinttilae, R.

    1998-01-01

    Peat is the largest natural resource of Finland. The DS-reserves of peat are more than seven times larger than those of wood. Peat is known as a domestic source of energy. Peat is, however, more than an energy source. The most significant problem of water protection in Finland is the eutrophication of the water courses. The reduction of concentrated loads and large emissions sources has up to now been the target for the water protection. The control of diffuse loads has been more difficult. The environmental use of peat can reduce the loads on watercourses, and especially the diffuse emissions. The natural and unique properties of peat can be utilized in several targets: agriculture, pisciculture, fur farming, in small and medium sized industry, and in processing of waste waters of both municipalities and rural areas, as well as in different environmental hazards. The present use of environmental peat is just a small fragment of the annual growth of peat reserves in Finland. The amount of protected mires is about ten times larger than the amount of peatlands taken into peat production. The use of environmental peat makes it possible to reduce the diffuse loads significantly in the future. This, however, requires willingness of cooperation and development by the entrepreneurs, authorities, and peat producers. The present use of agricultural peat binds about three times more phosphor and nearly one and a half fold nitrogen fertilizers compare to the emissions caused by peat production. It has to be noticed that the utilization of peat in reduction of environmental loads does not cause any secondary waste problem. The final product formed can usually be composted and used e.g. in soil remediation or in construction of green areas. The tightening environmental regulations and international agreements increase the utilization of peat. As the demand of peat increased the quality requirements for peat will be increased. Certain grain size and the restoration of the

  16. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  17. Electro-chemistry of soil formation. VI. Atmospheric salts in relation to soil and peat formation and plant composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, S; Sandberg, G; Terning, P E

    1944-01-01

    The Ca/Mg ratios have been determined in the Ramna bog, in the Unden and Annerstad podzol profile series, and in the Dala brown earth series. A number of plant species from each locality have been included. The more ombrogenic the formation, the lower the Ca/Mg ratios. An application of the Donnan equilibrium leads to the conclusion that the saturation with bases may be considerable in ombrogenic peat, whereas the saturation of excessively leached mineral soils must be very small. The latter must, like all weak or unsaturated soil acidoids in general, contain a relatively high proportion of exchangeable alkali cations.

  18. Sorption of selected organic compounds from water to a peat soil and its humic-acid and humin fractions: Potential sources of the sorption nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Rutherford, D.W.; Sheng, G.; Boyd, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water on the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil and on the humic-acid of a muck soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the solutes with the whole peat from which the humic-acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of the solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). The HA fraction as prepared by the density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high- surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumed to be enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET- (N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  19. A Study on Factors Affecting Strength of Solidified Peat through XRD and FESEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Napia, A. M. A.; Nazri, M. A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Geethi, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Peat is soft soil that often causes multiple problems to construction. Peat has low shear strength and high deformation characteristics. Thus, peat soil needs to be stabilized or treated. Study on peat stabilization has been conducted for decades with various admixtures and mixing formulations. This project intends to provide an overview of the solidification of peat soil and the factors that affecting the strength of solidified peat soil. Three types of peats which are fabric, hemic and sapric were used in this study to understand the differences on the effect. The understanding of the factors affecting strength of solidified peat in this study is limited to XRD and FESEM analysis only. Peat samples were collected at Pontian, Johor and Parit Raja, Johor. Peat soil was solidified using fly ash, bottom ash and Portland cement with two mixing formulation following literature review. The solidified peat were cured for 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days. All samples were tested using Unconfined Compressive Strength Test (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The compressive strength test of solidified peat had shown consistently increase of sheer strength, qu for Mixing 1 while decrease of its compressive strength value for Mixing 2. All samples were tested and compared for each curing days. Through XRD, it is found that all solidified peat are dominated with pargasite and richterite. The highest qu is Fabric Mixing 1(FM1) with the value of 105.94 kPa. This sample were proven contain pargasite. Samples with high qu were observed to be having fly ash and bottom ash bound together with the help of pargasite. Sample with decreasing strength showed less amount of pargasite in it. In can be concluded that XRD and FESEM findings are in line with UCS values.

  20. Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-06-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  1. Innovative biocatalytic production of soil substrate from green waste compost as a sustainable peat substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamias, Georgios; Roulia, Maria; Kapsimali, Ioanna; Chassapis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a new simple and quick eco-friendly method is discussed to handle effectively the green wastes and produce a sustainable peat substitute of high quality on the large scale. Principal physicochemical parameters, i.e., temperature, moisture, specific weight, pH, electrical conductivity and, also, microorganisms, organic matter, humic substances, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon, C/N ratio, ash, metal content and phytotoxicity, were monitored systematically. Humic substances content values were interrelated to both C/N ratio and pH values and, similarly, bulk density, TOC, TKN, C/N, GI, ash and organic matter were found interconnected to each other. A novel biocatalyst, extremely rich in soil microorganisms, prepared from compost extracts and peaty lignite, accelerated the biotransformation. Zeolite was also employed. The compost does not demonstrate any phytotoxicity throughout the entire biotransformation process and has increased humic substances content. Both humic substances content and germination index can be employed as maturation indices of the compost. Addition of compost, processed for 60 days only, in cultivations of grass plants led to a significant increase in the stem mass and root size, annotating the significant contribution of the compost to both growth and germination. The product obtained is comparable to peat humus, useful as peat substitute and can be classified as a first class soil conditioner suitable for organic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K

    2008-10-15

    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  3. Can differences in soil community composition after peat meadow restoration lead to different decomposition and mineralization rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Didden, W.A.M.; Kuenen, F.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Verhoef, H.A.; Aerts, R.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing decomposition and mineralization of organic matter by increasing groundwater levels is a common approach to reduce plant nutrient availability in many peat meadow restoration projects. The soil community is the main driver of these processes, but how community composition is affected by

  4. Forms and rates of release of Cs-137 in 2 peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Howe, M.T.; Hemingway, J.D.; Goulding, K.W.T.; Howard, B.J.; IACR Rothamsted, Harpenden; Liverpool Univ.; Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands

    1996-01-01

    Cation exchange resin saturated with H+ and Ca2+ was used to extract Cs-137 from peat soil at two sites in Britain affected by Cs-137 deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The technique identified three classes of Cs-137, similar to those observed for K+ in soils: ''Fast'', ''Intermediate'' and ''Slow''. These classes are probably related to the selectivity for Cs-137 of the cation exchange sites on the organic matter and the clay minerals, and to the structure of the soil. With one exception, most Cs-137 was in the ''Slow'' form and was only very slowly released to the resins, if at all. However, there was enough Cs-137 in the ''Fast'' and ''Intermediate'' forms to contaminate pasture and thus grazing animals for some years. Based on the resin technique, it is estimated that contamination will persist for several decades in uplands contaminated at these activity concentrations. (Author)

  5. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  6. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  7. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  8. Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs. © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  10. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  11. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  12. Examination of soil contaminated by coal-liquids by size exclusion chromatography in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solution to evaluate interference from humic and fulvic acids and extracts from peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T J; Herod, A A; Brain, S A; Chambers, F M; Kandiyoti, R

    2005-11-18

    Soil from a redundant coke oven site has been examined by extraction of soluble materials using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the extracted material. The extracted material was found to closely resemble a high temperature coal tar pitch. Standard humic and fulvic acids were also examined since these materials are very soluble in NMP and would be extracted with pitch if present in the soil. Humic substances derived from peat samples and NMP-extracts of peats were also examined. The results show that the humic and fulvic substances were not extracted directly by NMP from peats. They were extracted using caustic soda solution and were different from the peat extracts in NMP. These results indicate that humic and fulvic acids were soluble in NMP in the protonated polyelectrolyte form but not in the original native polyelectrolyte form. The extraction of soil using NMP followed by SEC appears to be a promising method for identifying contamination by coal-based industries.

  13. IR-spectroscopy as an analytical method for identification of horticultural peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtovaara, J.; Herranen, M.; Nyroenen, T.; MacDonald, A.

    1988-01-01

    The process of selecting different peat types for horticultural purposes involves many physical and chemical determinations. Infrared spectroscopy could be used together with the usual methods for the evaluation of peat quality. Due to the fact that different peats contain different amounts of infrared absorbing functional groups, each peat produces a characteristic spectrum. From the spectrum, one may determine the botanical composition, degree of humification, ash content, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen content and carbon content, of the natural peat. The spectrum also shows whether the peat has been fertilized and limed and in some cases the presence of mineral soil or wetting agent mixed in the peat may be detected

  14. Permeability Characteristics of Compacted and Stabilized Clay with Cement, Peat Ash and Silica Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeil Mousavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the influence of stabilization with cement, peat ash, and silica sand on permeability coefficient (kv of compacted clay, using a novel approach to stabilize the clay with peat ash as a supplementary material of cement in the compacted and stabilized soil. In order to assess the mentioned influence, test specimens of both untreated and stabilized soil have been tested in the laboratory so that their permeability could be evaluated. Falling head and one dimensional consolidation tests of laboratory permeability were performed on the clay specimens and the chemical compositions of the materials as well as microstructure of the stabilized soil with 18% cement, 2% peat ash, and 5% silica sand were investigated, using X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Results show that for soil stabilization with up to 8% cement content (of the dry weight of the soil, the average value of coefficient of permeability (kv is very close to that of untreated soil, whereas the kv value decreases drastically for 18% cement under identical void ratio conditions. It is further revealed that addition of 18% cement, 2% peat ash, and 5% silica sand had decreased the coefficient of permeability by almost 2.2 folds after 24 h, while about 1.7 folds increase was observed in coefficient of permeability once 13.5% of cement, 1.5% of peat ash, and 20% of silica sand were added. The partial replacement of cement with the 2% peat ash can reduce the consumption of cement for soil stabilization.

  15. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer; Leifeld, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C) store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), typically increasing in the order forest accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57 ± 0.05) was the same for all land uses but lowest below 60 cm in croplands and grasslands. This, in turn, indicates a relative accumulation of recalcitrant peat in topsoils.

  16. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

  17. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  18. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  19. Fishery impacts of peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, A.; Heikkinen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The total area of Finland's peat mining areas is approx. 60 000 ha. Increase in runoff from peat mining areas and changes in the quality of the runoff water, such as rises in solid matter, humus and nutrient content, result in a higher load on the lakes and rivers downstream peat mining areas. Loading from peat mining areas has been found to increase the bacterioplankton densities and change the species composition of phytoplankton in watercourses. Periphytic biomass has increased but zooplankton biomass and diversity have decreased. Corresponding changes and decreases in the number of species have also been observed in the bottom fauna of flowing waters. The loading caused by peat mining affects the fish stocks either directly or via changes in reproduct conditions and the availability of food organisms. Direct effects can be revealed as withdrawal of fish, their weakened condition and increased susceptibility to diseases, tainting or, in the worst case, even fish kills. Both organic and inorganic solid matter loading which deposits on the bottom have the most pronounced effects on fish reproduction and bottom fauna used as their food. Soiling of nets and changes in the condition of the fishing areas have a detrimental effect on fisheries. The changes that take place in the fish stocks are affected by the nature of the water system, the size of the peat mining areas and their location within the catchment area, as well as the quantity and timing of load coming from the peat mining areas. These can be influenced through technical water protection measures

  20. Assessing the probability of carbon and greenhouse gas benefit from the management of peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, F.; Bell, M.J.; Bhogal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a method for assessing the probability that land management interventions will lead to an improvement in the carbon sink represented by peat soils. The method is able to: combine studies of different carbon uptake and release pathways in order to assess changes on the overall carbon or greenhouse gas budget; calculate the probability of the management or restoration leading to an improvement in the budget; calculate the uncertainty in that probability estimate; estimate the equivalent number of complete budgets available from the combination of the literature; test the difference in the outcome of different land management interventions; and provide a method for updating the predicted probabilities as new studies become available. Using this methodology, this study considered the impact of: afforestation, managed burning, drainage, drain-blocking, grazing removal; and revegetation, on the carbon budget of peat soils in the UK. The study showed that afforestation, drain-blocking, revegetation, grazing removal and cessation of managed burning would bring a carbon benefit, whereas deforestation, managed burning and drainage would bring a disbenefit. The predicted probabilities of a benefit are often equivocal as each management type or restoration often leads to increase in uptake in one pathway while increasing losses in another.

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions from peat soils under potato cultivation in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Organic wetland soils in south western Uganda are found in valley bottom wetlands, surrounded by steep, mineral soil hill slopes. Land use change in these papyrus dominated wetlands has taken place over the past forty years, seeing wetland areas cleared of papyrus, rudimentary drainage channel systems dug, and soil cultivated and planted with crops, predominantly potatoes. There has been little research into the cultivation of organic wetlands soils in Uganda, or the impacts on soil carbon dynamics and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used two rounds of farmer interviews to capture the land management practices on these soils and how they vary over the period of a year. Three potato fields were also randomly selected and sampled for CO2 emissions at four points in time during the year; 1) just after the potato beds had been dug, 2) during the potato growing period, 3) after the potato harvest, and 4) at the end of the fallow season. Carbon dioxide emissions, soil and air temperatures, water table depth, vegetation cover and land use were all recorded in situ in each field on each sampling occasion, from both the raised potato beds and the trenches in between them. There appeared to be a delay in the disturbance effect of digging the peat, with heterotrophic CO2 emissions from the raised beds not immediately increasing after being exposed to the air. Excluding these results, there was a significant linear relationship between mean emissions and water table depth from the raised beds and trenches in each field over time (pgaps which need to be addressed with future studies.

  2. Distribution of 35 Elements in Peat Cores from Ombrotrophic Bogs Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2004-01-01

    In ombrotrophic bogs the surface peat layer is supplied with chemical substances only from the atmosphere. Peat cores from these bogs therefore can be used to study temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. In this work epithermal neutron activation analysis was applied for the first time to study the distribution of 35 elements in peat profiles from ombrotrophic bogs. The selected examples were from Finnmark county in northern Norway: one pristine site far from any local pollution source, and another strongly affected by long-term operation of Russian copper-nickel smelters located close to the border. The elements are classified with respect to their behavior in the uppermost 40 cm of the peat, and similarities and differences between the two profiles are discussed. As compared with other more commonly used analytical techniques based on acid decomposition of the sample ENAA has the advantage of providing the total concentrations of the elements.

  3. Predicting the release of metals from ombrotrophic peat due to drought-induced acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E.; Smith, E.J.; Lawlor, A.J.; Hughes, S.; Stevens, P.A

    2003-05-01

    Metals stored in peats can be remobilised by sulphuric acid, generated by the drought-induced oxidation of reduced sulphur. - Ombrotrophic peats in northern England and Scotland, close to industrial areas, have substantial contents of potentially toxic metals (Al, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) and of pollutant sulphur, all derived from atmospheric deposition. The peat sulphur, ordinarily in reduced form, may be converted to sulphuric acid under drought conditions, due to the entry of oxygen into the peats. The consequent lowering of soil solution pH is predicted to cause the release of metals held on ligand sites of the peat organic matter. The purpose of the present study was to explore, by simulation modelling, the extent of the metal response. Chemical variables (elemental composition, pH, metal contents) were measured for samples of ombrotrophic peats from three locations. Water extracts of the peats, and samples of local surface water, were also analysed, for pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals. Metal release from peats due to acidification was demonstrated experimentally, and could be accounted for reasonably well using a speciation code (WHAM/Model VI). These data, together with information on metal and S deposition, and meteorology, were used to construct a simple description of peat hydrochemistry, based on WHAM/Model VI, that takes into account ion-binding by humic substances (assumed to be the 'active' constituents of the peat with respect to ion-binding). The model was used to simulate steady state situations that approximated the observed soil pH, metal pools and dissolved metal concentrations. Then, drought conditions were imposed, to generate increased concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, in line with those observed during the drought of 1995. The model calculations suggest that the pH will decrease from the initial steady state value of 4.3 to 3.3-3.6 during rewetting periods following droughts, depending upon assumptions about the

  4. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  5. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  6. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  7. Markers of Soil Organic Matter Transformation in Permafrost Peat Mounds of Northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, A. V.; Knoblauch, C.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Kaverin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the paleoreconstruction of permafrost peat mounds and the identification of plant communities participating in the formation of peat, the contents of n-alkanes (C20-C33) have been determined, and relative changes in the stable isotope compositions of carbon and nitrogen and the C/N ratio have been analysed. Several indices ( CPI alkanes, P aq, P wax) have been calculated to assess the degree of decomposition of the peats studied and the contributions of different plant species to their formation. It has been found that shortand long-chain n-alkanes are concentrated in high-moor peat, while medium-chain alkanes are typical for transitional peat. Integrated analysis of the studied markers has shown that the botanical and material composition of peat, anaerobic conditions of bog formation, and permafrost play an important role in the preservation of organic carbon in permafrost peat mounds. Alternation of plant associations is the main reason for changes in n-alkane concentrations, C/N ratios, and δ13C values.

  8. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  9. Acceleration of peat drying by intensifying the heat and mass transfer; Turpeen kuivumisen nopeuttaminen laemmoen- ja aineensiirtoa tehostamalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, K.

    1996-12-31

    The efficiency of peat production can be increased by intensifying peat drying. To intensify drying one has to know the effects of the different factors affecting the heat and mass transfer in the drying layer and in the soil. The objective of the study is to increase the degree of utilization of solar energy in drying of peat from the present level of 30% to 40% of the total incoming solar energy. In this way it is possible to reduce the peat production costs about 10%. A numerical drying model has been developed which describes the transfer of liquid water, water vapor and heat in the drying layer and in the soil. In addition, the interaction between the atmosphere and the drying layer, as well as the rainfall interception by the layer, infiltration, evaporation, and drainage have been taking into account. Daily input requirements include global solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation. In addition to the weather data one has to know the characteristics of the drying layer and the soil. The numerical drying model was also used to study the effect of soil frost on peat drying and the possibilities to hinder the frost formation. Producing peat on the field which is still partly frozen, the drying of peat takes 10 - 25% longer time than under normal conditions, which means 5 - 25 hours longer drying period. By forming a porous, insulating layer on the top of the soil surface, one can hinder the frost formation significantly. Raising the groundwater level prevents, however, only a little the frost formation in peat soil

  10. Construction of Infrastructure on Peat: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ling Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of infrastructures on peat land is a very challenging task due to its properties of low shear strength, high compressibility and high water content. This paper summarizes various solutions which could be adopted for the construction of infrastructure on peat, as reviewed by the experts and panels during IConCEES International Workshop 2015. Engineers could (a avoid peat, such as to transfer the load to the hard layers through end bearing piles or to replace the peat with the other soils, or (b construct on peat with special precautions, such as by reducing the weight of the construction materials and dewatering the peat to improve the engineering properties. This paper serves to generate new ideas and give insights of the problems commonly encountered by the industry. Some of the proposed solutions might never be tested on peat. This would rely on the researchers to take up the challenge to further investigate and address the technical issues outlined in this paper.

  11. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  12. The Characteristics of Peats and Co2 Emission Due to Fire in Industrial Plant Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, Ambar Tri; Rayahu Prasytaningsih, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Riau Province has a high threat to forest fire in peat soils, especially in industrial forest areas. The impact of fires will produce carbon (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere. The magnitude of carbon losses from the burning of peatlands can be estimated by knowing the characteristics of the fire peat and estimating CO2 emissions produced. The objectives of the study are to find out the characteristics of fire-burning peat, and to estimate carbon storage and CO2 emissions. The location of the research is in the area of industrial forest plantations located in Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province. The method used to measure peat carbon is the method of lost in ignation. The results showed that the research location has a peat depth of 600-800 cm which is considered very deep. The Peat fiber content ranges from 38 to 75, classified as hemic peat. The average bulk density was 0.253 gram cm-3 (0.087-0,896 gram cm-3). The soil ash content is 2.24% and the stored peat carbon stock with 8 meter peat thickness is 10723,69 ton ha-1. Forest fire was predicted to burn peat to a depth of 100 cm and produced CO2 emissions of 6,355,809 tons ha-1.

  13. Site Simulation of Solidified Peat: Lab Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durahim, N. H. Ab; Rahman, J. Abd; Tajuddin, S. F. Mohd; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Kassim, A. H. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    In the present research, the solidified peat on site simulation is conducted to obtain soil leaching from soil column study. Few raw materials used in testing such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) which containing in solidified peat (SP), fertilizer (F), and rainwater (RW) are also admixed in soil column in order to assess their effects. This research was conducted in two conditions which dry and wet condition. Distilled water used to represent rainfall during flushing process while rainwater used to gain leaching during dry and wet condition. The first testing made after leaching process done was Moisture Content (MC). Secondly, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) will be conducted on SP to know the ability of SP strength. These MC and UCS were made before and after SP were applied in soil column. Hence, the both results were compared to see the reliability occur on SP. All leachate samples were tested using Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP-MS) testing to know the anion and cation present in it.

  14. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  15. Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Moretti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy. The water budget in bounded and fenced areas was assessed by analyzing pedo-climatic conditions and the soil moisture content. Water content in the soil was measured using a Theta Probe Soil Moisture sensor (ML2x by Delta-T-Devices with a direct read-out device that provides soil moisture estimates as percent volume. The correlation between the experimental values obtained by the gravimetricmethod and thevalues directly measured by Theta Probe was found significant. Soil moisture at 100 cm depth indicates soil water as permanently available for plants through the year except during exceptionally dry summer periods. Therefore, oaks experienced no water deficiency with normal rainfall rates, possibly suffering root asphyxia during rainy years. Results are collected in fenced areas, sheltered by the action of the local fauna.

  16. Environmental impact of peat mining. Development of storm water treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, Bjoern

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this series of studies has been to develop methods to reduce the environmental impacts of peat mining, that function when the pollution load is high and that are economically viable for all peat mines. Sediment transport and nutrient leaving were studied with the purpose of establishing more efficient treatment alternatives. A controlled experiment was set up to measure the erosion of peat from the soil surface and from ditch beds during heavy rainfall and runoff events and to measure the settling characteristics of base soil peat and peat deposited in channels. The study demonstrates the importance of channel bed erosion as the main source of sediment during peak runoff. Sediment transport and nutrient leaching were further observed in the field during 1995 and 1996. The study showed that suspended solids (SS) is mainly generated during extreme events, such as flooding. These high flow events erode the material deposited on the channel bed during low flows. The leaching of nitrogen occurs after large rain events, while high phosphorous concentrations occur when the water table is low. Treatment alternatives were developed to improve removal of SS and nutrients. Different types of ponds were tested in a laboratory study. The study showed that the main factor affecting the settling of small peat particles is the depth of the settling basin. A mathematical model showed that in the case of bare soil erosion, the best treatment alternative would be to store the water in the large drainage network rather than in the sedimentation basin. Different structures suitable for peak runoff control were tested under laboratory and field conditions 54 refs, 11 figs

  17. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  18. Approaches to estimating humification indicators for peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klavins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Degree of decomposition is an important property of the organic matter in soils and other deposits which contain fossil carbon. It describes the intensity of transformation, or the humification degree (HD, of the original living organic matter. In this article, approaches to the determination of HD are thoroughly described and 14C dated peat columns extracted from several bogs in Latvia are investigated and compared. A new humification indicator is suggested, namely the quantity of humic substances as a fraction of the total amount of organic matter in the peat.

  19. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45,000 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2000, about 1,372,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2000, the total use

  20. Reductive transformation and inhibitory effect of ethylene under methanogenic conditions in peat-soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4), which is a potent gaseous plant hormone, has often been found to accumulate in anoxic soils where pathways of anaerobic C2H4 oxidation are so far unknown and other C2H4 transformation processes are uncommon. The present study shows that ethylene was reduced almost...... stoichiometrically (89–92%) to ethane (C2H6) in peat-soil microcosms incubated under methanogenic conditions. Methanogenesis started after a prolonged anoxic lag-phase (>29 weeks) where added ethylene prevailed despite the availability of nitrate (NO3−) as an alternative electron acceptor. Methanogenesis, as well...... as ethylene reduction to ethane, was inhibited by 90% at 1% oxygen. Likewise, methanogenesis and ethane formation was gradually inhibited (to a similar extent) by increasing ethylene concentrations above 0.2%; this inhibition eventually reached 90–95% at 2.2–4.5% C2H4. The present results extend the known...

  1. A method for measuring losses of soil carbon by heterotrophic respiration from peat soils under oil palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Manning, Frances; Smith, Jo; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    The effects of drainage and deforestation of South East Asian peat swamp forests for the development of oil palm plantations has received considerable attention in both mainstream media and academia, and is the source of significant discussion and debate. However, data on the long-term carbon losses from these peat soils as a result of this land use change is still limited and the methods with which to collect this data are still developing. Here we present the ongoing evolution and implementation of a method for separating autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration by sampling carbon dioxide emissions at increasing distance from palm trees. We present the limitations of the method, modelling approaches and results from our studies. In 2011 we trialled this method in Sumatra, Indonesia and collected rate measurements over a six day period in three ages of oil palm. In the four year oil palm site there were thirteen collars that had no roots present and from these the peat based carbon losses were recorded to be 0.44 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.34; 0.57] (equivalent to 39 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [30; 50]) with a mean water table depth of 0.40 m, or 63% of the measured total respiration across the plot. In the two older palm sites of six and seven years, only one collar out of 100 had no roots present, and thus a linear random effects model was developed to calculate heterotrophic emissions for different distances from the palm tree. This model suggested that heterotrophic respiration was between 37 - 59% of total respiration in the six year old plantation and 39 - 56% in the seven year old plantation. We applied this method in 2014 to a seven year old plantation, in Sarawak, Malaysia, modifying the method to include the heterotrophic contribution from beneath frond piles and weed covered areas. These results indicated peat based carbon losses to be 0.42 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.27;0.59] (equivalent to 37 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [24; 52]) at an average water table depth of 0.35 m, 47% of the measured

  2. Contribution to the development of peat-bog and history of landscape in the Havellaendische Luch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundel, G.; Trettin, R.; Hiller, A.

    1983-01-01

    By means of the 14 C method a low-bog profile of the Havellaendische Luch measuring 200 cm in depth was dated systematically. The peat formation had started as early as at the end of the late-glacial. Approximately 6000 years ago a stagnation of bog growth had occured and then about 3700 years ago a stronger bog growth had begun again. The change in peat components and thereby in the geological structure is largely attributed to different ground water levels. According to the relatively low total thickness the annual mean rates of accumulation are small. In muddy soils, values between 0.2 and 1.2 mm were ascertained. In peat soils these values are still smaller. But here it is a question of remainders of the protogenic peat formation. As a result of former or recent mineralization the original peat substance has been diminished. (author)

  3. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  4. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  5. Phosphorus mobilization in rewetted peat and sand at variable flow rate and redox regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heiberg, Lisa; Jensen, Henning S.

    2012-01-01

    the upward percolation of groundwater with variable O2 content and flow rate, we investigated the hydro-biogeochemical Fe and P dynamics in intact cores of a carbon rich peat and carbon poor sand. Percolation of deionized water with high, low or no O2 supply at 10 °C caused markedly different in situ redox...... rates from 7.6 to 11 mg P m−2 day−1. Organic or particulate P contributed to 40–45% of total P losses from the peat. In contrast, the high O2 supply during high flow rate kept the peat oxic and lowered TP release rates to 6.7 mg P m−2 day−1. The carbon poor sand demonstrated that this soil type...... regimes in the two soils during 21 or 67 days of continuous percolation at either 1 or 4 mm h−1. Anoxic conditions occurred in the peat soil at both low oxygen supply and anoxic infiltration, causing reductive Fe(III) dissolution with high Fe(II) and P effluent concentrations and total P (TP) release...

  6. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45 900 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 1999, about 2 650 000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 1999, the total use

  7. Leaching and retention of nutrients and trace elements in peat nineteen years after wood ash application and afforestation of a terminated peat cutover area; Utlakning och retention av naeringsaemnen och spaaraemnen i torv nitton aar efter vedasktillfoersel och beskogning paa en avslutad torvtaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Lundin, Lars (Dept. of Forest Soils, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7001, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Ash application on peatlands for improved biomass production attracts great interest. On drained peatlands in forestry use, application of wood ash would increase the forest production. Before such activities starts on a large-scale, the existing knowledge in this field should be compiled, with the aim to illustrate positive and negative effects of such a measure and to suggest recommendations for wood ash application to drained and afforested peatlands. The aim of this project was to investigate how much of different nutrients and trace elements that was still left in the peat, 19 years after application of 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0.6 tonnes of raw phosphate and 0.25 tonnes of superphosphate per hectare to 14 hectares of a terminated peat cutover area. This area was located on a mire, Flakmossen, in west-central Sweden. As it was nearly 40 years since peat harvesting had terminated on this mire, the area was drained before the application of wood ash and phosphorus fertilizer. A tractor-driven cultivator mixed the applied fertilizers with the upper 30-40 cm of the remaining peat and afterwards different tree species were planted in the cultivated peat. Peat sampling, down to 80 cm depth, was carried out before soil treatment, one year after, three years after and 19 years after the soil treatment. Analyses of these peat samples showed that: - After the soil treatments an initial increase of pH in the upper peat layers (0-40 cm depth) was observed, but 19 years after the soil treatments pH had decreased to levels that were lower than before the treatments. This decrease in pH was probably due to an oxidation of sulphur compounds in the peat, which was a result of the drainage. This acidification of the peat could not be buffered by the large dose of applied wood ash. However, it should be observed that the main part of the peat in this field study consists of reed peat, that has a considerable higher sulphur content than other peat types. - Nineteen years after

  8. Genesis of Spodic Material underneath Peat Bogs in a Danish Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2010-01-01

    illuviation under a fluctuating water table, or (ii) degradation of a former Fe-rich, well-drained spodic horizon. Methods included soil surveys, wet chemical analyses, micromorphology, pollen analysis, and radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter (OM) fractions. Aquods, and soil material with spodic...... features, were exclusively found in sandy material at the margins of or underneath sphagnum peat bogs, whereas Inceptisols were found on well-drained sandy deposits only. Aluminum content was very high and Fe low in spodic materials with ortstein properties. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR....... Radiocarbon ages of bulk soil C in the spodic horizons had mean residence times of 4500 to 4400 yr. Accordingly, the spodic B horizon was probably formed by strong in situ illuviation of Al-OM complexes before the sphagnum peat bog formation. This suggests that spodic material formation and thus strong C...

  9. Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

  10. Permeability Characteristics of Compacted and Stabilized Clay with Cement, Peat Ash and Silica Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Esmaeil Mousavi; Leong Sing Wong

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of stabilization with cement, peat ash, and silica sand on permeability coefficient (kv) of compacted clay, using a novel approach to stabilize the clay with peat ash as a supplementary material of cement in the compacted and stabilized soil. In order to assess the mentioned influence, test specimens of both untreated and stabilized soil have been tested in the laboratory so that their permeability could be evaluated. Falling head and one dimension...

  11. Peat Research Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The VTT Seminar on Peat Research was held in Espoo, Finland, on April 14-15, 1993. The programme consisted of technical session on Peat in Energy Production, Peat Research Programs, Peat Production and Harvesting Technology

  12. The water regime of the long-seasonally-frozen peat soils of the Northern Trans-Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motorin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of many-years research of the water regime of the long-seasonally-frozen peat soils of the Northern Trans-Uralare described. It is shown that the fluctuation of groundwater in the Tarmanskoe swamp before drying is characterized by a sharp increase in levels during the spring snowmelt, then – a minimal level in summer, increase in levels in autumn, and winter minimum. The intensity of the decline in groundwater depends on precipitation (r=0.83 and evaporation. The change of groundwater level in winter is significantly affected by the progress of freezing of the upper layer and thaw. After drying at atmospheric-alluvial type of water supply of the swamp, the groundwater level during the vegetation period is determined mainly by the amount of rainfall (r=0.76. The deepest groundwater table (1.97 m on average during the growing season set in 2012, when 56.7% of the average annual norm of precipitation fell. On the dried potter’s drainage (To=24 m, H=1.5 m land there is no increase of the groundwater in the autumn. The lowest possible (2.5 m and more level of the groundwater table reaches in the beginning of snowmelt in late March - early April. The magnitude of the spring rise is 1-1.5 m and depends on winter moisture (r=0.65, the snow cover and the intensity of the melting of solid precipitation. The humidity of the root layer (0.3 m medium peat soil with a deep groundwater table (1.3 to 1.9 m under perennial grasses is in the range of 0.5-0.6 LMC (the least moisture capacity. In the formation of the first mowing of perennial grasses, soil moisture is in the optimum range (0.6-0.85 LMC; in the high-draught years for a full second mowing has a deficit. On the boundary of the thawed and frozen layers, soil moisture is always at the upper limit of the optimum (0.85-0.95 LMC. During the winter period, the moisture reserves in the upper layer 0.5 m up to 20% due to the underlying horizons.

  13. EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossie Wiedya Nusantara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis alih fungsi lahan gambut yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah pada hutan rawa gambut primer (HP, hutan gambut sekunder (HS, semak belukar (SB, kebun sawit (KS, dan kebun jagung (KJ dan menganalisis pengaruh suhu dan jeluk muka air tanah (water-table depth terhadap emisi CO2 tanah. Sampel dari tiap tipe lahan diambil sebanyak lima ulangan, total sampel 25. Saat pengukuran respirasi CO2 tanah gambut dilakukan pengukuran suhu tanah dan muka air tanah. Pengukuran di lapangan dilaksanakan dua kali yaitu awal musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa emisi CO2 tanah tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut adalah pada tipe lahan KJ (6,512 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (1,698  ton ha-1 th-1 serta pada tipe lahan KS (6,701 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (3,169 ton ha-1 th-1 berturut-turut. Suhu tanah gambut tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut berturut-turut adalah pada tipe lahan SB (27,78 oC dan HP (22,78 oC, dan pada tipe lahan KS (29,08 oC dan HP (26,56 oC serta jeluk muka air tanah gambut berturut-turut pada tipe lahan KJ (56,2 cm dan  SB (32,1 cm. Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah gambut adalah suhu tanah, jeluk muka air tanah dan pengelolaan lahan yang menyebabkan perubahan sifat tanah gambut, seperti ketersediaan C-organik (jumlah dan kualitas bahan organik, pH tanah dan kematangan gambut. ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze peatland use change that caused changes soil emissions of CO2 at primary peat swamp forest (HP, secondary peat forest (HS, shrub (SB, oil palm plantations (KS and corn field (KJ, and to analyze the influence of temperature and water-table depth to soil emission of CO2. Soil samples were taken from each five replications that accunt for 25 samples. Simultaneously with measurement of soil respiration measuremnts soil temperature. Field measurement is carried out twice at the beginning of dry season and

  14. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  15. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  16. Peat accretion and phosphorus accumulation along a eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, C.B.; Richardson, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent rates of peat accretion (as determined by Cs-137) and N, P, organic C, Ca and Na accumulation were measured along a 10 km eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades area of Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA 2A) that has received agricultural drainage from the Hillsboro canal for the past 25-30 yrs. Rates of peat accretion were highest at sampling locations closest to the Hillsboro canal. Phosphorus and Na accumulation were a function of both peat accretion and soil P and Na concentrations. Although sodium enrichment of the peat was limited to 1.6 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, increased rates of Na accumulation penetrated 5.2 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, the extent of the area of enhanced peat accretion. In contrast to P and Na, there was no difference in the concentration of soil organic C, N and Ca along the eutrophication gradient. However, there was a gradient of organic C, N and Ca accumulation corresponding to the area of enhanced peat accretion. The areal extent of enhanced peat accretion and organic C, N, Ca and Na accumulation encompasses approximately 7700 ha of the northern part of WCA 2A. The area of enhanced P accumulation is larger, covering 11,500 ha or 26% of the total area of WCA 2A. The findings suggest that P accumulation is dependent on the P concentration in the water column and that decreasing P loadings per unit area result in less P storage per unit area

  17. Tarkkaturve - Peat production on shallow fields; Tarkkaturve - mataloituvien soiden tuotantomenetelmien ja laitteiden kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, T; Honkanen, J; Jormalainen, R; Laaksoharju, T; Rytkoenen, P; Viitanen, J [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aho, V J; Aalto, J; Kallio, M; Leinonen, A.; Tiihonen, I [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    It is important to produce the peat of the bogs under production as completely as possible when improving the efficiency and economy of milled peat production. Hence the service life of bog areas is being extended, and the investment costs per produced peat mass are decreased. Research, in which new planning, production and ditching methods, as well as production machines for production from shallowing fields, has been carried out in order to obtain the targets. Data obtained from charting of the bog, by which it is possible to take the regional differences of the production areas into account while planning and making of the production strips and ditching, is used in planning of the production fields. Stones are removed from the strips on the mineral soil areas during preparation of the fields, and peat is conveyed from the depletable areas into production strips, hence it is possible to make ditching with open ditches excavated into mineral soil. The new milled peat production machines are lighter than the older ones, and non-sparkling materials, e.g. plastics, are used in the construction of them in every phase of the production. The new machines are able to operate on strips of varying width and on the fields of poor load carrying capacity. Brushing technology is used in collection of peat. By this method it is possible to improve in addition to the fire safety, also the collecting accuracy, and hence the efficiency of the production. The new methods and equipment developed in the researches are now in wide utilisation in Finnish peat production. (orig.)

  18. TARKKATURVE - Peat production on shallow fields; TARKKATURVE - mataloituvien soiden tuotantomenetelmien ja laitteiden kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aho, V.J.; Tiihonen, I. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    It is important to produce the peat of the bogs under production as completely as possible when improving the efficiency and economy of milled peat production. Hence the service life of bog areas is being extended, and the investment costs per produced peat mass are decreased. Research, in which new planning, production and ditching methods, as well as production machines for production from shallowing fields, has been carried out in order to obtain the targets. Data obtained from charting of the bog, by which it is possible to take the regional differences of the production areas into account while planning and making of the production strips and ditching, is used in planning of the production fields. Stones are removed from the strips on the mineral soil areas during preparation of the fields, and peat is conveyed from the depleted areas into production strips, hence it is possible to make ditching with open ditches excavated into mineral soil. The new milled peat production machines are lighter than the older ones, and non-sparkling materials, e.g. plastics, are used in the construction of them in every phase of the production. The new machines are able to operate on strips of varying width and on the fields of poor load carrying capacity. Brushing technology is used in collection of peat. By this method it is possible to improve in addition to the fire safety, also the collecting accuracy, and hence the efficiency of the production. The new methods and equipment developed in the researches are now in wide utilization in Finnish peat production

  19. Permafrost thaw and climate warming may decrease the CO2, carbon, and metal concentration in peat soil waters of the Western Siberia Lowland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudina, T V; Loiko, S V; Lim, A; Manasypov, R M; Shirokova, L S; Istigechev, G I; Kuzmina, D M; Kulizhsky, S P; Vorobyev, S N; Pokrovsky, O S

    2018-09-01

    Soil pore waters are a vital component of the ecosystem as they are efficient tracers of mineral weathering, plant litter leaching, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. In the permafrost environment, maximal hydraulic connectivity and element transport from soils to rivers and lakes occurs via supra-permafrost flow (i.e. water, gases, suspended matter, and solutes migration over the permafrost table). To assess possible consequences of permafrost thaw and climate warming on carbon and Green House gases (GHG) dynamics we used a "substituting space for time" approach in the largest frozen peatland of the world. We sampled stagnant supra-permafrost (active layer) waters in peat columns of western Siberia Lowland (WSL) across substantial gradients of climate (-4.0 to -9.1°C mean annual temperature, 360 to 600mm annual precipitation), active layer thickness (ALT) (>300 to 40cm), and permafrost coverage (sporadic, discontinuous and continuous). We analyzed CO 2 , CH 4 , dissolved carbon, and major and trace elements (TE) in 93 soil pit samples corresponding to several typical micro landscapes constituting the WSL territory (peat mounds, hollows, and permafrost subsidences and depressions). We expected a decrease in intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from soil and vegetation litter to the supra-permafrost water with increasing permafrost coverage, decreasing annual temperature and ALT along a latitudinal transect from 62.3°N to 67.4°N. However, a number of solutes (DOC, CO 2 , alkaline earth metals, Si, trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates, and micronutrients (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, V, Mo) exhibited a northward increasing trend with highest concentrations within the continuous permafrost zone. Within the "substituting space for time" climate change scenario and northward shift of the permafrost boundary, our results suggest that CO 2 , DOC, and many major and trace elements will decrease their concentration in soil supra-permafrost waters at the boundary between thaw and

  20. Peatlands and potatoes; organic wetland soils in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Gimona, Alessandro; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Land use change in Uganda's wetlands has received very little research attention. Peat soils dominate the papyrus wetlands of the south west of the country, but the areas they are found in have been increasingly converted to potato cultivation. Our research in Uganda set out to (a) document both the annual use of and changes to these soils under potato cultivation, and (b) the extent and condition of these soils across wetland systems. During our research we found it was necessary to develop locally appropriate protocols for sampling and analysis of soil characteristics, based on field conditions and locally available resources. Over the period of one year we studied the use of the peat soil for potato cultivation by smallholder farmers in Ruhuma wetland and measured changes to surface peat properties and soil nutrients in fields over that time. Farmer's use of the fields changed over the year, with cultivation, harvesting and fallow periods, which impacted on soil micro-topography. Measured soil properties changed over the course of the year as a result of the land use, with bulk density, nitrogen content, potassium and magnesium all reducing. Comparison of changes in soil carbon stocks over the study period were difficult to make as it was not possible to reach the bottom of the peat layer. However, a layer of fallow weeds discarded onto the soil prior to preparation of the raised potato beds provided a time marker which gave insight into carbon losses over the year. To determine the peatland extent, a spatial survey was conducted in the Kanyabaha-Rushebeya wetland system, capturing peat depths and key soil properties (bulk density, organic matter and carbon contents). Generalised additive models were used to map peat depth and soil characteristics across the system, and maps were developed for these as well as drainage and land use classes. Comparison of peat cores between the two study areas indicates spatial variability in peat depths and the influence of

  1. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  2. Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William

    2013-04-01

    A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn

  3. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat; Turvesoiden ja polttoturpeen radionuklidit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtovaara, J. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K) and radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to {sup 137}Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  4. Impact of managed moorland burning on peat nutrient and base cation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sheila; Gilpin, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph; Brown, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Controlled 'patch' burning of moorland vegetation has been used for decades in the UK to stimulate growth of heather (Calluna vulgaris) for game bird habitat and livestock grazing. Typically small patches (300-900 m2) are burned in rotations of 8-25 years. However, our understanding of the short-to-medium term environmental impacts of the practice on these sensitive upland areas has so far been limited by a lack of scientific data. In particular the effect of burning on concentrations of base cations and acid-base status of these highly organic soils has implications both for ecosystem nutrient status and for buffering of acidic waters. As part of the EMBER project peat chemistry data were collected in ten upland blanket peat catchments in the UK. Five catchments were subject to a history of prescribed rotational patch burning. The other five catchments acted as controls which were not subject to burning, nor confounded by other detrimental activities such as drainage or forestry. Soil solution chemistry was also monitored at two intensively studied sites (one regularly burned and one control). Fifty-centimetre soil cores, sectioned into 5-cm intervals, were collected from triplicate patches of four burn ages at each burned site, and from twelve locations at similar hillslope positions at each control site. At the two intensively monitored sites, soil solution chemistry was monitored at four depths in each patch. Across all sites, burned plots had significantly smaller cation exchange capacities, lower concentrations of exchangeable base cations and increased concentrations of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ in near-surface soil. C/N ratios were also lower in burned compared to unburned surface soils. There was no consistent trend between burn age and peat chemistry across all burned sites, possibly reflecting local controls on post-burn recovery rates or external influences on burn management decisions. At the intensively monitored site, plots burned less than two years

  5. Study on Magnesium in Rainwater and Fertilizer Infiltration to Solidified Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, S. A. M.; Rahman, J. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium is a component of several primary and secondary minerals in the soil which are essentially insoluble for agricultural purpose. The presence of water infiltrate in the soil allows magnesium to dissolve together into the groundwater. In fertilizers, magnesium is categorized as secondary macronutrient which supplies food and encouraging for plants growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of magnesium in fibric peat when applied the solidification under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of magnesium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of magnesium for flush and control condition at outlet 4 was 12.50 ppm and 1.29 ppm respectively. Similarly, fibric with solidified peat under rainwater recorded the highest value of 3.16 at outlet 1 for wet condition while for dry condition at outlet 4 of 1.33 ppm. However, the difference in fibric with solidified peat under rainwater and fertilizer condition showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 1 with 5.43 ppm while highest value of 1.26 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 4. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of magnesium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  6. Effects of grassland management on the emission of methane from grassland on peat soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dasselaar, A. [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Oenema, O. [NMI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    Net methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from managed grassland on peat soils in the Netherlands have been monitored with vented closed flux chambers in the period January - June 1994. Net CH{sub 4} emissions from two intensively managed grasslands were low, in general less than 0.1 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -l}. On these sites, the effect of management was negligibly small. CH{sub 4} emission from three extensively managed grasslands in a nature preserve ranged from 0 to 185 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -l}. The results presented here indicate that CH{sub 4} emissions are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher on extensively managed grasslands than on intensively managed grasslands. 2 figs., 6 refs.

  7. Utilization of subsurface microbial electrochemical systems to elucidate the mechanisms of competition between methanogenesis and microbial iron(III)/humic acid reduction in Arctic peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Angenent, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    High-latitude peat soils are a major carbon reservoir, and there is growing concern that previously dormant carbon from this reservoir could be released to the atmosphere as a result of continued climate change. Microbial processes, such as methanogenesis and carbon dioxide production via iron(III) or humic acid reduction, are at the heart of the carbon cycle in Arctic peat soils [1]. A deeper understanding of the factors governing microbial dominance in these soils is crucial for predicting the effects of continued climate change. In previous years, we have demonstrated the viability of a potentiostatically-controlled subsurface microbial electrochemical system-based biosensor that measures microbial respiration via exocellular electron transfer [2]. This system utilizes a graphite working electrode poised at 0.1 V NHE to mimic ferric iron and humic acid compounds. Microbes that would normally utilize these compounds as electron acceptors donate electrons to the electrode instead. The resulting current is a measure of microbial respiration with the electrode and is recorded with respect to time. Here, we examine the mechanistic relationship between methanogenesis and iron(III)- or humic acid-reduction by using these same microbial-three electrode systems to provide an inexhaustible source of alternate electron acceptor to microbes in these soils. Chamber-based carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured from soil collars with and without microbial three-electrode systems over a period of four weeks. In addition, in some collars we simulated increased fermentation by applying acetate treatments to understand possible effects of continued climate change on microbial processes in these carbon-rich soils. The results from this work aim to increase our fundamental understanding of competition between electron acceptors, and will provide valuable data for climate modeling scenarios. 1. Lipson, D.A., et al., Reduction of iron (III) and humic substances plays a major

  8. Spatial variation in below ground carbon cycling in a pristine peatland, driven by present and past vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gałka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2017-04-01

    formed on top of Sphagnum peat. The divergent source material throughout a peat core makes it difficult to use C/N ratios to indicate peat decomposition rates. Although the low peat density and higher C/N ratios indicate that overall carbon turnover is slow at Sphagnum plots, pore water methane concentrations were elevated. At cushion plant plots, however, higher redox potentials exist until greater depths due to aerenchymous roots, inhibiting methane production and release. Our results demonstrate that large variation exists within pristine bogs, in terms of decomposition patterns, organic matter quality, and carbon turnover pathways, corresponding to variation in surface moisture levels and vegetation. Furthermore, variation in carbon cycling properties are maintained in buried peat layers and reflect more the organic material of that layer, than the current surface carbon dynamics.

  9. Construction of Buildings on Peat: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmod Ali Abdul-Wadoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building construction on soft soils including on peat has many challenges and difficulties. The failed and deteriorated buildings have a big impact on the community. The IConCEES International Workshop 2015 which was conducted on October 2015 convened as a joint venture between Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM and the University College of Technology Sarawak (UCTS. The aim was to invite regional experts from academia and the industry to formally present and discuss the various construction problems encountered when working with peat. The discussions were divided into two divisions; infrastructure and building construction. This paper discusses the outcomes of the workshop and focuses on the factors and relevant challenges when constructing buildings on peat. The experts have discussed regulatory and construction issues including: drainage issues, site investigation practices, monitoring and construction guidelines. A few suggestions were outlined as a remedy to these problems and to better assist the peat practitioner at work.

  10. International trade with peat and peat products - a challenge to international standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmilewski, G; Guenther, J [Institut fuer Torf- und Humusforschung GmbH (ITH), Bad Zwischenahn (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    On a worldwide scale raised bog peat is the most important basic material for the production of growing media. Peat has greatly contributed to the realization of modern, standardized and even computer-controlled growing techniques in commercial horticulture. No other material can truly compete with the outstanding physical, chemical and biological properties of peat. All present and future substitutes will have to stand comparison with peat. Nonetheless, many other organic, mineral and synthetic materials are use in horticulture mainly to adjust the physical properties of growing media to new growing methods. As a direct or indirect consequence thereof, the spared raw material peat is a fact which is considered progressive in industrial countries strongly characterized by nature conservational ideas also. Some peat consuming countries do not have any indigenous peat resources and meet their demands with imports. Other countries, such as the Fed. Rep. of Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the USSR export considerable amounts of peat and peat products. International transactions have not only increased for big industries, but also for the peat industry. For the grower and for the producer of growing media alike, the knowledge of growing media properties are of fundamental importance. Various standard methods for the analysis of peat and growing media have been developed by national organizations and are being used just as manifold. In some cases national standards have derived from these.

  11. Effect of mixing geopolymer and peat on bearing capacity in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) by California bearing ratio (CBR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharja, Danang S.; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Rahayu, Wiwik; Zain, Nasuhi

    2017-06-01

    Geopolymer is binder material that consists of solid material and the activator solution. Geopolymer material has successfully replaced cement in the manufacture of concrete with aluminosilicate bonding system. Geopolymer concrete has properties similar to cement concrete with high compressive strength, low shrinkage value, relatively low creep value, as well as acid-resistant. Based on these, the addition of polymers in peat soils is expected to improve the bearing capacity of peat soils. A study on the influence of geopolymer addition in peat soils was done by comparing before and after the peat soil was mixed with geopolymer using CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test in unsoaked and soaked conditions. 10% mixture content of the peat dry was used, weighted with a variety of curing time 4 hours, 5 days, and 10 days. There were two methods of mixing: first, peat was mixed with fly ash geopolymer activators and mixed solution (waterglass, NaOH, water), and second, peat was mixed with fly ash and mixed geopolymer (waterglass, NaOH, water, fly ash). Changes were observed in specific gravity, dry density, acidity (pH), and the microscopic structure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Curing time did not significantly affect the CBR value. It even shows a tendency to decline with longer curing time. The first type mixture obtained CBR value of: 5.4% for 4 hours curing, 4.6% for 5 days curing and 3.6% for 10 days curing. The second type mixture obtained CBR value of: 6.1% for 4 hours curing, 5.2% for 5 days curing and 5.2% for 10 days curing. Furthermore, the specific gravity value, dry density, pH near neutral and swelling percentage increased. From both variants, the second type mixture shows better results than the first type mixture. The results of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) show the structure of the peat which became denser with the fly ash particles filling the peat microporous. Also, the reaction of fly ash with geopolymer is indicated by the solid

  12. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.; Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137 Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m -2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m -2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137 Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137 Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  13. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  14. Distribution and speciation of mercury in the peat bog of Xiaoxing'an Mountain, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruhai; Wang Qichao; Lu Xianguo; Fang Fengman; Wang Yan

    2003-01-01

    Peat bogs in northeastern China contain high levels of mercury from atmospheric deposition. - Most reports on mercury (Hg) in boreal ecosystems are from the Nordic countries and North America. Comparatively little information is available on Hg in wetlands in China. We present here a study on Hg in the Tangwang River forested catchment of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain in the northeast of China. The average total Hg (THg) in peat profile ranged from 65.8 to 186.6 ng g -1 dry wt with the highest at the depth of 5-10 cm. THg in the peat surface was higher than the background in Heilongjiang province, the Florida Everglades, and Birkeness in Sweden. MethylHg (MeHg) concentration ranged from 0.16 to 1.86 ng g -1 dry wt, with the highest amount at 10-15 cm depth. MeHg content was 0.2-1.2% of THg. THg and MeHg all decreased with the depth. THg in upland layer of soil (0-20 cm) was comparable to the peat surface, but in deeper layers THg concentration in peat was much higher than that in the forested mineral soil. THg in the peat bog increased, but MeHg decreased after it was drained. THg content in plant was different; THg contents in moss (119 ng g -1 dry wt, n=12) were much higher than in the herbage, the arbor, and the shrubs. The peat bog has mainly been contaminated by Hg deposition from the atmosphere

  15. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  16. New record in peat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Increment of peat utilization that started in 1990 continued also in 1991, due to which new record was achieved. Peat delivery increased 11.2 % from 16.1 million m 3 in 1990 to 17.9 million m 3 in 1991. The portion of energy peat was 16.4 million m 3 , and the portion of peat for other purposes 1.5 million m 3 . The energy content of fuel peat was 15.8 TWh, of which 13.8 TWh was milled peat and 2.0 TWh sod peat. The main portion of energy peat was used in communal back-pressure power plants for production of electricity and district heat. The second largest utilizer was industry. The rests 0.3 TWh (2 %) was delivered to private small scale utilization and export. About 88 000 MWh of sod peat was exported to Sweden. The portion of horticultural peat of the peat delivered for other purposes than energy production was 662 000 m 3 , of which only 260 000 m 3 was used in Finland and 408 000 m 3 was exported. Agriculture is the main user of peat outside the energy production. Weakly humified peat was used as litter and as absorber for slurrified manure about 286 000 m 3 . The value of the deliveries of peat industry exeeded 800 million FIM, of which the portion of milled peat was about 650 million FIM, the portion of sod peat about 95 million FIM, and the portion of domestic deliveries of horticultural peat 30 million FIM. The export of peat was 36 million FIM. Peat production in 1991 was 10.605 million m 3 , which is nearly a half of the production of 1990. The decrease was caused by both poor weather of may-june 1991 and the large peat supplies from the year 1990. About 60 % of the production target of 1991 was achieved. The production of sod peat increased by over 50 % from 736 000 m 3 in 1990 to 1 147 000 m 3 in 1991

  17. Adsorção/dessorção do explosivo tetril em turfa e em argissolo vermelho amarelo Adsorption/desorption of the explosive tetryl in peat and yellow-red argissol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zago Falone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of adsorption/desorption of the explosive tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethyl-nitramine in different matrices, such as in natura soil, roasted soil, humic acid of soil, in natura peat, roasted peat and humic acid of peat. The aim of the study is to evaluate the interaction capacity of those matrices with the explosive. The analytic technique used was HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography, with UV-detection at 230 nm. The Freundlich isotherms were utilized for the mathematical treatment of the data. The results indicated that in natura soil and in natura peat (with organic substances are excellent matrices for the retention of tetryl, adsorbing it and keeping it immovable, preventing it from contaminating the groundwater. The largest adsorption of the explosive ocurred in in natura soil, while the smallest desorption was observed in in natura peat. After the calcination of the matrices, the smallest adsorption was observed, indicating that the retention occurs in the organic substance.

  18. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  19. Soils of peatlands: histosols and gelisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Kolka; Scott D. Bridgham; Chien-Lu. Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peatlands are a subset of wetlands that have accumulated significant amounts of soil organic matter. Soils of peatlands are colloquially known as peat, with mucks referring to peats that are decomposed to the point that the original plant remains are altered beyond recognition (Chapter 6, SSSA 2008). Generally, soils with a surface organic layer >40 cm thick...

  20. {sup 137}Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Department of General Ecology, University of Agriculture and Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, Zhytomyr 10001 (Ukraine); Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, Uppsala S-750 07 (Sweden)

    2004-05-05

    The {sup 137}Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m{sup -2} in a peat soil and 47-189 g m{sup -2} in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the {sup 137}Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%.

  1. Life-cycle of fuel peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.; Silvo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The share of peat in the primary energy supply in Finland in 1996 was about 6.5 % and the area used for peat production was about 535 km 2 , corresponding to about 0.5 % of the original peatland area of Finland. Fuel peat production is hence a significant form of using natural resources. About 1.4 % of the total peatland area has been reserved for peat production. Approximately 95 % of the peat excavated in Finland is used as fuel peat, and 5 % as horticultural peat. As raw material and fuel peat can be considered to be slowly renewable material. The environmental impacts of fuel peat production, transportation and peat combustion were evaluated in this research by methods used in life-cycle assessment. Preparation and production phases of peat production areas, fuel peat transportation to power plants, combustion of peat in power plants, and disposal of the ashes formed the basis for the investigation. Data collected in 1994-1996 was used as the basic material in the research. Special attention was paid to the estimation of greenhouse gas balance when using a virgin bog and the forest drained peatland areas as starting points. Post-production use of peatlands were not inspected in the life-cycle assessment. The work was carried out in 1997 in cooperation with Vapo Oy. The regional environmental centers, VTT and Helsinki and Joensuu Universities assisted significantly in acquisition of the material and planning of the work 3 refs

  2. PDF -- new peat technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myreen, P B

    1982-12-01

    The impact of a large-scale utilization of peat must be assessed in each region separately. As it is completely impractical to transport wet peat over long distances, a PDF plant must be built in the peatland region. Such regions often need economic stimulation. The PDF process can be run independent of season and weather, and thus offers permanent jobs. Dredging the peat layer all at once in a wet state is an operation concentrated on a very small land area. If this area can be drained, it can soon afterwards be forested or used for agricultural purposes. Even if the area from which the peat is removed is left as a wetland, when cleverly done, the ecological effects may be favourable. Peat is a significant energy source in many countries now looking for domestic alternatives to expensive imported fuels. The main constraint on large-scale utilization of peat is its ability to retain moisture. The wet-carbonization process, utilized in a PDF plant and yielding a high-quality peat-derived fuel, is believed to be a technically feasible and economically attractive industrial method of dewatering native peat.

  3. Heterotrophic soil respiration in drained peatlands: Abiotic drivers, and changes after clearfelling and afforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekiranta, P.

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the large carbon (C) stocks of northern peatlands. These C reservoirs may further be affected by human-induced forestry activities and changes in land use. Possible responses of peatland C storages to these changes have significant uncertainties mainly because of the difficulties in predicting peat decomposition rates in changing conditions. This study aims at revealing the effects of abiotic drivers, especially soil temperature and water table level (WL), on peat decomposition rate indicated by heterotrophic peat soil respiration (R{sub PEAT}) in drained forested peatlands. Furthermore it aims to describe the changes in R{sub PEAT} following clearfelling in forestry-drained peatlands and afforestation of former agricultural organic soil croplands. For this, R{sub PEAT} was estimated using chambers to measure CO{sub 2} efflux from trenched litter-free plots, at nine afforested organic soil cropland sites and one forestrydrained site with clearfelling treatment. This study revealed that within the studied sites soil temperature was the main driver of R{sub PEAT}. It was also apparent that the old peat storage in these sites was rather resistant to the short-term changes in WL conditions; i.e. fluctuations of WL caused only minor changes in R{sub PEAT}. The study also demonstrated that in low water level conditions there were mechanisms that could hinder R{sub PEAT}. Excessive WL drawdown (>61cm ) was observed to reduce R{sub PEAT} and furthermore, in low water level conditions the temperature sensitivity of R{sub PEAT} was reduced. These findings suggest that climate change and the associated increase in temperature would have the potential to substantially increase soil C release from drained peatlands. This C release may, however, be constrained, if warming is accompanied by changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation regimes, or the frequency of extreme events (e.g. droughts) that would severely affect WL and surface soil

  4. Changing of Sumatra backswamp peat properties by seawater and zeolite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifuddin; Nasution, Z.; Rauf, A.; Mulyanto, B.

    2018-02-01

    This research attempts to improve the properties of backswamp peatsoil originated from Asahan District, North Sumatra Indonesia by adding sea water and zeolite using factorial randomized block design with volume of sea water as first factor, consisting of without seawater, 500 ml, 1000 ml and 1500 ml and second factor are dosages of zeolite consisting of without zeolite, 100 g, 200 g each 10 kgs of wet peat soil. at green house in faculty of agriculture University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan, Indonesia. The result showed that the application of seawater decreased pH, C/N and Cation Exchange Capacity and increased of base saturation of peat soil. Adding of zeolite minerals can buffered the increasing of acidity and Electric Conductivity caused by sea water application. Interaction seawater + zeolite decreased of C/N and increased of percent of base saturation.

  5. Abiotic reaction of iodate with sphagnum peat and other natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.M.; Kimble, G.; Schmett, G.T.; Emerson, D.W.; Turner, M.F.; Rudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that iodine (including 129 I) can be strongly retained in organic-rich surface soils and sediment and that a large fraction of soluble iodine may be associated with dissolved humic material. Iodate (IO 3 - ) reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) producing either hypoiodous acid (HIO) or I 2 as an intermediate. This intermediate is subsequently incorporated into the organic matter. Based on reactions of model compounds, we infer that iodine reacts with peat by aromatic substitution of hydrogen on phenolic constituents of the peat. Alternatively, the intermediate, HIO or I 2 , may be reduced to iodide (I - ). The pH (and temperature) dependence of the IO 3 - reaction (reduction) has been explored with sphagnum peat, alkali lignin, and several model compounds. The incorporation of iodine into NOM has been verified by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Model compound studies indicate that reduction of IO 3 - to HIO may result from reaction with hydroquinone (or semiquinone) moieties of the peat. (author)

  6. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  7. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    spores are observed in all deposit layers, mycelium of mushrooms deepens into the peat deposit (to 2 meters) within the limits of aerobic (meter) zone and only in particular months of dry years. The existence of seasonal dynamics of eukaryotic cells, and also capability of yeast and other groups of micromycetes for growth, testifies about vital activity of a number of eukaryotic cells at a depth of 2 meters. Researched peat deposits are biochemically active along the whole profile. But they are different in a microflora number of individual physiological groups either in items of the landscape, or in deposit depth. The largest quantity of aerobic cellulose-fermenting microorganisms is marked during dry years. Anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microorganisms dominate during wet years. The quantity of microbe biomass increases in bottom lifts of peat deposits. This fact testifies about viable condition of microbe complex at depth. The formation process of carbon dioxide in peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire actively occurs during dry years and is defined by hydrothermic conditions of a meter layer of peat deposit. The intensity of CO2 isolation for certain correlates with the temperature in horizon of 0 - 50 sm. and with bog waters level. The study of gas composition for the three years showed that the largest concentration of carbon dioxide in peat soils is marked along the whole profile during a dryer year (0.08 - 2.65 millimole/l), increasing other years' level in about 1.5 0 2 times. Emission of carbon dioxide in peat

  8. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillant, S.; Sheppard, M.I.; Denys, S.; Leclerc Cessac, E.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a radionuclide of major concern in the international safety assessments for deep geological storage and disposal of nuclear waste because it migrates quickly through the geosphere to the biosphere and then from the soil to humans through the food-chain. However, in organic soils the 129 I may be immobilized over a long time period, and so these soils represent a potential accumulation point in the biosphere. Effects of long residence times of iodine in soils are scarce. The present paper gives some insight on the aging of stable iodine, under natural conditions. Stable iodine was introduced as KI in 1987 at the base of a small natural sphagnum bog to simulate arrival of iodine via a groundwater discharge from the geosphere. Previous data revealed the spread of the iodine outwards spatially from the basal spike and also recorded its rise towards the bog surface. Fifteen years later, the groundwater, the soil and the vegetation have been sampled and analyzed for iodine. The results we will present give insight on the mobility of 'aged' iodine with time, the retention properties of the peat, and provide iodine transfer factors for native boreal plant species. The data show iodine: - continues to slowly spread from the spike after 15 years, - is more strongly retained on the solid phase at the surface than at depth, - the chemical structure of the peat may influence the retention of iodine as shown by NMR analysis, - iodine retention has become greater with time, and - herbaceous species are the greatest accumulators. This study demonstrates bogs present good sinks for iodine and limit the transfer of iodine to some of the 'wildlife' food-chains. (author)

  10. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur (1 USD approx. 7.8 SEK). Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2002, about 2,885,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2001, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4.1 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,800,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2001, imports amounted to 329,311 metric tons or 1.1 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 91,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Some companies are privately owned, while others are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate

  11. Growing peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpenslager, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Peat formation is a slow process and the formation of thick peat layers in large parts of e.g. Russia, Canada and Indonesia has generally taken thousands of years. Due to degradation of peatlands throughout the world, as a result of changed land use and pollution, many ecosystem services provided by

  12. The sustainable use of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallas, Rein

    1997-01-01

    The article gives information about the critical and usable reserves of peat, its annual consumption and production allowance, as well as the output in 1996. It is seen from the Table that no increase in peat production is possible in the counties of Paernu and Rapla, as well as in western Estonia unless the exhausted peat fields have been reclaimed, so, after the limit has been released. However, conditions for peat production in southern Estonia are favourable. The low peat production capacity, 1 million t, while the production quota is 2.78 million t, is indicative of the depression of Estonian peat industry. (author)

  13. Regional Haze Evolved from Peat Fires - an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqi; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This work provides an overview of haze episodes, their cause, emissions and health effects found in the scientific literature. Peatlands, the terrestrial ecosystems resulting from the accumulation of partially decayed vegetation, become susceptible to smouldering fires because of natural droughts or anthropogenic-induced drainages. Once ignited, smouldering peat fires persistently consume large amounts of soil carbon in a flameless form. It is estimated that the average annual carbon gas emissions (mainly CO2 and CO) from peat fires are equivalent to 15% of manmade emissions, representing influential perturbation of global carbon circle. In addition to carbon emissions, smouldering peat fires emit substantial quantities of heterogeneous smoke, which is responsible for haze phenomena, has not yet been fully studied. Peat-fire-derived smoke is characterized by high concentration of particulate matter (PM), ranging from nano-scale ultrafine fraction (PM1, particle diameter condition, and then low buoyant smoke plume could accumulate and migrate long distances, leading to regional haze. Apart from air quality deterioration, haze leads to severe reduction in visibility, which strongly affects local transportation, construction, tourism and agriculture-based industries. For example, an unprecedented peatland mega-fire burst on the Indonesian islands Kalimantan and Sumatra during the 1997 El-Niño event, resulting in transboundary smoke-haze disaster. Severe haze events continue to appear in Southeast Asia every few years due to periodical peat fires in this region. In addition, smouldering peat fires have been frequently reported in tropical, temperate and boreal regions (Botswana in 2000, North America in 2004, Scotland in 2006 and Central Russia in 2010 et al.), peat-fire-induced haze has become a regional seasonal phenomenon. Exposure to smoky haze results in deleterious physiologic responses, predominantly to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In 1997, an

  14. Saturated and unsaturated salt transport in peat from a constructed fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhayov, Reuven B.; Weber, Tobias K. D.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2018-02-01

    The underlying processes governing solute transport in peat from an experimentally constructed fen peatland were analyzed by performing saturated and unsaturated solute breakthrough experiments using Na+ and Cl- as reactive and non-reactive solutes, respectively. We tested the performance of three solute transport models, including the classical equilibrium convection-dispersion equation (CDE), a chemical non-equilibrium one-site adsorption model (OSA) and a model to account for physical non-equilibrium, the mobile-immobile (MIM) phases. The selection was motivated by the fact that the applicability of the MIM in peat soils finds a wide consensus. However, results from inverse modeling and a robust statistical evaluation of this peat provide evidence that the measured breakthrough of the conservative tracer, Cl-, could be simulated well using the CDE. Furthermore, the very high Damköhler number (which approaches infinity) suggests instantaneous equilibration between the mobile and immobile phases underscoring the redundancy of the MIM approach for this particular peat. Scanning electron microscope images of the peat show the typical multi-pore size distribution structures have been homogenized sufficiently by decomposition, such that physical non-equilibrium solute transport no longer governs the transport process. This result is corroborated by the fact the soil hydraulic properties were adequately described using a unimodal van Genuchten-Mualem model between saturation and a pressure head of ˜ -1000 cm of water. Hence, MIM was not the most suitable choice, and the long tailing of the Na+ breakthrough curve was caused by chemical non-equilibrium. Successful description was possible using the OSA model. To test our results for the unsaturated case, we conducted an unsaturated steady-state evaporation experiment to drive Na+ and Cl- transport. Using the parameterized transport models from the saturated experiments, we could numerically simulate the unsaturated

  15. Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  17. The physical properties of peat: a key factor for modern growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies criteria for assessing the physical properties (water retention characteristics, wettability and physical stability of growing media which influence the availability of air and water to plant roots. The various materials that are currently in use are assessed for these properties. The analysis of physical properties indicates that weakly decomposed (H1–H5, generally referred to as white Sphagnum peat is still indispensable for soil-less horticulture. Whilst a number of materials can be used as peat additives, especially to improve aeration, no alternative products with equivalent physical properties are available at present.

  18. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  19. Layered storage of biogenic methane-enriched gas bubbles in peat: A lumped capacitance model controlled by soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Comas, X.; Binley, A. M.; Slater, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Methane can accumulate in the gaseous phase in peats, and enter the atmosphere as gas bubbles with a mass flux higher than that via diffusion and plant-mediated pathways. A complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating bubble storage in peats remains incomplete. We developed a layered model to quantify the storage of gas bubbles over a peat column based on a general lumped capacitance model. This conceptual model was applied to explain the effects of peat structure on bubble storage at different depths observed in a laboratory experiment. A peat monolith was collected from the Everglades, a subtropical wetland located in Florida (USA), and kept submerged in a cuboid chamber over 102 days until gas bubble saturation was achieved. Time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to estimate changes in gas content of each layer and the corresponding average dimensions of stored gas bubbles. The results highlight a hotspot layer of bubble accumulation at depths between 5 and 10 cm below the monolith surface. Bubbles in this shallow hotspot layer were larger relative to those in deeper layers, whilst the degree of decomposition of the upper layers was generally smaller than that of the lower layers based on von Post humification tests. X-ray Computer tomography (CT) was applied to resin-impregnated peat sections from different depths and the results showed that a higher porosity promotes bubbles storage. The stored gas bubbles were released by changing water levels and the air CH4 concentrations above the peat monolith were measured using a flow-through chamber system to confirm the high CH4 concentration in the stored bubbles. Our findings suggest that bubble capacitance is related to the difference in size between gas bubbles and peat pores. This work has implications for better understanding how changes in water table elevation associated with climate change and sea level rise (particularly for freshwater wetlands near coastal areas like the Everglades) may

  20. A pristine eucrite-like gabbro from Descartes and its exotic kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, U. B.; Warren, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse-grained plagioclase-pyroxene gabbro (61224,6) with a cumulate texture suggestive of a slowly cooled plutonic rock was recovered from the 4-10 mm fraction of an Apollo 16 soil. The rock is uncommonly poor in feldspar and rich in Na for a lunar highlands lithology. Trace element analyses show extremely low siderophile element concentrations which confirm the pristine character indicated by the texture. The composition of 61224,6 is compared with those of 3 other pristine, exceptionally mafic, nonmare gabbros and of certain eucrites. 61224,6 and the three other gabbros have notable chemical differences but share relatively high ratios of Ti/Sm and Sc/Sm which suggest a possible genetic relationship. We conclude that 61224,6 represents a Na-rich cumulate from a layered intrusion within the highlands crust.

  1. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, David

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation (γ). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from 60 Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by 60 Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA + (Study 1) and celB + (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10 8 cells g -1 peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long

  2. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands : peat moss litter and active carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel, Erwin; Gerding, Michiel; De Vries, Gerben

    This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss

  3. Cupriferous peat: embryonic copper ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D C

    1961-07-01

    A Canadian peat was found to contain up to 10% (dry weight) Cu, and a mechanism for Cu accumulation in peat was discussed. Wet chemical techniques and x-ray diffraction were utilized to identify Cu compounds. Copper was organically bound in peat as a chelate complex and did not occur as an oxide, sulfide, or as elemental Cu. Because of the low S content of peat the Cu was assumed to be bound to nitrogen or oxygen-containing components. Copper, having a greater affinity for N, tended to form the more stable Cu-N chelate. The element was concentrated as circulating cupriferous ground waters filtered through the peat.

  4. Mangrove peat analysis and reconstruction of vegetation history at the Pelican Cays, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.

  5. Physical prerequisites for the development of technological systems for draining a peat bed. [Peat; USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, Ye T

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that at the present time, the basic peat reserve is made up primarily of the upper type of peat deposits, which are exceedingly complex for industrial development. In this regard, the development and introduction of new progressive methods for studying peat deposits, which provide for the acquisition of broad and reliable information about the composition and properties of the peat have great practical meaning. Cited in brief form are the conclusions and recommendations produced as a result of comprehensive systematic studies of the composition and properties of peat beds located in different regions of the country which were fulfilled in the KPI since 1970.

  6. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  7. Heterotrophic respiration in drained tropical peat temperatures influenced by shading gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Lowland peatlands in Southeast Asia constitute a highly concentrated carbon (C) pool of global significance. These peatlands have formed over periods of several millennia by forest vegetation tolerant to flooding and poor substrates. Uncontrollable drainage and reoccurring wild fires in lack of management after removal of forest cover has impaired the C-storing functions in large reclaimed areas. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reporting sees drained tropical organic soils as one of the largest greenhouse gas emissions releasing terrestrial systems. Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. We studied heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes in tropical peat in conditions, where; (i) peat temperatures were modified by artificial shading (no shade, 28%, 51% and 90% from the full sun exposure), (ii) root respiration was minimized, (iii) nutrient availability for peat decomposer community was changed (NPK fertilization of 0 and 313 kg ha-1). The experiment was repeated at two over 20 years ago drained fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Enhanced shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference was between the unshaded and 90% shaded peat surface, where the average temperatures within the topmost 50-cm peat profile differed 3 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilised plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilised plots. Correlation

  8. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  9. Non-destructive methods for peat layer assessment in oligotrophic peat bogs: a case study from Poiana Ştampei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Practices currently employed in the investigation and characterisation of peat deposits are destructive and may irremediable perturb peat bog development even in cases when exploitation is not carried out. We investigated the correlation between vegetation characteristics in the active area of Poiana Ştampei peat bog, Romania, and the underlying peat layer depth, aiming at establishing a non-destructive method of peat layer depth estimation. The presence of the Sphagneto-Eriophoretum vaginati association, dominated by Sphagnum fimbriatum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris and Betula verrucosa was found to predict the existence of the peat layer but not its depth. Out of the seven identified vegetation types, one type was associated with a very thin or no peat layer, one type was characterised by the presence of a thick (over 100 cm peat layer and five types indicated the presence of variable average depths of the peat layer. pH values correlated with peat layer depth only within the vegetation type associated with thick peat layers.

  10. Atmospheric mercury accumulation between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the high arctic of Canada recorded by Peat Hummocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first comprehensive long-term record of preanthropogenic rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in dated peat deposits for the High Arctic of Canada. Geochemical studies of two peat hummocks from Bathurst Island, Nunavut reveal substantial inputs from soil dust...... (titanium), marine aerosols (bromine), and mineral-water interactions (uranium). Mercury, however, was supplied to these peat mounds exclusively by atmospheric deposition. Mercury concentration measurements and age dating of the peat profiles indicate rather constant natural "background" mercury flux of ca....... 1 microgram per square meter per year from 5900 to 800 calibrated years BP. These values are well within the range of the mercury fluxes reported from other Arctic locations, but also by peat cores from southern Canada that provide a record of atmospheric Hg accumulation extending back 8000 years...

  11. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudina, Tatiana V.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Lim, Artyom G.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Istigechev, Georgy I.; Kuzmina, Daria M.; Kulizhsky, Sergey P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-07-01

    Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and related trace elements (TEs) from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT) deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg) and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th) elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the fluids in some elements

  13. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Raudina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and related trace elements (TEs from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs, Zr, Hf, Th elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the

  14. Removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from contaminated soils by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladanowski, C.; Petti, L.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted using hexane for the removal of light crude oil from contaminated sand, peat, and clay soils. The bench-scale process tested consists of three major steps: solvent washing, settling/decantation/filtration of extract, and solvent recycle. The results indicate that the use of solvent extraction for cleanup of oil-contaminated soils is an effective technology at the bench-scale level. Using a 1,000 g batch system, extremely high oil removal efficiencies were obtained from contaminated sand (up to 98.9%) and peat soil (up to 83.9%). The final oil contaminant concentration for sand varied between 0.06% and 0.39%, while that for peat soil varied between 1.52% and 5.21%. The guidelines for the decommissioning and cleanup of sites in Ontario for oil and grease (1 wt %) were met in all instances for the treated sand. Hexane recovery from diesel-contaminated sand and peat soil experiments was ca 81% and 67% respectively. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Influence of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity of fuel peat and peat ash in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Salonen, S.; Itkonen, A.

    1988-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were measured in relative high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash. The radionuclide concentrations were measured at six peat-fired power plants in different parts of Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Also evaporation of different radionuclides in peat combustion and their condensation on fly ash particles were studied at four power plants. The 137 Cs-concentrations in compiled peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg -1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68000 Bq kg -1 . Differences in radionuclide concentrations between the power plants were great and also the radionuclide composition in fuel peat varied regionally. The 137 Cs-concentrations of the fly ash after the ash precipitators varied between 12000 and 120000 Bq kg -1 and fly ash emissions varied from 17 to 1100 mg m -3 , depending on the power plant and the load of the boiler. High radioactivity concentrations in precipitator ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes

  16. Controls on boreal peat combustion and resulting emissions of carbon and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Andrew J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Thompson, Dan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Warming in the boreal forest region has already led to changes in the fire regime. This may result in increasing fire frequency or severity in peatlands, which could cause these ecosystems to shift from a net sink of carbon (C) to a net source of C to the atmosphere. Similar to C cycling, peatlands serve as a net sink for mercury (Hg), which binds strongly to organic matter and accumulates in peat over time. This stored Hg is also susceptible to re-release to the atmosphere during peat fires. Here we investigate the physical properties that influence depth of burn in experimental peat columns and the resulting emissions of CO, CO2, CH4, and gaseous and particulate Hg. As expected, bulk density and soil moisture content were important controls on depth of burn, CO2 emissions, and CO emissions. However, our results show that CH4 and Hg emissions are insensitive to combustion temperature or fuel moisture content. Emissions during the burning of peat, across a wide range of moisture conditions, were associated with low particulate Hg and high gaseous Hg release. Due to strong correlations between total Hg and CO emissions and because high Hg emissions occurred despite incomplete combustion of total C, our results suggest that Hg release during peat burning is governed by the thermodynamics of Hg reduction more so than by the release of Hg associated with peat combustion. Our measured emissions ratios, particularly for CH4:CO2, are higher than values typically used in the upscaling of boreal forest or peatland fire emissions. These emission ratios have important implications not only for our understanding of smouldering chemistry, but also for potential influences of peat fires on the Earth’s climate system.

  17. Effectiveness of Some Ameliorants in Reducing Co2 and N2o Emission in Corn Planting in Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftuah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amelioration is very important in supporting plant growth in peat land. The use of low emission ameliorant will support the sustainability of agricultural system in peat land. The research is intended to study the effectiveness of some ameliorants in reducing CO2 and N2O emission in corn planting in peat land. The research was conducted in April to October 2013, in Kalampangan Village Palangkaraya Municipality Central Kalimantan. Ameliorant materials used were chicken manure fertilizer, domolite, mineral soil, paddy husk biochar, coconut shell biochar. Ameliorant treatments applied were the type of ameliorant compositions, those were (A1 80% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% dolomite, (A2 20% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% spodosol mineral soil + 20% “purun tikus” (eleocharis dulcis compost + 20% dolomite, (A3 19% chicken manure fertilizer + 9% dolomite + 72% mineral soil, (A4 100% coconut shell biochar, (A5 paddy husk biochar, (A6 farmer’s way (20% ash + 40% spodosol mineral soil + 40% chicken manure fertilizer and control. Experiment design used a Randomized Factorial Block Design, with 3 repetitions. Ameliorant dosage used was 7.5 t/ha. The crop used was hybrid corn. Parameters which were observed periodically were emission of CO2 and N2O, ground water level height, soil pH and Eh, once a month for 5 periods. The research result showed that ameliorant was capable of reducing emission of both CO2 and N2O in corn planting in peat land. Coconut shell biochar could reduce emission of CO2 up to 26% as compared with control, whereas paddy husk biochar could reduce emission of N2O up to 52% as compared with control.

  18. Soil physical characteristics after EDTA washing and amendment with inorganic and organic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanc, Vesna; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen; Grcman, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Soil washing has been established as suitable remediation technology, with most research focused on metal removing efficiency and toxic effect on plants, less on the influence on soil physical characteristics, which was the focus of this study. In soil column experiment highly contaminated soil and soil washed with EDTA, mixed with additives (gypsum, hydrogel, manure, peat) were tested. White clover was used as a soil cover. Yield, metal concentration in soil and plant, aggregate fractionation and stability, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention of the soil were measured. Soil washing decreased metal concentration in soil and plants, but yield of white clover on remediated soil was significantly lower compared to the original soil. Significant differences in water retention characteristics, aggregate fractionation and stability between original and remediated soil have been determined. Gypsum, hydrogel and peat increased plant available water, manure and peat increased yield on remediated soil. -- Highlights: • Clover yield on washed soil was significantly lower than on original soil. • Organic additives increased yield on remediated soils. • Soil washing changed soil water retention and soil structure. • Hydrogen, gypsum and peat increased plant available water of remediated soil. -- The study critically examines yield, plant metal uptake and possible changes in soil physical characteristics as a consequence of soil washing procedure for metal pollution remediation

  19. Peat accumulation in drained thermokarst lake basins in continuous, ice-rich permafrost, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey Walter

    2012-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and peat-accumulating drained lake basins cover a substantial portion of Arctic lowland landscapes, yet the role of thermokarst lake drainage and ensuing peat formation in landscape-scale carbon (C) budgets remains understudied. Here we use measurements of terrestrial peat thickness, bulk density, organic matter content, and basal radiocarbon age from permafrost cores, soil pits, and exposures in vegetated, drained lake basins to characterize regional lake drainage chronology, C accumulation rates, and the role of thermokarst-lake cycling in carbon dynamics throughout the Holocene on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Most detectable lake drainage events occurred within the last 4,000 years with the highest drainage frequency during the medieval climate anomaly. Peat accumulation rates were highest in young (50–500 years) drained lake basins (35.2 g C m−2 yr−1) and decreased exponentially with time since drainage to 9 g C m−2 yr−1 in the oldest basins. Spatial analyses of terrestrial peat depth, basal peat radiocarbon ages, basin geomorphology, and satellite-derived land surface properties (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF)) from Landsat satellite data revealed significant relationships between peat thickness and mean basin NDVI or MNF. By upscaling observed relationships, we infer that drained thermokarst lake basins, covering 391 km2 (76%) of the 515 km2 study region, store 6.4–6.6 Tg organic C in drained lake basin terrestrial peat. Peat accumulation in drained lake basins likely serves to offset greenhouse gas release from thermokarst-impacted landscapes and should be incorporated in landscape-scale C budgets.

  20. Development of Tropical Lowland Peat Forest Phasic Community Zonations in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area, West Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarmizi Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging observations of auger profiles (Tarmizi, 2014 indicate a vertical, downwards, general decrease of peat humification levels with depth in a tropical lowland peat forest in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area in the region of West Sarawak (Malaysia. Based on pollen analyses and field observations, the studied peat profiles can be interpreted as part of a progradation deltaic succession. Continued regression of sea levels, gave rise to the development of peat in a transitional mangrove to floodplain/floodbasin environment, followed by a shallow, topogenic peat depositional environment with riparian influence at approximately 2420 ± 30 years B.P. (until present time. The inferred peat vegetational succession reached Phasic Community I at approximately 2380 ± 30 years B.P. and followed by Phasic Community II at approximately 1780 ± 30 years B.P., towards the upper part of the present, ombrogenic, peat profile. Observations of the presence of large, hollow, Shorea type trees, supports that successive vegetational zonation of the tropical lowland peat dome may have reached Phasic Community II. Some pollen types were found that are also known to occur in the inferred vegetational zonation of Phasic Community III and IV or higher. Pollen analyses indicate that estuarine and deltaic, brackish to saline water influence may have gradually ceased at approximately 0.5 m below the lithological boundary between peat and underlying soil (floodplain deposit in the tropical lowland peat basin.

  1. Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types : a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat pruduction

    OpenAIRE

    Svahnbäck, Lasse

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types: a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat production. This research project in environmental geology has arisen out of an observed need to be able to predict more accurately the loading of watercourses with detrimental organic substances and nutrients from already existing and planned peat production areas, since the authorities capacity for insisting on such predicti...

  2. The potential of utilizing wood ash and peat ash on organic soils in Sweden; Arealer foer skogsgoedsling med traeaska och torvaska paa organogena jordar i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, Bjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2004-01-01

    Nutrients removed from the forest when branches and treetops are harvested as fuel can be returned to the site by recycling the remaining wood ash after combustion. This compensation measure is presently not carried out to any appreciable extent, partly because there is no economic incentive for the landowner. In sites where this measure has been applied, only on mineral soils (e.g. moraine) until now, greater margins for sustainable maintenance of the long-term site productivity can be expected. The ash contains all elements required for tree growth except for nitrogen (N). Therefore the ash amendment does not result in increased stand growth on these soils because the most important element for a growth response (N) is missing. In contrast, on organic soils N is often abundant whereas the amounts of other mineral nutrients are small. Thus, the elements lacking in the soils of peatland forests are available in the ash. This is especially true for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). This means that peatland forests provide an opportunity for ash amendment in order to increase forest production. Old fertilization trials using wood ash show that the growth increase can be very large. The aim of this study was to (i) calculate the area of peat covered land that with respect to stand growth responses could be regarded as most suitable for bio-ash (wood ash and peat ash) fertilization, and (ii) assess the amount of bio-ash needed for fertilizing this area. Peat ash, although not as much studied, also has potential to be used to provide nutrients for increasing peatland forest growth. Most of the area calculations were based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) 1997-2001. Sites were selected with guidance from existing knowledge about ash fertilization effects on tree growth and with the aid of registrations made in NFI regarding peat depth, site productivity, drainage, condition of drains, dominating field vegetation, and degree of stand development

  3. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  4. Peat hybrid sorbents for treatment of wastewaters and remediation of polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Burlakovs, Juris; Robalds, Artis; Ansone-Bertina, Linda

    2015-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of polluted waters, wastewaters, sorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. Peat as sorbent have good application potential for removal of trace metals, and we have demonstrated peat sorption capacities, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics in respect to metals with different valencies - Tl(I), Cu(II), Cr(III). However peat sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. Also peat mechanical properties do not support application in large scale column processes. To expand peat application possibilities the approach of biomass based hybrid sorbents has been elaborated. The concept "hybrid sorbent" in our understanding means natural, biomass based sorbent modified, covered with another sorbent material, thus combining two types of sorbent properties, sorbent functionalities, surface properties etc. As the "covering layer" both inorganic substances, mineral phases (iron oxohydroxides, oxyapatite) both organic polymers (using graft polymerization) were used. The obtained sorbents were characterised by their spectral properties, surface area, elemental composition. The obtained hybrid sorbents were tested for sorption of compounds in anionic speciation forms, for example of arsenic, antimony, tellurium and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption

  5. The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: Atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Farmer, John G.; MacKenzie, Angus B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.170 ± 0.002; mean ± SD) overlapped with that of the peat ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.16 ± 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources. - Highlights: → We used Pb isotopic composition to aid interpretation of Pb profiles in tundra soils. → Ombrotrophic peat cores were used as records of atmospheric inputs of Pb.

  6. Third technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The conference dealt with the estimation of US peat reserves, methods for the gasification of peat, including biogasification, techniques for dewatering peat, and the harvesting of peat. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  7. Aerial photography in peat production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  8. Effects of peat-winning on the water environment at a sedge fen ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, L.

    1997-06-01

    Peatlands are used in agriculture and forestry for vegetational growth and in peat-winning for soil improvement, horticulture production and as fuel. A prerequisite in peatland use is drainage, with influences on water conditions in the peatland and in its surroundings. Environmental effects from such peatland use have been investigated at a sedge fen in central Sweden. Groundwater, runoff, water chemistry and streamwater biology were studied during almost 14 years. This period started with a virgin undrained peatland, later being drained for forest production and after a period of seven years intensively drained for peat-winning and with peat harvesting going on for another seven year period with hydrological investigations. Results show a lowered groundwater level, increased runoff and both higher concentrations of most elements and higher leaching from the drained peatland. Biomass and number of individuals of the benthic fauna in streamwater also increased. 7 refs

  9. Uranium geochemistry in a calcareous peat: mineral-organic-microorganisms interactions and implications on uranium mobility in a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrommavanh, V.; Descostes, M.; L'Orphelin, J.M.; Beaucaire, C.; Gaudet, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the different approaches and techniques which have been implemented to study the behaviour of uranium in an as complex medium as a natural peat, in this case, a calcareous peat located on an old industrial site which was dedicated to uranium processing and which is now being decontaminated. They report and comment a chemical and mineralogical characterization of this peat, its hydrochemical characterization, and a microbial flora characterization

  10. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  11. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  12. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  13. Uptake of caesium-137 from peat and compost mould by vegetables in a greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malm, J.; Uusi-Rauva, A.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the root uptake of 137 Cs by vegetables grown in peat and composite mould in a greenhouse. The 137 Cs in the growing media originated from Chernobyl fallout. The vegetables were cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Farbio VDP SF 76), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Var. Virosa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill var. Non plus ultra), radish (Raphanus Sativus L. var. Nondan) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Atraktion). The effect of adding potassium to the peat was also studied. The transfer factors (activity in plant dry weight/activity in soil dry weight) varied from 0.66 to 1.8 for peat and from 0.060 to 0.19 for compost mould. Addition of potassium did not have any clear effect on the transfer factors. (Author)

  14. Uptake of caesium-137 from peat and compost mould by vegetables in a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, J.; Uusi-Rauva, A.; Paakkola, O. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry); Rantavaara, A. (Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the root uptake of {sup 137} Cs by vegetables grown in peat and composite mould in a greenhouse. The {sup 137}Cs in the growing media originated from Chernobyl fallout. The vegetables were cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Farbio VDP SF 76), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Var. Virosa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill var. Non plus ultra), radish (Raphanus Sativus L. var. Nondan) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Atraktion). The effect of adding potassium to the peat was also studied. The transfer factors (activity in plant dry weight/activity in soil dry weight) varied from 0.66 to 1.8 for peat and from 0.060 to 0.19 for compost mould. Addition of potassium did not have any clear effect on the transfer factors. (Author).

  15. Radiocarbon dating of lowbog peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trettin, R.; Hiller, A.; Mundel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Owing to complex formation conditions, the age determination of lowbog peat is generally considered difficult. Within the framework of peat profile investigations of the Havellaendisches Luch, factors that may exercise an influence on the radiocarbon concentration and disturb an ordered age sequence are discussed. With regard to lowbog peat, the interpretation of the sample material to be measured is of particular importance. (author)

  16. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  17. Holocene elemental, lead isotope and charcoal record from peat in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tudyka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mid-resolution elemental, isotopic and charcoal record from 10700 BC to AD 500 in a peat core located in Żyglin (southern Poland. The objective is to give insight into the proxies with emphasis on lead (Pb sources in this minerogenic peat deposit. During the Early Holocene (10700–7550 BC the average 206Pb/207Pb quotient was around 1.196. This isotopic signature is consistent with natural dust derived from long-distance soil and rock weathering. The Mid-Holocene period (7550–3200 BC shows a significant change in the peat accumulation conditions. The growth rate is approximately 0.04 mm yr-1 and the 206Pb/207Pb quotients are shifted toward values that are found in local galena ores. This is simultaneous with a significantly increased lead flux which further confirms local sources of material in this peat deposit. In the Late Holocene period (3200 BC–AD 500 a large quantity of charcoal particles with diameters ranging from 2 mm up to 3 cm is found; also, Pb, Zn and Cu fluxes reach their highest values. This period corresponds to the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, and human impact is recorded as charcoal.

  18. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  19. Round-year treatment of runoff from peat extraction areas. Final report of the TuKos project; Turvetuotannon valumavesien ympaerivuotinen kaesittely. TuKos-hankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postila, H.; Heikkinen, K.; Saukkoriipi, J.; Karjalainen, S.M.; Kuoppala, M.; Haerkoenen, J.; Visuri, M.; Ihme, R.; Kloeve, B.

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the study was to develop new water pollution control methods for treating the runoff from peat extraction areas in ditched peatlands. The aim of the project was to discover important constructional and biogeochemical parameters to develop effective treatment wetlands to ditched peatlands. In addition, different sorption materials were tested to improve phosphorus retention of studied wetlands. Pumping and water distribution constructions were also studied for the round-year treatment of runoff from peat extraction areas. The study included six drained wetlands, which were examined for e.g. the hydraulic properties of peat, vegetation, peat thickness, the degree of humification of peat and the mineral soil content of peat. The wetlands were also monitored for their capability to remove e.g. nutrients, iron and suspended solids from the runoff and input and output water volume. In addition five other drained wetlands were examined for e.g. vegetation, the mineral soil contents of peat and monitored for their capability to remove e.g. nutrients. Dimensioning and planning instructions for constructed wetlands on ditched peatlands were then suggested based on the results. The efficiencies of different sorption materials were tested in laboratory by batch and column tests. Potential sorption materials were found during the laboratory work. Their suitability for the field use should however be tested in wetland scale. Also 21 round-year treatment wetlands from Northern and Western Finland were studied. Some of the studied wetlands purified runoff from peat extraction areas also in wintertime, some however leached e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM), phosphorus, nitrogen and iron. (orig.)

  20. Peat or no peat: Why do the Rajang and Mahakam Deltas differ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, Robert A. [Department of Geology, Colby College, 5807 Mayflower Hill Drive, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Coastal and deltaic Holocene peat accumulations around the equatorial island of Borneo, Southeast Asia, have served as models for economic coal-bearing sequences in the stratigraphic record. Although climatic conditions, vegetational communities, and sedimentary regimes are comparable, peat accumulations are not found on both the western and eastern sides of the island. The Rajang River delta and coastal plain, Sarawak, East Malaysia, are covered in areally extensive, thick peat deposits that have attained at least a thickness of > 13 m in ombrogenous peat domes (Marudi, Baram River). Peat-swamp biomass began to accumulate over Pleistocene podzols when sea level stabilized {proportional_to} 7.5 ka and delta progradation was initiated. The Mahakam River delta and coastal plain, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, also began progradation at this time, but there is no evidence in any part of the coastal region for peat accumulation. Rather, poorly developed organic-rich gleysols occur throughout the delta plain. Both the Rajang River and Mahakam River deltas are tidally influenced, fine-grained systems, with a sediment provenance in the Central Massif. Sediment transported through the Rajang River delta differs in that as much as 60% of the clay minerals deposited in the system are mixed layer (I/S) and expandable (K/E) clays that act to restrict pore water flow in the tidal and overbank deposits that comprise the delta plain. These result in the development of an aquiclude above which paludal conditions develop, promoting accumulation of organic matter. In contrast, there is a low proportion of mixed layer and expandable clays transported in the Mahakam River system. This precludes the development of a stilted water table within the delta, allowing for organic matter recycling without peat accumulation. The presence of a high proportion of expandable clay minerals on the western side of Borneo is a reflection of the weathering and eroding source rocks on this side of the

  1. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-01-01

    In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2%) high level, 32 (66.7%) medium level, and 2(4.1%) low level respectively.

  2. Second technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The program includes peat resource surveys of eleven states, peat gasification process and equipment studies, dewatering studies, and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the development of peat technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (CKK)

  3. Relicts of a peat cover in the Westerkoggepolder (West Friesland, North-Holland, The Netherlands): The genesis of an eluvial clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.; Ligtendag, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the result of palynological research of peat relicts, found in the Westerkoggepolder (North-Holland, The Netherlands). In general, such relicts of peat in the actual landscape point to an extensive peat cover in the past that disappeared due to land reclamation and agricultural

  4. Fe(III)-EDDHA and -EDDHMA sorption on Ca-montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, and peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Apaolaza, L; Lucena, J J

    2001-11-01

    The effectiveness of Fe chelates as Fe sources and carriers in soil can be severely limited by the adsorption of Fe chelates or chelating agents in the solid phase. To study this phenomenon, well-characterized peat, Ca-montmorillonite, and ferrihydrite were used as model compounds, and the adsorption of Fe-EDDHA and Fe-EDDHMA chelates were studied. Sorption isotherms for the meso and racemic isomers of these chelates on the soil materials are described. The variability of sorption with pH in peat and ferrihydrite was also determined because both have variable surface charge at different pH values. In montmorillonite, at low concentrations, the retention of Fe from the Fe-EDDHMA chelate is greater than the one of the Fe-EDDHA chelate. As well as the concentration increased, the inverse situation occurs. The behavior of both meso and racemic isomers of chelates in contact with Ca-montmorillonite is similar. The Fe-meso-EDDHA isomer was highly adsorbed on ferrihydrite, but the racemic isomer is not significantly retained by this oxide. For Fe-EDDHMA isomers, the racemic isomer was more retained by the oxide, but a small sorption of the racemic isomer was also observed. Results suggest that Fe-EDDHA chelates were more retained in peat than Fe-EDDHMA chelates. The most retained isomer of Fe-EDDHA was the meso isomer. For Fe-EDDHMA, the adsorption was very low for both racemic and meso isomers.

  5. Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types: A comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svahnbaeck, L.

    2007-07-01

    Finland has some 10 million hectares of peatland, accounting for almost a third of its total area. Macroclimatic conditions have varied in the course of the Holocene growth and development of this peatland, and with them the habitats of the peat-forming plants. Temperatures and moisture conditions have played a significant role in determining the dominant species of mire plants growing there at any particular time, the resulting mire types and the accumulation and deposition of plant remains to form the peat. While in a natural state the mires of Finland have functioned as carbon dioxide sinks throughout the post-glacial period, but the ditching of peatland for forestry and agriculture, amounting to some 5,7 million hectares in Finland, has affected their water balance, especially over the last hundred years, and has thereby altered the quantity and species composition of the mire vegetation. The invasion of trees and woody plants to replace the typical mire plants following ditching for forestry purposes has stimulated the decomposition of the already accumulated peat and promoted the humification of the microbiologically active root system layer. The above climatic, environmental and mire development factors, together with ditching, have contributed, and continue to contribute, to the existence of peat horizons that differ in their physical and chemical properties, leading to differences in material transport between peatlands in a natural state and mires that have been ditched or prepared for forestry and peat production. Watercourse loading from the ditching of mires or their use for peat production can have detrimental effects on river and lake environments and their recreational use, especially where oxygen-consuming organic solids and soluble organic substances and nutrients are concerned. It has not previously been possible, however, to estimate in advance the watercourse loading likely to arise from ditching and peat production on the basis of the

  6. Effects of peat-winning on the water environment at a sedge fen ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, L.

    1996-03-01

    Peatlands are used in agriculture and forestry for vegetational growth and in peat-winning for soil improvement, horticulture production and as fuel. A prerequisite in peatland use is drainage, with influences on water conditions in the peatland and its surroundings. Environmental effects from such peatland use have been investigated at a sedge fen in central Sweden. Groundwater, runoff, water chemistry and stream water biology were studied during almost 14 years. This period started with a virgin undrained peatland, later being drained for forest production and after a period of seven years intensively drained for peat-winning and with peat harvesting going on for another seven years period with hydrological investigations. Results show a lowered groundwater level, increased runoff and both higher concentrations of most elements and higher leaching from the drained peatland. Biomass and number of individuals of the benthic fauna in stream water also increased. 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Potentially toxic metals in ombrotrophic peat along a 400 km English-Scottish transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Simon, B.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stevens, P.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Stidson, R.T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Four samples of ombrotrophic peat were collected from each of 10 upland locations in a transect from the southern Pennines to the Highland Boundary Fault, a total distance of ca. 400 km. Bulk compositions and other properties were determined. Total contents of Al and heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined following digestion with hydrofluoric acid, and concentrations of metals extractable with dilute nitric acid were also measured. Supernatants obtained from aqueous extractions of the peat samples were analysed for pH, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and concentrations of free metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, etc.) were estimated by applying a chemical speciation model. Both total and HNO{sub 3}-extractable metal concentrations varied along the transect, the highest values being found at locations close to industrial and former mining areas. The HNO{sub 3}-extractable soil metal contents of Ni, Cu and Cd were appreciably lower than lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for toxicity towards microorganisms in acid, organic rich soils. However, the contents of Zn at two locations, and of Pb at five locations exceeded LOECs, suggesting that they may be exerting toxic effects in the peats. Soil solution concentrations of free heavy metal ions (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}) were substantially lower than LOECs for toxicity towards vascular plants, whereas concentrations of Al{sup 3+} were near to toxic levels at two locations. - P eat metal contents depend upon proximity to industrial and mining areas; the metals may be exerting toxic effects in some places.

  8. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis J. Lamit; Karl J. Romanowicz; Lynette R. Potvin; Adam R. Rivers; Kanwar Singh; Jay T. Lennon; Susannah G. Tringe; Evan S. Kane; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to (i) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table and plant functional group at the onset of a multiyear mesocosm experiment, and (ii) test if fungi are correlated with...

  9. Global peat resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, E. [ed.] [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The book provides a detailed review of the world`s peat and peatland resources and their role in the biosphere. It was compiled by 68 peat experts. Reports present the valuable mire ecosystem, its characteristics, and the use of peatlands. Maps and photographs illustrate the distribution of mines and their special characteristics, including raised bogs, aapa mires, blanket bogs, mangrove swamps, swamp forests etc. The book contains a total of 57 chapters, the bulk of then giving surveys of peat resources and use in individual countries. They are grouped under the headings: peatlands in biosphere; general review; Europe; Asia; Africa; North America; Central and South America; Australia (and New Zealand); and use of peatlands. One chapter has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM. 7 apps.

  10. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Casanova, E.

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  11. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2% high level, 32 (66.7% medium level, and 2(4.1% low level respectively.

  12. The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: Atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaminder, Jonatan, E-mail: jonatan.klaminder@emg.umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, 90187 Umea (Sweden); Farmer, John G. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, Angus B. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.170 {+-} 0.002; mean {+-} SD) overlapped with that of the peat ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.16 {+-} 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources. - Highlights: {yields} We used Pb isotopic composition to aid interpretation of Pb profiles in tundra soils. {yields} Ombrotrophic peat

  13. Decadal changes in peat carbon accrual rates in bogs in Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; McFarlane, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene, peatland ecosystems have accumulated substantial amounts of carbon (C) and currently store about one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC) worldwide. Large uncertainty still persists on whether peatland ecosystems located in northern latitudes will continue to act as C sinks, or if the effects of global warming will have greater effects on decomposition processes than on net ecosystem production. We investigated decadal C accrual rates of the top 25 cm of peats in three Sphagnum-rich peatlands located in Northern Minnesota (two ombrotrophic bogs and one fen). We used radiocarbon analysis of Sphagnum cellulose and model fitting to determine peat ages, and peat FTIR spectroscopy to determine humification indices and relative decomposition of peat samples with depth. We had the scope to detect whether recent warming has had an effect on peat decomposition and C accumulation rates. Modeled C accumulation rates in the three peatlands during the past five decades ranged between 78 and 107 g C m-2 yr-1 in the top 25 cm analyzed in this study, values that are higher than the 22 to 29 g C m-2 yr-1 obtained for long-term (millennial) accumulations for the entire bog profiles. Peat IR spectra and C:N ratios confirm low levels of decomposition across the bog sites, especially in the uppermost parts of the peat. The fen site showed very limited decomposition across the entire sampled profile. Higher rates of C accumulation, combined with low decomposition rates close to the surface provide a good estimate of net primary productivity. As substrate decomposition progresses over time, net rates of accumulation decrease. Peat decomposition was more pronounced in the lower depths of the sampled cores in the two ombrotrophic bogs than in the fen, likely an effect of larger temporal variation in water table depth in the bogs than in the fen. Some of the variation in C accumulation and decomposition observed in our bogs and fen suggests that future C

  14. Assessment of the peat resources of Florida, with a detailed survey of the northern everglades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.M.; Wieland, C.C.; Hood, L.Q.; Goode, R.W. III; Sawyer, R.K.; McNeill, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Available data, including previous publications, modern soil surveys, and detailed coring in the Northern Everglades for this project have been used to update information on Florida's peat resources. It is now estimated that Florida could, if no other constraints existed, produce 606 million tons of moisture-free fuel-grade peat, which may yield approximately 10.0 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy. These estimates are much lower than previously published projections for the state. The principal effort of this survey was in the largest peat region of the state, the Northern Everglades of Palm Beach and adjacent counties, where more than 800 core holes were drilled. Based on analyses of these cores, the Northern Everglades is now estimated to contain 191 million tons of moisture-free peat, with a potential energy yield of 2.98 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. These values are considerably less than previously published estimates, probably due to bacterial oxidation and other forms of drainage-induced subsidence in the Everglades agricultural areas. The present fuel-peat resources of the Northern Everglades occur in 19 separate deposits. Of these, the deposits in the Port Mayaca, Bryant, Six Mile Bend, and Loxahatchee Quadrangles comprise the highest concentration of the resource. These lands are generally privately owned and used for sugar cane and other crops, and the conversion of these lands to peat removal seems unlikely. It seems even less likely that the extensive peat deposits within the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge will be available for fuel use, barring a dire national emergency. The utilization of peat as a fuel must be approached with caution and careful study; large scale use may require state or federal action. 34 references.

  15. Environmental organizations say no to peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A group of environmental protection oriented organizations published in June 10th 1999 in Helsinki a target program for energy solutions in Finland. According to the scenarios, published in 'The Recurrent Energy Policy' (Uusiutuva energiapolitiikka) publication, it would be possible to reduce the CO 2 emissions in Finland by 40 % by the year 2030 by increasing the use of renewable energy sources, and by intensifying the use of energy. The use of peat as energy source is denied in the scenarios. According to the energy scenarios of the environmental organizations the construction of new peat condensing power plants would be denied by political decision and no such plant would be allowed to be constructed after the year 2001. The generation of condensing power by peat would be finished in 2010 as the plants become out of operation. The use of peat as a fuel in back-pressure power generation and in heating plant would diminish gradually, and it would finish totally in 2025-2030. This means that the life-cycle of fuel peat in Finland would remain to 60 years. The adequacy of industrially usable peat reserves has been estimated to be 350 - 500 years. The publication defines the power or heat generated by e.g. wood, energy-willow, biogas and peat as bioenergy, but on the other hand in the program the peat is considered to be fossil fuel, and in the table presenting the carbon dioxide emissions, the emissions of peat have been presented, as characteristic in these connections, as maximum values. The scenario study suggests the heavy increase of the use of wood, natural gas, wind power, solar energy and ground heating. The energy conservation has also high priority, as well as the increasing of the industrial back-pressure power generation based on wood fuels. According to the environmental organizations the power production based on nuclear power, coal, peat and oil, as well as the import of electric power, should be stopped in Finland. New hydroelectric power would not

  16. Enrichment of tropical peat with micronutrients for agricultural applications: evaluation of adsorption and desorption processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Camila de A.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre H., E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Goveia, Danielle [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption and desorption of micronutrients in tropical peats, from the perspective of potential agricultural applications. Adsorption experiments were performed at different pH values, using solutions containing individual and multiple metal ions. Maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.0, and the order of affinity was Cu > Fe > Co > Ni > Zn = Mn. Release of the micronutrients was evaluated at different pH values, using an aqueous medium as well as soil and plants. Release of the micronutrients was most efficient at pH 6.0, and followed the order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Co = Ni > Cu. Micronutrient release to the soil was accompanied by uptake by the plant. The use of tropical peat enriched with micronutrients could contribute to improved agricultural productivity, since the release profile of the micronutrients can effectively stimulate plant growth. (author)

  17. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  18. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  19. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, Louis J; Romanowicz, Karl J; Potvin, Lynette R; Rivers, Adam R; Singh, Kanwar; Lennon, Jay T; Tringe, Susannah G; Kane, Evan S; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2017-07-01

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to (i) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table and plant functional group at the onset of a multiyear mesocosm experiment, and (ii) test if fungi are correlated with abiotic variables of peat and pore water. We hypothesized that each factor influenced fungi, but that depth would have the strongest effect early in the experiment. We found that (i) communities were strongly depth stratified; fungi were four times more abundant in the upper (10-20 cm) than the lower (30-40 cm) depth, and dominance shifted from ericoid mycorrhizal fungi to saprotrophs and endophytes with increasing depth; (ii) the influence of plant functional group was depth dependent, with Ericaceae structuring the community in the upper peat only; (iii) water table had minor influences; and (iv) communities strongly covaried with abiotic variables, including indices of peat and pore water carbon quality. Our results highlight the importance of vertical stratification to peatland fungi, and the depth dependency of plant functional group effects, which must be considered when elucidating the role of fungi in peatland carbon dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Are colorimetric assays appropriate for measuring phenol oxidase activity in peat soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena M. Wiedermann; Evan S. Kane; Timothy J. Veverica; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    The activity of extracellular phenol oxidases is believed to play a critical role in decomposition processes in peatlands. The water logged, acidic conditions, and recalcitrant litter from the peatland vegetation, lead to exceptionally high phenolics in the peat. In order to quantify the activity of oxidative enzymes involved in the modification and break down of...

  1. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  2. Characteristics of pristine volcanic materials: Beneficial and harmful effects and their management for restoration of agroecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, Markus, E-mail: markusandas@yahoo.com; Suparto; Sukarman

    2016-02-01

    Eruption of Sinabung volcano in Indonesia began again in 2010 after resting for 1200 years. The volcano is daily emitting ash and pyroclastic materials since September 2013 to the present, damaging agroecosystems and costing for management restoration. The objective of the study was to assess properties and impacts of pristine volcanic material depositions on soil properties and to provide management options for restoring the affected agroecosytem. Land satellite imagery was used for field studies to observe the distribution, thickness and properties of ashfall deposition. The pristine ashfall deposits and the underlying soils were sampled for mineralogical, soluble salt, chemical, physical and toxic compound analyses. Results showed that uneven distribution of rainfall at the time of violent eruption caused the areas receiving mud ashfall developed surface encrustation, which was not occur in areas receiving dry ashfall. Ashfall damaged the agroecosytem by burning vegetation, forming surface crusts, and creating soil acidity and toxicity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of encrustated layer indicated the presence of gypsum and jarosite minerals. Gypsum likely acted as a cementing agent in the formation of the encrustation layer with extremely low pH (2.9) and extremely high concentrations of Al, Ca and S. Encrustation is responsible for limited water infiltration and root penetration, while the extremely high concentration of Al is responsible for crop toxicity. Mud ashfall and dry ashfall deposits also greatly changed the underlying soil properties by decreasing soil pH and cation exchange capacity and by increasing exchangeable Ca, Al, and S availability. Despite damaging vegetation in the short-term, the volcanic ashfall enriched the soil in the longer term by adding nutrients like Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Si and S. Suggested management practices to help restore the agroecosystem after volcanic eruptions include: (i) the

  3. Water and peat chemistry comparisons of natural and peat-harvested peatlands across Canada and their relevance to peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmulder, H.L.; Rochefort, L.; Vitt, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Water and peat chemistry comparisons of four post-harvested and neighbouring, undisturbed peatlands across Canada show that harvesting alters chemical conditions. Commercial harvesting removes the surface peat and exposes layers farther down the peat deposit. The newly exposed peat layers that were formed in earlier developmental stages of the peatland can be more minerotrophic and/or more variable in chemical composition than undisturbed bog peat. All the harvested sites were originally bogs. Only one site, which had minimal peat removed, presently has chemical conditions somewhat similar to the original surface, with low elemental levels typical of bogs. Two sites are now chemically similar to poor fens and one site is similar to a moderate-rich fen. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and chloride in three of the harvested sites are higher than normal values found in natural, unharvested bogs, and result from the exposure of fen peat. Higher levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen in the peat and water of all the harvested sites are present, with higher ammonium associated with wetter sites and higher nitrate levels associated with drier sites

  4. Isolation of peat swamp forest foliar endophyte fungi as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration activity is facing many obstacles, particularly in planting techniques and poor nutrient in peat soil. Naturally, endophytic fungi are abundant and have great potential as biofertilizer. This research investigates the potential endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of peat swamp tree species for biofertilizer. Research activities include: exploration, in vitro test to examine the phosphate solubilization and identification. Result showed that there were 360 leave segments collected from 4 sampling locations. The colonization percentage of 222 isolates ranged from 52.17% - 60.17%. Fifty seven morphospecies were selected from 222 isolates. Twelve isolates demonstrated ability to produce clear zones and ten isolates were selected for identification. It is concluded that twelve isolated demonstrated potential ability to produce clear zone and Penicillum citrinum isolate P3.10 was identified as an isolate that show the highest potential ability as a biofertilizer

  5. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled

  6. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  7. The geology of selected peat-forming environments in temperate and tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Esterle, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We studied peat in several geologic and climatic settings: (1) a glaciated terrain in cold-temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in a temperate maritime climate in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, U.S.A., where sea level is rising rapidly and changing the environment of peat accumulation; (3) swamps along the warm-temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often, thus creating sites for accumulation; and (4) in a tropical climate along the coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia (Figs. 1 and 2). With the exception of the deposits on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, most of the deposits described are domed bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. The bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have almost level surfaces. All domed bogs are not entirely ombrotrophic (watered only from precipitation); multidomed bogs that rise from irregular or hilly surfaces may be crossed by streams that supply water to the bogs. The geologic processes or organic sedimentation, namely terrestrialization and paludification, are similar in all peat deposits considered here. Differences in geomorphology affecting the quantity and that quality of peat that has ash contents of less than 25%, which are desirable for commercial purposes, depend chiefly on: (1) high humidity, which is favorable to luxuriant growth of peat-forming vegetation; (2) a depositional setting that permits extensive accumulation relatively free from inorganic contamination from sea water and streams and from dust and volcanic ash; and (3) a stable regional water table that controls the rate of decomposition under aerobic conditions and protects the deposit against the ravages of fire. Differences in peat textures are due to the type of vegetation and to the degree of decomposition. The rate of decomposition is largely the result of the amount of oxidation

  8. Peat-based organic growbags as a solution to the mineral wool waste problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grunert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast amount of solid waste produced each year is one of the greatest problems associated with greenhouse horticulture in some European countries. In particular, the disposal of used growing media arising from the soil-less cultivation of vegetables in mineral wool creates serious difficulties. The non-biodegradability of these mainly inorganic substrates causes environmental concern and has prompted the search for alternative growing media such as cocos derivatives, perlite and resin foam (Fytocell®. Organic substrates in combination with biodegradable material such as plastic, rope and clippings have the advantage that re-use or recycling of the waste is easier, cheaper and more environmentally friendly than for mineral wool. However, the differing physical and chemical characteristics of the alternative substrates may affect yield significantly. Substrates based respectively on peat and peat with cocos derivatives were tested against a mineral wool control for the production of tomato in three consecutive years. Both organic substrates were placed in biodegradable plastic bags. Greenhouse experiments demonstrated that plants grown in the pure peat substrate rooted more easily than plants grown in the peat-cocos substrate or mineral wool, and that they developed less blossom-end rot in both peat substrates than in mineral wool. Due to the buffering capacity of the organic substrates, the electrical conductivity of the draining water appeared to be more stable during cultivation. The total yield of tomato fruits was similar for all substrates, and no differences between substrates could be observed in the quality of the fruits produced. On the other hand, flavour tests demonstrated that plants grown on peat substrate produced more tasty fruits under certain conditions. The results of this study show that organic growbags are promising and competitive alternatives to mineral wool.

  9. The Use of Ameliorant Fe3+ and Rock Phosphates in Peat Soil at Several Water Condition on the P Content of Plants Rice and Carbon Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates containing high Fe cation can reduce effect of toxic organic acids, increase peat stability through formation of complex compounds and reduce carbon emission. The research was conducted in the laboratory and green house of the Departement of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agriculture University. Peat samples with hemic degree of decomposition were taken from Riau. Rock phosphates were taken from the rock phosphates of PT. Petrokimia Gresik, Christmas Island phosphates, and Huinan China and FeCl3.6H2O was used as the other Fe3+ source. The aims of the research were to study (a the effect of the applications of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates on the P content of plants dan (b the effect of the application ameliorant Fe3+ and the contribution of Fe cation in rock phosphates in the decrease of carbon emission. The results showed that the P content of plants rice increased 58 – 286% with the applications of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates. The estimation of carbon loss through CO2 and CH4 emissions from peats if planted continuously with rice was around 2.5, 2.2 and 2.6 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 respectively in field capacity condition, two times of field capacity condition, and 5 cm of saturated condition. The application of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates containing high Fe cation increased the stability of peats and reduced the carbon loss around 1.7 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (64% in 5 cm of saturated condition, 1.3 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (58% in two times of field capacity condition, and 1.0 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (41% in field capacity condition.

  10. High resolution 14C dating of surface peat using the AMS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, K.; Possnert, G.; Jungner, H.; Sonninen, E.; Alm, J.

    1992-01-01

    In an AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometric) determination of 14 C from moss-increment dated samples from a Sphagnum fuscum hummock, a clear peak representing the time of high 14 C activity in the atmosphere due to nuclear bomb tests was found. The C-14 activities in the peat profile at deeper levels, corresponding to the period down to 1600 Bp, showed similar variations as the atmospheric values. The time scale obtained from radiocarbon dating fitted well with results from moss-increment counting, pollen analysis and dendrochronological dating of a fire horizon. Using the bomb layers and refixing into growing peat was estimated. The fraction of soil carbon dioxide taken up by the contemporary Sphagnum Sward was thus found to be in the order of 20 %. (orig.). (15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.)

  11. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  12. Horticultural peat markets of the world. Finnish export possibilities increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuutinen, O.

    2000-01-01

    The statistics of 1997, collected by Turveruukki Oy, show that the horticultural peat production in Europe and Northern America is about 32.6 million m 3 /a. About 20.2 million m 3 of horticultural peat was produced in 1997 in Western Europe and about 9.5 million m 3 in Northern America. The share of Eastern Europe was 2.9 million m 3 . Production of fuel peat and horticultural peat in Europe are nearly equal, but most of the countries produce only horticultural peat. Finland, Russia, Ireland, Belorussia and Sweden are countries where the share of fuel peat is high. The largest producers of horticultural peat are Germany, Canada and Estonia. The share of these countries is about 60% of the production in Europe and Northern America. Germany and Canada do not produce fuel peat at all, and in Estonia the main portion of peat production area is aimed at horticultural production. About 1.6 million m 3 of horticultural peat was produced in Finland in 1997, corresponding to about 8% of the horticultural peat production in Europe. The share of horticultural peat has been low also in Ireland and Sweden. The main portion of the horticultural peat production in Finland is produced side by side with the fuel peat production. Horticultural peat is exported mainly as processed and sacked peat. The horticultural peat production in Western Europe is about 20 million m 3 /s. The Netherlands is a were large consumer of horticultural peat, but it has no horticultural peat production of its own. Other possible countries for export are Spain and France in Europe, and Japan

  13. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  14. Mobile geophysical study of peat deposits in Fuhrberger Field, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, T.; Petersen, H.; Hagrey, S. A. al; Rabbel, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the water protection area of Fuhrberger Field, north of Hanover, geophysical techniques were applied to study the stakeholder problem of the source detection for nitrate accumulations in the ground water. We used our mobile multisensor platform to conduct measurements using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, 200 MHz antenna) and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI, EM31). This aims to study the subsurface occurrences of peat deposits (surplus of organic carbon) supposed to be a source of nitrate emissions due to the aeration and the drawdown of groundwater levels (e.g. by pumping, drainage etc.). Resulting EMI and GPR signals show high data quality. Measured apparent electrical conductivity shows very low values (energy and EMI apparent electrical conductivities are plotted on aerial photographs and compared to each other's and with vegetation intensity. We could separate areas characterized by low reflection energy and high conductivity, and vice versa. Briefly, organic rich sediments such as peats are assumed to have a relative high conductivity and thus low GPR reflectivity. Some areas of local conductivity increase correspond to a deep reflection interface (as seen in the radargrams), which even vanishes due to the high attenuation caused by the high conductivity. This implies that the upper layer is more conductive than the lower layer. Several local areas with these characteristics are found at the study sites. We recommend shallow drillings at representative points to deliver the necessary confirmation with ground truth information. Acknowledgments: iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  15. The frost peat production; Routapalaturpeen tuotantoketjun tekniikka, talous ja ympaeristoevaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Leiviskae, V. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Thule Inst.

    1997-12-01

    The frost peat production means the cutting of frozen peat in the winter time. The aim of this study is to test the possibilities to prolong the peat production season and to produce peat pieces for the horticultural peat industry. In the frost peat production method the frozen peat field is sawed throughout the length and breadth of by a circle saw. The sawed peat pieces are loosened from the field by a so-called `splitter`. The circle saw is equipped with the five circle saw blades (diameter 90 cm). The distance of the blades is adjustable. The splitter is equipped with a horizontal position blade (width 35 cm). The dimensions of the peat pieces are changeable, but from the point of drying the upper limit of the side of the peat cube can be 15-20 cm. The frost peat production method is technically suitable for production of slightly decomposed (H1-5) energy and horticultural peat. The energy peat pieces are allowed to dry up 70-75 % moisture content on the cutting field and then the pieces can be ridged by the screening ridger. If necessary, the ridges can be turned over. In the frost peat production, the conventional sod peat winning machines can be used in the following stages of the working tasks: harrowing, ridging, loading, turning of ridges and stockpiling. The measured output of the circle saw was about 45-50 m{sup 3}/h of energy peat and 58-63 m{sup 3}/h of horticultural peat. The output of the splitter was 120-150 m{sup 3}/h. Theoretically, the output of circle saw and the splitter can easily be doubled. Thereafter the production costs will be about 19 FIM/MWh of energy peat and 18,6 FIM/m{sup 3} of horticultural peat

  16. Development of an underdrained peat production field; Salaojitetun tuotantokentaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, K.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the study is to examine the possibilities to improve the drainage of a peat production field using a numerical groundwater model. The effects of the ditch spacing and the drainage method on the groundwater level are studied. The way of ditching for basic drainage of virgin peatland, and the calculation of possible additional ditching in peat production fields, including the shallow areas, are considered. Also, the possibility of increasing the customary ditch spacing of 20 m is examined. The objective for drainage techniques is to cut the time for peatland preparation in half, and to increase the space between open field ditches from the present 20 meters to 60 - 80 meters by making use of underdrains. In this way it is possible to reduce the peat production costs about 5%. In 1995 the numerical groundwater model has been validated at Pajusuo drainage area. According to the comparison of the groundwater level calculated with the model and measured at Pajusuo, the agreement was very satisfactory. Uncertainty in the calculations derived mainly from the difficulties of assessing the pF curve and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil, as well as the water-carrying capacity of the mole drains. In general one can predict the groundwater level with an accuracy of +- 10 cm. Also the possibility to increase the hydraulic conductivity of peat by a chemical additive was studied. Adding 3 kg chemical per 1 kg dry matter it was possible to increase the hydraulic conductivity over twenty fold. In this way it is possible to construct vertical underdrains to improve the infiltration after rainfall

  17. Safety indicators for the peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhnoy, S A; Sedov, Yu I; Yenoshevskiy, B A

    1981-01-01

    Members of the inter-institutional department of 'Labor Protection' of the KPI, in cooperation with members of the peat industry, have developed safety indicators for the peat industry in accordance with the requirements of GOST 12.4.026-76 SSBT, and established the range and order for their use. The safety indicators for the peat industry are divided into four groups (prohibiting, warning, regulating, and indicating), depending on the function.

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide on pyrolysis of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Song, Hocheol; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mechanistic understanding of effects of CO 2 on pyrolysis of peat. To do this, three pyrolytic products (i.e., syngas: H 2 and CO, pyrolytic oil (tar), and biochar) were characterized. Thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) generated from pyrolysis of peat was enhanced in the presence of CO 2 . Besides the enhanced thermal cracking of VOCs, unknown reaction between CO 2 and VOCs was also identified. Accordingly, CO 2 played a role in enhancing syngas production and in reducing tar formation in pyrolysis of peat. This study also reveals that peat-biochar produced in CO 2 exhibited a larger surface area than that produced in N 2 . The results shown in this paper would be used for various applications such as energy recovery from peat using a potent greenhouse gas (for example, CO 2 ). - Highlights: • More CO can be produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Less amount of tar produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Surface area of peat-biochar made in CO 2 is larger than that made in N 2 . • CO 2 can modify the quantity/quality of pyrolytic products from peat.

  19. Moss and peat hydraulic properties are optimized to maximise peatland water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettridge, Nicholas; Tilak, Amey; Devito, Kevin; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Peatland ecosystems are globally important carbon and terrestrial surface water stores that have formed over millennia. These ecosystems have likely optimised their ecohydrological function over the long-term development of their soil hydraulic properties. Through a theoretical ecosystem approach, applying hydrological modelling integrated with known ecological thresholds and concepts, the optimisation of peat hydraulic properties is examined to determine which of the following conditions peatland ecosystems target during this development: i) maximise carbon accumulation, ii) maximise water storage, or iii) balance carbon profit across hydrological disturbances. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and empirical van Genuchten water retention parameter α are shown to provide a first order control on simulated water tensions. Across parameter space, peat profiles with hypothetical combinations of Ks and α show a strong binary tendency towards targeting either water or carbon storage. Actual hydraulic properties from five northern peatlands fall at the interface between these goals, balancing the competing demands of carbon accumulation and water storage. We argue that peat hydraulic properties are thus optimized to maximise water use efficiency and that this optimisation occurs over a centennial to millennial timescale as the peatland develops. This provides a new conceptual framework to characterise peat hydraulic properties across climate zones and between a range of different disturbances, and which can be used to provide benchmarks for peatland design and reclamation.

  20. Peat - a slowly renewable biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The international investigation group of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry suggest that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable energy source. Regeneration of peat can take up to thousands of years. Hence peat differs from wood energy, classified as renewable energy, and on the other hand from fossil fuels, such as coal. The report of the investigation group includes all the present research information on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish peatlands, i.e. how much greenhouse gases are liberated from Finnish mires, and on the other hand how much greenhouse gases they absorb. The net emissions of greenhouse gases of Finnish mires are over 10 million tons per year, and those of combustion of peat, mainly CO 2 , are over 8 million tons. The total greenhouse gas emissions of peat combustion and Finnish mire are estimated to be 19 (+- 9) % per year. This corresponds to about 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. The objective of the report was also to study the effects of the utilization of cutaway peat production areas (reforestation, returning the areas back to mires, agricultural utilization) on the greenhouse gas emission balances. The precise investigation of the effects of the greenhouse gas balances and the utilization of cutaway areas require further investigation and measurements at Finnish mires. The group consisted of Patrick Crill (USA), Ken Hargraves (GB) and Atte Korhola (FIN). The report of the group will be published in the Studies and Reports Serie of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry both in English and in Finnish

  1. The influence of peat volume change and vegetation on the hydrology of a kettle-hole wetland in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Whittington

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Links between local hydrology and vegetation type exist in wetlands, yet it is unclear what role peat volume change plays in these interactions. We measured peat volume change and hydraulic conductivity (Kfield at three contrasting sites located on the quaking vegetation mat of a kettle-hole peatland in southern Ontario. The three sites had visibly different plant communities and were named, according to their dominant vegetation, Sedge (Carex spp., Typha (Typha angustifolia and Carr (Cornus stolonifera. Peat was also collected for laboratory studies of peat volume change, vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivity and the effect of compression on hydraulic conductivity (Kc.In the field, the water table rose throughout the study period, resulting in swelling of the peat. Peat volume change above the -100 cm layer was 11.2%, 6.0% and 3.8% at the Sedge, Typha, and Carr sites respectively. In laboratory samples, a falling water table caused compression of the peat below the structured surface mat, and relative peat volume change between the sites followed the same pattern as in the field. Kfield, Kv and Kh generally decreased with depth from ca. 10-2 to 10-6 cm s-1. In the surface layers (0 to -50cm K trended Carr>Typha>Sedge, whereas the reverse trend was observed in deeper peat. Artificial compression affected K only in the uppermost layers (0 to -15cm. The decline in Kc with compression also trended Sedge>Typha>Carr. Differences in peat volume change and K are probably related to differences in vegetation and soil structure, and may be important for maintaining suitable growing conditions within each community.

  2. Peat in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambak, K. [MARDI - Integrated Peat Research Station, Johor (Malaysia); Ah Chye, L. [MARDI Jalan Kebun, Selangor (Malaysia). Vegetable Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    Malaysian peatlands occur mostly in the water-saturated basins of the coastal lowlands. They are approximately 25 000 km{sup 2} in extent, of which about 10 000 km{sup 2} are in Peninsular Malaysia and another 15 000 km{sup 2} are distributed in Sarawak and Sabah. In Peninsular Malaysia, peatland classification is based mainly on peat depth and loss on ignition. In Sarawak, a more comprehensive approach is adopted, based on peat depth and the type of underlying mineral materials. As for Sabah, the classification follows FAD/UNESCO guidelines. Malaysian peatland is utilised mainly for agriculture. At present, about 32 % of the peatland area in Peninsular Malaysia is used for this purpose. In Sarawak, a much smaller percentage is used for agriculture. The main crops grown are oil-palm, rubber, coconut, padi and pineapple. Based on {sup 14}C datings, it has been estimated that peat in this region began to form between 4 000 and 5 000 years ago. The overall rate of accumulation of the peat since its initial formation has been about 2.81 mm ye` whereas the average rate during the early stages of formation ( 12-10 m) was 4.76 mm ye. In the intermediate stage (10-5 m), the average annual accumulation rate decreased to 3.14 mm, and to 2.22 mm in the final phase (5 m to the surface). (orig.) (17 refs.)

  3. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  4. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  5. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  6. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  7. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  8. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunjing; Zhu, Dan; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Krinner, Gerhard; Peng, Shushi; Aurela, Mika; Bernhofer, Christian; Brümmer, Christian; Bret-Harte, Syndonia; Chu, Housen; Chen, Jiquan; Desai, Ankur R.; Dušek, Jiří; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Friborg, Thomas; Grygoruk, Mateusz; Gogo, Sébastien; Grünwald, Thomas; Hansen, Birger U.; Holl, David; Humphreys, Elyn; Hurkuck, Miriam; Kiely, Gerard; Klatt, Janina; Kutzbach, Lars; Largeron, Chloé; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Lund, Magnus; Lafleur, Peter M.; Li, Xuefei; Mammarella, Ivan; Merbold, Lutz; Nilsson, Mats B.; Olejnik, Janusz; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Oechel, Walter; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Peichl, Matthias; Pirk, Norbert; Peltola, Olli; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Rasse, Daniel; Rinne, Janne; Shaver, Gaius; Schmid, Hans Peter; Sottocornola, Matteo; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Sachs, Torsten; Urbaniak, Marek; Zona, Donatella; Ziemblinska, Klaudia

    2018-02-01

    Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) (r2 = 0.76; Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57-0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1), likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  9. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  10. AQUAPEAT 95. New methods for purifying the run-offs of peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, P.; Marja-aho, J.; Madekivi, O.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of Aqua Peat 95-project was to develop new methods for purifying the runoff coming from the peat production areas. The national water protection program for the year 1995 (Ympaeristoeministerioe 1988) as well as the level of the requirements and instructions from the authorities will obligate the peat producers to find new and practical methods for water purification. The chemical treatment reduced the load of peat production areas and the quality of treated water was almost equal to the runoffs coming from the natural bog area. The chemicals were the same as used in purifying drinking water. This purifying method is quite expensive and for this reason applicable only in special cases. The transpiration and evaporation and the soil filtering capacity of the forest area was also observed. The purifying capacity was very good, especially for the total nutrients and suspended solids. The changes of the ground water quality were insignificant but the level of the ground water in the field areas was higher than before. The long term changes of the vegetation and the trees could not be seen, yet. The most important water management practice is the detention of the discharge. The capacity of the sedimentation will increase by using the flow regulation in the sedimentation ponds and ditches. The changes in the water biology downstreams the Laeynioensuo peat production area were clearly seen near the main ditch. Because of the suspended solids the bottom sediment changed which lead to impacts to the bottom fauna. The colour of the runoffs as well as the changes in the sediment influenced on the macrophytes

  11. Burning peat in Ireland: An electricity market dispatch perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Bazilian, Morgan; Doherty, Ronan; Gallachoir, Brian O; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peat power production in Ireland under the three pillars of energy policy-security, competitiveness and environment. Peat contributes to energy security-as an indigenous fuel, it reduces dependency on imports. During a period of low capacity margins, the operation of the peat plants is useful from a system security perspective. Peat generation is being financially supported by consumers through an electricity levy. The fuel also has high carbon intensity. It is not politically viable to consider peat on equal economic criteria to other plant types because of history and location. This paper reviews electricity generation through combustion of peat in Ireland, and quantifies the costs of supporting peat utilising economic dispatch tools, finding the subsidy is not insignificant from a cost or carbon perspective. It shows that while peat is beneficial for one pillar of energy policy (security), the current usage of peat is not optimal from a competitiveness or environmental perspective. By switching from the current 'must-run' mode of operation for peat to the 'dispatched' mode used for the other generation, significant societal savings (in the range Euro 21 m per annum) can be achieved, as well as reducing system emissions by approximately 5% per year.

  12. Groundwater and quaternary geological studies of potential peat production areas - useful tool for sustainable peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valpola, S.E.; Paalijaervi, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), Email: samu.valpola@gtk.fi, Email: miikka.paalijarvi@gtk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Potential peat production areas in Finland are often situated in vicinity of eskers or other quaternary (glaciofluvial) formations. Frequently these formations are also important groundwater resources and it is essential for sustainable peat production to assure that these resources will not be endangered. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has concluded several quaternary geological studies on potential peat production areas, which are connected to locally important groundwater areas. These studies have been made using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) and light drilling equipment. The main objective of these studies has been to establish the local groundwater flow directions and the quality and extent of quaternary deposits. The increasing need of peat production areas has created an evident demand of cost-effective and fast research methods which can be used for providing reliable information for planning of new production areas. (orig.)

  13. Waste water from dewatering of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringqvist, L.; Bergner, K.; Olsson, Tommy; Bystroem, P.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

  14. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  15. Raising surface water levels in peat areas with dairy farming upscaling hydrological, agronomical and economic effects from farm-scale to local scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.; Bakel, van P.J.T.; Hoving, I.E.; Smidt, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Raising surface water levels in peat areas is a measure to reduce soil subsidence, to prevent decay of wooden foundations and to stimulate wet nature restoration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, in these areas dairy farms are present and farming at wetter soils is difficult due to lower

  16. Removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from a solution by humic acids repeatedly extracted from a peat soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzou, Y.-M.; Wang, S.-L.; Liu, J.-C.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is one of the major components of soil organic matter. It strongly affects the sorption behavior of organic and inorganic contaminants in soils. To obtain a better understanding of the interactions of contaminants with HA, a repeated extraction technique has been applied to a peat soil to obtain HA fractions with varying aliphaticity and aromaticity, which were subsequently correlated to the sorption properties of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP). HA fractions were extracted repeatedly using an alkaline solution and each HA fraction was separated into two portions with an air-drying or re-suspending (denoted as RSHAs) process. Solid-state 13 C NMR and elemental analysis demonstrated that the aromaticity and polarity of HAs decreased with extractions. Kinetic results indicated that air-dried HAs exhibited two-step first order sorption behavior with a rapid stage followed by a slower stage. The slower sorption is attributed to the diffusion of 2,4,6-TCP in the condensed aromatic domains of HAs. Conversely, sorption of 2,4,6-TCP on RSHAs was extremely rapid and could not be fitted with any kinetic model. For air-dried HAs the sorption capacity (K oc ) was weakly correlated with the chemical compositions of HAs. However, a positive trend between K oc and aromaticity was observed for RSHAs. Compared with the results of air-dried HAs with their counterparts of RSHAs, it is therefore concluded that air-drying may alter the structure of HAs through artificially creating a more condensed domain in HAs. The structural alternation may result in an incorrect interpretation of the relationship between sorption capacity and chemical composition of HAs and a misjudgment of the transport behavior of 2,4,6-TCP in soils and sediments

  17. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  18. Peat filtration, field ditches and sedimentation basins for the purification of runoff water from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, R.; Heikkinen, K.; Lakso, E.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop new methods and to improve those already in use to reduce the loading of watercourses from peat excavation areas. Factors examined were the use of peat filtration for the purification of the runoff water, load retention by the means of field ditches and improvement of the practicability and dredging of the settling ponds. Field research was carried out in peat production areas in the province of Oulu in 1987-1989

  19. Peat classified as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The expert group, appointed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from UK and college lecturer Atte Korhola from Finland, studied the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas emissions. The group did not produce new research information, the report of the group based on the present research data available in Finland on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish mires and peat utilization, how much greenhouse gases, e.g. methane, CO 2 and N 2 O are liberated and bound by the mires. All the virgin peatlands in Finland (4.0 million ha), forest drained peatlands (5.7 million ha), peatlands used as fields in agriculture (0.25 million ha), peat harvesting and storage, as well as the actual peat production areas (0.063 million ha) are reviewed. The main factor intensifying the greenhouse effect, so called radiate forcing, is estimated to be the methane emissions from virgin peatlands, 11 million CO 2 equivalent tons per year. The next largest sources of emissions are estimated to be the CO 2 emissions of peat (8 million t/a), CO 2 emissions from peatlands in agricultural use (3.2 - 7.8 million t/a), the N 2 O emissions (over 2 million t/a) and methane emissions (less than 2 million t/a) of forest ditched peatlands. Other emission sources such as actual peat production and transportation are minimal. Largest carbon sinks are clearly forest-drained peatlands (9.4 - 14.9 million t/a) and virgin peatlands (more than 3 million t/a). Main conclusions of the experts group is that peat is formed continuously via photosynthesis of mosses, sedges and under-shrub vegetation and via forest litter formation. The report discovers that the basics of the formation of peat biomass is similar to that of other plant-based biomasses, such as wood, but the time required by stratification is different. Forests in Southern Finland become ready for harvesting in about 100 years, but the formation of commercially viable peat layers takes

  20. Relocation of carbon from decomposition of {sup 14}C-labelled needle and fine root litter in peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domish, T; Laine, J; Laiho, R [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Karsisto, M [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Drainage of peatlands promotes a shift of biomass and production from the ground vegetation to the trees. Thus, the above-ground (e.g. needles) and below-ground (roots) litter production of trees increases. Fine roots in particular are an important factor in the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems. A major part of the annual net primary production of trees may be allocated below ground, the relative proportion being smaller on fertile sites than on less fertile ones. For modelling the carbon balance of drained peatlands, it is important to know the fate of carbon from newly introduced and decomposing litter. Newly added and fertilised tree litter material may be decomposed at a rate different than litter from the ground vegetation. The objectives of this study are to study the pathways of decomposing litter carbon in peat soil and to evaluate the use of the litterbag method in a controlled environment. (9 refs.)

  1. Relocation of carbon from decomposition of {sup 14}C-labelled needle and fine root litter in peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domish, T.; Laine, J.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Drainage of peatlands promotes a shift of biomass and production from the ground vegetation to the trees. Thus, the above-ground (e.g. needles) and below-ground (roots) litter production of trees increases. Fine roots in particular are an important factor in the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems. A major part of the annual net primary production of trees may be allocated below ground, the relative proportion being smaller on fertile sites than on less fertile ones. For modelling the carbon balance of drained peatlands, it is important to know the fate of carbon from newly introduced and decomposing litter. Newly added and fertilised tree litter material may be decomposed at a rate different than litter from the ground vegetation. The objectives of this study are to study the pathways of decomposing litter carbon in peat soil and to evaluate the use of the litterbag method in a controlled environment. (9 refs.)

  2. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  3. A new soil mechanics approach to quantify and predict land subsidence by peat compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Erkens, G.; Zwanenburg, C.

    2016-01-01

    Land subsidence threatens many coastal areas. Quantifying current and predicting future subsidence are essential to sustain the viability of these areas with respect to rising sea levels. Despite its scale and severity, methods to quantify subsidence are scarce. In peat-rich subsidence hot spots,

  4. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  5. Mobility of Cs137 and Sr90 in organic soils and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the management of the radionuclide contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy for reduction of both the external and internal doses to the population it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soil ecosystems. The purpose of work is to investigate by means of laboratory, field experiments and mathematical modelling the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the organic soil to propose measures for control their mobility. The Chernobyl radionuclides behaviour was studied for ameliorated peat-mire soil (peat deposit Pogonyanskoye, 21 km off the ChNPP). To control the mobility of radionuclides in soils the characteristics of the migration and sorption of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in sedge peat, quartz sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel as well as the electrolytes impact upon the radionuclide behaviour have been experimentally investigated

  6. Inacessible Andean sites reveal land-use induced stabilisation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Maqsood, Shafique; Sylvester, Steven; Kessler, Michael; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Human activity affects properties and development of ecosystems across the globe to such a degree that it is challenging to get baseline values for undisturbed ecosystems. This is especially true for soils, which are affected by land-use history and hold a legacy of past human interventions. Therefore, it is still largely unknown how soil would have developed "naturally" and if processes of organic matter stabilisation would be different in comparison to managed soils. Here, we show undisturbed soil development, i.e., the processes of weathering and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC), by comparing pristine with grazed sites in the high Andes (4500 m) of southern Peru. We located study plots on a large ledge (0.2 km²) that is only accessible with mountaineering equipment. Plots with pristine vegetation were compared to rangeland plots that were constantly under grazing management for at least four millennia. All "state factors"; climate, potential biota, topography, parent material and time; besides "land-use" were, therefore, identical. Vegetation change, induced by grazing management, led to lower vegetation cover of the soil, thereby increasing soil surface temperatures and soil acidification. Both factors increased weathering in rangeland soils, as indicated by the presence of pedogenic oxides, especially amorphous Al-(oxy)hydroxides (oxalate-extractable Al). Higher losses of base cations (K, Na, Ca) and lower pH-values were related to a low base saturation of exchange sites in rangelands. Therefore, rangeland soils were classified as Umbrisol, whereas soils under pristine vegetation were classified as Phaeozeme. All profiles were rich in SOC (100 to 126 g kg-1) with no significant differences in concentrations or stocks. SOC of rangeland soils was, however, less available for microorganisms (proportion of microbial C on SOC: 1.8 vs. 0.6% in pristine and rangeland soils, respectively) and showed higher stability against thermal degradation. Reasons for

  7. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  8. Canadian peat harvesting and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, ca 749,000 tonnes of peat were sold by Canadian producers, a small volume in comparison to the estimated 50 million tonnes or more that accumulate naturally each year in Canada. Most of the harvested peat was used for horticultural purposes. The relationship between peatlands and the peat industry is examined, and issues related to the environment and sustainable resource use are discussed. Case studies are used to examine several specific situations where peatland development proposals have undergone environmental assessments. The present status of peatland conservation in Canada is reviewed. To date, developed peatlands are primarily situated in the boreal wetland regions and consist mainly of the bog wetland class. Environmental issues related to peatland development include the need for conservation of flora, fauna, and other ecological values or functions. The potential for release of carbon gases due to Canadian peat harvesting is considered to be insignificant in relation to other uses of carbon sources such as the combustion of fossil fuel, and is unlikely to influence global warming at the present or projected levels of peatland development in Canada. The influence and mitigation of the effects of drainage of peatlands for peat production on water quality and flow regime are being addressed on a site-specific basis through existing regulatory procedures and research. Reclamation and restoration options are being incorporated during design and operational development of new peat harvesting areas. 39 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Mitigating climate change through the understanding of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) consumption processes in peat lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, N.; Barker, X. Z.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous Oxide (N2O) with global warming potential of 298 over a 100-year horizon is one of the most potent green house gases. In the United States, agriculture share to N2O emissions is over 70%. Peat lands, however, are being considered as both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. N2O emissions are a product of both production and consumption processes. However, there is still a lack of understanding of N2O consumption processes in soils. In this work, the potential of re-wetted peat lands planted to rice in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, to act as a potential sink for N2O is being evaluated. Four peat land soils with 1%, 5%, 11% and 23% of organic carbon have been anaerobically incubated with different water contents (15%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of their water holding capacity). 15N-N2O gas has been injected to the headspace of experiment jars and the production and consumption rate of 15N-N2O, 15N-N2 and production rate of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4) along with dissolved Nitrate (NO3-), Nitrite (NO2-), Ammonium (NH4+), Iron (II) and Iron (III) concentration has been quantified. Our results show promising N2O consumption rates under high carbon content and relatively high water content treatments. This research introduces organic carbon and water content as two major criteria in N2O consumption processes in peat lands that make it a potential hotspot for climate changes mitigation through adopting effective management practices to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Distilling peat and other carbonaceous matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stones, W B

    1850-03-07

    Improvements in treating peat and other carbonaceous and ligneous matters, so as to obtain products therefrom are disclosed. These improvements consist, first, of a machine for compressing and partially drying peat. The unpressed peat is put into boxes and these into frames which are passed through between the bowls of a machine resembling a pair of squeezers. Secondly, consists in distilling, at a temperature of, say 700/sup 0/F, the compressed peat, with or without the addition of tar or fatty matter in retorts, and condensing the vapors in a series of vessels, arranged after the manner of Wolfe's bottles. The resulting charcoal may be extinguished by passing carbonic acid through it while in an air-tight box or chamber, and it may then be compressed into bricks, and used for locomotives and other purposes.

  11. Study of the production of compacted peat; Tiivistetyn turpeen tuotantotutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The so-called Compeat method developed at VTT Energy is applied by field experiments to peat production. The aim of the two-year project (1996 - 1997) is to achieve an increase of 20 % in hectare yield with this new production method of compacted peat in pilot scale in field conditions without any increase in production costs. The aim of the 1996 study was to construct a prototype mining machine for compacted peat and to produce compacted peat from Carex and Sphagnum peat fields in test runs. The operation of the mining machine was studied and drying of compacted peat with that of milled peat were compared at peat production sites of Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy. The results of the drying studies were along the same lines with previous laboratory drying tests. The dry matter yield of Compeat was more than twice that of milled peat in the Carex peat field and 1.1-1.5-fold in the Sphagnum field. Compeat moistened significantly less in the rain than normally milled peat. Compeat was ridged with a scraper-ridger. The mining machine produced sufficiently compacted and well-drying peat, but its power demand was too high. The aim is to reduce the power consumption of the mining machine significantly to make it possible to use a wheel- tractor for pulling and to reduce the production costs of the method lower than those of the milled peat method. The drying results of Compeat were so promising that the development of the field machine will be continued. (orig.)

  12. Use of sewage sludge and coconut coir mix as a peat substitute for potted chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenani, A.B.; Lim, F.Y.; Thohirah, L.A.; Fauziah, C.I.

    2003-07-01

    Recent central processing of domestic wastewater in Malaysia has initiated investigations into the disposal/utilization of the sewage sludge produced. We had conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of using dewatered sewage sludge and coconut coir as a peat substitute in a potting medium for chrysanthemum. The experiment involved 9 treatments with sewage sludge (SS) and coconut coir (CC) mixed in different ratios (v/v) to replace peat in the standard potting medium of 3:2:1 (soil: peat: sand).The potting medium contained the following treatments, T1: peat + recommended rates of Agroblend (Ag), a slow release fertilizer, and Grofas (Gf), a foliar fertilizer (commonly used medium and fertilization), T2: [1SS:1CC] + Ag, T3: [1SS:1CC] + half recommended rates of Agroblend and Grofas (1/2Ag + 1/2Gf), T4: [2SS:1CC] + Ag, T5: [2SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T6: [3SS:1CC] + Ag, T7: [3SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T8: [4SS:1CC] + Ag, and T9: [4SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf; laid-out in a randomized complete block design with 5 replications. Results of the study show that in general the media with sludge and coconut coir mixtures produced better plant growth and higher total number of flowers than peat. However, the higher ratio of SS:CC, (4SS:1CC) produced poorer plant growth and less number of flowers. Increase in sewage sludge in the medium resulted in increase in foliar contents of heavy metals. This study demonstrates that sewage sludge and coconut coir mixture in the ratio of 1:1 may best substitute peat in the potting medium for chrysanthemum with only Agroblend fertilizer application. (author)

  13. The composition and character of DOM from an upland peat catchment - sources, roles and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Moody, C.; Clay, G.; Boothroyd, I.; Burt, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    The fluvial fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peatlands form an important part of that ecosystem's carbon cycle, contributing approximately 35% of the overall peatland carbon budget. The source, role and fate of this component of the carbon cycle was explored for a peat covered catchment in the north east of England with dissolved organic matter (DOM) being sampled from both a first-order peat-hosted stream and soil water at two depths within the peat profile. All DOM samples were analysed within the context of analysing the particulate organic matter (POM) from the catchment; the peat profile; and biomass. All samples were analysed using: elemental analysis (C, H, N, O, P and S); bomb calorimetry; thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); 13C solid state NMR; and S isotopes. Furthermore, the degradation of fresh DOC was examined over periods of 70 hours every month for 23 months. The analysis has shown that: DOM is highly oxidised compared to all other organic in the ecosystem and DOM did not exist until [C]/[O] lignin breakdown and not the processing of proteins or carbohydrates, i.e. it was not an intermediate of oxidation to CO2. DOM could only be sourced from high in the peat profile at most above 41 cm depth. Thermodynamic inhibition shows that only DOM from the surface layers could be reactive in the catotelmic layers of the peat. There was a significant role for the composition of the DOM in controlling degradation with degradation rates significantly increasing with the proportion of aldehyde and carboxylic acid functional groups but decreasing with the proportion of N-alkyl functional groups. The study meant that is was possible to consider the behaviour of DOM in terms of its thermodynamic properties (DH, DS & DG) for both formation and reaction.

  14. The effects of permafrost thaw on soil hydrologic, thermal, and carbon dynamics in an Alaskan peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, A. David; Kanevskiy, Mikhail Z.; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent warming at high-latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw in northern peatlands, and thaw can have profound effects on local hydrology and ecosystem carbon balance. To assess the impact of permafrost thaw on soil organic carbon (OC) dynamics, we measured soil hydrologic and thermal dynamics and soil OC stocks across a collapse-scar bog chronosequence in interior Alaska. We observed dramatic changes in the distribution of soil water associated with thawing of ice-rich frozen peat. The impoundment of warm water in collapse-scar bogs initiated talik formation and the lateral expansion of bogs over time. On average, Permafrost Plateaus stored 137 ± 37 kg C m-2, whereas OC storage in Young Bogs and Old Bogs averaged 84 ± 13 kg C m-2. Based on our reconstructions, the accumulation of OC in near-surface bog peat continued for nearly 1,000 years following permafrost thaw, at which point accumulation rates slowed. Rapid decomposition of thawed forest peat reduced deep OC stocks by nearly half during the first 100 years following thaw. Using a simple mass-balance model, we show that accumulation rates at the bog surface were not sufficient to balance deep OC losses, resulting in a net loss of OC from the entire peat column. An uncertainty analysis also revealed that the magnitude and timing of soil OC loss from thawed forest peat depends substantially on variation in OC input rates to bog peat and variation in decay constants for shallow and deep OC stocks. These findings suggest that permafrost thaw and the subsequent release of OC from thawed peat will likely reduce the strength of northern permafrost-affected peatlands as a carbon dioxide sink, and consequently, will likely accelerate rates of atmospheric warming.

  15. Effect of climate changes in the holocene on the distribution of humic substances in the profile of forest-tundra peat mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The molecular composition of humic substances in permafrost peatlands of the forest-tundra zone in northeastern European Russia has been characterized for the first time on the basis of systematic studies. Changes in the molar x(H): x(C) ratio along the peat profiles have been revealed, which is due to the activation of cryogenic processes in the upper part of the seasonally thawing layer, the natural selection of condensed humic molecules, and the botanical composition and degree of degradation of peat, which reflect the climatic features of the area in the Holocene. Dry-peat soils of mounds are worse heated during the summer period because of the buffering effect of moss litter, which results in a lower degree of condensation of humic and fulvic acid molecules in the peat horizons down to the permafrost table. Transformation of quantitative and qualitative parameters of specific organic compounds occurs at the permafrost boundary of peatlands, which can serve as an indicator of recent climate changes in high latitudes.

  16. Organic Matter Transformation in the Peat Column at Marcell Experimental Forest: Humification and Vertical Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Cooper, Bill [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Chanton, Patrick R [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Chanton, Jeff P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale ecosystem manipulation (Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change, SPRUCE) is being constructed in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA, to determine the effects of climatic forcing on ecosystem processes in northern peatlands. Prior to the initiation of the manipulation, we characterized the solid-phase peat to a depth of 2 meters using a variety of techniques, including peat C:N ratios, 13C and 15N isotopic composition, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT IR), and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). FT IR determined peat humification-levels increased rapidly between and 75 cm, indicating a highly reactive zone. We observed a rapid drop in the abundance of O-alkyl-C, carboxyl-C, and other oxygenated functionalities within this zone and a concomitant increase in the abundance of alkyl- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Below 75-cm, minimal change was observed except that aromatic functionalities accumulated with depth. Incubation studies revealed the highest methane production rates and greatest CH4:CO2 ratios within this and 75 cm zone. Hydrology and surface vegetation played a role in belowground carbon cycling. Radiocarbon signatures of microbial respiration products in deeper porewaters resembled the signatures of dissolved organic carbon rather than solid phase peat, indicating that more recently photosynthesized organic matter fueled the bulk of subsurface microbial respiration. Oxygen-containing functionalities, especially O-alkyl-C, appear to serve as an excellent proxy for soil decomposition rate, and in addition should be a sensitive indicator of the response of the solid phase peat to the climatic manipulation.

  17. Excavation and drying of compressed peat; Tiivistetyn turpeen nosto ja kuivaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Frilander, P.; Hillebrand, K.; Nurmi, H.

    1996-12-31

    The target of this three year (1993 - 1995) project was to improve the peat product-ion efficiency by developing an energy economical excavation method for compressed peat, by which it is possible to obtain best possible degree of compression and load from the DS-production point of view. It is possible to improve the degree of utilization of solar radiation in drying from 30 % to 40 %. The main research areas were drying of the compressed peat and peat compression. The third sub-task for 1995 was demonstration of the main parts of the method in laboratory scale. Experimental compressed peat (Compeat) drying models were made for peats Carex-peat H7, Carex-peat H5 and Carex-Sphagnum-peat H7. Compeat dried without turning in best circumstances in 34 % shorter time than milled layer made of the same peat turned twice, the initial moisture content being 4 kgH2OkgDS-1. In the tests carried out in 1995 with Carex-peat the compression had not corresponding effect on intensifying of the drying of peat. Compression of Carex-Sphagnum peat H7 increased the drying speed by about 10 % compared with the drying time of uncompressed milled layer. In the sprinkling test about 30-50 % of the sprinkled water was sucked into the compressed peat layer, while about 70 % of the rain is sucked into the corresponding uncompressed milled layer. Use of vibration decreased the energy consumption of the steel-surfaced nozzles about 20 % in the maximum, but the effect depend on the rotation speed of the macerator and the vibration power. In the new Compeat method (production method for compressed peat), developed in the research, the peat is loosened from the field surface by milling 3-5 cm thick layer of peat of moisture content 75-80 %

  18. An Overview on Japan and Malaysia Peat Relating to Geotechnical Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Khaidir Abu Talib; Noriyuki Yasufuku

    2014-01-01

    Peat deposits distribution is extensive and can be found in many countries throughout the world when the conditions are favorable for their accumulation and formation at different climatic zones. These deposits represent the extreme form of soft soil and subject to instability and enormous primary as well as long-term settlement even when subjected to moderate load. Access to these superficial deposits is usually very difficult as the water table will be at near or above the ground surface. T...

  19. Coal-peat compositions for co-combustion in local boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Михайлов

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In article results of experiments on creation of coal and peat fuel compositions for burning in solid-fuel boilers are described. The main objective of research consisted in development of combination of coal dust and natural peat without binding additives. The role of peat consists that it increases efficiency of process of granulation, being natural binding. The method of granulation allows to utilize waste of the coal industry. Joint burning of two types of fuel – coal dust and peat reduces emission of sulfur dioxides. The cost of peat raw materials is lower, than artificial binding, applied to briquetting of coal dust. The composition of mix of coal dust and peat varied in the ratio 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 in volume ratio at humidity of mix before extrusion of 65 %. In the course of preparatory operations of coal raw materials its crushing and sifting through sieve of 24 mesh (0,707 mm was carried out. Procedure of hashing of samples of coal and peat was carried out before receiving homogeneous mixture. After hashing mix was located in piston press for receiving granules. Coal dust and wet peat pass semifixed extrusion on piston press with formation of cylindrical granules with a diameter of 16 mm. After extrusion of granule are dried to operational humidity of 25 %. Coal and peat fuel granules showed sufficient mechanical strength for transportation and power feed in solid-fuel boilers. Burning of coal and peat fuel granules in vitro at temperature of 800 °C does not lead to ashes agglomeration. The conducted preliminary researches showed prospects of utilization of coal waste by granulation method in mix with natural peat.

  20. Características químicas determinan la capacidad micotrófica arbuscular de suelos agrícolas y prístinos de Buenos Aires (Argentina Chemical characteristics as determinants of arbuscular mycotrophic ability of agricultural and pristine soils from Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Covacevich

    2012-12-01

    , the soils' natural fertility and the beneficial microbial populations such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could be affected. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the nutrient content in soils under contrasting managements (agricultural vs. pristine that could influence the mycotrophic ability of AMF. Soil samples were collected from 29 agricultural sites in Buenos Aires Province under cropped and non-cropped (pristine systems. Chemical characteristics were determined (CIC, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, P-Bray, CO and pH in composed samples collected from each field. Mycotrophic ability was estimated by assessing the degree of root colonization by native mycorrhiza in trap crops after 12 weeks of sowing. The values of chemical properties were generally higher for pristine sites than for agricultural plots. However, the mycotrophic ability did not differ between cropped and pristine soils. The principal component analysis allowed grouping field sites under agriculture or pristine conditions. Soil available P content, together with Fe and to a lesser extent Mn content- seemed to depress the mycotrophic ability of the analyzed soil, particularly under moderate to low organic carbon contents conditions.

  1. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596, a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Qiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP (r2 =  0.76; Nash–Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF  =  0.76 and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 =  0.78, MEF  =  0.75, with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 =  0.42, MEF  =  0.14 and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 =  0.38, MEF  =  0.26. Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57–0.86. For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1, likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature, which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  2. Iron and silicon isotope behaviour accompanying weathering in Icelandic soils, and the implications for iron export from peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Williams, H. M.; Cornelis, J. T.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Georg, R. B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2017-11-01

    Incipient warming of peatlands at high latitudes is expected to modify soil drainage and hence the redox conditions, which has implications for Fe export from soils. This study uses Fe isotopes to assess the processes controlling Fe export in a range of Icelandic soils including peat soils derived from the same parent basalt, where Fe isotope variations principally reflect differences in weathering and drainage. In poorly weathered, well-drained soils (non-peat soils), the limited Fe isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.11 ± 0.12‰) is attributed to proton-promoted mineral dissolution. In the more weathered poorly drained soils (peat soils), the soil solutions are usually lighter than the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.41 ± 0.32‰), which indicates that Fe has been mobilised by reductive mineral dissolution and/or ligand-controlled dissolution. The results highlight the presence of Fe-organic complexes in solution in anoxic conditions. An additional constraint on soil weathering is provided by Si isotopes. The Si isotope composition of the soil solutions relative to the soil (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 0.92 ± 0.26‰) generally reflects the incorporation of light Si isotopes in secondary aluminosilicates. Under anoxic conditions in peat soils, the largest Si isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil is observed (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 1.63 ± 0.40‰) and attributed to the cumulative contribution of secondary clay minerals and amorphous silica precipitation. Si supersaturation in solution with respect to amorphous silica is reached upon freezing when Al availability to form aluminosilicates is limited by the affinity of Al for metal-organic complexes. Therefore, the precipitation of amorphous silica in peat soils indirectly supports the formation of metal-organic complexes in poorly drained soils. These observations highlight that in a scenario of decreasing soil drainage with

  3. Industrial peat utilization and its importance to the Irish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Over the centuries peat has been used as a valuable source of fuel for domestic heating and cooking. In contrast to earlier times when all peat extraction and harvesting was carried out by hand, peat production in Ireland to-day has become a highly mechanised, large scale commercial industry, making a significant contribution to the Irish economy. Bord na Mona, the state agency assigned the responsibility for peatland development in Ireland, has developed 88,000 hectares of Ireland's 1.2 million hectares of peatlands. Over 5.2 million tonnes of fuel peat are currently sold each year for electricity generation and for the manufacture of peat briquettes for heating installations. With the introduction of a new 120 MW peat fired power station, the overall sales for fuel peat will be increased by 1.0 million tonnes per annum. On the horticultural front, Bord na Mona produces and sells over 1.5 million cubic metres of horticultural peat products to the domestic and international markets. (author)

  4. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  5. Atmospheric impact of abandoned boreal organic agricultural soils depends on hydrological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maljanen, M.; Martikainen, P.J. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], E-Mail: marja.maljanen@uef.fi; Hytonen, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland); Makiranta, P.; Minkkinen, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)

    2013-09-01

    Drained agricultural peat soils are significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but also small sinks for methane (CH{sub 4}). Leaving these soils without any cultivation practice could be an option to mitigate GHG emissions. To test this hypothesis, we measured, over a three year period, net CO{sub 2} exchange and fluxes of CH{sub 4} for five agricultural peat soils that had been abandoned for 20-30 years. Annually, the sites were either small net sinks or sources of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (-7,8 to 530 g CO{sub 2}-Cm {sup -2} and -0,41 to 1,8 g CH{sub 4}m{sup -2}). Including N{sub 2}O emissions from our previous study, the net (CH{sub 4}+CO{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O) emissions as CO{sub 2} equivalents were lower than in cultivated peat soils and were lowest in the wet year. Therefore, high GHG emissions from these soils could be avoided if the water table is maintained close to the soil surface when photosynthesis is favoured over respiration. (orig.)

  6. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  7. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  8. The effect of drought on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from peatland soil and vegetation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Brazier, Richard E.; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Drought conditions are expected to increase in frequency and severity as the climate changes, representing a threat to carbon sequestered in peat soils. Downstream water treatment works are also at risk of regulatory compliance failures and higher treatment costs due to the increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often observed after droughts. More frequent droughts may also shift dominant vegetation in peatlands from Sphagnum moss to more drought-tolerant species. This paper examines the impact of drought on the production and treatability of DOC from four vegetation litters (Calluna vulgaris, Juncus effusus, Molinia caerulea and Sphagnum spp.) and a peat soil. We found that mild droughts caused a 39.6 % increase in DOC production from peat and that peat DOC that had been exposed to oxygen was harder to remove by conventional water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation). Drought had no effect on the amount of DOC production from vegetation litters; however large variation was observed between typical peatland species (Sphagnum and Calluna) and drought-tolerant grassland species (Juncus and Molinia), with the latter producing more DOC per unit weight. This would therefore suggest the increase in riverine DOC often observed post-drought is due entirely to soil microbial processes and DOC solubility rather than litter layer effects. Long-term shifts in species diversity may, therefore, be the most important impact of drought on litter layer DOC flux, whereas pulses related to drought may be observed in peat soils and are likely to become more common in the future. These results provide evidence in support of catchment management which increases the resilience of peat soils to drought, such as ditch blocking to raise water tables.

  9. Benchmark values for forest soil carbon stocks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Bruno; Cools, Nathalie; Ilvesniemi, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forest floors and in mineral and peat forest soils were estimated at the European scale. The assessment was based on measured C concentration, bulk density, coarse fragments and effective soil depth data originating from 4914 plots in 22 EU countries belonging...... to the UN/ECE ICP Forests 16 × 16 km Level I network. Plots were sampled and analysed according to harmonized methods during the 2nd European Forest Soil Condition Survey. Using continuous carbon density depth functions, we estimated SOC stocks to 30-cm and 1-m depth, and stratified these stocks according...... to 22 WRB Reference Soil Groups (RSGs) and 8 humus forms to provide European scale benchmark values. Average SOC stocks amounted to 22.1 t C ha− 1 in forest floors, 108 t C ha− 1 in mineral soils and 578 t C ha− 1 in peat soils, to 1 m depth. Relative to 1-m stocks, the vertical SOC distribution...

  10. Uranium/thorium dating of Late Pleistocene peat deposits in NW Europe, uranium/thorium isotope systematics and open-system behaviour of peat layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnis, H.; Plicht, J. van der

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of dating peat by the uranium-series disequilibrium method is discussed. In principle, this method can be used to date peat to approximately 350 ka. The application of the U/Th disequilibrium method (UTD) on peat provides us with the probability of constructing a new chronology for

  11. The association of uranium with organic matter in peat and peat water in a wetland from the Carson Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orem, W.; Zielinski, R.; Otton, J.; Lerch, H.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium has a high affinity for organic matter and is frequently found in high concentrations in coal and peat beds. The nature of the U/organic matter association was investigated in peat from cores obtained from a small wetland (Upper Zephyr Fen) near Lake Tahoe, NV. The peat contains U concentrations of up to 0.5% dry weight, supplied by surface and ground water weathering the U-rich granodiorite rocks of the surrounding mountains. Uranium concentrations are highly correlated with both organic C and N contents, but show no apparent relationship to specific organic moieties such as carboxyl or phenolic functional groups. Sieve studies of the peat show the U is concentrated in the 2,000--250 um size fraction. This fraction also has the lowest atomic C/N ratio, suggesting a possible role of N-containing organic compounds in U complexation. In peat pore waters, dissolved U is primarily associated with high molecular weight dissolved organic matter, as shown by equilibrium models and experimental data

  12. Dynamic hydro-climatic networks in pristine and regulated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Doulatyari, B.; Biswal, B.; Schirmer, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Flow patterns observed at-a-station are the dynamical byproduct of a cascade of processes involving different compartments of the hydro-climatic network (e.g., climate, rainfall, soil, vegetation) that regulates the transformation of rainfall into streamflows. In complex branching rivers, flow regimes result from the heterogeneous arrangement around the stream network of multiple hydrologic cascades that simultaneously occur within distinct contributing areas. As such, flow regimes are seen as the integrated output of a complex "network of networks", which can be properly characterized by its degree of temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity. Hydrologic networks that generate river flow regimes are dynamic in nature. In pristine rivers, the time-variance naturally emerges at multiple timescales from climate variability (namely, seasonality and inter-annual fluctuations), implying that the magnitude (and the features) of the water flow between two nodes may be highly variable across different seasons and years. Conversely, the spatial distribution of river flow regimes within pristine rivers involves scale-dependent transport features, as well as regional climatic and soil use gradients, which in small and meso-scale catchments (A guarantee quite uniform flow regimes and high spatial correlations. Human-impacted rivers, instead, constitute hybrid networks where observed spatio-temporal patterns are dominated by anthropogenic shifts, such as landscape alterations and river regulation. In regulated rivers, the magnitude and the features of water flows from node to node may change significantly through time due to damming and withdrawals. However, regulation may impact river regimes in a spatially heterogeneous manner (e.g. in localized river reaches), with a significant decrease of spatial correlations and network connectivity. Provided that the spatial and temporal dynamics of flow regimes in complex rivers may strongly impact important biotic processes

  13. Degradation of isoproturon and bentazone in peat- and compost-based biomixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Laura; Pilar Castillo, Maria Del; Vischetti, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The composition and properties of a biomixture used in a biobed are decisive for pesticide sorption and degradation. This study was performed to investigate the capability of compost-based substrates in mixtures with citrus peel and vine branch straw and peat-based substrates in mixtures with soil and vine branch straw at different levels in order to degrade isoproturon and bentazone. Dissipation and mineralisation rates of both pesticides were determined, and metabolic activity was followed as respiration. Compost-based substrates showed faster pesticide dissipation in the presence of lignocellulosic materials, as in garden compost and vine branch straw. The increasing content of vine branch straw in peat-based substrates does not seem to affect dissipation of the parent compounds. Low mineralisation rate was observed in all treatments. Higher pesticide degradation was observed in the lignocellulosic substrates, probably because of the development of lignin-degrading microorganisms which have shown to be robust and are able to degrade recalcitrant pesticides. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Role of the energy use of peat in the Finnish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to combine the current knowledge of the production and use of energy peat and of the significance of peat in the Finnish energy system. The study deals with the development, current state and future prospects of the production and use of energy peat, as well as the factors that have influenced or are influencing them. The use of peat has established its position in the Finnish energy system. Peat has traditionally been well available and thus its security of supply has been considered good. It has also been regarded as a high-quality indigenous fuel. In recent years many investments have been made in power plants using indigeneous fuels and in co-use of peat and wood. In fact, the use of the peat and wood of indigeneous fuels is very closely inter-linked and their use support one another. Regionally speaking, peat consumption is highest in North Ostrobothnia and inland. The negative effects of peat use are considered to be the high carbon dioxide factor of peat combustion and in some cases the possible effects of production on the local environment. Emissions trading, which was started at the beginning of 2005, weakens the competitiveness of peat in relation to other fuels. When the value of an emission allowance rises enough, also the use of coal may become cheaper than that of peat in installations in which peat has earlier been the main fuel. As the role of peat decreases, the effects are also reflected in the production and use of peat, and in the use of wood fuels, if the supply conditions of peat, which is used as the support and mixed fuel for wood, weaken. The low production of the rainy summer of 2004, combined with the low peat storage levels, led to difficulties in peat deliveries during the winter 2004-2005, and without the milder winter and good water situation in the Nordic countries the supply of peat would not necessarily have been sufficient to cover all demand. If the current role of peat is to be maintained, the

  15. The geology, botany and chemistry of selected peat-forming environments from temperate and tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C.C.; Esterle, J.S.; Palmer, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peat has been studied in several geologic settings: (1) glaciated terrain in cold temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, where sea level is rising; (3) the warm temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often; and (4) the tropical coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the tropical delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Most of these deposits are domed (ombrotrophic or partly ombrotrophic) bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. However, the bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains are comparatively not as domed, and many have almost level surfaces. In some bogs, aquatic or semi-aquatic plant materials accumulated, replaced water in the depressions, and formed a surface on which marsh or swamp vegetation could subsequently live, die, and accumulate. In others, the plant materials accumulated initially on level silt or sand surfaces supporting marshes or swamps. As the peat dome formed, plants growing on it changed from luxuriant ones near the base of the dome, where nutrients were brought into the bog by surface and ground water, to stunted ones at the top of the dome, where the raised bogs are fed by nutrient-poor precipitation. The physical and chemical changes that take place in the sequence of environments from the pond stage of deposit development, through the grassy marsh stage, through the forested swamp stage, and finally through the heath dome stage can be measured in terms of acidity and ash, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen contents, as well as in the kind and distribution of trace elements. The organic and inorganic contents of the deposits relate to geomorphology, and geomorphology relates to their settings. As models of coal formation, some domed peat deposits may help in solving problems of distribution and character of ancient coal beds. But clearly not all peat

  16. Proceedings: 7th international peat congress. Vols. 1, 2, 3, and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on peat published in four volumes. These comprise six different sections: survey, classification, ecology and conservation of peatlands; winning, harvesting, storage, transportation and processing of peat and sapropel for industrial, agricultural and horticultural purposes; bog cultivation and peatland forestry - the use of peat, peat products, and sapropel in agriculture and horticulture; chemistry, physics, biochemistry and microbiology of peat and sapropel - production and utilization of physiologically active substances, growth stimulators, medical preparations and related material; terminology, notation, and standardization of peat products; and peat balneology and therapeutics.

  17. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Avilov, V; Molchanov, A; Kozlov, D; Ivanov, D; Valentini, R

    2013-01-01

    Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002–2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere–biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 μmol m −2  s −1 . Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3–5 μmol m −2  s −1 for dominant trees and about 1–2 μmol m −2  s −1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10–20% of the ER. (letter)

  18. Peat production. Review of research projects; Turvetuotanto. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The development target in the research area of peat production is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing production costs by 20 % (by FIM 5 - 6/MWh) from the level of the year 1992 and to reduce environmental impacts. The most important research objects by which the target in peat production technology will be achieved are drawing and preparation technology, drying technology, mechanical technology, method technology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and the application of the results of the OPTIMITURVE Research Programme in practice. (orig.)

  19. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of non-constructive concrete blocks using contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a heavily contaminated humus-rich peat soil and a lightly contaminated humus-poor sand soil, extracted from a field location in the Netherlands, are immobilized. These two types of soil are very common in the Netherlands. The purpose is to develop financial feasible, good quality

  1. Mapping Soil Carbon in the Yukon Kuskokwim River Delta Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, S.; Fiske, G.; Schade, J. D.; Mann, P. J.; Holmes, R. M.; Ludwig, S.; Melton, S.; Sae-lim, N.; Jardine, L. E.; Navarro-Perez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic river deltas are hotspots for carbon storage, occupying 10% of carbon stored in arctic permafrost. The Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta, Alaska is located in the lower latitudinal range of the northern permafrost region in an area of relatively warm permafrost that is particularly vulnerable to warming climate. Active layer depths range from 50 cm on peat plateaus to >100 cm in wetland and aquatic ecosystems. The size of the soil organic carbon pool and vulnerability of the carbon in the YK Delta is a major unknown and is critically important as climate warming and increasing fire frequency may make this carbon vulnerable to transport to aquatic and marine systems and the atmosphere. To characterize the size and distribution of soil carbon pools in the YK Delta, we mapped the land cover of a 1910 km2 watershed located in a region of the YK Delta that was impacted by fire in 2015. The map product was the result of an unsupervised classification using the Weka K Means clustering algorithm implemented in Google's Earth Engine. Inputs to the classification were Worldview2 resolution optical imagery (1m), Arctic DEM (5m), and Sentinel 2 level 1C multispectral imagery, including NDVI, (10 m). We collected 100 soil cores (0-30 cm) from sites of different land cover and landscape position, including moist and dry peat plateaus, high and low intensity burned plateaus, fens, and drained lakes; 13 lake sediment cores (0-50 cm); and 20 surface permafrost cores (to 100 cm) from burned and unburned peat plateaus. Active layer and permafrost soils were analyzed for organic matter content, soil moisture content, and carbon and nitrogen pools (30 and 100 cm). Soil carbon content varied across the landscape; average carbon content values for lake sediments were 12% (5- 17% range), fens 26% (9-44%), unburned peat plateaus 41% (34-44%), burned peat plateaus 19% (7-34%). These values will be used to estimate soil carbon pools, which will be applied to the spatial extent of each

  2. Potential sources for nonlinear sorption of organic compounds to soils and natural solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C. T.

    2003-04-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water to the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the same solutes on whole peat from which the humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (Ce/Sw). The HA fraction as prepared by a density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumably enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET-(N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  3. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  4. Development of new index for forest fire risk using satellite images in Indonesia through the direct spectral measurements of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A.; Akita, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the smoke caused by the forest fires in Indonesia has become a serious problem. Most of the land in Indonesia is covered with peat moss, which occurs the expanding of fires due to the burning itself. Thus, the surface soil water, reflecting the amount of precipitation in the area, can become the indication of the risk of fires. This study aims to develop a new index reflecting the risk of forest fires in Indonesia using satellite remote sensing through the direct spectral measurements of peat moss soil.We have prepared the peat moss in 7 steps of soil water content measured at an accuracy of ±15 percent (Field pro, WD-3). We obtained spectra between 400nm and 1050nm (Source: halogen lamp, spectroscope: self-made space time, spectral analysis kit) from the peat moss.The obtained spectra show the difference from the previous spectral measurement for the soil in various water content. There are the features, especially, in the wavelength range of ultraviolet (400-450nm) and infrared (530-800nm) as shown in the figure; the more the soil water increases, the lower the reflectance becomes. We have developed a new index using the New deep blue band (433 453nm and NIR band 845 885nm of Landsat 8. The resulting satellite images calculated by our original index appears to reflect the risk of forest fires rather than well-known indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized difference Soil Index.In conclusion, we have created a new index that highly reflects to the degree of soil water of a peat soil in Indonesia.

  5. Organic matter transformation in the peat column at Marcell Experimental Forest: Humification and vertical stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Cooper, William T.; Kostka, Joel E.; Chanton, Patrick R.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Hanson, Paul J.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-04-01

    We characterized peat decomposition at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), Minnesota, USA, to a depth of 2 m to ascertain the underlying chemical changes using Fourier transform infrared (FT IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) and related these changes to decomposition proxies C:N ratio, δ13C and δ15N, bulk density, and water content. FT IR determined that peat humification increased rapidly between 30 and 75 cm, indicating a highly reactive intermediate-depth zone consistent with changes in C:N ratio, δ13C and δ15N, bulk density, and water content. Peat decomposition at the MEF, especially in the intermediate-depth zone, is mainly characterized by preferential utilization of O-alkyl-C, carboxyl-C, and other oxygenated functionalities with a concomitant increase in the abundance of alkyl- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Below 75 cm, less change was observed but aromatic functionalities and lignin accumulated with depth. Significant correlations with humification indices, identified by FT IR spectroscopy, were found for C:N ratios. Incubation studies at 22°C revealed the highest methane production rates, greatest CH4:CO2 production ratios, and significant O-alkyl-C utilization within this 30 and 75 cm zone. Oxygen-containing functionalities, especially O-alkyl-C, appear to serve as excellent proxies for soil decomposition rate and should be a sensitive indicator of the response of the solid phase peat to increased temperatures caused by climate change and the field study manipulations that are planned to occur at this site. Radiocarbon signatures of microbial respiration products in deeper pore waters at the MEF resembled the signatures of more modern dissolved organic carbon rather than solid phase peat, indicating that recently photosynthesized organic matter fueled the bulk of subsurface microbial respiration. These results indicate that carbon cycling at depth at the MEF is not isolated from surface processes.

  6. Studies of radiocaesium migration in soils with high organic matter content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, J.; Chibowski, S.; Klimowicz, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper encloses results of field tests carried out on two types of organic soils. Activities of caesium, originating from global fallout as well as from Chernobyl power plant breakdown, were measured for these two soils. Radioactive caesium is present to a depth of 40 and 70 cm, in black soil and in peat, respectively, although the highest activity was found in the topmost layers. Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident constitutes about 70% of the total activity in the 0-10 cm layers of soils. The vertical migration rates of caesium from both sources were also measured. In the case of peat soil the migration rate of the Chernobyl caesium as well as that from global fallout were found to be similar and amounted to 0.2 cm/year. In the case of black soil the differences were more pronounced (0.34 and 0.14 cm/year, respectively). (author)

  7. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

    2009-04-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type of sites. Organic horizons were mixed with sand and separated by sandy layers. Those soils were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). The throphism of organic soil in this object resulted from both natural factors and anthropo-pedogenesis. key words: peat deposit, organic soils, soil properties, muddy process, sandy layers INTRODUCTION The areas of Stolowe Mountains National Park were influenced by forestry management. Many peatlands in the Park area were drained for forestry before World War II. Several amelioration attempts were undertaken as early as in the nineteenth century. The system of forest roads were built on drained areas. The Kragle Mokradlo Peatland is located in the Skalniak plateau. The object is cut by a melioration ditch. This ditch has been recently blocked to rewet the objects. Several forest roads pass in the close neighbourhood of investigated areas. In a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatlands, we can observe artificial spruce habitat. Investigated object represents shallow peat soil developed on sandy basement. The early investigations showed that peaty soils were also covered by sandstone - related deposits, several dozen centimeter thick (BOGACZ 2000). Those layers was developed from sandstone weathered material transported by wind and water. The aim of presented works was to determine the stage of evolution of organic soils on the base on their morphological, physical and chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peat soils in different locations (3 profiles, 18 samples) were selected for examination. Peat samples were collected

  8. Peat development in Newfoundland: an historic overview. [Canada - Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayment, A.F. (Newfoundland and Labrador Peat Association, St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-02-01

    The aboriginal people and early white settlers doubtless had many uses for peat, although we have few specifics. A concerted effort was made in the 1930s to drain and develop certain peat bogs for growing forages, but interest in the agricultural use of peat waned during World War II and did not return until after Confederation in 1949. The Royal Commission Report on Agriculture (1956) recommended investigation of the feasibility of peat moss for agricultural purposes. From this point, research was conducted chiefly by the federal Experimental Farm near St. John's and by the provincial government, with some input from Memorial University. All peat moss developments must be preceded by drainage, which in turn should be preceded by a contour and depth survey. Mechanical aspects for drainage have evolved considerably. About 1,300 acres were drained by the Cuthbertson plow up to 1960 and another 2500 acres drained by the Healy ditcher between then and 1967; no subsequent reports have been obtained. Research has been conducted into fertilizer requirements for forages. Experiments on the grazing of sheep and/or cattle were also conducted and some problems were encountered, particularly with the grazing of sheep. Also studied was the potential of peat moss production for poultry litter, and the use of peat, kelp and fish offal to produce a high value compost. 28 refs.

  9. Characteristics of pristine volcanic materials: Beneficial and harmful effects and their management for restoration of agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Markus; Suparto; Sukarman

    2016-02-01

    Eruption of Sinabung volcano in Indonesia began again in 2010 after resting for 1200 years. The volcano is daily emitting ash and pyroclastic materials since September 2013 to the present, damaging agroecosystems and costing for management restoration. The objective of the study was to assess properties and impacts of pristine volcanic material depositions on soil properties and to provide management options for restoring the affected agroecosytem. Land satellite imagery was used for field studies to observe the distribution, thickness and properties of ashfall deposition. The pristine ashfall deposits and the underlying soils were sampled for mineralogical, soluble salt, chemical, physical and toxic compound analyses. Results showed that uneven distribution of rainfall at the time of violent eruption caused the areas receiving mud ashfall developed surface encrustation, which was not occur in areas receiving dry ashfall. Ashfall damaged the agroecosytem by burning vegetation, forming surface crusts, and creating soil acidity and toxicity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of encrustated layer indicated the presence of gypsum and jarosite minerals. Gypsum likely acted as a cementing agent in the formation of the encrustation layer with extremely low pH (2.9) and extremely high concentrations of Al, Ca and S. Encrustation is responsible for limited water infiltration and root penetration, while the extremely high concentration of Al is responsible for crop toxicity. Mud ashfall and dry ashfall deposits also greatly changed the underlying soil properties by decreasing soil pH and cation exchange capacity and by increasing exchangeable Ca, Al, and S availability. Despite damaging vegetation in the short-term, the volcanic ashfall enriched the soil in the longer term by adding nutrients like Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Si and S. Suggested management practices to help restore the agroecosystem after volcanic eruptions include: (i) the

  10. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  11. Effect of addition of organic and inorganic combinations to soil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ComputerCity

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... and compost with soil for tomato plant investigated by. Javanpour et al. (2005) showed that quality and ... peat, coco peat and perlite on some tomatoes growing indices were studied by Mohammadi ... date palm trees can be used as culture media for soilless systems in greenhouse or it can be applied to ...

  12. Radiocarbon dating of Sphagnum cellulose from Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubay, Katalin; Braun, Mihály; Harangi, Sándor; Palcsu, László; Túri, Marianna; Rinyu, László; Molnár, Mihály

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on building a high-resolution age-depth model for quantitative paleoclimate study from the Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians. Peats are important archives for Quaternary science, because they preserve environmental changes. To study the chronology of peat profiles the key is in the precise coring and reliable dating. However, many studies dealing with coring and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits they often shown problems with the proper methods and material. With our novel coring technique we reached undisturbed and uncompressed peat cores from the Mohos bog. A 10 meter deep peat profile was drilled in 2012 using a modified technique of a piston corer. The core presents a continuous peat profile from the last 11.500 cal. yr BP. The chronology was based on AMS radiocarbon analyses of the separated Sphagnum samples from different depths of the profile. The peat samples were wet sieved (40-280 μm) to avoid contamination by rootlets. Dry Sphagnum samples for AMS dating were prepared using the classical acid-base-acid (ABA) method completed with an oxidative bleaching step to get clean cellulose. Sphagnum cellulose samples were converted to CO2 and later graphite and measured by EnvironMICADAS accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Hertelendi Laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). Fine peat accumulation rate changes (sections with lowest accumulation values) were observed along the profile. Based on the chronology in further studies we want to focus special intervals to investigate environmental changes in the Holocene. Key words: peat, radiocarbon, cellulose

  13. Parental magmas of Mare Fecunditatis - Evidence from pristine glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y.; Taylor, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the petrography and electron microprobe analyses of 14 discrete glass beads from the Luna 16 core sample (21036,15) from Mare Fecunditatis regolith, that were previously characterized as representing pristine glasses. Compared to Apollo pristine glasses analyzed by Delano (1986), the Luna 16 pristine glasses have higher CaO and Al2O3 contents but lower MgO and Ni. On the basis of their contents of MgO, FeO, Al2O3, and CaO, these pristine glasses could be divided into two groups, A and B. It is suggested that at least two parental magmas are needed to explain the chemical variations among these glasses. The Group B glasses appear to represent primitive parental magma that evolved by olivine fractionation to the compositions of the Luna 16 aluminous mare basalts, whereas the Group A volcanic glasses may represent an unusual new basalt magma type that contains a high plagioclase component. 14 refs

  14. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  15. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Market study on the potential for peat as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A report is given on the market potential for peat as a fuel in Scotland. It is concluded that there are two distinct market segments, domestic and industrial/commercial. There is no potential for peat as a fuel in the industrial/commercial segment but there is opportunity for increased peat usage in the domestic sector. The greatest potential for market development is conversion of existing solid fuel users to peat. Pro-active input is required to realise this market potential. The market is constrained by demand. (UK)

  17. Peat is regarded as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry commissioned an investigation on the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas balance in 1999. An international scientist group, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from United Kingdom and docent Atte Korhola from Finland conducted the investigation. The scientist group made the proposition that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable biomass fuel, which is significant from the peat industry's point of view. An interesting detail of the investigation was the calculations, which showed that ditching of peatlands, have decreased the methane emissions from peatlands. Virgin peatlands bind carbon dioxide from the air, but simultaneously they emit methane, which is more harmful than CO 2 emissions. The carbon sink effect of Finnish peatlands is based on the CO 2 binding of virgin and ditched peatlands in Finland. The CO 2 emissions of peat production and combustion are smaller than the CO 2 binding. Virgin peatlands form a relative large source of methane. The investigation shows that when reviewing the effects of all the greenhouse gases on climate, the virgin peatlands may accelerate the greenhouse effect due to the methane emissions. The final conclusion is that ditching of virgin peatlands has reduced the radiation enforcement in Finland in some extent. When a virgin peatland is ditched the methane emissions from it are reduced significantly, and simultaneously more CO 2 is bound into vegetation. According to the investigation the net emissions of greenhouse gases in Finland exceed 10 million tonnes calculated as CO 2 . Of this the share of virgin peatlands is 8.4 million tonnes, which is of the same magnitude as the emissions from peat combustion. The life cycle analysis has shown that peat production should be directed to swampy fields removed from agricultural production. In most of the cases the combination of reforestation and repaludification into a functional peatland ecosystem could

  18. Critical evaluation of the use of the hydroxyapatite as a stabilizing agent to reduce the mobility of Zn and Ni in sewage sludge amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Bukovec, Peter; Milacic, Radmila; Scancar, Janez

    2006-01-01

    The leachability of zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) was investigated in various soil types amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge treated with hydroxyapatite. Sandy, clay and peat soils were investigated. For leachability tests, plastic columns (diameter 9 cm, height 50 cm) were filled with moist samples up to a height of 25 cm. Sewage sludge (1 kg) was mixed with 4.6 kg of clay and sandy soils and with 6.7 kg of peat soil. For sewage sludge mixtures treated with hydroxyapatite, 0.5 kg of the hydroxyapatite was added to 1 kg of the sewage sludge. Neutral (pH 7) and acid precipitation (pH 3.5) were applied. Acid precipitation was prepared from concentrated HNO(3), H(2)SO(4) and fresh doubly distilled water. The amount of precipitation corresponded to the average annual precipitation for the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. It was divided into eight equal portions and applied sequentially on the top of the columns. The results indicated that the leachabilities of Zn in sewage sludge amended peat and clay soils were low (below 0.3% of total Zn content) and of Ni in sewage sludge amended sandy, clay and peat soil below 1.9% of total Ni content. In sewage sludge amended sandy soil, the leachability of Zn was higher (11% of Zn content). The pH of precipitation had no influence on the leachability of either metal. Treatment of sewage sludge with hydroxyapatite efficiently reduced the leachability of Zn in sewage sludge amended sandy soil (from 11% to 0.2% of total Zn content). In clay and peat sewage sludge amended soils, soil characteristics rather than hydroxyapatite treatment dominate Zn mobility.

  19. Creation artificial soil-ground at gardening of objects of landscape architecture in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now for creation of a fertile layer usually use peat-sandy mixes in various parities, which initially do not approach for long-term development of grasses. It leads to that the grassy cover on slopes of roads, city lawns within 2–3 years perishes and is replaced natural by weeds with the vegetation which is not forming strong of sod. The carried out analysis of granulometric structure of soils on which perennial grasses grow, has shown, that as a part of artificial soil the clay containing oozy particles (<0.001 mm should be an obligatory component. The developed optimising model has shown, that at observance of necessary conditions probably reception artificial soil of middle-loamy granulometric composition possessing optimum physical and agrochemical properties, necessary for long growth of perennial grassy vegetation. As local components it is necessary to use clay, small sand, peat in the parities received at calculation of optimising model. The parity between sand, peat and clay should make 1:2:7. For effect prevention acidification from peat and improvement of agrochemical properties it is necessary to add on 100 kg of a mix of 0.5 kg complex fertilize and 0.2 kg of a dolomitic flour that will provide nutrients to plants while in artificial soil it’s own microflora will not start to work.

  20. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  1. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  2. Quantifying spatial variability of depth of peat burn in wetlands in relation to antecedent characteristics using field data, multi-temporal and multi-spectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Flade, L.; Virk, R.; Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Thompson, D. K.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape changes in the hydrological characteristics of wetlands in some parts of the Boreal region of Canada are occurring as a result of climate-induced feedbacks and anthropogenic disturbance. Wetlands are largely resilient to wildfire, however, natural, climatic and anthropogenic disturbances can change surface water regimes and predispose wetlands to greater depth of peat burn. Over broad areas, peat loss contributes to significant pollution emissions, which can affect community health. In this study, we a) quantify depth of peat burn and relationships to antecedent conditions (species type, topography, surficial geology) within three classified wetlands found in the Boreal Plains ecoregion of western Canada; and b) examine the impacts of wildfire on post-fire ground surface energy balance to determine how peat loss might affect local hydro-climatology and surface water feedbacks. High-resolution optical imagery, pre- and post-burn multi-spectral Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), airborne thermal infrared imagery, and field validation data products are integrated to identify multiple complex interactions within the study wetlands. LiDAR-derived depth of peat burn is within 1 cm (average) compared with measured (RMSE = 9 cm over the control surface), demonstrating the utility of LiDAR with high point return density. Depth of burn also correlates strongly with variations in Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) determined for ground surfaces only. Antecedent conditions including topographic position, soil moisture, soil type and wetland species also have complex interactions with depth of peat loss within wetlands observed in other studies. However, while field measurements are important for validation and understanding eco-hydrological processes, results from remote sensing are spatially continuous. Temporal LiDAR data illustrate the full range of variability in depth of burn and wetland characteristics following fire. Finally, measurements of instantaneous surface

  3. Soil and Cultivar Type Shape the Bacterial Community in the Potato Rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inceoglu, Ozgul; Salles, Joana Falcao; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    The rhizospheres of five different potato cultivars (including a genetically modified cultivar) obtained from a loamy sand soil and two from a sandy peat soil, next to corresponding bulk soils, were studied with respect to their community structures and potential function. For the former analyses,

  4. Utilization of new materials in peat machines; Uusien materiaalien kaeyttoe turvekoneissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, M.; Poeyhoenen, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this three year research (1993-1995) was to study the suitability of new materials for different applications in peat production industry, exploiting the plastic and brush technologies, and surface coatings. The peat production machines will be intensified, lightened, made more firesafe, and ergonomical by using new materials (plastics, composites, compound metals and surface coatings). The research targets and materials were surveyed in 1993, the possibilities to construct an unsparkling miller were investigated, and low-friction materials, on which the peat glides easily, were sought in the beginning of the research. The unsparkling miller was studied and developed further in 1994 using plastic blades, the application of brushing technology in sod peat technology, and a ridger, equipped with horizontal brushes, for sod peat were studied, and the possibilities to lighten the construction of the collector-wagon using light materials was investigated. The tasks for 1995 were to study the brushing technology for peat production, the properties of the bristle, and the applications of new materials for milling and sieving of peat using laboratory tests. This work continued partly in 1996

  5. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marozka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  6. Effect of soil type and moisture availability on the foraging behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Mary L; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the influence of soil type and moisture availability on termite foraging behavior. Physical properties of the soil affected both tunneling behavior and shelter tube construction. Termites tunneled through sand faster than top soil and clay. In containers with top soil and clay, termites built shelter tubes on the sides of the containers. In containers with sand, termites built shelter tubes directly into the air and covered the sides of the container with a layer of sand. The interaction of soil type and moisture availability affected termite movement, feeding, and survival. In assays with moist soils, termites were more likely to aggregate in top soil over potting soil and peat moss. However, termites were more likely to move into containers with dry peat moss and potting soil than containers with dry sand and clay. Termites were also significantly more likely to move into containers with dry potting soil than dry top soil. In the assay with dry soils, termite mortality was high even though termites were able to travel freely between moist sand and dry soil, possibly due to desiccation caused by contact with dry soil. Evaporation from potting soil and peat moss resulted in significant mortality, whereas termites were able to retain enough moisture in top soil, sand, and clay to survive for 25 d. The interaction of soil type and moisture availability influences the distribution of foraging termites in microhabitats.

  7. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  8. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  9. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  10. Seasonal variations in CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different plant compositions of a Sphagnum-dominated Alpine peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollinger, Simon; Maier, Andreas; Karer, Jasmin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are the only type of ecosystems which have the ability to accumulate significant amounts of carbon (C) under undisturbed conditions. The amount of C sequestered in peatlands depends on the balance between gross primary production, ecosystem respiration and decomposition of plant material. Sphagnum-dominated bogs possess the greatest peat accumulation potential of all peatlands, thus in turn, feature highest C release potentials. Many studies report about the C balances of undisturbed northern peat bogs, however, little is known about the effects of peatland degradation on the C balance between different plant compositions within peat bog ecosystems. Particularly in the Alpine region, where temperature increase during the last century has been almost twice as high as the global mean. The investigated peat bog is located in the inner Alpine Enns valley in the Eastern Alps, Austria (N 47˚ 34.873' E 14˚ 20.810'). It is a pine peat bog covered by Sphagnum mosses and a present extent of about 62 ha. Due to increasing differences in surface height of the peatland compared to the surrounding areas and related lowered water retention capacity attributed to the subsidence of the adjacent intensively managed meadows on deeply drained peat soils, the function of the peatland as a carbon sink is strongly endangered. Hence, the current mean water table depth of the central peat bog area is about -12 cm. To reveal differences in peatland-atmosphere C exchanges within the peatland ecosystem, we investigated CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different vegetation compositions (PM1-PM4) at the treeless central peat bog area. PM1 is dominated by the graminoids Rhynchospora alba and Eriophorum vaginatum. PM2 is inhabited by small individuals (< 35 cm) of the conifer Pinus mugo, whereas PM3 is dominated by the ericaceous plant Calluna vulgaris. PM4 again is populated by Pinus mugo, but higher growing (35 - 60 cm) and with corresponding higher amount of biomass. Fluxes were measured

  11. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  12. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  13. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  14. The future role of peat. The Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry's investigation on the role of peat in the greenhouse gas balance in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuutinen, O.

    2000-01-01

    Due to contradictory opinions on the role of peat as a renewable energy source and carbon sink as well as the fact that no comprehensive research are made in this area, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) assigned an impartial working group to investigate the role of peat in climatic change. The working group consists of Patrick Crill from USA, Ken Hargreaves from Great Britain, and Atte Korhola from Finland. The objective of the working group is to study the greenhouse gas balances of virgin peatland, ditched peatlands, and cultivated peatlands. The carbon cycles will be investigated, as well as the effects of utilisation of peat on greenhouse gas balance, and the possibilities of effecting the balance with active measures. The alternatives for utilisation peatlands after the peat has been harvested, and the effects of these alternatives on greenhouse gas balance will also be studied. The effects of the peatlands left in passive natural state, the regeneration of peatlands, forestation and other usage on greenhouse gas balance will be investigated, and the need for regulations and instructions for recycling have to be estimated. The greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon sinks have to be defined, the alternative means for definition of them have to be inspected. The mutual dependence of peat and wood fuels has also to be taken into consideration. The report will to include the effects of peat on watercourses, versatility of the nature, the effect of the peat production on the amount of peat production areas, and suggestions for possible need of further investigations

  15. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Two extensive peat deposits on Nordvestø, between Greenland and Canada, were examined for macroscopic remains of plants and animals. One of the peat deposits accumulated during the period from c. 7,100 to 5,100 cal. years BP. This peat is guanogenic and completely dominated by the coprophilous...... bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close to a large former sea bird colony, probably a puffin (Fratercula arctica) colony. Puffins are now rare in the region, but the population may have been larger during the mid Holocene, when the sea was ice......-free for a longer period than at present. The other peat deposit is dated to c. 9,300-7,400 cal. years BP, it is minerogenic and the macrofossils reflect deposition in a shallow, richly vegetated pond. This peat formed during warmer summers than at present....

  16. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rizzuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re-used for mercury biosorption. The results indicate that all six peat types biosorb mercury from aqueous solutions extremely well (92−100 % removal and that their mercury removal capacities are not significantly affected by manipulation of the various factors tested. The factor that had the greatest impact on the mercury removal capacities of the peats was the pH of the mercury solution. The optimal mercury solution pH for mercury removal was in the range 5−7 for four of the peats and in the range 2−3 for the other two. The desorption results indicate that it may be possible to recover up to 41 % of the removed mercury. All of the peat types tested can be repeatedly re-used for additional mercury biosorption cycles. Hence, their disposal should not become a hazardous waste problem.

  17. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  18. Study of settling of peat on channel banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaryan, L S; Bazin, Ye T; Stepanichev, V G

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of studies of settling of the peat formation of the upper type on banks of drying channels. A technique is presented for forecasting evaluation in the decrease in depth of the channels because of packing of the peat on the sides of the dryers.

  19. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  20. Estonian horticultural peat marketing: sales promotion and price formation. 2. part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Hele

    1999-01-01

    When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)

  1. TEHOPALA - Intensification of peat production; TEHOPALA - palaturvetuotannon tehostaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, T.; Katainen, E. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Leinonen, A.; Aalto, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hoelttae, P. [Biomasters Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Tehopala project is to increase the hectare yield of sod peat by 50 % and to reduce the production costs by 30 % by developing the sod peat production methods and equipment. The main aim of the research is in machine development, the target of which is to develop a new efficient machine chain for ridge-drying method. A new more effective cutting disc, suitable for 600 mm nozzles for production wave-like sod, has been developed for PK-1S sod peat excavator. The RYT-MP excavator has been developed to operationally reliable stage, and a nozzle for production of wave-like sod has been constructed for it. Prototype machines have been developed for ridging and loading. The development work of these will be carried out further. Ridge-drying method and wave-like sod peat method have been proven to be more effective than the cylindrical sod technology and field-drying method

  2. A pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias Karl David; Iden, Sascha Christian; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the acrotelm (vadoze zone) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Thus, variably saturated flow processes determine whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon, and modelling these processes is crucial to assess effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. We show that the Richards equation can be used to accurately describe the moisture dynamics under evaporative conditions in variably saturated peat soil, encompassing the transition from the topmost living moss layer to the decomposed peat as part of the vadose zone. Soil hydraulic properties (SHP) were identified by inverse simulation of evaporation experiments on samples from the entire acrotelm. To obtain consistent descriptions of the observations, the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model was extended to account for non-capillary water storage and flow. We found that the SHP of the uppermost moss layer reflect a pore-size distribution (PSD) that combines three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss. For deeper samples, acrotelm pedogenesis changes the shape of the SHP due to the collapse of inter-plant pores and an infill with smaller particles. This leads to gradually more homogeneous and bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth, which in turn can serve as a proxy for increasing state of pedogenesis in peatlands. From this, we derive a nomenclature and size classification for the pore spaces of Sphagnum mosses and define inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore spaces, with effective pore diameters of > 300, 300-30, and 30-10 µm, respectively.

  3. Transport of lead and diesel fuel through a peat soil near Juneau, AK: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian Deiss; Carl Byers; Dave Clover; Dave D' Amore; Alan Love; Malcolm A. Menzies; J. Powell; Todd M. Walter

    2004-01-01

    A set of peat column experiments was used to determine the transport potential of lead (Pb) and diesel range organics (DRO) in palustrine slope wetlands near Juneau, AK. This project is important to southeast Alaskan communities because limited land resources are forcing development of regional wetlands. This study was instigated by concerns that proposed modifications...

  4. Natural and artificial radionuclides in forest and bog soils: tracers for migration processes and soil development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, N.; Degering, D.; Unterricker, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide distributions in undisturbed forest and bog soils, mostly situated in Saxony, Germany (Erzgebirge), were studied. Low concentrations of naturally-occurring U and Th decay series nuclides, including 210 Pb, and artificial radioisotopes ( 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 241 Am) were determined using low-level γ-spectrometry. In addition, the activities of 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu were determined by radiochemical separation and α-spectrometry. 14 C and excess 210 Pb dating methods were used to date the sampled bog profiles. The different radionuclides show characteristic depth distributions in the forest and bog soil horizons, which were sub-sampled as thin slices. 125 Sb, 241 Am, 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu are strongly fixed in soil organic matter. In spruce forest soils, the influence of soil horizons with distinct properties dominates the vertical time-dependent distribution. In ombrotrophic bogs, the peak positions correlated with the year of maximum input of each nuclide. The Sb, Am and Pu ''time markers'' and the 14 C and 210 Pb dating results correspond very well. Although Cs seems to be relatively mobile in organic as well as mineral forest soil horizons, it is enriched in the organic material. In ombrotrophic bogs, Cs is very mobile in the peat deposit. In Sphagnum peat, Cs is translocated continuously towards the growing apices of the Sphagnum mosses, where it is accumulated. (orig.)

  5. Use of Computed Tomography Imaging for Qualifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been used to describe and quantify subtidal, benthic animals such as polychaetes, amphipods, and shrimp. Here, for the first time, CT imaging is used to successfully quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from...

  6. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA (RICE HUSK AND COCO PEAT ON THE UPTAKE OF CADMIUM AND SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IN CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. Alzrog

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecological effects of heavy metals or trace elements in soils are closely related to their contents and speciation in the soil. They play a significant role in the metabolic pathways throughout the growth and development of plants when presented in required concentration. In this study the effect of rice husk and coco peat media on the cadmium uptake by chilli plant (Capsicum annuum L was investigated. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design (RBD comprising of three replications. Various concentrations of Cd were dosed to the media once after one week of transplantation. All the required agricultural practices were applied uniformly until harvesting. Cd accumulation in roots, shoots and fruits were analyzed during vegetative, flowering and maturity stages, using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS. Results showed that both planting media exhibited higher accumulation of Cd in roots and shoots at the vegetative stage. The accumulated amount was found significantly dependent on the Cd dose injected to the media. Consequently, micronutrients contents and plant growth were also affected. The accumulated Cd in fruits was found slightly less in rice husk than coco peat media and above the prescribed safety limits recommended by FAO and WHO. Rice husk has higher impact on the microneutrients absorption than coco peat media. In this study, root length, plant hight, dry weight and fruits showed small differences among growing media.

  7. A new approach for peat inventory methods; Turvetutkimusten menetelmaekehitystarkastelu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatikainen, M.; Leino, J.; Lerssi, J.; Torppa, J.; Turunen, J. Email: jukka.turunen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Development of the new peatland inventory method started in 2009. There was a need to investigate whether new methods and tools could be developed cost-effectively so field inventory work would more completely cover the whole peatland area and the quality and liability of the final results would remain at a high level. The old inventory method in place at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is based on the main transect and cross transect approach across a peatland area. The goal of this study was to find a practical grid-based method linked to the geographic information system suitable for field conditions. the triangle-grid method with even distance between the study points was found to be the most suitable approach. A new Ramac-ground penetrating radar was obtained by the GTK in 2009, and it was concluded in the study of new peatland inventory methods. This radar model is relatively light and very suitable, for example, to the forestry drained peatlands, which are often difficult to cross because of the intensive ditch network. the goal was to investigate the best working methods for the ground penetrating radar to optimize its use in the large-scale peatland inventory. Together with the new field inventory methods, a novel interpolation-based method (MITTI) for modelling peat depths was developed. MITTI makes it possible to take advantage of all the available peat-depth data including, at the moment, aerogeophysical and ground penetrating radar measurements, drilling data and the mire outline. The characteristic uncertainties of each data type are taken into account and, in addition to the depth model itself, an uncertainty map of the model is computed. Combined with the grid-based field inventory method, this multi-approach provides better tools to more accurately estimate the peat depths, peat amounts and peat type distributions. The development of the new peatland inventory method was divided into four separate sections: (1) Development of new field

  8. Studies on sphagnum peat. III. A quantitative study on the carbohydrate constituents of sphagnum mosses and sphagnum peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theander, O

    1954-01-01

    A qualitative and a quantitative investigation of the carbohydrates in two sphagnum mosses and five samples of sphagnum peat of different age and degree of huminosity has been performed. The two mosses investigated showed no significant differences. Samples of very different age but with the same degree of physical huminosity were very similar, indicating that the chief changes occur at the top of the bog and/or are determined by the conditions at the start of the humification. The total amount of carbohydrates was about 90% of the organic material in the mosses and about 65% and 35% in peats with a degree of huminosity of 3-4 and 6-7 respectively. Of the constituent sugars, fructose which occurred in the mosses, was completely absent in the peat. Another sugar, which occurs in nature as a furanoside, arabinose, disappeared almost completely during the humification. The uronic acids and galactose decreased faster, while ylose and glucose decreased at about the same rate as the total carbohydrates. Mannose and probably also rhamnose are the most stable components and accumulate during the humification. The polysaccharides in mosses and peat seem to constitute a very complex mixture. The presence of a fructan in the living moss, of a polyuronide (pectin) and a large amount of more complex polysaccharides built up of galactose, xylose, rhamnose and uronic acids is indicated. The glucose, the most important constituent, probably occurs chiefly as cellulose, the presence of which has been demonstrated by other workers. Finally the behaviour of mannose during the humification indicates the presence of a stable mannan. There is no evidence of polysaccharides formed by microorganisms in the peat.

  9. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  10. Testing of in situ and ex situ bioremediation approaches for an oil-contaminated peat bog following a pipeline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.J.; Lee, D.W.; Yeske, B.M.; Kuipers, F.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a 1985 pipeline spill of light Pembina Cardium crude oil at a bog near Violet Grove, Alberta was discussed. Pembina Pipeline Corporation arranged for a treatability test to be conducted on oil-contaminated sphagnum peat moss from the site to determine effective in situ or ex situ remediation options for the site. The test was used to evaluate the biodegradation potential of contaminants. Four tests were designed to simulate field different field treatment approaches and to collect critical data on toxicity and leachability of the peat moss. The tests included a bioslurry test, a soil microcosm test, an aerated water saturated peat column test, and a standard toxicity characteristic leachate potential test. The first three tests gave similar results of at least 74 per cent biodegradation of the residual crude oil on the peat solids and no residual toxicity as measured by the Microtox Assay. It was determined that both in situ bioremediation using an aerated water injection system or an ex situ landfarming approach would achieve required criteria and no fertilizers would be necessary to maintain active bioremediation. The new gas-liquid reactor (GLR) aeration technology used in these tests creates a constant supply of hyperoxygenated water prior to column injection. The continuous release of tiny air bubbles maximizes air surface area and increases the gas transfer rates. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Experience of Milled Peat Burning at Thermal Electric Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive knowledge and practical experience on burning of milled peat in the boilers of thermal electric power plants in Belarus and Russia. The accumulated experience can be used for solution of problems pertaining to substitution of some types of fuel imported to Belarus by milled peat which is extracted at many fuel effective peat enterprises of the Republic.

  12. How sustainable is the use of peat for commercial energy production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, AJ

    The sustainability argument that more peat grows in Finland than is used does not hold. On designated peatlands, growth is about 85 times slower than peat use; growth elsewhere in Finland does not add to available resources. Claiming undisturbed peatlands as carbon sinks for sustainable peat use is

  13. How sustainable is the use of peat for commercial energy production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, AJ

    2001-01-01

    The sustainability argument that more peat grows in Finland than is used does not hold. On designated peatlands, growth is about 85 times slower than peat use; growth elsewhere in Finland does not add to available resources. Claiming undisturbed peatlands as carbon sinks for sustainable peat use is

  14. Study of the sorption properties of the peat for removal of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, S.S.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Hayrapetyan, L.S.; Bareghamyan, S.F.; Pirumyan, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    The processes of sorption of several heavy metals on peat samples taken from basin of lake Sevan (near Vardenis Gegharkunik region of Armenia) were investigated. The peat samples were taken from different locations from 1 m depth. The sorption processes have been done in the static mode. The peat samples were used without any modification, i.e. the sorption properties of natural raw peat were studied. The studies were conducted on the basis of synthetic solution containing ions of these following metals - Ni, Co, As, U, Ba. The sorption properties of peat were estimated by ICP-MS. Thus, peat can be a very effective sorption medium for removal of heavy metals from water. Most of them are absorbed in the first minutes of peat exposure to aqueous solution. For the sorption of barium, uranium, arsenic peat exhibits very high sorption efficiency. For comparison, their relative sorption values about 10 times more than those of cobalt, nickel and zinc.

  15. Why are there few gas bubbles in deep peat in British raised and blanket peat bogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Clymo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 There is evidence of gas-filled voids - ‘bubbles’ - in deep (> 50–100 cm peat in North America. (2 I used corers, designed to collect samples of accurately known volume, to sample peat profiles down to maximum depth 700 cm at five varied bog sites in northern England and southern Scotland, and measured the proportion of space apparently occupied by bubbles. (3 Of 126 samples in peat below 50 cm depth, three had bubbles occupying 12–15 % of the volume (and one of these was at only 55 cm depth. The other 123 had apparent bubbles distributed in Gaussian fashion, positively and negatively, about zero proportion of total volume and with standard deviation less than 2 %, consistent with these ‘bubbles’ being measurement error. (4 In northern England and southern Scotland, compared with North America, less variable temperature and cooler summers may lead to concentrations of dissolved gas that are generally too low to allow bubbles to form. Even where bubbles do form in summer, they may re-dissolve at winter temperatures.

  16. Growing Tomato Plantlets on Various Mixtures of Peat and Sand or Peat and Perlite. Note 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Patruno

    Full Text Available Given the considerable interest in use of substrates derived from various mixtures in the nursery sector and in light of the enormous variety of possibilities offered by this technique, in contrast with the still small number of researches dedicated to this theme, this study was set out to examine in-depth the growing of tomato plantlets on peat-based substrates. Two series of peat mixtures were produced, one with sand and the other with perlite, with a volume ratio of the other two components with respect to the peat of 1:0, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:2.5. Tomato seedlings were cultivated for 30 or 25 days in small perforated pots containing these mixtures. The irrigation was calculated by weighing each pot daily, measuring the water lost by evaporation-transpiration, then just past an established lower threshold value bringing the water back up to a defined upper threshold. Two water regimes were compared in the sand series and three in the perlite series.

  17. Soil Carbon Chemistry and Greenhouse Gas Production in Global Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, A. E.; Turner, B. L.; Lamit, L. J.; Smith, A. N.; Baiser, B.; Clark, M. W.; Hazlett, C.; Lilleskov, E.; Long, J.; Grover, S.; Reddy, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle because they contain approximately 30% of the 1500 Pg of carbon stored in soils worldwide. However, the stability of these vast stores of carbon is under threat from climate and land-use change, with important consequences for global climate. Ecosystem models predict the impact of peatland perturbation on carbon fluxes based on total soil carbon pools, but responses could vary markedly depending on the chemical composition of soil organic matter. Here we combine experimental and observational studies to quantify the chemical nature and response to perturbation of soil organic matter in peatlands worldwide. We quantified carbon functional groups in a global sample of 125 freshwater peatlands using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the drivers of molecular composition of soil organic matter. We then incubated a representative subset of the soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine how organic matter composition influences carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions following drainage or flooding. The functional chemistry of peat varied markedly at large and small spatial scales, due to long-term land use change, mean annual temperature, nutrient status, and vegetation, but not pH. Despite this variation, we found predictable responses of greenhouse gas production following drainage based on soil carbon chemistry, defined by a novel Global Peat Stability Index, with greater CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soils enriched in oxygen-containing organic carbon (O-alkyl C) and depleted in aromatic and hydrophobic compounds. Incorporation of the Global Peat Stability Index of peatland organic matter into earth system models and management strategies, which will improve estimates of GHG fluxes from peatlands and ultimately advance management to reduce carbon loss from these sensitive ecosystems.

  18. Optimizing outlays for transporting agricultural peat to the consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanov, Ye S; Prisadkov, V I; Silant' yeza, G P

    1979-01-01

    An economic-mathematical model is described for supplying the consumers with agricultural peat and the corresponding computer program. Certain results are presented of calculating the optimal plans for transporting peat from the enterprises of the association Kalinintorf.

  19. Peat subsidence and its practical implications: a case study in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Ismail, A.B.; Wijk, van A.L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Due to pressure for land, substantial areas of peat swamps in South-East Asia have been and presently are being reclaimed for agriculture or for other land use. As soon as peat swamps are drained, the irreversible process of subsidence starts, which can only be stopped by waterlogging the peat

  20. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  1. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Clulow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006 and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr−1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010 was drier (424 versus 735 mm than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011 emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d−1 in winter to 45 L d−1 in summer whereas the extit{Shirakiopsis elliptica} water use was more seasonal at 2 L d−1 in winter and 12 L d−1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010. Three trees of

  2. Trophic interactions among the heterotrophic components of plankton in man-made peat pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Niedźwiecki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Man-made peat pools are permanent freshwater habitats developed due to non-commercial man-made peat extraction. Yet, they have not been widely surveyed in terms of ecosystem functioning, mainly regarding the complexity of heterotrophic components of the plankton. In this study we analysed distribution and trophic interrelations among heterotrophic plankton in man-made peat pools located in different types of peatbogs. We found that peat pools showed extreme differences in environmental conditions that occurred to be important drivers of distribution of microplankton and metazooplankton. Abundance of bacteria and protozoa showed significant differences, whereas metazooplankton was less differentiated in density among peat pools. In all peat pools stress-tolerant species of protozoa and metazoa were dominant. In each peat pool five trophic functional groups were distinguished. The abundance of lower functional trophic groups (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF and ciliates feeding on bacteria and HNF was weakly influenced by environmental drivers and was highly stable in all peat pool types. Higher functional trophic groups (naupli, omnivorous and carnivorous ciliates, cladocerans, adult copepods and copepodites were strongly influenced by environmental variables and exhibited lower stability. Our study contributes to comprehensive knowledge of the functioning of peat bogs, as our results have shown that peat pools are characterized by high stability of the lowest trophic levels, which can be crucial for energy transfer and carbon flux through food webs.

  3. Greenhouse impact assessment of peat-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkinen, Johanna; Soimakallio, Sampo; Maekinen, Tuula; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    New raw materials for transportation fuels need to be introduced, in order to fight against climate change and also to cope with increasing risks of availability and price of oil. Peat has been recognised suitable raw material option for diesel produced by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The energy content of Finnish peat reserves is remarkable. In this study, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel production and utilisation in Finland was assessed from the life-cycle point of view. In 100 year's time horizon the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel is likely larger than the impact of fossil diesel. The impact can somewhat be lowered by producing peat from the agricultural peatland (strong greenhouse gas emissions from the decaying peatlayer are avoided) with new peat production technique, and utilising the produced biomass from the after-treatment area for diesel also. If diesel production is integrated with pulp and paper mill to achieve energy efficiency benefits and if the electricity demand can be covered by zero emission electricity, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel reduces to the level of fossil diesel when agricultural peatland is used, and is somewhat higher when forestry-drained peatland is used as raw material source.

  4. [The processes of methane formation and oxidation in the soils of the Russian arctic tundra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Rusanov, I I; Vasil'eva, L V; Pimenov, N V

    2005-01-01

    Methane emission from the following types of tundra soils was studied: coarse humic gleyey loamy cryo soil, peaty gley soil, and peaty gleyey midloamy cryo soil of the arctic tundra. All the soils studied were found to be potential sources of atmospheric methane. The highest values of methane emission were recorded in August at a soil temperature of 8-10 degrees C. Flooded parcels were the sources of atmospheric methane throughout the observation period. The rates of methane production and oxidation in tundra soils of various types at 5 and 15 degrees C were studied by the radioisotope method. Methane oxidation was found to occur in bog water, in the green part of peat moss, and in all the soil horizons studied. Methane formation was recorded in the horizons of peat, in clay with plant roots, and in peaty moss dust of the bogey parcels. At both temperatures, the methane oxidation rate exceeded the rate of methane formation in all the horizons of the mossy-lichen tundra and of the bumpy sinkhole complex. Methanogenesis prevailed only in a sedge-peat moss bog at 15 degrees C. Enrichment bacterial cultures oxidizing methane at 5 and 15 degrees C were obtained. Different types of methanotrophic bacteria were shown to be responsible for methane oxidation under these conditions. A representative of type I methylotrophs oxidized methane at 5 degrees C, and Methylocella tundrae, a psychroactive representative of an acidophilic methanotrophic genus Methylocella, at 15 degrees C.

  5. Aid policy for peat from the EU's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Suvanto-Luomala, S.; Aeimae, K.

    2002-10-01

    The study analyses the restrictions that may be imposed by the European Union on our national taxation schemes supporting the energy use of peat. These restrictions would mainly relate to the EU and international climate policy, which may change the attitudes towards the energy use of peat. The taxation arrangements studied concern the refunds of the electricity tax granted to small peat-fired power plants and the tax on peat, which compared especially with coal, is light in heat production. The study aims to find out whether the arrangements included State aid prohibited by the European Community or whether they gave rise to prohibited tax discrimination of other Member States' energy products. It was concluded that the objectives of the Community, particularly the regional security of energy supply, promotion of combined electricity and heat production, and employment, favour the energy use of peat rather than oppose to it. As for the aid to small power plants, it can be considered that the grounds for obtaining an exemption from the EC State aid prohibition exist, because the benefits of the aid referred to are more important than the disadvantages brought by it for undistorted trade and competition. This situation cannot be expected to change in the near future, either, e.g. as a result of the climate policy. As regards heat production, peat taxation cannot be considered to include State aid or to lead to discrimination against exported fuels like coal. This is essentially based on the taxation sovereignty of Member States and the related right to enhance national goals by means of taxation. The current energy tax regulation by the Community or the Commission's Proposal for an Energy Tax Directive do not seem to pose any obstacles to continuing Finland's present energy taxation policy. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of the effects of soil-based countermeasures on soil solution chemistry of soils contaminated with radiocesium using the hydrogeochemical code PHREEQC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Volker; Kirchner, Gerald

    2002-04-22

    For agriculturally used areas, which are contaminated by the debris from a nuclear accident, the use of chemical amendmends (e.g. potassium chloride and lime) is among the most common soil-based countermeasures. These countermeasures are intended to reduce the plant uptake of radionuclides (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) by competitive inhibition by chemically similar ions. So far, the impacts of countermeasures on soil solution composition - and thus, their effectiveness - have almost exclusively been established experimentally, since they depend on mineral composition and chemical characteristics of the soil affected. In this study, which focuses on caesium contamination, the well-established code PHREEQC was used as a geochemical model to calculate the changes in the ionic compositions of soil solutions, which result from the application of potassium or ammonium in batch equilibrium experiments. The simple ion exchange model used by PHREEQC was improved by taking into account selective sorption of Cs+, NH4+ and K+ by clay minerals. Calculations were performed with three different initial soil solution compositions, corresponding to particular soil types (loam, sand, peat). For loamy and sandy soils, our calculational results agree well with experimental data reported by Nisbet (Effectiveness of soil-based countermeasures six months and one year after contamination of five diverse soil types with caesium-134 and strontium-90. Contract Report NRPB-M546, National Radiation Protection Board, Chilton, 1995.). For peat, discrepancies were found indicating that for organic soils a reliable set of exchange constants of the relevant cations still has to be determined experimentally. For cesium, however, these discrepancies almost disappeared if selective sites were assumed to be inaccessible. Additionally, results of sensitivity analyses are presented by which the influence of the main soil parameters on Cs+ concentrations in solution after soil treatment has been systematically

  7. Technetium behaviour in soils of the Canadian precambrian shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment clearly showed that Tc mobility is lower in soil under reducing conditions, but that the water-table interface itself is not a barrier to the upward migration of Tc. The second experiment showed that, despite the very low Ksub(d) values (< 0.05 ml/g) measured in the laboratory, an undisturbed sandy soil profile retained 71% of its original Tc spike, placed just below the litter, after one year. In the third experiment, no Tc has reached the surface after three months, from placement 40 cm deep in either a natural sphagnum or a reed/sedge peat core. Under anoxic conditions, Ksub(d) values for Tc varied from about 3 ml/g in the sphagnum to 100 and 340 ml/g for the reed/sedge peat, indicating that the floristic composition of organic soils may strongly affect the migration of Tc in a swamp or bog. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional distribution of organic matter in coastal-deltaic peat : Implications for subsidence and carbon dioxide emissions by human-induced peat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Stafleu, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Busschers, Freek S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2018-01-01

    Human-induced groundwater level lowering in the Holocene coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands causes oxidation of peat organic matter, resulting in land subsidence and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the distribution of the remaining peat organic matter

  9. Peat Deposits at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria District, Bangladesh : A Potential Local Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazwanul Haque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh with about 160 million people in land of 147,570 square km which is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. With the increase of population and diversifying of economic activities, Bangladesh has become an energy hunger country. Presently, 80% peoples depend on non commercial energy sources living in the rural area. Peat exploration at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria district. Bangladesh has been carried out for reserve estimation and its economic aspect evaluation. Total peat exploration area is about 4000 hectare. In explored area, nine peat bearing locations are identified in which peat deposits are observed from 0.152 to 3.0 meters below the surface. Total reserves are about 32.61 million tons in wet condition and 13.044 million tons in dry conditions. The peat is grayish brown to grayish black, fibrous, less to medium compacted and water content is about 60-80 % in wet condition. Chemical analyses of the peat shows that fixed carbon content is 15-25 %, Sulfur is 0.1 to 0.8 % and calorific value of the peat is 3000-7000 BTU. The peat of the area is medium to good quality. The peat may be extracted by open peat mining because of its surface to near surface position. This peat can be conveniently used for small industrial and domestic purpose as briquette and compressed tablet form to meet the growing energy demand of the area. But most of the people of Bijoynagar area live on agriculture. So, peat extraction and related geo-environmental degradation may change living style of the people. Proper land use planning, environmental management and policy should be taken before peat extraction.

  10. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  11. Environmental quality of agricultural soils within the Jaguari River Basin - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, Elaine Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impacts have occurred in various forms and intensities on soil, water and air media. Consequently, several countries have used legal criteria for soil protection, either by means of generic guiding values or through case-by-case risk assessment. The Sao Paulo Environmental Agency (CETESB) pioneered the publication of guiding values for soils and groundwater in 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of agricultural soils in comparison to pristine soils (control areas) within the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. The evaluation was carried out through multielement determination by Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (INAA) technique. The analyses were also complemented by Optical Emission Spectrometry Coupled Plasma (ICP OES), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Graphite Furnace (GFAAS) techniques. The results obtained in the analyzed soil samples were compared to the guiding values established by the Sao Paulo State environmental legislation and revealed that there were no median concentrations above the prevention values. The median concentrations for the elements Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, V and Zn were below the reference values, except for Pb. Taking into account the 34 elements determined, there were statistically significant differences (p <0.05) between agricultural and pristine soils only for the elements Ba, As, U and V. Among these elements, Ba presented the highest concentrations in pristine soils. It was concluded, that the environmental quality of agricultural soils within the Jaguari river basin - SP was slightly changed for the given parameters. The results also pointed out for the utilization of U and As as indicators of potential contamination in soils. (author)

  12. Guidelines for the environmental protection in peat mining; Turvetuotannon ympaeristoensuojeluohje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The objective of these guidelines is to accelerate environmental protection in peat mining and to reduce the harmful effects caused by its related activities. The guidelines promote achievement of environmental objectives set both in legislation and government programmes through uniform practices and interpretations. The guidelines are based on current valid legislation. The guidelines provide up-to-date information on best practices in peat mining, especially in water protection but also in reducing noise and dust. They are intended to ease the work of both peat producers and the licensing and controlling authorities. The guidelines are not legally binding and must be applied on case-by-case basis. The current guidelines replace the 'Guidelines for environmental protection in peat mining' given in 2008. (orig.)

  13. Foam concrete of increased strength with the thermomodified peat additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Kopanitsa, N. O.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kasatkina, A. V.; Prischepa, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of foam concrete with thermomodified peat additives. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modifying additives on cement stone and foam concrete properties. Peat additives are prepared by heat treatment of peat at 600 °C. Two approaches of obtaining additives are examined: in condition of open air access (TMT-600) and in condition of limited air access (TMT-600-k). Compressive strength of a cement stone with modifiers found to be increased by 28.9 - 65.2%. Introducing peat modifiers into foam concrete mix leads to increase of compressive strength by 44-57% at 28- day age and heat conductivity of foam concrete decreases by 0.089 W/(m·°C).

  14. The role of peat in assuring the quality of growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmilewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Producers and users of growing media are exposed to high risk if significant quantities of potentially unsuitable ingredients are included in the product. Combined with economic reasoning, this dictates that the constituents of growing media should possess as many suitable characteristics as possible. Sphagnum peat has been the most important growing medium constituent for many decades because its properties are the best available. The use of other organic and mineral-organic materials is being forced ahead by research and development against a background of public favour for peat replacement, recycling and re-use of biodegradable waste. Considerably more resources have been invested in the testing of peat alternatives than in peat itself during recent years, and the utility of a large number of alternatives has been assessed. Most candidate materials are only slightly or not at all suitable for use in growing media. The exceptions are composts, wood fibre products, bark and composted bark, and coir. These have become established, to a greater or lesser degree, as reliable substrate constituents. Their manufacture, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. A continuing need for peat as a constituent of growing media, at least for dilution purposes, is foreseen. Thus, increased imports of peat and growing media to countries with intensive or expanding commercial horticulture and inadequate domestic peat reserves are to be expected in the future.

  15. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention

  16. Existing Versus Added Soil Organic Matter in Relation to Phosphorus Availability on Lateritic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Hairannoor Yusran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateritic soils (Ultisols and Oxisols are commonly characterised by high phosphate sorbing capacity due to the type of clay and present high content of aluminium (Al and iron (Fe oxides. Addition of fresh organic matter (OM may contribute to management of these soils by releasing more bicarbonate-extractable phosphorus (BP through organic phosphorus (OP transformation, or by the soluble component of OM additions desorbing phosphate by ligand exchange. It is not known, however, whether BP results solely from addition of new OM (by either mineralisation or desorption or from transformation of inherent or pre-existing in soil. We considered that removing the existing soil OM and replacing it with an equivalent amount of new OM may help to resolve this issue, especially with respect to P transformation after OM additions. Three lateritic soils of Western Australia (including a deep regolith material with very low inherent soil OM (SOM were used, and sub-samples of the three soils were combusted (450° C to obtain soils effectively free from existing OM. A further sub-sample of the soils was not combusted. Both soil groups, receiving the same amount of organic carbon (OC, from 80 ton ha-1 biomass + soil OM or biomass equal to soil OM from peat, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L. and lucerne hay (Medicago sativa L., were incubated for nine months. Soil bicarbonate-extractable P as well as non-extractable P (NP, measured as Total-P (TP-BP increased due to new OM application in the order lucerne hay>peat>wheat straw. The correlation between BP with soil organic carbon (SOC became more positive over time. Microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP was not well correlated with the increase of NP content and phosphatase was not related to the increase in BP. Overall, freshly applied (new OM not only contributed to the increased level of P compared with the existing OM treatment.

  17. A pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. D. Weber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the acrotelm (vadoze zone controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Thus, variably saturated flow processes determine whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon, and modelling these processes is crucial to assess effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. We show that the Richards equation can be used to accurately describe the moisture dynamics under evaporative conditions in variably saturated peat soil, encompassing the transition from the topmost living moss layer to the decomposed peat as part of the vadose zone. Soil hydraulic properties (SHP were identified by inverse simulation of evaporation experiments on samples from the entire acrotelm. To obtain consistent descriptions of the observations, the traditional van Genuchten–Mualem model was extended to account for non-capillary water storage and flow. We found that the SHP of the uppermost moss layer reflect a pore-size distribution (PSD that combines three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss. For deeper samples, acrotelm pedogenesis changes the shape of the SHP due to the collapse of inter-plant pores and an infill with smaller particles. This leads to gradually more homogeneous and bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth, which in turn can serve as a proxy for increasing state of pedogenesis in peatlands. From this, we derive a nomenclature and size classification for the pore spaces of Sphagnum mosses and define inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore spaces, with effective pore diameters of >  300, 300–30, and 30–10 µm, respectively.

  18. River Export of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon from Permafrost and Peat Deposits across the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Andersson, A.; Bröder, L.; Vonk, J.; Hugelius, G.; McClelland, J. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Gustafsson, O.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost and peat deposits of northern high latitudes store more than 1300 Pg of organic carbon. This carbon has been preserved for thousands of years by cold and moist conditions, but is now increasingly mobilized as temperatures rise. While part will be degraded to CO2 and CH4 and amplify global warming, part will be exported by rivers to the Arctic Ocean where it can be degraded or re-buried by sedimentation. We here use the four large Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma as natural integrators of carbon mobilization in their catchments. We apply isotope based source apportionments and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulations to quantify contributions of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits to organic carbon exported by these rivers. More specifically, we compare the 14C signatures of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) sampled close to the river mouths with those of five potential carbon sources; (1) recent aquatic and (2) terrestrial primary production, (3) the active layer of permafrost soils, (4) deep Holocene deposits (including thermokarst and peat deposits) and (5) Ice Complex Deposits. 14C signatures of these endmembers were constrained based on extensive literature review. We estimate that the four rivers together exported 2.4-4.5 Tg organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits per year. While total organic carbon export was dominated by DOC (90%), the export of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits was more equally distributed between DOC (56%) and POC (44%). Recent models predict that ca. 200 Pg carbon will be lost as CO2 or CH4 by 2100 (RCP8.5) from the circumarctic permafrost area, of which roughly a quarter is drained by the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma rivers. Our comparatively low estimates of river carbon export thus suggest limited transfer of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits to high latitude rivers, or its rapid degradation within rivers. Our findings highlight the importance

  19. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Tables S3 and S4 list emission factors in g/kg of speciated volatile and particulate organic compounds emitted from peat burning. Peat samples...

  20. Score Mining Rents in Terms of Investment Attractiveness of Peat Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Gennady; Yablonev, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this article, as determinants in the system factors underlying the investment attractiveness of the peat industry is considered a rental factor, which predetermines the significant differences and peculiarities of the investment climate in the mining business and, in particular, in the sphere of peat mining. In contrast to modern studies treated the essence and role of rents in the economic mechanism, is proposed for a new approach to solving the problems of its formation. Our approach differs in that it, firstly, adequate rental relations, objectively in extractive industries, secondly, provides consensus in the interests of the owner of peat deposits and entrepreneurs, businesses in these deposits and, thus, thirdly, contributes to the creation of a favourable investment climate in the peat extraction industry. In practical terms, in accordance with the proposed approach, we have proposed specific allocation algorithm of mining rents from the profits of peat extraction enterprises.

  1. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  2. Impact on the greenhouse effect of peat mining and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodhe, H.; Svensson, Bo

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of peat leads to emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere. In addition, mining of the peat alters the environment such that the natural fluxes of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are modified. Of particular interest is a reduction in the emission of methane (CH 4 ) in the drained parts of the mires. We estimate the total impact on the greenhouse effect of these processes. The results indicate that the decreased emission of methane from the drained mires compensates for about 15% of the CO 2 emission during the combustion of the peat. It follows that, in a time perspective of less than several hundred years, peat is comparable to a fossil fuel, as far as the contribution to the greenhouse effect is concerned. 39 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  3. The Effect of Long-term Nutrient Addition on Peat Properties in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. R.; Bubier, J. L.; Knorr, K. H.; Roy, C.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric inputs of nutrients, particularly N and P, to ecosystems have increased and may have a significant effect on nutrient-deficient peatlands such as bogs. At the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Canada, we have conducted an experiment over 10 to 20 years by adding 1.6 to 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1 (as NH4NO3), with/without 6 g P m-2 yr-1 (as K phosphate), to evaluate the effect of increased inputs on ecosystem functions. Increased N and P amendment has changed the vegetation from a mixed shrub-Sphagnum community into one dominated by shrubs with the disappearance of mosses, with changes in plant production and litter input. The largest N and P amendments have resulted in an increase in bulk density at 0-10 cm and a lowering of the peat surface by 10 to 20 cm, creating an effective rise in the water table and an increase in CH4 emission from 15 to 50 mg m-2 d-1. Peat cores to a depth of 40 cm were collected after 10 to 15 yr of amendment and showed little change in soil pH (range 4.1 to 4.5). There were substantial increases in the concentration of N and P in the peat (8 to 14 and 0.5 to 1.5 mg g-1, respectively) and general decreases in Ca and Mg concentration. The von Post humification index increased by about 1 unit in the heavily fertilized plots, with shrub leaves replacing Sphagnum as the primary litterfall. FTIR analysis of the 0-20 cm peat showed significant increases in abundance of phenolic+aliphatic, aromatic, and carboxylic relative to polysaccharide components, revealed by the following ratios of absorbance at the respective wavenumbers: 1420/1090 cm-1, 0.41 to 0.45; 1510/1090 cm-1, 0.23 to 0.30; 1630/1090 cm-1, 0.53 to 0.65; and 1720/1090 cm-1, 0.44 to 0.48, respectively. Laboratory incubations of peat samples showed that potential rates of aerobic CH4 consumption were unaffected by nutrient treatment, apart from position relative to the water table, whereas potential rates of anaerobic CH4 production near the water table increased under the P

  4. Application of peat filters for treating milkhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahie, C.R.; Gagnon, G.A. [Dalhousie Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Gordon, R.J. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Dept. of Engineering, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This study investigates the suitability of using peat as a filtering media for the treatment of agricultural wastewater. A full-scale experimental filter system was used to evaluate the ability of the filter system to treat milkhouse wastewater. The full-size modular peat filtration system was installed and monitored on a dairy farm located in Hilden, NS. The peat filter models used in the study were constructed from pre-cast concrete, which are approximately 3.2 m long by 1.8 m wide and 1.0 m high and filled are packed with sphagnum peat moss compacted to a density of 0.15 g cm{sup -3} . Parameters that were monitored include BOD, pH, NO{sub 3}-N, SO{sub 4}, TSS, SRP, and TP. The milkhouse wastewater was characterized by having a BOD{sub 5} of approximately 1500 mg L{sup -1} , an average TSS concentration of 510 mg L{sup -1} and an average SRP concentration of 100 mg L{sup -1} . Removal efficiencies of BOD{sub 5} and TSS were observed to be 59% and 82% respectively. In general, phosphorus removal was poor and subsequent research will examine mechanisms of improving phosphorus removal. (author)

  5. Application of peat filters for treating milkhouse wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahie, C.R.; Gagnon, G.A.; Gordon, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the suitability of using peat as a filtering media for the treatment of agricultural wastewater. A full-scale experimental filter system was used to evaluate the ability of the filter system to treat milkhouse wastewater. The full-size modular peat filtration system was installed and monitored on a dairy farm located in Hilden, NS. The peat filter models used in the study were constructed from pre-cast concrete, which are approximately 3.2 m long by 1.8 m wide and 1.0 m high and filled are packed with sphagnum peat moss compacted to a density of 0.15 g cm -3 . Parameters that were monitored include BOD, pH, NO 3 -N, SO 4 , TSS, SRP, and TP. The milkhouse wastewater was characterized by having a BOD 5 of approximately 1500 mg L -1 , an average TSS concentration of 510 mg L -1 and an average SRP concentration of 100 mg L -1 . Removal efficiencies of BOD 5 and TSS were observed to be 59% and 82% respectively. In general, phosphorus removal was poor and subsequent research will examine mechanisms of improving phosphorus removal. (author)

  6. Studies on liquefaction and pyrolysis of peat and biomass at KTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernbom, E.; Sjoestrom, K.; Hoernel, C.; Zanzi, R.; Bjoernbom, P.

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the study on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels is done. The study have been performed in the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, since the outbreak of energy crisis in the seventies. The main problems connected with utilisation of peat for energy are: 90% moisture content in the deposits and 35-40% oxygen content in the dry substance. Simultaneous dewatering and liquefaction of peat have been achieved by the Bjoerbom method. The wet peat has been treated with CO and H 2 O without preliminary drying, using water as a medium agent. After treatment water has been phase-separated from the heavy oil product. Another approach is de-oxygenation of peat prior to liquefaction. A significant part of oxygen in peat and biomass can be removed by thermal decomposition of the fuels prior to liquefaction and removal of carbon dioxide and water from the organic matter in them. The products obtained after de-oxygenation demand low consumption of external hydrogenation agent because they are rich in hydrogen. Some criteria for selection of peat as a raw material for liquefaction are given. The equipment and experimental procedure for pyrolysis of peat and biomass are described. A free fall tubular reactor with max operating pressure of 5 MPa and temperature of 1100 o C has been used. The effect of treatment conditions under the rapid pyrolysis in the free fall reactor on the yield and the reactivity of char obtained after the final pyrolysis is shown. Peat and wood are transformed into pyrolysis products for less than 1 second; 35-50% of the moisture- and ash-free peat and 70% of the wood have been converted into gaseous products.The char obtained in the rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction which can be further de-volatilized by slow pyrolysis for a few minutes - time much longer than the time for formation of primary products. High reactivity of char is favoured by lower pyrolysis temperature, shorter residence time and larger particle size of the fuel

  7. Peat in horticulture and conservation: the UK response to a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are increasingly recognised as valuable habitats for wildlife and important stores of carbon. Yet the UK horticultural industry relies heavily on peat sourced from bogs in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Environmentalists, government and horticultural businesses in the UK now recognise the environmental consequences of using peat in horticulture, and the industry is turning increasingly to sustainable raw materials. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of campaigning since 1990 to implement this change are analysed, with the intention of providing useful information for other countries facing similar challenges. The campaign encountered deeply-ingrained practices so that the shift in behaviour has been slow and, although now widespread, still meets resistance in some quarters. The UK Government introduced targets for peat replacement which have helped stimulate the industry to develop suitable alternatives. The major gardening retailers have included peat replacement targets in their environmental codes of practice, and these are being met through incremental peat dilution with alternative materials such as green compost and processed timber by-products. Legislative requirements for European biodiversity conservation have led the UK government to terminate peat extraction on significant areas of former commercial extraction. The importance of peatlands for carbon sequestration and the major issue of climate change are increasingly focusing attention on peatland conservation, pointing towards the need for a more consistent approach to the use of peat across the European Community.

  8. Below the disappearing marshes of an urban estuary: historic nitrogen trends and soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Cathleen; Roman, Charles T.; Davey, Earl; Stolt, Mark; Johnson, Roxanne; Hanson, Alana; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Moran, S. Bradley; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.; Rafferty, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Marshes in the urban Jamaica Bay Estuary, New York, USA are disappearing at an average rate of 13 ha/yr, and multiple stressors (e.g., wastewater inputs, dredging activities, groundwater removal, and global warming) may be contributing to marsh losses. Among these stressors, wastewater nutrients are suspected to be an important contributing cause of marsh deterioration. We used census data, radiometric dating, stable nitrogen isotopes, and soil surveys to examine the temporal relationships between human population growth and soil nitrogen; and we evaluated soil structure with computer-aided tomography, surface elevation and sediment accretion trends, carbon dioxide emissions, and soil shear strength to examine differences among disappearing (Black Bank and Big Egg) and stable marshes (JoCo). Radiometric dating and nitrogen isotope analyses suggested a rapid increase in human wastewater nutrients beginning in the late 1840s, and a tapering off beginning in the 1930s when wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were first installed. Current WWTPs nutrient loads to Jamaica Bay are approximately 13 995 kg N/d and 2767 kg P/d. At Black Bank, the biomass and abundance of roots and rhizomes and percentage of organic matter on soil were significantly lower, rhizomes larger in diameter, carbon dioxide emission rates and peat particle density significantly greater, and soil strength significantly lower compared to the stable JoCo Marsh, suggesting Black Bank has elevated decomposition rates, more decomposed peat, and highly waterlogged peat. Despite these differences, the rates of accretion and surface elevation change were similar for both marshes, and the rates of elevation change approximated the long term relative rate of sea level rise estimated from tide gauge data at nearby Sandy Hook, New Jersey. We hypothesize that Black Bank marsh kept pace with sea level rise by the accretion of material on the marsh surface, and the maintenance of soil volume through production of

  9. Caesium dynamics in the peats and associated vegetation of northern Greece and northern Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, B.; Mitchell, R.D.J.; Killham, K.; Veresoglou, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Sequential analyses have shown that Chernobyl-derived caesium has been largely retained in Greek basin peats (highly cultivated, base-rich, sedge peats) and retained/cycled in Scottish upland peats (uncultivated, base-poor, blanket peats). To investigate the mechanisms of retention and cycling in the Scottish peat/vegetation system, a laboratory experiment was carried out involving 'microcosms' intact peat cores. Festuca ovina was grown from seed in the cores prior to nebuliser-application of simulated rain containing caesium-134. The major factors investigated were competitive ion exchange from ammonium (designed to simulate animal waste inputs), freeze-thaw activity, and cropping (designed to simulate upland grazing). The effects of these factors are discussed in relation to the physio-cochemical and biological properties of the peat and vegetation and to our observations of the movement of caesium in the field. (author)

  10. New Approach in Modelling Indonesian Peat Fire Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, E. I.; Cochrane, M. A.; Saharjo, B.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Vetrita, Y.; Zhang, X.; Hagen, S. C.; Nurhayati, A. D.; Graham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Peat fires are a serious problem for Indonesia, producing devastating environmental effects and making the country the 3rd largest emitter of CO2. Extensive fires ravaged vast areas of peatlands in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua during the pronounced El-Nino of 2015, causing international concern when the resultant haze blanketed Indonesia and neighboring countries, severely impacting the health of millions of people. Our recent unprecedented in-situ studies of aerosol and gas emissions from 35 peat fires of varying depths near Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan have documented the range and variability of emissions from these major fires. We strongly suggest revisions to previously recommended IPPC's emission factors (EFs) from peat fires, notably: CO2 (-8%), CH4 (-55%), NH3 (-86%), and CO (+39%). Our findings clearly showed that Indonesian carbon equivalent measurements (100 years) might have been 19% less than what current IPCC emission factors indicate. The results also demonstrate the toxic air quality in the area with HCN, which is almost only emitted by biomass burning, accounting for 0.28% and the carcinogenic compound formaldehyde 0.04% of emissions. However, considerable variation in emissions may exist between peat fires of different Indonesian peat formations, illustrating the need for additional regional field emissions measurements for parameterizing peatland emissions models for all of Indonesia's major peatland areas. Through the continuous mutual research collaboration between the Indonesian and USA scientists, we will implement our standardized field-based analyses of fuels, hydrology, peat burning characteristics and fire emissions to characterize the three major Indonesian peatland formations across four study provinces (Central Kalimantan, Riau, Jambi and West Papua). We will provide spatial and temporal drivers of the modeled emissions and validate them at a national level using biomass burning emissions estimations derived from Visible

  11. Changes in the spore numbers of AM fungi and in AM colonisation of roots of clovers and grasses on a peat-muck soil with respect to mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, T. K.; Kwiatkowaska, E.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100 percent of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1 percent to 12.2 percent). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi. (author)

  12. Investigation of bacterial communities in peat land of the Gahai Lake natural conservation area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yani; Wang, Jinchang; Zhan, Zhigao; Guan, Limei; Jin, Liang; Zheng, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Peat is involved in the global carbon cycle and water conservation; therefore, it is implicated in global environmental change. Microorganisms play an important role in the function of peat. To investigate the bacterial communities in peat of Gahai Lake, different locations and depths were sampled and Illumina Miseq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community. Chemical properties of peat samples were analyzed by China state standard methods (GB methods). The results showed that bacterial communities were affected by depth, with bacterial diversity and community structure at 90 and 120 cm significantly different from that at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth from the peat surface. Chemical properties of peat land including organic matter, total nitrogen and humus content did not significantly influence bacterial community structure in peat, with only one group from genus Rhizomicrobium that was significantly correlated with total nitrogen. A substantial proportion of the bacterial sequences were unclassified (1.4%), which indicates the great application potential of peat in the Gahai Lake natural conservation area in the future.

  13. An approach to peat formation period on both coast of Fildes Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenfen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Because peat consist mainly of organic matter, both credibility and comparability of the peat 14 C age are high. This paper discuss the use of radiocarbon ( 14 C) to study the peat age. The results of a comparative study of ten samples from China Great Wall Station in Antarctica and the nearby area (on both sides of Fildes Strait) are presented, indicating differences of peat formation period between the pole and other areas

  14. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  15. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  16. Radioactivity changes during burning of peat and chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing use of peat and chip as fuel materials in fossil-fuel power plants has resulted in the need for information about the change in radionuclides concentration in fuel after combustion. The paper describes a study of natural radionuclides from the uranium- and the thorium series and 40 K, as well as fission products from atmospheric nuclear explosions, in ashes from five peat and chip fuelled power plants in Sweden

  17. Where and What Is Pristine Marine Aerosol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Long, M. S.; Burrows, S. M.; Elliott, S.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2014-12-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles have been measured by functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to identify the organic composition of the pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) particles as 65% hydroxyl, 21% alkane, 6% amine, and 7% carboxylic acid functional groups [Frossard et al., 2014a,b]. Pristine but non-primary components from photochemical reactions (likely from biogenic marine vapor emissions) add carboxylic acid groups. Non-pristine contributions include shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions, which add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. The pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) organic aerosol composition is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater, indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the generated primary marine aerosol particles remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll-a concentrations, the generated primary marine aerosol particle alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations. In addition, the generated primary marine aerosol particles have a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. References Cited Frossard, Amanda A., Lynn M. Russell, Paola Massoli, Timothy S. Bates, and Patricia K. Quinn, "Side-by-Side Comparison of Four Techniques Explains the Apparent Differences in the Organic Composition of Generated and Ambient Marine Aerosol Particles," Aerosol Science and Technology - Aerosol Research Letter

  18. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for CaB and aging-induced structural reorganisation can enhance cross-link formation.

  19. Sulfur Speciation in Peat: a Time-zero Signature for the " Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, O.; Toner, B. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Nater, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the "Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" (SPRUCE) experiment, we made initial measurements of sulfur speciation in peat. These observations represent a "time-zero" relative to the intended soil warming experiment which begins in 2015. Total sulfur and sulfur speciation were measured in peat cores (solid phase) from nine plots (hollows and hummocks) to a depth of 2 m. Peat samples were packed under nitrogen and frozen in the field immediately after collection. All subsequent sample storage, handling, and processing were conducted under inert gas. Sulfur speciation was measured using bulk sulfur 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the SXRMB instrument at the Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada and at the 9-BM instrument, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL, USA. Total sulfur concentrations ranged from 968 to 4077 mg sulfur / kg dry peat. Sulfur content increased with depth from 2 g sulfur / m2 in the 0-10 cm increment to a maximum value of 38 g sulfur / m2 in the 50-60 cm increment. These sulfur loadings produced high quality XANES spectra. The nine cores exhibited reproducible trends with depth in both total sulfur and specific sulfur species; however, variability in sulfur speciation was greatest in the top 40 cm. All sulfur detected within the peat solids was in an organic form. The most abundant sulfur species group was composed of organic mono-sulfide and thiol forms, representing approximately half of the total sulfur at all depths. Sulfonate and ester-sulfate species were 10-15 mol% of sulfur and exhibited low variability with depth. A subsurface maximum in organic di-sulfide was observed in the 20-30 cm depth increment, which is the transition zone between transiently oxidized acrotelm and permanently saturated anaerobic catotelm. Quantification of major sulfur pools is important for the SPRUCE experiment as they are likely to be indicators of changes in the

  20. Utilization of new materials in peat machines; Uusien materiaalien kaeyttoe turvekoneissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, M.; Poeyhoenen, P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this three year research (1993-1995) was to study the suitability of new materials for different applications in peat production industry, exploiting the plastic and brush technologies, and surface coatings. The peat production machines will be intensified, lightened, made more firesafe, and ergonomical by using new materials (plastics, composites, metals and surface coatings). The research targets and materials were surveyed, the possibilities to construct an unsparkling miller were investigated, and low-friction materials, on which the peat glides easily, were sought in the beginning of the research. The unsparkling miller was studied and developed further in 1994 using platic plates, the application of brushing technology in sod peat technology, and a ridger, equipped with horizontal brushes, for sod peat were studied, and the possibilities to lighten the construction of the collector-wagon using light materials was investigated. The tasks for 1995 were to study the brushing technology for peat production, the properties of the bristle, and the applications of new materials for milling and sewing of peat using laboratory tests. The brush-ridger tests were made in cooperation with the brush experts of the NIITP. A rotating brush harrower mixed and ruffled the milled layer. The brush-harrower seemed to be more effective than the spoon-harrower with the driving speed higher than 8 km/h. The power consumption of the brush varied in between 1.5 - 4 kW/m, when the rotation speed was 200-300 1/min, the milled layer load 44 mm and the deformation of the bristles 20 mm

  1. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A

    2002-01-01

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural.......12 and 8.52 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively). Fertilising the peat slightly increased Hg loss (3.08 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in NPK-fertilised peat compared to 0.28 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in unfertilised peat, when averaged over all temperatures used). Homogenising samples by grinding in a machine also caused a loss of Hg....... A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum...

  2. Vivianite Precipitation and Phosphate Sorption following Iron Reduction in Anoxic Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Bender Koch, Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    , the Fe(II) production reached its maximum and 34% of the citrate–bicarbonate–dithionite extractable Fe (FeCBD) was reduced to Fe(II) in the sandy soil. The peat soil showed a much faster reduction of Fe(III) and the maximum reduction of 89% of FeCBD was reached after 200 d. Neoformation...

  3. Sedimentology of Fraser River delta peat deposits: a modern analogue for some deltaic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styan, W B; Bustin, R M

    1984-01-01

    On the Recent lobe of the Fraser River delta, peat accumulation has actively occurred on the distal lower delta plain, the transition between upper and lower delta plains, and the alluvial plain. Distal lower delta plain peats developed from widespread salt and brackish marshes and were not influenced appreciably by fluvial activity. Lateral development of the marsh facies were controlled by compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. The resulting thin, discontinuous peat network contains numerous silty clay partings and high concentrations of sulphur. Freshwater marsh facies formed but were later in part eroded and altered by transgressing marine waters. Peats overlie a thin, fluvial, fining-upward sequence which in turn overlies a thick, coarsening-upward, prodelta-delta front succession. Lower- upper delta plain peats initially developed from interdistributary brackish marshes and were later fluvially influenced as the delta prograded. Thickest peats occur in areas where distributary channels were abandoned earliest. Sphagnum biofacies replace sedge-grass-dominated communities except along active channel margins, where the sedge-grass facies is intercalated with overbank and splay deposits. Peats are underlain by a relatively thin sequence of fluvial deposits which in turn is underlain by a major coarsening-upward delta front and pro-delta sequence. Alluvial plain peats accumulated in back swamp environments of the flood plain. Earliest sedge-clay and gyttja peats developed over thin fining-upward fluvial cycles or are interlaminated with fine-grained flood deposits. Thickest accumulations occur where peat fills small avulsed flood channels. Overlying sedge-grass and sphagnum biofacies are horizontally stratified and commonly have sharp boundaries with fine-grained flood sediments. At active channel margins, however, sedge-grass peats are intercalated with natural levee deposits consisting of silty clay.

  4. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-01-01

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  5. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  6. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of other site-related factors. This study aimed to unravel the factors determining C:N ratios of forest floor, mineral soil...... mineral soil layers it was the humus type. Deposition and climatic variables were of minor importance at the European scale. Further analysis for eight main forest tree species individually, showed that the influence of environmental variables on C:N ratios was tree species dependent. For Aleppo pine...... and peat top soils in more than 4000 plots of the ICP Forests large-scale monitoring network. The first objective was to quantify forest floor, mineral and peat soil C:N ratios across European forests. Secondly we determined the main factors explaining this C:N ratio using a boosted regression tree...

  7. Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sophia V., E-mail: sophia.hansson@emg.umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Kaste, James M. [Geology Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Olid, Carolina; Bindler, Richard [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 7}Be, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of {sup 7}Be down to 18–20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of {sup 241}Am without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and smearing of atmospherically deposited elements in the uppermost peat layers. Application of the CRS age–depth model leads to unrealistic peat mass accumulation rates (400–600 g m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}), and inaccurate estimates of past Pb and Hg deposition rates and trends, based on comparisons to deposition monitoring data (forest moss biomonitoring and wet deposition). After applying a newly proposed IP-CRS model that assumes a potential downward transport of {sup 210}Pb through the uppermost peat layers, recent peat accumulation rates (200–300 g m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}) comparable to published values were obtained. Furthermore, the rates and temporal trends in Pb and Hg accumulation correspond more closely to monitoring data, although some off-set is still evident. We suggest that downwashing can be successfully traced using {sup 7}Be, and if this information is incorporated into age–depth models, better calibration of peat records with monitoring data and better quantitative estimates of peat accumulation and past deposition are possible, although more work is needed to characterize how downwashing may vary between seasons or years. - Highlights: • {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and {sup 7}Be, and tot-Pb and tot Hg were measured in 5 peat cores. • Two age–depth models were applied resulting in different accumulation rates

  8. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  9. Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Tundra Soils on the Rybachii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Mozgova, N. P.; Myazin, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The Rybachii Peninsula is composed of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and differs sharply from the rest of the Kola Peninsula in its geological structure, topographic forms, and parent rocks. It is dominated by Al-Fe-humus soils formed on moraines with an admixture of local rock fragments, including slates. Organic horizons of tundra soils in the peninsula are less acid than those on granitoids of adjacent mainland of the Kola Peninsula. The content of exchangeable calcium in the organic horizons varies from 17.4 to 68.0 cmolc/kg, and the content of water-soluble carbon reaches 400 mg/100 g amounting to 1-2% of the total soil organic matter content. The total number of bacteria in the organic horizons of tundra soils varies from 3.5 × 109 to 4.8 × 109 cells/g; and bacterial biomass varies from 0.14 to 0.19 mg/g. The length of fungal mycelium and its biomass in the organic horizons are significant (>1000 m/g soil). The biomass of fungal mycelium in the organic horizons exceeds the bacterial biomass by seven times in podzols (Albic Podzols) and by ten times in podbur (Entic Podzol), dry-peat soil (Folic Histosol), and low-moor peat soil (Sapric Histosol).

  10. Growth of micropropagated lowbush blueberry with defined fungi in irradiated peat mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litten, Walter; Smagula, J.M.; Dalpe, Yolande

    1992-01-01

    There is an interest in vegetative multiplication of high-yielding clones of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. to establish or enhance blueberry production. This study evaluates mycorrhizal inoculation as an aid in such propagation from microcuttings. Shoots of Vaccinium angustifolium (clone 7062) generated in vitro were rooted in a peat-vermiculite-perlite substrate with or without ericoid mycorrhizal fungi fortification by Hymenoscyphus ericae or Scytalidium vaccinii and with or without peat sterilization by γ irradiation. Both in irradiated peat mix inoculated with S. vaccinii and in unirradiated peat mix with H. ericae, microcuttings grew taller and branched more than with the four other treatments. The profusely rooted plantlets available from all treatments of the cuttings put on significantly more total length of stems and branches after 167 days in the greenhouse when growing with either inoculant in unirradiated peat than in the unirradiated peat without inoculation. However, the magnitude of difference might be of borderline importance in commercial nursery operations. A higher level of copper and zinc in stem tissue was observed in stem tissue of plants grown with H. ericae with or without irradiation but not with S. vaccinii

  11. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  12. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...... and that transfer of N to the soil is not facilitated by fungal hyphae....

  13. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)