Routh, Douglas; Abess, Gassan; Makin, David; Stohr, Mary K; Hemmens, Craig; Yoo, Jihye
Transgender inmates provide a conundrum for correctional staff, particularly when it comes to classification, victimization, and medical and health issues. Using LexisNexis and WestLaw and state Department of Corrections (DOC) information, we collected state statutes and DOC policies concerning transgender inmates. We utilized academic legal research with content analysis to determine whether a statute or policy addressed issues concerning classification procedures, access to counseling services, the initiation and continuation of hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. We found that while more states are providing either statutory or policy guidelines for transgender inmates, a number of states are lagging behind and there is a shortage of guidance dealing with the medical issues related to being transgender.
Glaser, Daniel; Fry, Lincoln J.
Qualitative study of New Jersey State Prison (Sykes, 1956) concluded that authority of guards was corrupted by inmates. This study analyzed quantitative and qualitative research from three California prisons which supports Sykes' conclusion and agrees that reciprocity and default are factors in the corruption. (Author/NB)
Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California. Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/26/2015.
Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka; Maranda, Louise; Berry, Rosalie; Colocino, Barbara; Flores, Carlos D; Folkman, Kerry; Groblewski, Thomas; Ruze, Patricia
There is no comprehensive, systematic analysis of the vitamin D status of prisoners in the scientific literature. To investigate the vitamin D status and its determinants in US prison inmates. Given the uniformity of dietary intake amongst inmates, vitamin D status will be determined by non-dietary factors such as skin pigmentation, security level-, and the duration of incarceration. A retrospective study of 526 inmates (males, n=502, age 48.6 ± 12.5 years; females, n=24, age 44.1 ± 12.2) in Massachusetts prisons. Vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were respectively defined as a 25(OH)D concentration 75 nmol/L; 50 to 75 nmol/L; and prison inmates is determined by skin pigmentation, seasons, and the security level of incarceration.
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu
Full Text Available There is no comprehensive, systematic analysis of the vitamin D status of prisoners in the scientific literature.To investigate the vitamin D status and its determinants in US prison inmates.Given the uniformity of dietary intake amongst inmates, vitamin D status will be determined by non-dietary factors such as skin pigmentation, security level-, and the duration of incarceration.A retrospective study of 526 inmates (males, n=502, age 48.6 ± 12.5 years; females, n=24, age 44.1 ± 12.2 in Massachusetts prisons. Vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were respectively defined as a 25(OHD concentration 75 nmol/L; 50 to 75 nmol/L; and <50 nmol/L. The Massachusetts Department of Correction Statement of Nutritional Adequacy stated that each inmate received the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D daily. Security level of incarceration was designated as minimum, medium, and maximum. Racial groups were categorized as Black, white, Asian, and Others.Serum 25(OHD levels peaked in summer and autumn, and decreased in winter and spring. Vitamin D deficiency occurred in 50.5% of blacks, 29.3% of whites, and 14.3% of Asian inmates (p=0.007. Black inmates had significantly lower serum 25(OHD level than white inmates at the maximum security level (p=0.015, medium security level (p=0.001, but not at the minimum security level (p=0.40. After adjusting for covariates black inmates at a maximum security level had a four-fold higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than white inmates at the same security level (OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.3-11.7].The vitamin D status of prison inmates is determined by skin pigmentation, seasons, and the security level of incarceration.
Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi
Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction (OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use (OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction (OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking (OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates. PMID:27932588
Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino
Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk. An assessment was made of 472 sentenced inmates in two Andalusian prisons, and included a sociodemographic interview, the IPDE personality disorders questionnaire, the SCID-I diagnostic interview (DSMIV), and the Plutchick suicide risk questionnaire. The interviewers were experienced clinical psychologists with training in prison environments. Adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression. A risk of committing suicide was detected in 33.5% of the sample. The diagnoses (lifetime prevalence) of affective disorder (adjusted OR 3329), substance dependence disorders (adjusted OR 2733), personality disorders (adjusted OR 3115) and anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 1650), as well as a family psychiatric history (adjusted OR 1650), were the predictors that remained as risk factors after the regression analysis. No socio-demographic risk factor was significant in the regression analysis. The psychopathological variables are essential and the most powerful factors to explain suicide risk in prisons. A correct and systematic diagnosis, and an appropriate treatment by mental health professionals during the imprisonment are essential to prevent the risk of suicide. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
that prison inmates who are allowed to engage in sports on available playgrounds .... Differences in performance on 1 mile walk by gender. Variables. Mean. SD .... In many prisons in Nigeria, inmates sleep two to a bed or on the floor in filthy ...
Nădrag, Lavinia; Stroescu, Manuela
The lexis and structure of prison argot reflect the personalities of inmates who employ them, as well as the conflicts and tensions inherent in prison settings. It is shown in this article that the distinctiveness of prison argot is largely a product of the character of penal context. Its extent of use varies with the extent of penal discipline. Appreciation of this complex relationship might facilitate improved communication between prisoners and custodial authorities. In addition, knowledge...
Aim: To assess the personality traits of inmates in Aba prison. Methods: Four hundred and six inmates were studied. Each inmate completed a semi-structured sociodemographic questionnaire and personality traits were assessed with the 44-item Big Five Inventory. Results: The majority (72.7%) of the inmates were within ...
Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator services for prison inmate phones. 64... services for prison inmate phones. (a) Each provider of inmate operator services shall: (1) Identify itself... authorities of a prison or other correctional institution for use by inmates. (3) Inmate operator services...
Veneziano, Louis; And Others
Surveyed 45 workers in correctional agencies to examine number of handicapped inmates and types of programs provided to them. Found that most prison systems had identified some handicapped inmates. Variety of programs were offered to inmates, many systems did not have specialized treatment for handicapped. Found need for evaluation and treatment…
Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study examined prison officials and 160 inmates on prison law and administration, and sexual health of inmates. Most of the inmates examined (82.5%) reported having frequent sexual desire. Wet dreams (46.2%) ...
The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.
Bond, Gary D.; Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) (Carstensen, 1992, 1993) accounts for lifespan changes in human social networks and for the motivations which underlie those changes. SST is applied in this research with 256 prison inmates and non-inmates, ages 18-84, from Mississippi, Kansas, and New Mexico. Two research questions sought to identify (a)…
Aziz, Tahir; Chuadhry, Muhammad Asif; Liaquat, Sumaira; Ali, Asim
To meet the educational needs of inmates, educational scholars of the world have attempted numerous strategies and interventions designs to facilitate learning and to improve achievement. The real function of a prison is to help develop better citizens, not just better inmates. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the…
Agbakwuru, Chikwe; Awujo, Grace C.
This paper investigated the strategies for coping with the challenges of incarceration among inmates of Port Harcourt Prison, Nigeria. The population was 2,997 inmates of the prison while the sample was 250 inmates drawn through stratified random sampling technique from the same Port Harcourt prison. Six research questions were posed and data for…
Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L
The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further
Pisu, Maria; Meltzer, Martin Isaac; Lyerla, Rob
The purpose of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating inmates against hepatitis B. From the prison perspective, vaccinating inmates at intake is not cost-saving. It could be economically beneficial when the cost of a vaccine dose is US dollars 30 per dose, or there is no prevalence of infection upon intake, or the costs of treating acute or chronic disease are about 70% higher than baseline costs, or the incidence of infection during and after custody were >1.6 and 50%, respectively. The health care system realizes net savings even when there is no incidence in prison, or there is no cost of chronic liver disease, or when only one dose of vaccine is administered. Thus, while prisons might not have economic incentives to implement hepatitis B vaccination programs, the health care system would benefit from allocating resources to them.
Skogstad, Philip; Deane, Frank P.; Spicer, John
Treatment avoidance or help-negation has been described in clinical and non-clinical samples, in response to real or imagined suicidal scenarios (Carlton & Deane, 2000; Rudd, Joiner & Rajab, 1995). The aims of the present study were to describe the process of seeking psychological help in prison based on inmate interviews and to assess the…
Prisoners are a special population group who have limited freedom and are subjected to restrictions. They may not be able to enjoy health enhancing leisure and recreational activities or exercise of their choice or at a time they desire. The aim of this study is to determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates ...
Grinstead, O A; Zack, B; Faigeles, B
Despite the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates, institutional and access barriers have impeded development and evaluation of such programs. Over the past 6 years, the authors have developed a unique collaborative relationship to develop and evaluate HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates. The collaboration includes an academic research institution (the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco), a community-based organization (Centerforce), and the staff and inmate peer educators inside a state prison. In this ongoing collaboration, the authors have developed and evaluated a series of HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates and for women who visit prison inmates. Results of these studies support the feasibility and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for inmates and their partners both in prison and in the community. Access and institutional barriers to HIV intervention research in prisons can be overcome through the development of collaborative research partnerships.
Piselli, Massimiliano; Attademo, Luigi; Garinella, Raffaele; Rella, Angelo; Antinarelli, Simonetta; Tamantini, Antonia; Quartesan, Roberto; Stracci, Fabrizio; Abram, Karen M
This paper presents data on the mental health needs of men in an Italian prison and examines if mental health needs of inmates differ across key correctional subpopulations. Interviewers conducted semi-structured clinical interviews with 526 convicted males incarcerated in the Spoleto Prison from October 2010 through September 2011. Nearly two thirds (65.0%) of inmates had an Axis I or Axis II disorder. About half (52.7%) had an Axis I disorder. Personality disorders were the most common disorders (51.9%), followed by anxiety (25.3%) and substance use disorders (24.9%). Over one third of inmates (36.6%) had comorbid types of disorder. The most common comorbid types of disorders were substance use disorders plus personality disorders (20.1%) and anxiety disorders plus personality disorders (18.0%). Findings underscore a significant need for specialized mental health services for men in Italian prisons. Moreover, as inmates return to the community, their care becomes the responsibility of the community health system. Service systems must be equipped to provide integrated services for those with both psychiatric and substance use disorders and be prepared for challenges posed by patients with personality disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Voorhis, Patricia
To determine the areas in which communication affects prison environments and prison inmates, interviews were conducted with 21 adult male inmates shortly after their admission into a federal maximum security institution. The interviews were semistructured, addressing such issues as (1) perceptions of fellow inmates and staff; (2) additional…
AJRH Managing Editor
Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study .... inmates using a pretested semi structured self- administered ..... Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample Size Determination in.
Homant, Robert J.; Dean, Douglas G.
Tested model of offender career maturity by dividing 211 inmates into groups based on self-esteem and prisonization (taking on of prison culture). Compared groups on job planning, job attitudes, and stigmatization. Contrary to model, high self-esteem and low prisonization were both correlated significantly with higher scores on job planning and…
Background: There is paucity of data on prevalence of non-communicable diseases in prison inmates. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of non-communicable diseases in inmates of Sokoto Central Prison, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out.
Langan, Neal P.; Pelissier, Bernadette M. M.
Evaluates the Federal Bureau of Prisons' substance abuse treatment program's effectiveness in reducing prisoner misconduct. Results show that program graduates are 74 percent less likely to engage in misconduct over a 14-month period than a comparison group. This benefit is shared by male and female inmates alike. (Contains 25 references and 2…
Forbes, M R; Pratsinak, G J; Fagan, T J; Ax, R K
A prosocial skills training program did not significantly affect the abilities of 48 adult male prison inmates to manage anger. Eight group treatment sessions did not influence their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors developed over years of experiential learning.
Full Text Available The article examines the phase of aggressive behavior, deprivation, among the inmate's age group of Nigerian prison. However, the study elaborated the meaning of aggressive behavior; factors contributed to aggressive behavior, theory of aggressive behavior, literature review, method of information collection and data analysis. Therefore, prison setting can instigate aggressive behaviors, especially in Nigeria, where inmates are deprived of their particular right and are treated brutality in some instances studies shows, that Nigerian prisons are not adequately organized and made do as such, inmates are exposed to all kinds of atrocity. It should be noted that a condition of privation and lack of societal well-being especially among people being in an isolated environment as in the case with most prisons in Nigeria can degenerate to frustration and aggression which in turn can result in dangerous situations such as riots/ violence in the prisons. Aggression can lead to violence that may be adaptive under certain conditions regarding natural selection. That is most obviously the case regarding attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predator defense. The results showed that there is significant difference between the levels of aggressiveness with respect to the classes of age groups. Recommendation will be discussed further.
Gorar, Z.A.; Zulfikar, I.
Objective: To assess the proportion of sero positivity of Hepatitis C amongst the prison inmates in the jails of Sindh. Methods: A cross sectional HCV sero prevalence survey was done at 14 out of 19 prisons in the Sindh province from November 2008 to January 2009. A team of Pathologist, phlebotomist and laboratory technician took the blood sample of the inmates inside the correctional facility; the blood was centrifuged at the spot and brought back to the pathology laboratory on same day in cold chain i.e. a temperature-controlled supply chain. Serum was analyzed on third generation ELISA for HCV antibodies. Standard ethical considerations were properly followed. Results: A total of 9508 prison inmates were approached. Refusal rate was 20%. Remaining, 7539 prisoners were screened at 14 out of 19 jails in Sindh. HCV antibody positive were 965 making the proportion of sero positivity 12.8% (95% C.I. 8.92% - 12.92%). Higher sero positivity in the jails of northern Sindh jails was identified. Conclusions: Hepatitis C prevalence in the prison population of Sindh is higher than the national prevalence of 4.9% amongst general population. However it is lower than that reported from correctional facilities of developed countries. Hepatitis prevention and control activities in the correctional facilities of Pakistan need to be institutionalized. (author)
Gorar, Zulfikar Ali; Zulfikar, Imrana
To assess the proportion of seropositivity of Hepatitis C amongst the prison inmates in the jails of Sindh. A cross sectional HCV seroprevalence survey was done at 14 out of 19 prisons in the Sindh province from November 2008 to January 2009. A team of Pathologist, phlebotomist and laboratory technician took the blood sample of the inmates inside the correctional facility; the blood was centrifuged at the spot and brought back to the pathology laboratory on same day in cold chain i.e. a temperature-controlled supply chain. Serum was analyzed on 3rd generation ELISA for HCV antibodies. Standard ethical considerations were properly followed. Atotal of 9508 prison inmates were approached. Refusal rate was 20%. Remaining, 7539 prisoners were screened at 14 out of 19 jails in Sindh. HCV antibody positive were 965 making the proportion of seropositivity 12.8% (95% C.I. 8.92% - 12.92%). Higher seropositivity in the jails of northern Sindh jails was identified. Hepatitis C prevalence in the prison population of Sindh is higher than the national prevalence of 4.9% amongst general population. However it is lower than that reported from correctional facilities of developed countries. Hepatitis prevention and control activities in the correctional facilities of Pakistan need to be institutionalized (JPMA 60:476; 2010).
Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.
A. I. Olugbenga-Bello
Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.
Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.
Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387
The number of terminally ill prison inmates rises each year. Mental health professionals are uniquely prepared to provide therapy during the end-of-life process with their assessment, training, empathy, and communication skills. This case study examines the six-month therapy of one terminally ill inmate, using a client-centered approach. Drawing…
A study of drug use pattern among inmates of Jos prison, Nigeria. ... A total of 3134 inmates who were admitted for drug use treatment in the ... children have been identified to abuse drugs should be co-opted into the rehabilitation process.
Albertie, Ariel; Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Research from high-income countries suggests that prison populations are affected disproportionately by mental illness. However, little research has examined mental health among prisoners in low- and middle-income countries or associations between mental health and contextual factors surrounding the prison experience among susceptible first-time inmates in these settings. The current study examines associations between connectivity, prison environment and mental health (major depression and substance use) among novice male inmates (n = 593) in three Mexico City prisons. Severe depression (46.2%), any substance use (53.8%) and heavy substance use (45.7%) were prevalent. Among key co-variates, recent visitors were protective for severe depression, conjugal visits for any substance use and prison employment for heavy substance use. Physical attacks were associated with increased prevalence of depression, sentence time served with both any and heavy substance use and overcrowding with any substance use. These findings suggest the need for routine health assessments to improve identification and treatment programmes to minimise mental health burden. Addressing demographic risk factors as well as contextual determinants, by decreasing physical violence and overcrowding and supporting outside connections for prisoners, may help improve inmate mental health.
Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A
Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.
Vadini, Francesco; Calella, Giulio; Pieri, Alessandro; Ricci, Elena; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; De Risio, Alfredo; Sciacca, Antonina; Santilli, Francesca; Parruti, Giustino
Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Reducing the number of suicides in jails and prisons is an international priority. Several risk factors for suicide attempts, such as historical, prison-related, psychosocial and clinical factors, have been found in prisoners. We assessed whether demographic, conviction-related and neuro-behavioral variables might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. On a preliminary sample of 254 detainees within an ongoing project, we assessed whether demographic, conviction-related, psychiatric, cognitive variables and illness comorbidity might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. Psychiatric disorders and suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We also have identified the detainees with clear-cut previous suicide attempts. The cognitive function was assessed with a brief neuropsychological battery including trail making A, trail making B, Digit Span, and Symbol Digit test. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cumulative illness was evaluated with Charlson Comorbidity Index. Impairment in global cognitive function was the strongest predictor of both high suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts (both p impulsivity, and illness comorbidity. Limitation LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study design and relatively small sample size. Cognitive deficits may improve our understanding of the suicidal vulnerability and should be systematically included in the assessment of suicide risk, as potential predictors of suicidal acts and targets of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.
The purpose of this study was to determine the uses and usefulness of prison literacy and vocational education programs to the 65,000 inmates of federal prisons. Data were collected in two ways: (1) a survey of prison staff and review of selected inmate case files and other data to determine if the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) had reliable…
Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.
Daniel E Winetsky
Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.
Kreager, Derek A; Young, Jacob T N; Haynie, Dana L; Bouchard, Martin; Schaefer, David R; Zajac, Gary
Research of inmate social order is a once-vibrant area that receded just as American incarceration rates climbed and the country's carceral contexts dramatically changed. This study reengages inmate society with an abductive mixed methods investigation of informal status within a contemporary men's prison unit. The authors collect narrative and social network data from 133 male inmates housed in a unit of a Pennsylvania medium-security prison. Analyses of inmate narratives suggest that unit "old heads" provide collective goods in the form of mentoring and role modeling that foster a positive and stable peer environment. This hypothesis is then tested with Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) of peer nomination data. The ERGM results complement the qualitative analysis and suggest that older inmates and those who have been on the unit longer are perceived by their peers as powerful and influential. Both analytical strategies point to the maturity of aging and the acquisition of local knowledge as important for attaining informal status in the unit. In sum, this mixed methods case study extends theoretical insights of classic prison ethnographies, adds quantifiable results capable of future replication, and points to a growing population of older inmates as important for contemporary prison social organization.
Terefe, Bahiru; Zemene, Endalew; Mohammed, Abdurehman E
Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in April 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from each study participant using semi-structured questionnaire. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using modified McMaster technique. At least one species of intestinal helminth was identified in 111 (47.4 %) of the inmates. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite isolated, followed by the hookworms. Most of the cases of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were light infections. Untrimmed hand fingernails was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides infection (AOR 0.383, 95 % CI 0.200-0.731). Intestinal helminths are common among the inmates in Bedele prison. Health information should be given to the inmates on proper personal hygiene practices with emphasis on trimming of hand fingernails. Monitoring helminth infections in the inmate population is required.
The making of changes inside prisons necessarily implies education. In Thailand, the point is not only to organise professional training courses but also to make detainees aware of the fact that they belong to a community of values. Non-formal education allows the necessary flexibility to an individual approach of training that must take into…
Introduction: In Nigeria, like many other developing countries where prisoners have restricted access to health care including eye health care, severe untreated eye disorders are common causes of ocular morbidity and blindness. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and pattern of eye disease among ...
Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar
Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicat...
Harzke, Amy J; Baillargeon, Jacques G; Pruitt, Sandi L; Pulvino, John S; Paar, David P; Kelley, Michael F
Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N=234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were >or=55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to increase.
Full Text Available This article discusses the right to education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons, with a particular focus on the group of inmates who lack a residence permit in Norway and could be expelled once their sentence is served. The viewpoint of the Norwegian criminal justice policy is that all inmates should have the same right to education as other citizens and residents in Norway. For the group without residence permit, however, it seems not fully clear what that right to education should entail. National law only provides access to the education system for those with a residence permit. In addition, International law is not fully clear on the content of the right to education for inmates. On this background, the article clarifies the right to education for foreign inmates, as it follows from national and international law. It pays specific attention to the prison as a specific context for the provision of education, and explains how the right to education relates to the law of the execution of sentences. Drawing from the ethical considerations of the penal system, and from legal principles of non-discrimination, the article eventually concludes that all foreign inmates who serve sentences of certain duration must be ensured access to education on an equal basis with other prisoners.
Van Voorhis, Patricia; Meussling, Vonne
In recent years, scholarly and applied inquiry has addressed the importance of interpersonal communication patterns and problems in maximum security institutions for males. As a result of this research, the number of programs designed to improve the interpersonal effectiveness of prison inmates has increased dramatically. Research suggests that…
Prisoners in correctional facilities constitute a unique population requiring specialized medical care. Drug withdrawal, self-destructive behavior, infectious diseases (including AIDS), and serious mental disorders are some of the challenges to the physician who provides medical services to these inmates.
Bowman, Vicki E.; Lowrey, Louis; Purser, Jane
Provides a rationale for a more humanistic approach to prerelease programming which focuses on the needs of inmates during this transitional period. A two-tiered educational and counseling-program model, which emphasizes education, information giving, and empowerment, is offered as an alternative to past prison programs. (RJM)
Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Beaver, Kevin M.; Gertz, Marc
Despite concerns whether supermaximum security prisons violate human rights or prove effective, these facilities have proliferated in America over the past 25 years. This punishment--aimed at the "worst of the worst" inmates and involving 23-hr-per-day single-cell confinement with few privileges or services--has emerged despite little…
Prisons like other correctional institutions deserve organized information provision centers like a library. This study examined library services provision in the south-western part of Nigeria. It was found out that despite their incarceration, inmates desires variety of information; whereas the library stock is grossly inadequate ...
Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.
The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…
Gyamfi, O.K.; Bedzra, K.D.; Biney, E.; Marfo, K.; Khan, B.K.; Bonsu, F.A.; Addo, K. K.
One hundred and ninety-five (195) inmates, from eight (8) selected prisons within Ghana's penal system, each with an active cough of at least one week (as the inclusion criterion) were made to submit two sputum samples each for screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using culture and subsequent microscopy and biochemical speciation tests. This sampling population was made up of 111 convicts and 84 remand prisoners. Forty eight (48) or 24.6% of these sputum samples returned a positive growth of MTB on Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ) slants. All growths harvested were also acid-fast on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. Out of the 111 convicted prisoners, 26 (or 23.4%) gave sputum samples which returned a positive growth on culture. On the other hand out of the 84 remanded inmates, 22 (or 26.2%) were positive on culture. Of all the total sputum samples returning a positive growth on culture, 54.2% (26/48) was from convicted inmates who made up 56.9% (111/195) of the sampling population whilst remanded inmates who made up only 39.3% (84/195) of our sampling population were responsible for 43.1% (22/54) of all positive culture growths. The percentage of MTB growths on culture in the sputa from coughing inmates domiciled in individual cells of selected prisons are interesting and instructive. The highest number of coughing inmates sampled in a single individual cell was 9 out of which 55.6% (5/9) had sputa giving a positive growth of MTB on culture. The percentage of positive growths of sputa obtained from coughing inmates in individual cells ranged from 20% (1/5) to 100% (1/1 and 2/2) for the selected prisons. A batch of samples (N=19) obtained from isolated inmates symptomatic for TB and at various stages of the DOTS chemotherapy were also analysed. Six (6) samples were positive on culture. Four (4) of these samples emanated from inmates on DOTS chemotherapy for periods between 69 and 290 days whilst the other 2 emanated from inmates on treatment for a period less than 60
Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.
Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about "how" CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. Method: These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. Results: The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Conclusions: Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.
Curran, L; McHugh, M; Nooney, K
HIV presents particular problem in penal establishments: the nature of the population; conditions in prison; media attention and misinformation; the possibility of transmission within and beyond the prison population; the extra issues that apply to female prisoners. These are discussed in the context of prison policy regarding HIV and the broad strategic approach which is being adopted to manage the problem of HIV within penal institutions. Counselling has a key role in the overall strategy. Pre- and post-test counselling with prisoners is described and the particular problems presented by inmates are discussed and illustrated by reference to case histories. Developments in counselling provision for inmates are outlined.
The Kowhai Alcohol and Drug Treatment Unit at Rolleston Prison offers an innovative treatment approach for New Zealand inmates. The development of the program has involved local staff from Public Prisons, Psychological Services, and the Community Probation Service (CPS). This presentation outlines the author's impression of this bold innovation. The primary aim of the program is to reduce recidivism. This is achieved by assisting inmates to recognize the thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that are present in the period preceding and/or during the commission of criminal activity--particularly those that are precipitated and/or maintained by alcohol and drug use. This insight, coupled with the learning of specific coping skills and intensive lifestyle and reintegration planning, leads naturally to the follow-up phase that is conducted in the community. The functional relationship between offending and substance use is far more explicitly addressed in this new program compared with past programs that focused more on substance use.
Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B
The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.
Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar
Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran. PMID:24312772
Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva
of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...... roles and social positions....
Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25 and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener. The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD before antisocial personality disorder (APD. Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD
Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.
Hernández-León, Christian; Badial-Hernández, Florentino; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sierra-Madero, Juan G; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González-Aguirre, Adrián; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; del Valle, J Miriam Bobadilla; González-Rodríguez, Andrea; Sifuentes-Osornio, José
To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of prison inmates with active tuberculosis in HIV-positive prison populations. We conducted a cohort study in HIV-infected subjects in a prison in Mexico City, with the aim of determining clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with active TB. We detected 172 HIV infected inmates and TB in 28 of them (16.3%) - 21 (12.2) with pulmonary TB--with an incidence rate of 7.7/100 persons/year for active TB and 4.7/100 persons/year for pulmonary TB. No drug resistance was found. Two clusters (4 and 2 subjects) were observed after RFLP-typing of 18 isolates, with a transmission rate of 11% by molecular and clinical analysis. The prevalence of active TB was found to be a thousand times greater than in the general population. Evidence of transmission inside the prison was also found.
O'Sullivan, S T
Deliberate and recurrent foreign body ingestion is a common problem among institutionalised patients. We review our experience with 36 cases of deliberate foreign body ingestion by prisoners or psychiatric patients, thirty of whom were institutionalised at the time of ingestion. Symptoms were frequently severe in the prison inmate group but, in contrast, psychiatric patients presented with few, if any, symptoms. A majority of objects pass spontaneously or remain in situ without complication. Twenty-four patients were discharged following initial evaluation and without specific treatment. Eight of these were reviewed electively and discharged within one week. Twelve patients were admitted for observation, seven of whom were discharged within 48 hrs. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in four patients and an intragastric foreign body identified in two cases. Laparotomy was performed in two cases for unresolving mechanical intestinal obstruction. Management should be conservative when possible, with surgery indicated only for complications.
Talik, Elżbieta; Skowroński, Bartłomiej
The aim of the presented research was to analyze differences in religious strategies of coping with stress in a group of prison inmates characterized by different levels of the sense of quality of life-general, psychophysical, psychosocial, personal, and metaphysical. The participants were 390 males, aged 19-68 years, serving sentences in prisons in Poland. The measures used were the Sense of Quality of Life Questionnaire by M. Straś-Romanowska and K. I. Pargament's RCOPE Questionnaire. As expected, individuals with a high sense of quality of life-both general and pertaining to specific dimensions-more often chose positive religious strategies, whereas participants with a low sense of quality of life more often chose negative strategies. The exception was the metaphysical aspect of the quality of life: individuals with a high intensity of this dimension more often chose some of the positive as well as negative religious strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg. These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336 of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445 of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84 and 38.1 years (range 25–59, respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis
McKee, John M.; And Others
Many people take for granted the use of language as a tool for coping with everyday occupational and social problems. However, there are those, such as prison inmates, who have difficulty using language in this manner. Realizing that prison inmates are not always able to communicate effectively through standard patterns of speech and thus are…
Cavallo, P; Savarese, G; Carpinelli, L
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-assessed bruxism, the level of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and their relationship in a group of male inmates. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN, SETTING: The present study was cross-sectional, its setting was two penal institutions in Italy. A sample of 280 male prisoners (mean age 39.7 years). Due to the very small number of female prisoners, it was not possible to study both genders. Subjects were administered a questionnaire with items investigating demographic data, self-assessed bruxism and HRQoL using EuroQoL EQ-5D instrument. Bruxism was present in 29.7% of inmates. Results for EQ-5D (in brackets are data for the general population age and gender matched) were: EQ-index 1.3 (0.8), EQ-VAS 62 (80). Percentage reporting a problem for each dimension: Mobility (MO): 7.5 (9.6), Self Care (SC): 6.1 (4.3), Usual Activities (UA): 17.9 (10.1), Pain/discomfort (PD): 43.9 (40.8), Anxiety/depression (AD): 54.6 (31.9). There was a strong correlation between bruxism and EQ-index, showing concordance and dependence and, as expected, discordance and dependence between bruxism and EQ-VAS. Bruxism prevalence is higher and HRQoL is worse in the prison population than in the general population; the presence of bruxism is correlated with lower HRQoL levels, and correlation is stronger for subjects at first prison experience and for higher education levels, thus suggesting higher effect of stress on these subjects.
José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández
Full Text Available Etiological models of intimate partner violence (IPV identify general risk factors in delinquency (sociodemographic, delinquent, and psychopathological and specific factors in this type of aggression (characteristics of the couple relationship and attitudes favoring IPV. The goal of the present work is to study these factors in individuals convicted for drug trafficking and/or theft, so-called common delinquents (n = 89, comparing them with a group of partner aggressors (n = 50. Assessment was carried out with a mixed method, reviewing case files, clinical interviews for personality disorders, and self-reports. The results show a similar profile in sociodemographic and criminal characteristics and in attitudes favoring IPV. The differences emerge in variables of the couple relationship and psychopathological variables, finding higher prevalence of the antisocial disorder in common delinquents and of the borderline disorder in aggressors. The final model identifies the level of relationship satisfaction, control over the partner, blaming female victims, and incidence of borderline personality disorder as relevant variables. The implications of these results for penitentiary treatment as a preventive measure of IPV, both in IPV aggressors and in the general prison population, are discussed. Los modelos etiológicos de la violencia contra la pareja (VCP identifican factores de riesgo generales en delincuencia (sociodemográficos, delictivos y psicopatológicos y factores específicos en este tipo de agresión (características en la relación de pareja y actitudes que facilitan la VCP. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar estos factores en sujetos condenados por tráfico de drogas y/o robo, denominados delincuentes comunes (n = 89, comparándolos con un grupo de agresores contra la pareja (n = 50. La evaluación se ha realizado a través de un método mixto, con supervisión de expedientes penitenciarios y entrevistas clínicas para los
Shrestha, Gambhir; Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Sapkota, Nidesh; Baral, Dharanidhar; Yadav, Birendra Kumar; Chakravartty, Avaniendra; Pokharel, Paras Kumar
Depression is the most common form of mental disorder among inmates, with a prevalence much higher than in the general population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depression among inmates and identify factors associated with it. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhumka Regional Prison, the largest prison in eastern Nepal, from September 2014 to August 2015. A total of 434 randomly selected inmates were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire examining socio-demographic characteristics, detention status, self-reported health problems, substance use status, and suicidal ideation. Depression was screened using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to determine the association between depression and related variables. The mean age of the participants was 35.7 years (SD 13.3). The prevalence of depression among the inmates was 35.3%. Approximately 2.3% reported suicidal ideation during imprisonment and 0.9% had attempted suicide inside the prison. In bivariate analysis, depression was significantly associated with previous incarceration (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05-3.47, p = 0.033), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.16-2.64, p = 0.007), frequent appointments when encountering health problems (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.06-2.61, p = 0.028), suicidal ideation (OR = 4.44, 95%CI = 1.13-17.44, p = 0.038) and loss of weight (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.00-2.23, p = 0.049). However, only previous incarceration (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.04-3.74, p = 0.037) and frequent appointments when encountering health problems (AOR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.01-2.57, p = 0.046) remained significant in a multivariate model. This study showed a high rate of depression among inmates in Nepal. The results suggest a need for psychiatric and rehabilitative care in correctional settings to improve the health status of the inmates.
Staneková, D; Ondrejka, D; Habeková, M; Wimmerová, S; Kucerková, S
To implement a pilot study of risk behaviour and HIV infection using HIV antibody testing from saliva to improve the situation as regards HIV/AIDS infection in prison institutions in the Slovak Republic. The study comprised adult and juvenile males of grade one correction categories and prisoners from the prison for juveniles in Martin, as well as females prisoners in Nitra. Preventive activities were implemented in May 1998 in the form of discussions concerning topics related to HIV/AIDS infection. Saliva was collected for the presence of HIV antibodies and a questionnaire regarding sexual practice was completed. 32 persons [8 adult males (25%), 6 juvenile males (18.7%) and 18 females (56%)] were voluntarily tested for the presence of HIV antibodies in saliva. Nobody was HIV-positive. 75 persons (20 adult males, 30 juvenile males and 25 females) were involved in the study of risk behaviour. 40.8% participants had primary education, 28.2% secondary education, 2.8% were students of universities and 28.2% were apprenticies. 60% inmates (mostly females) were religious. Juvenile males reported the highest number of partners while females the smallest (p prison while 19%, 5.6% and 8.3% in the prison, respectively. Paid sexual services were offered by 9.1% females, 15.8% adult males and 25% juvenile males. Outside prison adult and juvenile males used non-sterile used syringes as well as tattooing more often than females (p prisoners.
The lack of concrete scientific data on the sexual behavior of inmates in German prisons is surprising, especially given the extant international scholarship on prison culture and sexual violence. Historically, the most influential publications were Clemmer's "The Prison Community", and Sykes's "The Society of Captives", which both addressed the importance of sexual deprivation and analyzed the impact of sexual victimization on prisoners. Different forms of homosexual contact between inmates include prostitution and "protective pairing", both characterized as "dark" issues--nonconsensual sexual acts--which still have not been scientifically researched. The United States enacted the Prison Rape Elimination Act, 2003, revealing nationwide data on the prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. Prison inmates suffer not only from separation from their spouses or partners, but also from sexual harassment, extortion, and the threat of rape, which has multiple implications for their mental and physical health. This article presents the first German study to record data about the relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men, and was conducted in an adult correctional facility for long-term prisoners in Berlin-Tegel. The survey, which is based on results from a questionnaire taken by voluntary study participants, had a special focus on the occurrence of consensual homoerotic contacts between heterosexual inmates. The emphasis was on the potential impact of such contact on role behavior during confinement, as well as the impact on sexual identity after release. The survey revealed the first data on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within correctional facilities. This article presents the results of this survey for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephens, Torrance T; Gardner, Darius; Jones, Keena; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Braithwaite, Ronald; Smith, Selina E
This study was designed to identify the extent to which self-reported Mandrax use impacts condom-use beliefs amongst South African prison inmates. Participants were inmates from four prisons in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. In total, 357 inmates participated in the parent study of which 121 are included in this analysis based on their self-reported use of Mandrax. The questionnaire was developed in English, translated into Zulu, and back translated into English. Age significantly predicted the use of Mandrax: younger prison inmates reported higher use. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the use of Mandrax was associated with length of incarceration and other demographic variables, as well as participants' self-reported condom use beliefs behavior. Regression results indicated that two factors operationalizing condom-use beliefs were impacted by Mandrax use: 1) it is important to use condoms every time you have sex (pcondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV (puse. STI prevention programs among prison inmates that seek to promote safer sex behaviors among men must address attitudes to condom use, specifically consistent and correct use of latex condoms and reducing substance misuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Coyle, William J.
Discusses the current widespread acceptance of the public library model for prison libraries, in which preferences of the inmates are the chief consideration in programing and collection development. It is argued that this model results in recreational programs and collections that fail to fulfill the prison library's role in education and…
Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada
Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In-depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.
Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In‐depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.
Cloyes, Kristin G.; Rosenkranz, Susan J.; Supiano, Katherine P.; Berry, Patricia H.; Routt, Meghan; Llanque, Sarah M.; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen
The increasing numbers of aging and chronically ill prisoners incarcerated in Western nations is well documented, as is the growing need for prison-based palliative and end-of-life care. Less often discussed is specifically how end-of-life care can and should be provided, by whom, and with what resources. One strategy incorporates prisoner volunteers into end-of-life services within a peer care program. This article reports on one such program based on focused ethnographic study including in-depth interviews with inmate hospice volunteers, nursing staff, and corrections officers working in the hospice program. We describe how inmate volunteers learn hospice care through formal education and training, supervised practice, guidance from more experienced inmates, and support from correctional staff. We discuss how emergent values of mentorship and stewardship are seen by volunteers and staff as integral to prison hospice sustainability and discuss implications of this volunteer-centric model for response-ability for the end-of-life care of prisoners. PMID:28100141
Osasona, Samuel O; Koleoso, Olaide N
Prisoners tend to be marginalized and deprived of the rights and privileges that other citizens in the community enjoy. Their separation from families, adverse effects on health of prison environment, and the uncertainty about the future place a great psychological burden on them which can lead to the development of mental illness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (depression and anxiety) and the associated factors among a sample of the prison inmates. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design; it was conducted in a medium security prison in Benin City, Nigeria. Participants were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty-two prisoners who were selected by systematic sampling techniques participated in the study and the data were analyzed using the 16th version of the SPSS with the statistical level of significance set at p anxiety symptoms respectively on the HADS. Overall, 84.5% of the respondents had at least one type of psychiatric morbidity. Age, marital status, self-reported physical and mental health, previous mental illness, imprisonment status, prison accommodation, prison meal, and health care services were found to be significantly associated with depression, anxiety or general psychiatric morbidity. Self-reported poor current mental health was the only variable that predicted all the three types of psychiatric morbidity. Prisoners in this study, and as in previous reports, had high prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity. Thus, prisoners have a need for regular psychiatric screening and treatment. The consequences of untreated psychiatric morbidity and the need for improved health care services and infrastructure in the prison were discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Aydin, Mustafa
A foreign body such as a needle in the heart can be life-threatening. While this may occur accidentally, needles may be inserted into the body by psychiatric patients or in cases involving domestic violence. A needle can migrate through the thorax toward the heart. In drug users, needles may also reach the right ventricle via the peripheral veins. Cardiac injury can occur via the esophagus after swallowing a needle. The clinical outcome may vary from an asymptomatic situation to tamponade or shock, depending on how severely the cardiac structures are affected. In injuries involving the thorax, pneumothorax may cause sudden shortness of breath. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old male prison inmate who accidentally lodged a pin in his left ventricle while asleep. As he has refused surgery, it was decided to follow the patient carefully. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akaji, E A; Folaranmi, N
To determine the effect of tobacco use on oral health status of inmates of a federal prison in Enugu, Nigeria. The study involved 230 inmates of the Nigerian Prison in Enugu. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the demographic characteristics of the participants, oral hygiene methods, and smoking habits. An intra-oral examination to determine their oral health status was done using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) for the oral hygiene status, the modified decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index for caries status, and community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) for the periodontal needs. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15 was used to analyze data. One hundred and twenty participants (52.2%) were current smokers. Mean DMFT of smokers and nonsmokers were 2.38 ± 0.71 and 2.25 ± 0.83 respectively ( P = 0.508) while mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) scores of smokers and nonsmokers were 4.71 ± 1.26 and 2.27 ± 0.86, respectively ( P = 0.276). Oral soft tissue lesions such as mucosal burn, oral leukoplakia-like lesions were found mainly in the tobacco users. Tobacco use had a negative effect on the oral health of the participants as smokers had worse oral health profile than non-smokers. They may benefit from counseling programs with the view to educate them on the effect of tobacco use on oral health and by extension, the general health. The full implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty in Nigeria could help in curtailing these unwanted consequences of tobacco use.
Jaramillo Gutiérrez, Mónica Rocío; Silva Vallejo, Carolina; Rojas Arango, Bibiana Patricia; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo
Suicidal behavior shows high numbers in prison population; hence, the following research was developed, which aimed to identify the sociodemographic, family, personal and imprisonment factors that are associated with suicidal ideation in inmates of a prison of Antioquia, Colombia. A cross descriptive study was carried out. It was applied the Suicide Orientation Inventory Test ISO-30, as well as a survey, in order to investigate sociodemographic, family and imprisonment aspects of a group of 154 inmates. Univariate and bivariate analysis were applied to the collected data by using Excel and OpenEpi programs. 14.9% had high suicidal ideation. By analyzing the distribution of high suicidal ideation in the variables studied, it was found that the highest rates occurred in those who had previous attempts, 61.1%; a history of domestic violence, 50.0%; no schooling, 33.3%; those with a family history of suicide, 28.6%; and those without a definite sentence 22.9%. A significant association was found between the ideation and having committed previous suicide attempts (P<.01; rp=7.4), belonging to households with domestic violence (P=.03; rp=4.0), being single (P=.04; rp=2.2) and being under 30 years old (P=.04; rp=2.1). The high suicidal rates are much greater than those found in the general population; it is therefore recommended to the professionals of the institution to address the risk factors found here, in order to develop prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Dlugacz, Henry; Wimmer, Christopher
The administration of antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates involves two related components: conducting the informed consent process in a coercive environment and, where consent is not obtained, forcible administration of medication if needed. In the United States, both involve common law, statutory, and constitutional principles. Obtaining informed consent in correctional institutions is complicated. Patients in correctional institutions lack access to alternate sources of information, and depend on the correctional system completely - a system which they may distrust. This may influence the patient's view of the administering physician. Where consent cannot be obtained, forcible administration may be legally permissible for two primary reasons: to restore a criminal defendant to competency in order to stand trial and to ameliorate severe symptoms of mental disability, particularly when they threaten the safety of self, others, or in some instances, property. The interests at stake for the individual and the government, and the legal standards developed to balance these interests, differ between the two situations. When considering challenges to forcible medication of inmates serving a prison sentence, the United States Supreme Court has treated the interest of the institution in maintaining security as paramount. By contrast, when considering challenges to forcible medication of pretrial detainees, the Court's concern for the fair trial rights guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment has seemingly led it to moderate its emphasis on security. However, this distinction is not stable and may in fact be breaking down, as the recent case of Jared Loughner demonstrates. This article discusses the various federal, state, and international legal standards applicable to both informed consent and forcible medication, and their implementation in the correctional setting, focusing on issues related to the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Background HIV has been recognized as an important problem in prisons because of the common practice of needle sharing and unsafe sex. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP apropos HIV/AIDS in prisons is needed to devise educational programs. Objectives This research was performed to assess KAP regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among Bushehr Prison inmates. Patients and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 among 800 inmates in Bushehr Prison. Convenience sampling was utilized, and the inclusion criteria comprised Iranian nationality, ability to speak or read and write in Farsi, and a prison stay for at least 2 months before entering the study. The data collection tool was a self-designed questionnaire, consisting of close-ended questions in 4 sections: demographic information, 36 questions on knowledge (total score ranging from 0 to 36, 20 questions on attitude (total score ranging from 0 to 40, and 7 questions on practice. Content validity was confirmed by using subject matter experts. Reliability was confirmed via a pilot study and Cronbach’s α method. The α coefficients were between 0.75 and 0.95 for the different sections. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The mean score of HIV/AIDS knowledge in the male and female inmates was 23.84 ± 4.70 and 21.35 ± 6.28, respectively (P < 0.001. The mean score of HIV/AIDS attitude among the men and women was 26.6 ± 5.4 and 24.48 ± 7.6, correspondingly (P < 0.001. Additionally, 63.3% of the male and 57.3% of the female inmates had read about HIV/AIDS (P = 0.20, 4% of the men and 11.3% of the women had tattooing in prison, and 28.5% of the men and 32.5% of the women had participated in HIV/AIDS prevention classes (P = 0.29. Conclusions Comprehensive programs on HIV/AIDS education and counseling are needed to improve KAP apropos HIV risk factors and reduce risk behavior among prison
Muasa Patoka Guillaume Kalonji
Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, quality of prison life remains a challenge in public health. The present study aimed at determining the quality of life as perceived by inmates during their imprisonment at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out over a 3-month period (between December 2015 and February 2016 at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi. Three hundred inmates participated to the survey. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF was used to estimate health and problems affecting inmates’ everyday life. Results: Mean age of inmates was 33 ± 10 years (range: 18-70 years and most of them were male (88.7%. The quality of life score estimated was below 50, on the WHOQOL-BREF scale weighted over 100 points (average overall score: 26 ± 7. When considering each WHOQOLBREF domain, the lowest scores (0-100 normalized scale were registered for: perception of physical health (24 ± 11, psychological health (18 ± 8, social relationship (39 ± 15 and environmental relationships (24 ± 8. Overall, inmates aged over 30 years old presented an average score slightly lower than younger inmates (25 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 7; p=0.005. Depending on the length of incarceration, the average score was lower for inmates imprisoned for more than 6 months compared to others (26 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 8; p=0.015. Correlations between domain scores were low but statistically significant; no correlation was highlighted between environment and mental health domains. Conclusion: Most inmates considered their quality of life as negative, regardless of the WHOQOL-BREF domain. Efforts to improve quality of life should remain a priority for political authorities.
Dores, António Pedro; Loureiro, Ricardo; Pontes, Nuno
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM Portugal has 51 prisons of different types: 15 penitentiaries (“central prisons”, normally larger ones) for inmates condemned to serve more than 6 months; 31 penitentiaries (“regional prisons”) for inmates condemned to serve less than 6 months; and five penitentiaries (“special prisons”) for inmates who need special attention, such as women, youths, policeman, and the sick (hospital). The first type of penitentiary has security...
Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Dang, Jeff; Warda, Umma S; Prendergast, Michael L
To assess the impact of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention on psychosocial functioning of inmates over the course of treatment and on post-treatment self-reported measures of treatment participation, progress, and satisfaction. Male ( n = 187) and female ( n = 143) inmates participating in 12-week prison-based Intensive Outpatient (IOP) drug treatment were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (ST) or standard treatment plus positive behavioral reinforcement (BR) for engaging in targeted activities and behaviors. Participants were assessed for psychosocial functioning at baseline and at the conclusion of treatment (post-treatment). Self-reported measures of treatment participation, treatment progress, and treatment satisfaction were also captured at post-treatment. The intervention affected female and male subjects differently and not always in a way that favored BR subjects, as compared to the ST subjects, most notably on measures of depression and criminal thinking. Possible explanations for the results include differences in the male and female custody environments combined with the procedures that study participants had to follow to earn and/or receive positive reinforcement at the two study sites, as well as baseline differences between the genders and a possible floor effect among females on measures of criminality. Limitations of the study included the inability to make study participants blind to the study conditions and the possible over-branding of the study, which may have influenced the results.
Kjær Minke, Linda
It is well documented that imprisonment implies socialization to prison culture. This particular kind of socialization to prison culture is defined as prisonization. This article shed lights on how this process of prisonization occur and in which way does it affect the prisoner and if anything...... could be done to avoid prisonization....
Department of Homeland Security — The prisons polygon dataset is composed of selected facilities that fall under the following NAICS descriptions* Jails (Except Private Operation of) * Correctional...
Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva
of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...... roles and social positions....
Mweene T Mweene
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess psychiatric disturbance using a Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ20. A cut off point of 7/8 was used. The Chi-square test and Fishers′ exact test were used to determine associations at the 5% significance level, and magnitude of association was estimated using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 394 inmates in prison, 29.2% had a current mental illness. Gender status was significantly associated with mental illness. Male participants were 35% (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [0.51, 0.82] less likely to have mental illness compared to female participants. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental illness is high in Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison in Zambia. Gender-specific interventions should be designed to reduce the level of mental illness in this prison.
Houser, Kimberly; Belenko, Steven
Most female inmates have mental health, substance use, or co-occurring disorders (CODs), which can create greater difficulty adjusting to incarceration and higher rates of prison misconduct. The response of prison officials to institutional misbehaviors has important implications for female inmates' experiences while incarcerated, their likelihood of parole, and the clinical course of their condition. This article examined whether disciplinary actions are more severe for women with CODs. Data were provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections for all female state prison inmates incarcerated between January 1, 2007, and July 30, 2009 (N = 2,279). The final sample of 211 women included those who had committed a minor misconduct during their incarceration. Disorder categories were created based on intake assessments, and multivariate models were estimated to determine the effect of disorder category on whether the prison imposed a severe or minor disciplinary response to the misconduct. The odds of receiving severe disciplinary responses to minor misconduct was significantly greater for women with CODs than those with the singular disorders of mental illness or substance abuse disorders, or those with no disorders. Findings suggest correctional institutions are responding in a punitive manner to the symptomatic manifestations of CODs in female inmates. These findings suggest the importance of screening instruments in correctional settings that assess for the presence of dual disorders. In addition, correctional administrators must implement training protocols for correctional officers and staff on the complexity of CODs and the ability to identify behavioral and emotional symptoms associated with this vulnerable subset of the offender population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa
To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p first offense (β = 0.772, p first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates, whereas a criminal background with a younger age at first offense and frequent previous convictions, substance use and sexual crimes were more prevalent among male prison inmates. Our findings indicate a potential link between childhood traumatization and criminal behavior in terms of subsequent offending but not in terms of severity of the subsequent offense. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during
Awofeso, Niyi; Naoum, Raymond
Prisons are invariably unisex institutions where, besides many deprivations, heterosexual expression in its normal sense is absent. It is this characteristic that make prisons settings potentially fertile grounds for sexual aberrations. Since definite and accurate data concerning sexual activities among prison inmates are difficult to obtain, the phenomenon of sexual practices in prisons has traditionally been a topic of much speculation. However, the descriptions and explanations of most authors on the subject are often contradictory, and some of the best information are from unpublished sources. This article is an attempt to subsume many fragmented explanations about seven main types of sexual issues in prisons (i.e. consensual homosexuality, masturbation, transsexualism, prostitution, conjugal visits, sex between prisoners and prison staff, and rape among prison inmates) under more general criminological and management concepts. Suggestions for prison administrators on how to manage these complex issues in the best interests of security and inmates' health are also provided.
Full Text Available The rehabilitation process is a continuum of actions, changes obtained on its individual stages are the key to the success of the next step, a prisoner’s commitment in the process of changing is a very important part of rehabilitation. The prisoners may choose whether they actively participate in the rehabilitation process or not. If they decide, the completed tasks are evaluated by the staff. Currently it is still being looked for effective work with prisoners, how to change their behavior and the way of thinking. The stuff should build a specific interpersonal relationships with the prisoners because it creates opportunities to motivate the prisoners and let them see their strong points.
This advancement leads to automation of system processes. ... storage of data, easy access and retrieval of information to authorized users, ... In addition, there is provision to search and view reports of both current and discharged prisoners.
Total incarceration is a major feature of the prison as a place where people are kept because they have sinned against the society. The reality in the age grade of the prisoners has however shown that most of them are of very active age grade of 20-35 years. This is a period of life when people of this age grade are ...
Barrera-Valencia, Camilo; Benito-Devia, Alexis Vladimir; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo; Figueroa-Barrera, Mario; Franco-Idárraga, Sandra Milena
Telepsychiatry is defined as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in providing remote psychiatric services. Telepsychiatry is applied using two types of communication: synchronous (real time) and asynchronous (store and forward). To determine the cost-effectiveness of a synchronous and an asynchronous telepsychiatric model in prison inmate patients with symptoms of depression. A cost-effectiveness study was performed on a population consisting of 157 patients from the Establecimiento Penitenciario y Carcelario de Mediana Seguridad de Manizales, Colombia. The sample was determined by applying Zung self-administered surveys for depression (1965) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the latter being the tool used for the comparison. Initial Hamilton score, arrival time, duration of system downtime, and clinical effectiveness variables had normal distributions (P>.05). There were significant differences (P<.001) between care costs for the different models, showing that the mean cost of the asynchronous model is less than synchronous model, and making the asynchronous model more cost-effective. The asynchronous model is the most cost-effective model of telepsychiatry care for patients with depression admitted to a detention centre, according to the results of clinical effectiveness, cost measurement, and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
In American prisons, two of the worst pathologies—hypermasculine performance and gang activity—are best understood as strategies of self-help engaged in by people who cannot trust the prison authorities to keep them safe. Given the choice, the overwhelming majority of people in prison would prefer to drop the mask and be themselves. But letting down one’s guard is a luxury enjoyed only by people who feel safe. If we want the people we incarcerate to grow and change, we need to design and oper...
Boisson, E V; Trotman, C
To determine HIV prevalence among male prison inmates in the six OECS countries in the Caribbean. Six unlinked, anonymous point prevalence surveys of a total of 1288 male inmates were conducted during a one-year period, August 2004 - August 2005. An oral fluid sample was collected and an interviewer-administered questionnaire and consent form was completed for each survey participant. The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (range 2.0-4.1%). Only 39% of all inmates had previously been tested, compared to 67% of the HIV-positive inmates. Of all inmates who previously tested, 61% had their last test less than two years ago, 45% had done so while in prison and 39% had done so in a hospital. Most of those who had not previously been tested had no particular reason for not doing so (57%); 24% of them felt it was not necessary or they were not at risk. HIV prevalence among male prison inmates was three times higher than the estimated OECS population prevalence in 2003, slightly higher than the prevalence among incarcerated males in the United States of America and Canada, and lower than that in other Caribbean countries in earlier years. Health information on prison populations is important as this is a vulnerable group, with frequent movement in and out of the general population. Preventative services, voluntary counselling and testing, and appropriate care and treatment should be available to all inmates as this is an opportunity for many who may not otherwise access these services.
Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V
In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.
Morin, Lucien, Ed.
This book, consisting of 19 essays, deals with the meaning and objectives of prison education. Included in the volume are the following works: "Inmate Right to Education," by Lucien Morin; "Penitentiary Education in Canada," by J. W. Cosman; "Rehabilitation through Education: A Canadian Model," by Stephen Duguid;…
Durham, Marian B.; And Others
Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…
Cloyes, Kristin G; Rosenkranz, Susan J; Wold, Dawn; Berry, Patricia H; Supiano, Katherine P
Some US prisons are meeting the growing need for end-of-life care through inmate volunteer programs, yet knowledge of the motivations of inmate caregivers is underdeveloped. This study explored the motivations of inmate hospice volunteers from across Louisiana State (n = 75) through an open-ended survey, a grounded theory approach to analysis, and comparison of responses by experience level and gender. Participants expressed complex motivations; Inter-related themes on personal growth, social responsibility and ethical service to vulnerable peers suggested that inmate caregivers experience an underlying process of personal and social transformation, from hospice as a source of positive self-identity to peer-caregiving as a foundation for community. Better understanding of inmate caregiver motivations and processes will help prisons devise effective and sustainable end of life peer-care programs. © The Author(s) 2013.
Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dirgahayu, Paramasari; Sari, Yulia; Hudiyono, Hudiyono; Kageyama, Seiji
This study was conducted to determine the current molecular prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and human T lymphotropic virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) circulating among drug abuser inmates incarcerated in prisons located in Central Java, Indonesia. Socio-epidemiological data and blood specimens were collected from 375 drug abuser inmates in four prisons. The blood samples were analyzed with serological and molecular testing for HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates was 4.8% (18/375), 3.2% (12/375), 34.1% (128/375), 0% (0/375), and 3.7% (14/375), respectively. No co-infections of HIV and HBV were found. Co-infections of HIV/HCV, HIV/HTLV-1/2, HBV/HCV, HBV/HTLV-1/2, and HCV/HTLV-1/2 were prevalent at rates of 4% (15/375), 1.3% (5/375), 1.1% (4/375), 0.3% (1/375), and 2.1% (8/375), respectively. The HIV/HCV co-infection rate was significantly higher in injection drug users (IDUs) compared to non-IDUs. Triple co-infection of HIV/HCV/HTLV-1/2 was found only in three IDUs (0.8%). HIV CRF01_AE was found to be circulating in the inmates. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. Subtypes adw and adr were found. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected inmates, followed by 1c, 3k, 3a, 4a, and 1b. All HTLV-1 isolates shared 100% homology with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan, while all of the HTLV-2 isolates were subtype 2a. Drug abuser inmates in prisons may offer a unique community to bridge prevention and control of human blood-borne virus infection to the general community.
Sabbatani, Sergio; Giuliani, Ruggero; Fulgaro, Ciro; Paolillo, Pasquale; Baldi, Elena; Chiodo, Francesco
The aims of the study were to evaluate the HIVAb, HCVAb and HBsAg seroprevalence among Italian and foreign inmates of the prison of Bologna, to evaluate if the extensive counselling of "new" inmates has significantly enhanced adherence to laboratory tests. The serological status was determined by a blood withdraw following the informed consent. Before asking their consent, patients were informed by cultural mediators who had been instructed about the aims of the study/exam during introductory meetings. The initial step managed by mediators was followed by further individual counselling interventions, carried out by hospital infective disease unit, prison and prison drug abuse service physicians. The laboratory tests were performed in an external structure. Prison of Bologna. The study was conducted on 433 subjects among a whole population of 900 inmates in the local prison: 390 subjects were males (90.1%) and 43 were females (9.9%). The median age of the whole population was 34.86 years (+/- 9.9). The studied population counted 147 (33.9%) intravenous drug users (IDU) and 286 not addicts (66.1%). As regards nationality, 212 subjects were Italian (48.9%) and 221 (51.1%) foreigners. Among the total 433 inmates considered, 78 (18%) were known as previous IDU with conviction history or condemned to long term sentences, while 59 (13.6%) were inmates recently convicted active IDU assisted by the internal drug abusers service. The third group was composed by 296 inmates imprisoned during the summer (103 Italians and 193 foreigners) self declared not IDU. A. 12.5% of inmates were HIV positive, 8.1% HBV positive and 31.1% HCV positive. 25 subjects were found positive both to HIV and HCV; 1 both to HIV and HBV and 5 to HIV, HBV and HCV. HIV positivity is more common among Italian vs. foreigners inmates, among IDU vs. not IDU. HCV positivity is more common among Italian vs. foreigners inmates, and among IDU vs. not IDU. The distribution of HBV seropositivity among the
Surveyed 348 prison inmates about their needs or interests in rehabilitation programs, reasons for their needs, whether they deserved treatment, and why. Results suggest that prisoners view rehabilitation and reform as the major purpose of punishment or prison sentence. Need was endorsed most often as fairest criterion for program participation.…
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 %) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most
This article briefly compares the prison system in the United States with progressive correctional systems in the world, before pivoting to discuss the lessons learned from the author's development of the Prison Education Project (PEP). PEP has expanded educational opportunities for inmates in 12 Californian correctional facilities. With the assistance of 800 university student and faculty volunteers, PEP has serviced approximately 5,000 inmates in these facilities since 2011. By providing academic, life skills and career development programming, PEP aims to educate, empower and transform the lives of incarcerated individuals. This article is a summary of the development of PEP, examining programme outcomes and highlighting implementation, fundraising and branding strategies. The robust spirit of volunteerism is also a central component of the discussion, with the phenomenon of "reciprocal reflex" at the heart of the PEP volunteer experience. This reflex ignites the passion and gratitude of both volunteers and inmates. The volunteers learn just as much as they teach, and the inmates teach just as much as they learn. The fact that each group shows deep gratitude to the other for the learning experience creates an exciting symbiotic loop and an esprit de corps which inspires and empowers all involved. The "reciprocal reflex" leads to lifelong learning. This article captures the intricate dynamics of how PEP has evolved into the largest volunteer-based prison education programme of its kind in the United States.
Sembiring, E.; Ginting, Y.; Saragih, R. H.
Syphilis has been known to increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. Epidemiologic studies showed that HIV transmission is 3-5 times higher in people with syphilis.Hence, in this current study, the factors associated with syphilis-seropositive and HIV infection were evaluated.This study used cross-sectional study. This study included inmates at Lubuk Pakam prison in November 2016. After interviewing participants’ demographics and risk behaviors, blood samples were obtained to be tested for HIV and syphilis, using the Rapid Test tool of HIV 3 methods and One STEP Syphilis Anti TP-Test. A total number of 1,114 inmates were included in this study, consisted of 1,081 male (97%) and 33female (3%). Ten inmates were HIV-positive (0.9%), whereas 70 inmates were syphilis-seropositive (6.3%).Based on multivariate-analyses, high-risk sexual behaviors associated with the increased risk of syphilis-seropositive of up to 8.31 times (p=0.002). HIV status also portrayed higher risk of syphilis-seropositive compared to non-HIV participants (3.98 fold, p=0.019). In HIV incidence, found that high-risk sexual behaviors also significantly increased the risk of HIV (7.69 fold, p=0.003). Syphilis-seropositive was also highly associated with HIV risk (5.09 fold, p=0.019).Syphilis and HIV showed a close association with several shared contributing factors.
Walters, Glenn D.; Duncan, Scott A.; Mitchell-Perez, Kari
A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is conducted on a group of 409 male maximum-, medium-, and minimum-security federal prison inmates using the four PCL-R facet scores (interpersonal, affective, impulsive lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) as indicators. Results obtained from three quasi-independent taxometric…
Pondé, Milena P; Caron, Jean; Mendonça, Milena S S; Freire, Antônio C C; Moreau, Nicolas
This cross-sectional study conducted in prisons in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, investigated the association between the presence of psychiatric disorders in 462 prisoners and the types of crimes committed by them. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by means of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A statistically significant association was found between some psychiatric disorders and specific groups of crime: lifelong substance addiction with sex crimes and homicide; antisocial personality disorder with robbery and with kidnapping and extortion; borderline personality disorder with sex crimes; and lifelong alcohol addiction with fraud and conspiracy and with armed robbery and murder. It was concluded that the mental disorders considered more severe (psychosis and bipolar disorder) were not associated with violent crimes, suggesting that the severity of the psychotic disorder may be the factor that has caused psychosis to be associated with violent crimes in previous studies. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Qiu, Hong-Zhong; Ye, Zeng-Jie; Liang, Mu-Zi; Huang, Yue-Qun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhi-Dong
Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia. This article concludes that the art brut therapy was effective for the inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China and provides encouraging data on how to enhance mental health for inmates with schizophrenia. Art brut therapy can reduce emotional distress and negative psychiatric symptoms among Chinese inmates. Arts brut therapy can enhance Chinese inmates' compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medicines, and regular sleeping patterns. Arts brut therapy in conjunction with medication is highly recommended for recovery of Chinese inmates with schizophrenia, especially for patients with negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nigeria prison system was modeled by colonial prison administration with emphasis on punishment and deterrence. This contradicts the fundamental objective of prison establishment as a corrective institution, for reformation, rehabilitation and re-integration of inmates. The position of prison in criminal justice administration ...
Prison inmates tend to be side -lined in information provision in Nigeria. Library services to prisoners are critical to their rehabilitation into the larger society on release. The paper is an assessment of Provision of Library services to prison inmates in South East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The questionnaire method was ...
Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R
Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.
Martin, Michael S; Wamboldt, Ashley D; O'Connor, Shannon L; Fortier, Julie; Simpson, Alexander I F
There are high rates of mental disorder in correctional environments, so effective mental health screening is needed. Implementation of the computerised mental health screen of the Correctional Service of Canada has led to improved identification of offenders with mental health needs but with high rates of false positives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of an iterative classification tree (ICT) approach to mental health screening compared with a simple binary approach using cut-off scores on screening tools. A total of 504 consecutive admissions to federal prison completed the screen and were also interviewed by a mental health professional. Relationships between screening results and more extended assessment and clinical team discussion were tested. The ICT was more parsimonious in identifying probable 'cases' than standard binary screening. ICT was also highly accurate at detecting mental health needs (AUC=0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.90). The model identified 118 (23.4%) offenders as likely to need further assessment or treatment, 87% of whom were confirmed cases at clinical interview. Of the 244 (48.4%) offenders who were screened out, only 9% were clinically assessed as requiring further assessment or treatment. Standard binary screening was characterised by more false positives and a comparable false negative rate. The use of ICTs to interpret screening data on the mental health of prisoners needs further evaluation in independent samples in Canada and elsewhere. This first evaluation of the application of such an approach offers the prospect of more effective and efficient use of the scarce resource of mental health services in prisons. Although not required, the use of computers can increase the ease of implementing an ICT model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Xi Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Xu, Kevin
The prevalence of psychological problems is high in prisons. Many prisoners have unmet needs for appropriate treatments. Although previous studies have suggested music therapy to be a successful treatment modality for prisoners, more rigorous evidence is needed. This parallel randomised controlled...... study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group music therapy to reduce anxiety and depression, and raise self-esteem in prisoners. One hundred and ninety two inmates from a Chinese prison will be allocated to two groups through randomisation. The experimental group will participate in biweekly...... group music therapy for 10 weeks (20 sessions) while the control group will be placed on a waitlist. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem will be measured by self-report scales three times: before, at the middle, and at the end of the intervention. Logs by the participants and their daily routine...
A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun
The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.
Stephens, T; Conerly, R; Braithwaite, R L; Sifunda, S; Ogbuawa, N; Bhengu, S; Reddy, P
The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of a random sample of prison inmates from two provinces in South Africa with respect to correct knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and sexual transmitted infection (STI) risk and beliefs about condom use. This cross-sectional descriptive study of 357 prison inmates formed part of a larger longitudinal investigation designed to implement a health education intervention for prison inmates in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga (MP) provinces of South Africa. Mean differences for groups were compared across sites using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Inmates from KZN were less likely to agree that 'It is important to use condoms every time you have sex' F (1355) = 25.8, pCondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV' F (1355) = 11.7, pCondoms also prevent pregnancy' F (1355) = 5.1, pcondom use behaviour suggested that future prevention efforts focus on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs.
George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie
A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues "on the inside". Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get "on the outside", this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison.
Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze
Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...
van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Roberts, Mary B; Stein, Lynda A R; Friedmann, Peter D; Martin, Stephen A; Clarke, Jennifer G
Most adults report initiation of cigarette smoking during adolescence, a time also marked by developmental striving for independence and freedom. Tobacco use may retain its association with independence and/or freedom into adulthood. This association may contribute to continued tobacco use and/or increased risk of relapse to smoking among some individuals. This study examines the relationship between cigarette smoking and perceptions of independence and freedom among inmates in a tobacco-free prison in the northeastern United States. Questionnaires administered to 247 male and female inmates 6 weeks prior to scheduled prison release assessed demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence, attitudes toward smoking, and plans for tobacco use or abstinence after prison release. Perceptions of smoking as an expression of independence and freedom were measured using 2 items. Smoking was assessed 3 weeks postrelease. Constructs of freedom and independence were correlated but did not overlap completely. Both constructs were negatively associated with plans for smoking abstinence after prison release, and with perceived costs of continued smoking. Number of cigarettes smoked postrelease and perception of the pros of smoking were associated with freedom, but not independence. Associations of smoking as an expression of freedom and independence may negatively influence plans for renewed smoking after a forced abstinence. Additional research is needed to determine the degree to which these 2 constructs predict smoking behavior and whether they can be used to improve interventions for incarcerated smokers.
Hacin, Rok; Meško, Gorazd
The purpose of this article is to explore prisoners' perception of legitimacy of prison staff and examine the compliance of prisoners with the authority of prison staff to highlight the differences between instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners. This study draws on data collected from a random sample of 193 prisoners in all Slovene prisons. Using a qualitative approach based on structured interviews, our findings suggest that distributive justice, procedural justice, the quality of relations with prison staff, and the effectiveness of prison staff influence prisoners' perception of legitimacy in a prison environment. Several prisoners comply with prison rules because they fear sanctions, which indicates their instrumental compliance, while normative compliance was reported by prisoners who perceived the legitimacy of prison staff in a more positive manner. Overall findings indicate that both instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners can be observed in Slovene prisons.
Enrique Pastor Seller
Full Text Available Mediation is a method penitentiary peaceful resolution of internal conflicts based on dialogue and respect, allowing those involved to take responsibility for their behavior, the role in the process and the peaceful resolution of the conflict itself. The research center aims to demonstrate the viability of mediation in prisons for the alternative resolution of interpersonal conflicts among inmates. To do so, first, we analyze the institutional and legal mechanisms for resolving interpersonal conflicts in Spanish prisons. It then proceeds to characterize the prison population from a comparative analysis, identifying, likewise, services and / or existing mediation projects and, finally, discusses, from its participants, conflicts and feasibility of using mediation in Specifically a Penitentiary. For the realization of the research have been used primary and secondary sources, with both quantitative and qualitative. The results of the investigation confirm that mediation is feasible and effective in the prison setting. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE
Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.
Dixey, Rachael; Woodall, James
This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and raises issues concerning their conditions of service, training and organisational culture in a situation where the prison system faces security issues, overcrowding and high levels of ill health among prisoners. This paper emerged as a result of significant overlapping themes between two separate studies conducted by the authors. The paper draws on the authors' qualitative data from these studies. The findings demonstrate the ambiguities and tensions in changing organisational cultures and among prison staff. Alongside the qualitative data, the paper draws on theory regarding policy implementation at the micro-level to show how staff can block or speed up that implementation. Prison officers are an essential part of health promoting prisons, but have been relatively ignored in the discussion of how to create healthier prisons. The contribution that prison staff make to creating health promoting prisons has been under-explored, yet pertinent theory can show how they can be more effectively involved in making changes in organisational culture.
... United States Court shall indicate his or her interest by completing and signing the appropriate form and... probability that the inmate will be given an interview with his or her nation's consular officials. (e) Upon... to document the inmate's voluntary consent for transfer. Counsel is provided the inmate for purpose...
Beijersbergen, K. A.; Dirkzwager, A. J. E.; van der Laan, P. H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners' well-being. Research on factors influencing staff-prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association
J.E. Arribas López
Full Text Available En una sentencia de octubre de 2005 la Audiencia Nacional, declara la responsabilidad patrimonial del Ministerio del Interior (Dirección General de Instituciones Penitenciarias, por apreciar una concurrencia de culpas entre un interno fallecido en prisión y la Administración, ya que, aunque observa que fue correcta la actuación de los servicios médicos penitenciarios en el reconocimiento, diagnóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades que padecía, antes y durante su internamiento, sin embargo tuvieron que adoptar, ante las reiteradas negativas de aquél a someterse a la medicación prescrita, las medidas reglamentarias oportunas con la correspondiente autorización de la dirección del centro penitenciario, a fin de que se cumpliera el tratamiento indicado. Sentada la indiscutible responsabilidad de la Administración de actuar, velando por la vida, integridad y salud de los internos cuando se observa un riesgo directo e inmediato utilizando la fuerza si es preciso, cuando se trata de procesos patológicos de curso prolongado, que puede llevar a una limitación de los derechos del interno más allá de lo necesario y someterlo a la aplicación habitual de unas medidas de fuerza que están concebidas y reguladas sólo para situaciones excepcionales.A decision by the National Court in October 2005 declared that the Ministry of the Interior (General Directorate of Prisons held pecuniary liability as a result of a concurrence of guilt between a deceased prison inmate and the prison Administration. It was observed that the prison health care staff had acted correctly when checking, diagnosing and monitoring the illness of the patient before and during admission. However, when faced with repeated refusals by the inmate to accept the prescribed treatment, they had to take suitable regulatory measures to comply with the terms of the indicated treatment with authorisation from the prison director. The Administration has a clearly established and
Knudsen, Hanne; Mathiassen, Charlotte
In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention in the prof......In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention...
Martín Sánchez, V; Caylá Buqueras, J A; González Morís, M L; Herrero Alonso, L E; Vicente Pérez, R
Inmates of Spanish prisons include a high number of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other people whose practices entail the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this work is to find out the evolution of the prevalence of HIV infection at the time of admission to prison and the factors associated with it in this population group. This may enable us to form an idea of the effectiveness of risk reduction strategies and help to improve them. All those people who were placed in a provincial penal institution in the northwest of Spain between 1991 and 1995. Socio-demographic, penal and HIV risk factor variables were gathered. The HIV infection test (ELISA and Western-blot) was carried out with the consent of the subjects. Of the 1,663 people studied, 19.4% were HIV-positive. The prevalence HIV infection was particularly marked statistically in: women (26.0%), the 25-34 age group (29.1%), whites (20.9%), single people (22.8%), those people with a tattoo (29.9%), those people with a background in self-inflicted injuries (42.2%), IVDUs (46.3%), those who admitted sharing syringes (61.5%) and those with a prison record of one or more years (37.3%). Logistical regression analysis showed the following as predictors of HIV infection: IVDUs, those who went to prison in 1992, women, the 25-34 and 35-44 age group, tattooed men, those with a background in self-inflicted injuries and those with a prison record, of more than one year. The gypsy ethnic group revealed a lower probability of HIV infection. The HIV infection time trend, stratified according to the prison record showed an almost significant drop (P = 0.064). The infection trend per IVDU did not show any modification (P = 0.16). A high prevalence of HIV infection was detected in a prison located in a region which has not been particularly affected by AIDS. IVDUs and some characteristics that may be related to this population group have an enormous influence on this phenomenon. The
Shaw, David M; Elger, Bernice S
For a wider project on aging in prison, the authors interviewed 35 older prisoners and 24 stakeholders (prison staff, prison healthcare professionals, and policy makers) about healthcare for prisoners. In all, 6 prisoners and 3 stakeholders spontaneously expressed their attitudes concerning assisted suicide. Some prisoners seek assisted suicide for medical reasons and others because they regard spending the rest of their lives in prison as undignified. However, stakeholders identified several ethical and practical challenges in providing assisted suicide to prisoners. This article presents these perspectives on assisted suicide in prison and provides an ethical analysis of the issues raised.
age was 31.9 (IC95%: 30.6-33.1. The average age was higher amongst Spanish inmates (33.9 vs. 30.7; p=0.023. Spanish inmates smoked less (79, 40.9% than foreigners (114, 59.1% p=0.003 and consumed less alcohol (51, 42.5% vs. 69, 57.5%, p=0.044. The use of heroin, cocaine, designer drugs and non-prescribed benzodiazepines, individually or in combinations, was admitted to by 68 individuals, 44 (64.7% of whom were Spanish, and 24 (35.3% were foreigners (OR: 5.4, IC95%: 2.9-9.9, p>0.0001. The only consumption type where no significant difference between the two groups could be seen was in "designer drug" use: 5 (5.6% vs. 2 (1.3%. (OR: 4.6, IC95%: 0.8-24.3, p=0.07. IVD use was rare and more common amongst Spanish inmates: 3 (3.4% vs. 0 (0% (p=0.02. Conclusions: Foreigners make up the majority of the recent intake into prison. Spanish prisoners are older. Spanish inmates consume more illegal drugs, while foreign prisoners consume more socially accepted drugs.
Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H
Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fageeh, Wafa M K
To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P sexual behaviors
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
inmates. There are two major types of convict ... This includes type of disposals like ..... Text. Table 1: Input Specification Guide. Detail Design. The designed system consist of different modules ... package: such as spread sheet, word processor.
Luallen, Jeremy; Kling, Ryan
For the past several decades, the U.S. prison system has witnessed a steady and persistent increase in the ages of prison populations. Given the additional costs and burdens placed on prisons as they house older inmates, this aging trend has generated intense interest among policy makers and academics who seek to understand why prison populations are getting older. This article presents a method for evaluating drivers influencing the change in age distributions among prisoners. We define a methodological approach and demonstrate its application using prison data from four states reporting to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Corrections Reporting Program. We find that since 2000, the primary driver of overall growth in the elderly populations in prison (defined as inmates over 50) is the increasing admission age of offenders entering prison. Moreover, changes in offense mix and sentence length/time served over the last decade have had significantly less influence on the age composition of prison populations. We also find that the impact of explanatory factors varies across states and offense types. For example, prison admission and exit rates explain much of the change in elderly drug offenders in New York, but not elderly violent offenders, where admission age plays a much stronger explanatory role. Our analysis offers an effective demonstration that supports the use of this method as an important and informative first step toward understanding components of change that affect the problem of prison aging. © The Author(s) 2014.
Being deaf and in prison is a horror. The main fear of prison inmates, whether Deaf or hearing, is that they will be raped, killed, or subjected to other forms of violence. Such fears are based in reality. The recent overcrowding of jails and prisons has increased these problems significantly. A major reason for this situation is the blatant…
Albizu-García, Carmen E.; Caraballo, José Noel; Caraballo-Correa, Glorimar; Hernández-Viver, Adriana; Román-Badenas, Luis
Individuals with a history of heroin dependence are overrepresented in American correctional facilities and 75% of inmates with a drug use disorder do not receive treatment during incarceration or after release. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with opiate agonists, such as methadone or buprenorphine, constitute standard of care; to guide planning for an expansion of drug treatment services in correctional facilities, a needs assessment was conducted at the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation (DCR) of Puerto Rico (PR). We report on the research process, the findings that informed our recommendations for the PCR to expand MAT for eligible inmates, and lessons learned. PMID:22263714
Beijersbergen, Karin A.; Dirkzwager, Anja J.E.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners’ well-being. Research on factors influencing staff–prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association
Psychiatric cases (24.1%) constituted the most prevalent disease category among inmates. This was followed by gastrointestinal diseases (22.6%), diseases of the respiratory tract (10.9%), dermatology/allergy (5.4%) and cardiovascular diseases (2.4%). Among the specific conditions examined malaria (21.6%) was found ...
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vocci, Frank J
Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3-9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pPrison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…
Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Emslie, J.; Wrench, J.; Gruer, L.; Cameron, S.; Black, J.; Davis, B.; McGregor, J.; Follett, E.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug injecting, sexual behaviour, and previous HIV testing. SETTING--HM Prison Glenochil in Scotland. SUBJECTS--Adult male prisoners. MAIN OUTCOME ME...
Craig, E L; Craig, R E
Efforts to introduce hospice and palliative care into American prisons have become fairly widespread, in response to the sharp increase in inmate deaths. The primary impetus originally came from the alarming number of AIDS deaths among prisoners. The new combination therapies have proved very successful in treating AIDS, but are very costly, and many problems must be overcome to ensure their effectiveness in correctional settings. Although the AIDS epidemic seems to be in decline, prisons are experiencing a rise in the number of deaths due to "natural causes." In this article we present a review of the prison hospice scene--the response to this crisis in correctional health care. First, we discuss the challenges facing the introduction of hospice into the correctional setting. Then, we present a brief overview of recent developments and a discussion of some ways hospice components have been adapted for life behind bars. Finally, we indicate some of the prospects for the future. Hospice professionals, armed with thorough professional training and years of experience, often fear that correctional health care providers will only parody superficial aspects of the hospice approach. Continual nudging and nurturing by local and state hospice professionals is required in order to bring about this change in the first place and to sustain it through time. Prison hospice workers need not only initial training, but also ongoing education and personal contact with experienced hospice professionals. While the interest of the big national organizations is necessary, the real action happens when local hospices work with nearby prisons to attend to the needs of dying inmates.
Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha
Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308
Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework
People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.
Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
This paper unravels the presence of humour in prison as an institutionalized aspect of prison life. The analysis shows how officers use humour to manage their relationships with prisoners and other staff, and how they make use of humour to establish a collective understanding of the officer job......, but the implications are real. The officer–prisoner joking relationship fosters conflict avoidance, smooth daily interactions, service provision for prisoners and transgression of officer norms for camaraderie. In contrast, the staff–staff joking relationship grants officers a sense of power vis-à-vis other staff...... and an opportunity to articulate hostility where staff solidarity is required. As a communication device with ambiguous qualities, humour unites the real and the unreal, shapes social structure, interaction and positioning and is suitable for identity work in prison....
Fovet, Thomas; Amad, Ali; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre
Respect for guidelines and recommendations is the rule for prescribing psychotropic drugs in prison. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and suicide in prison is higher than in general population. In France, 50 % of prisoners are treated with a psychotropic medication. Insomnia is a common complaint. It should not be trivialized and clinical psychiatric examination should be complete particularly in search of an underlying depressive syndrome. The lifestyle and dietary rules should not be neglected despite the difficulties associated with living conditions in prison and expectations of immediate results from both patients and sometimes the prison administration or justice. Given the prevalence of addictions in the prison population, vigilance is required in preventing withdrawal, especially at the beginning of incarceration. Indications for initiation and the prescription of opioid substitution treatment are the same as free environment. Individualization of delivery and confidentiality must be applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sliva, Shannon M; Samimi, Ceema
The prison industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States, fueled largely by prison privatization. UN guidelines and U.S. federal policy outline standards for prison workers, but evidence suggests that protections have been ignored or circumvented. The current prison labor system allows corporations to profit from punishment that is disproportionately allocated to people of color and the poor. This article provides a critical analysis of prison labor policies in the United States and proposes a position for social workers on the ethical and restorative use of inmate labor. This model uses the framework of restorative justice to explore how successful models of social enterprise can benefit inmates and their communities. Meaningful prison enterprises may offer the ability to return resources to communities depleted by crime and incarceration, and to restore inmates to full citizenship.
Reid, Stewart E; Topp, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Eleanor R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Maggard, Katie R; Roberts, Sarah T; Krüüner, Annika; Morse, Jill C; Kapata, Nathan; Chisela, Chileshe; Henostroza, German
Tuberculosis is one of the fastest-growing epidemics in prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a threat to both inmates and the wider community. Various factors have contributed to the breakdown of tuberculosis control in prison facilities in SSA, including slow and insensitive diagnostics, failing prison infrastructure, inadequate funding, and weak prevention and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we describe the challenges inherent in current approaches to tuberculosis control in prisons and consider the alternatives. We argue that although improved implementation of conventional tuberculosis control activities is necessary, considerable investment in a broader range of public health interventions, including infrastructure and staffing upgrades, cutting-edge tuberculosis diagnostics, and combination prevention for HIV, will be equally critical. This combination response to tuberculosis in prisons will be essential for tackling existing and nascent prison tuberculosis epidemics and will require high-level political support and financing.
Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)
Kjær Minke, Linda
Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....
Rocha, Nuno B F; Fonseca, Duarte A; Marques, Alina B; Rocha, Susana A; Hoaken, Peter N S
There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more-or-less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self-rated adjustment to the environment. Forty-five drug-free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post-release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article highlights the prevalence of HIV inside prisons in Senegal, Africa. There is a general presumption that HIV rates are higher in prisons than in the surrounding population. Organizations have conducted an inquiry on the statistics of HIV infection among prisoners and results revealed that there are existing projects done outside Western Europe and the US. It was observed that prison conditions in Africa do not meet the international norms nor the standards of human rights organizations in their treatment of detainees. One problem that had risen during the Dakar conference was the inaccessibility of condoms among detainees. Furthermore, despite the customs and morale of Zimbabwe regarding same sex activities, there are still reported cases of sodomy without the use of condom. The question presented in this article focuses on the so-called rights of prisoners in practicing safe sex through use of condoms and provision of medical treatment among those infected.
George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie
A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues “on the inside”. Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get “on the outside”, this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison. PMID:21954402
Peer van der Helm PhD; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams
The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor
Laxenaire, M; Steinbach, G
This paper deals with an aspect of inmate's psychology. One of us is consultant psychiatrist in a jail. According to his experience, the behaviour of the prisoners appears to be very regressive. Inmates chiefly complain of digestive pains. They put a great emphasis on food, nourishment and drinking. That regression to the oral phase explains an unconscious will of staying in jail: It is rather frequent, for example, to see prisoners, who are about to recover their freedom, attempting a ridiculous and futile escape, with, as only result, one more year in jail. Obviously they want, through this absurd acting out, to keep living their childish and regressive way of life.
Full Text Available The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.
Sánchez-Roig, M; Coll-Cámara, A
The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Hawk, Shila R; Daquin, Jane C
Currently there are few published, multilevel studies of physical assault victimization of prisoners. This study builds on the extant research by utilizing a nationally representative sample of correctional facilities (n = 326) and inmates (n = 17,640) to examine the impacts of a large set of theoretically and empirically derived individual- and contextual-level variables on prison victimization, including how the gendered context of prison impacts victimization. Results support the lifestyles/routine activities approach. Inmates who were charged with a violent offense, were previously victimized, were smaller in size, were not married, were without a work assignment, misbehaved, did not participate in programs, used alcohol or drugs, and those who had a depression or personality disorder were more likely to be victimized. In addition, the data suggest that 8% of the variance in victimization is due to the prison context. Prisons with high proportions of violent offenders, males, inmates from multiracial backgrounds, and inmates with major infractions had increased odds of victimization. Moreover, the sex-composition of the prison has significant main and interactive effects predicting victimization. Specifically, we find that the effects of being convicted of a drug crime, drug use, military service, major infractions, and diagnosed personality disorders are all gendered in their impacts on victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.
Prison inmate [name removed] sued the Indiana Department of Corrections, claiming it violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by denying him access to education programs, the library, and the dining hall because he is blind. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the district court's decision to dismiss the case based on the grounds that the ADA does not apply to prison inmates. The court held that the Department of Corrections cannot exclude an inmate with a disability from prison programs unless the accommodation caused an undue burden on the system.
Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J
Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.
Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah
HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.
Mettee, Dorothy L.
Noting that new approaches must be found to decrease the numbers of inmates returning to United States prisons and to provide means for productive changes that will result in self-improvement and new options for inmates both inside and outside the prison after their release, a drama program was established in 1979 for inmates at the Federal…
Catherine Patricia Byrne
Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.
Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather
Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.
Lozano, Alicia T Rozycki; Morgan, Robert D; Murray, Danielle D; Varghese, Femina
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prison tattoos and the criminal lifestyle and recidivism. Participants consisted of 81 male inmates with prison tattoos (i.e., prison-themed or prison-made tattoos), 75 inmates with nonprison tattoos (e.g., animal tattoos, tattoos of ethnic origin), 52 male inmates with no tattoos, and 66 college students with tattoos. Results indicated that inmates with prison tattoos differed from inmates with nonprison tattoos, inmates without tattoos, and college students with tattoos with regard to criminal thinking styles, were at increased risk of recidivism, and presented more institutional behavioral problems, resulting in more disciplinary infractions. There were no significant differences between inmate groups with regard to number of convictions; however, additional group comparisons indicated that inmates with visible tattoos and antisocial-themed tattoos were at greater risk for recidivism and received more disciplinary infractions than inmates without visible or antisocial-themed tattoos. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Social Security Administration — UPS is an internal SSA system used by the Office of Earnings Operations (OEO) to track and resolve unverified prisoner and deportee records in an effort to find a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should
Kostić, Velimir; Radović, Jelena; Djordjević, Jovana; Vujić, Stevan
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22) and the second one of "non-prisoners" (n = 30). The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue). The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 +/- 4.1 and 31 +/- 7.6 years). Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05), that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks). At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, "non-prisoners", achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01). Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. The dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.
Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic,…
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Describes a developmental writing course taught in prison. Describes how the teaching styles took into account the presumed learning preferences of the African Americans in this group of inmates and resulted in a boost of both their self-confidence and the level of their writing. (SR)
Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho
Indicates that there are no acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs in Nigerian prisons and that because of total confinement and the absence of conjugal visits, homosexuality may be common. Outlines the objectives of AIDS education in prisons and the benefits as the inmates return to their communities. (JOW)
of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...
Background Drugs play an increasing role in contemporary prison life. Prisoners’ drug use, drug smuggling and drug selling have also had a growing impact on the work routines and practices of prison officers. This has led to critiques that prison staff have become ‘too lenient’ regarding drug use....... Methods Based on observational data, qualitative interviews and survey data, this study examines the role of drugs in the way Danish prison officers exercise power. Results Two forms of power are analysed: institutional power, by which the officers can sanction or reward inmates in everyday prison life......, and personal power, by which the officers’ personal authority and skills can reduce the more intrusive aspects of prison control. These forms of power are applied by officers’ use of discretion in order to maintain what they consider to be adequate levels of peace and order in the prison wings. It is shown...
Lizak, R. M.
An analysis of the effect of manufacturing solar collectors by California prison inmates is presented. It was concluded that the concept is feasible and would have little adverse effect on the private sector's solar industry.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…
Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise
This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.
Kumar, Sunil D; Kumar, Santosh A; Pattankar, Jayashree V; Reddy, Shrinivas B; Dhar, Murali
Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. In health status, 29 (9.6%) inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5%) from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18%) inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7%) of inmates. A total of 252 (84%) prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons.
De Viggiani, N.
This thesis explores the interconnections between masculinity, health and prison. It contests reductionist, individualist and biomedical approaches to health care management in prisons and challenges gender-blindness within criminology and social science where masculinities have been overlooked as key factors of prison culture and organisation. The research set out to explore how masculinities manifest at institutional, social and cultural levels in prison as key determinants of health.\\ud \\u...
Maloney, Thomas N; Carson, Scott Alan
The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in the economic history literature. Moreover, a number of core findings are widely agreed upon. There are still some populations, places, and times, however, for which anthropometric evidence remains limited. One such example is 19th century African-Americans in the Northern US. Here, we use new data from the Ohio state prison to track heights of Black and White men incarcerated between 1829 and 1913. We corroborate the well-known mid-century height decline among White men. We find that Black men were shorter than White men, throughout the century controlling for a number of characteristics. We also find a pattern of height decline among Black men in mid-century similar to that found for White men.
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.
Le Bihan Etienne
Full Text Available Abstract Aim To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU trying to return to work. Method Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a semi-open prison (Givenich Penitentiary Centre, the only such unit in Luxembourg, and 69 LTU registered at the Luxembourg Employment Administration completed a questionnaire exploring: 1 mental health (measured by means of scales GHQ12 and CES-D; 2 employment commitment; 3 availability of a support network, self-esteem, empowerment; and 4 socio-demographic characteristics. Results Compared with LTU, inmates were younger, more had work experience (54.9% vs 26.1%, and more were educated to only a low level (71.1% vs 58.0%. The link between employment commitment and mental health in the LTU was the opposite of that seen among the prisoners: the more significant the perceived importance of employment, the worse the mental health (GHQ12 p = 0.003; CES-D p Conclusion The two groups clearly need professional support. Future research should further investigate the link between different forms of professional help and mental health. Randomized controlled trials could be carried out in both groups, with interventions to improve work commitment for prisoners and to help with getting a job for LTU. For those LTU who value employment but cannot find it, the best help may be psychological support.
Swan, L. Alex
The author argues that the prison system is inherently coercive, and that social and behavioral scientists have been used by state agents to facilitate control of prisoners. He urges that the major objective of research in prisons be to promote the principle of human liberation. (Author/RLV)
Riis, Anita Holm
A prison sentence necessarily means that the person receiving the sentence is in essential ways excluded from the surrounding society. This exclusion means fewer choices and, in the long run, this may affect the person’s ability to actively make choices – therefore, autonomy is an important theme...... choices as well as a high degree of autonomy on the part of the individual inmate. This article focuses on the interplay between exclusion and autonomy in relation to Danish prison inmates who are in education. Alongside this, a more general insight into the educational life of Danish prisoners...
Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Molleman, Toon; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the importance of correctional staff. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between correctional officers' characteristics and prisoners' perceptions of a just treatment in prison. Our study fills this gap in knowledge. Data were used from (a) the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which prisoners held in all Dutch remand centers were surveyed (n = 1,610) and (b) the Dutch Correctional Staff Survey 2011 (n = 690). Multilevel analyses showed that prisoners perceived their treatment in prison as more procedurally just in units where there are more female officers, where officers held more positive attitudes toward rehabilitation, and where there is a higher officer-to-inmate ratio. © The Author(s) 2013.
Brown, Ashley; Sweeting, Helen; Logan, Greig; Demou, Evangelia; Hunt, Kate
In jurisdictions permitting prisoner smoking, rates are high (c75%), with smoking embedded in prison culture, leading to secondhand smoke exposures among staff and prisoners and challenges for smoking cessation. Momentum is building to ban smoking in prisons, but research on staff and prisoner views is lacking. We address this gap, providing evidence on staff and prisoner views throughout all Scottish prisons. Data were collected prior to announcement of a (November 2018) prison smoking ban throughout Scotland. Mixed methods were used: surveys of staff (online, N=1,271, ~27%) and prisoners (questionnaire, N=2,512, ~34%); 17 focus groups and two paired interviews with staff in 14 prisons. Staff were more positive than prisoners about bans and increased smoking restrictions, although prisoner views were more favourable should e-cigarettes be permitted. Non-smokers were more positive than smokers. Whilst 74% staff and 22% prisoners agreed bans were a good idea, both groups acknowledged implementation and enforcement challenges. Staff views were influenced by beliefs about: acceptability of the policy in principle; and whether/how bans could be achieved. Although some voiced doubts about smoke-free policies, staff likened a ban to other operational challenges. Staff raised concerns around needs for appropriate measures, resources and support, adequate lead-in time, and effective communication prior to a ban. We recommend that regular and open opportunities for dialogue within and between different stakeholder groups are created when preparing for prison smoking bans, and that specific measures to address staff and prisoner concerns are incorporated into plans to create and maintain smoke-free environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first to research staff and prisoner views across a whole prison system prior to implementation of smoke-free policies. The results highlight potential challenges and suggest measures which might help to maximise the success of
Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip
ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status of a sample of prisoners at the Federal Prison in Enugu. The health status of inmates in the prison system needs to be incorporated into data and reports that summarize the state of the nation's health; this will encourage the provision of health care to ...
Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott
Hybrid treatment models within prisons are staffed by both criminal justice and treatment professionals. Because these models may be indicative of future trends, examining the perceptions of prisoners/participants may provide important information. This study examines the perceptions of male and female inmates in three prisons, comparing those in…
Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.
Catherine Patricia Byrne
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...
Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...
This research examined the effect of prison population densities (PPD) on inmate-inmate prison violence rates (PVR) in Japan using one-year-interval time-series data (1972-2006). Cointegration regressions revealed a long-run equilibrium relationship between PPD and PVR. PPD had a significant and increasing effect on PVR in the long-term. Error correction models showed that in the short-term, the effect of PPD was significant and positive on PVR, even after controlling for the effects of the proportions of males, age younger than 30 years, less than one-year incarceration, and prisoner/staff ratio. The results were discussed in regard to (a) differences between Japanese prisons and prisons in the United States, and (b) methodological problems found in previous research.
Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.
Young, Susan; González, Rafael A; Wolff, Kim; Mutch, Laura; Malet-Lambert, Isabella; Gudjonsson, Gisli H
There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and dependency. We addressed this gap in the United Kingdom by examining and validating the Substance Transitions in Addiction Rating Scale (STARS). For this review, 390 male prisoners were screened for conduct disorder and assessed with a clinical diagnostic interview for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They completed the four STARS subscales regarding their substance use. Exploratory structural equation modeling was performed to assess the STARS structure and to derive factors to assess validity against ADHD and conduct disorder diagnostic categories. Each of the subscales produced meaningful and reliable factors that supported the self-medication and behavioral disinhibition hypotheses of substance use motivation. The findings robustly show that ADHD is significantly associated with the need for coping as a way of managing primary and comorbid symptoms, but not conduct disorder. The findings were strongest for the combined ADHD type. STARS has a great potential to further the understanding of the motivation behind substance use and its dependency in different populations.
Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini
With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.
Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Chatham, Lois R.; Camacho, L. Mabel
Provides an overview of a comprehensive, prison-based treatment assessment, including a six-month follow-up study. Results show that 80% of the inmates referred to the program graduated. Graduates demonstrated marked reductions in criminal and drug-use activity and had lower relapse and recidivism rates when compared to other parolees. (RJM)
Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.
The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease earnings…
Chui, Wing Hong; Cheng, Kevin Kwok-yin
Although there have been a handful of studies examining the work of chaplains and prison volunteers in a Western setting, few have endeavored to conduct research into the experiences of religious workers in Asian penitentiaries. To fill this gap, this article reports on exploratory research examining the work of a selected group of religious workers in Hong Kong prisons. A total of 17 religious workers were interviewed: 10 prison chaplains and 7 Buddhist volunteers who paid regular prison visits. Qualitative findings generated from in-depth interviews present three themes: the range of religious activities performed, the importance of religion for the rehabilitation of inmates, and the hope of continued religious support to prisoners after discharge. The significance of this research is that it sheds light on the understudied work of prison chaplains and volunteers in Hong Kong and portrays the difference between the works of the Christian ministry and Buddhist volunteers.
At the close of almost 25 years of winding through New York state's prisons, former Black Panther Eddie Ellis walked away in 1994 with four college degrees he earned while incarcerated and kept treading his singular path as an activist on the issues of police, courts, crime and punishment. He then established the Center for NuLeadership on Urban…
Van Hecke, Tanja
This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…
from the American University of Beirut, her MSc in Kinesiology from Sam Houston State ... In turn, individuals are usually rejected and ... HIV-infected patients being treated and around 3 000 others that ... knowledge, no questionnaire has been tailored specifically to .... Share activities with other prisoners Not allowed.
Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Diana, Aly; van Crevel, Reinout; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Pohan, Herdiman T; van der Ven, Andre; Djaya, Ilham
Around the world, HIV-prevalence rates among prisoners are high compared to the general population. This is due to overrepresentation of injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison and possible HIV-transmission inside prison. Limited health services in penitentiary institutes, stigma, policy issues, and budgetary constraints may hamper delivery of appropriate services for HIV in prison. Prisons may, on the other hand, enable the access to a high risk population for HIV-prevention and -care. IDUs are namely hard to reach outside prisons, while in prison targeted interventions for IDUs can be used repeatedly and economically. Also, harm reduction and HIV-treatment can be supervised and monitored carefully. This paper reviews HIV-prevention and care in prison, and describes the experience in one particular prison in West Java, Indonesia. Based on the literature and local experience, one can conclude that effective and widespread HIV-testing and treatment can be established in prisons if there is commitment from prison authorities, endorsement of services by prison staff and inmates, and collaboration with health care providers from outside prison. Essential components of HIV-services in prison include appropriate health care services, a suitable environment for HIV-counseling and -testing and tailored services for injecting drug use. By partner counseling and linking HIV-services in prison with continued care afterwards, prisons may contribute significantly to HIV-control in the general population, especially in settings where HIV is often due to injecting drug use.
Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Cassidy, J
Three hundred and seventy-five out of 575 prisoners (222/299 drug users and 153/267 non-users) who responded to a self-completion health care questionnaire at two prisons in 1997 commented on drugs in prisons. One hundred and forty-eight out of 176 responses expressed negative opinions about mandatory drugs testing (MDT), and 107 said that MDT promoted switching to or increased use of heroin/hard drugs'. Sixty-two prisoners suggested that more help/counselling was needed for drug users, 52 segregation of drug users/drug-free wings, and 50 more security on visits/in corridors after medication. The new Prison Service drug strategy has revised random MDT. It targets those who supply drugs, and supports those who want to stop using drugs, and accords with prisoners' views about the heroin problem in prisons.
Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M
Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.
Flórez, Gerardo; Ferrer, Ventura; García, Luis S; Crespo, María R; Pérez, Manuel; Saíz, Pilar A; Cooke, David J
The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a concept map of psychopathic personality disorder (PPD). The CAPP- Institutional Rating Scale (IRS) is a tool designed to assess CAPP symptoms in institutional settings. The CAPP contains 33 personality traits organized in six domains: attachment, behavioural, cognitive, dominance, emotional and self. Until now, much of the CAPP research has been conducted out of clinical, forensic and correctional settings using self-ratings. In the current study, the psychometric properties and construct validity of the CAPP-IRS were evaluated in a non-convenience sample of 204 Spanish convicts. Clinician ratings were employed. Participants had been imprisoned for at least 6 months at Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary. This group of inmates was heterogeneous with respect to type of official charges, and representative as all convicts interned for at least 6 months in this prison were screened for participation. Classical test theory indexes of reliability, correlations between CAPP items and domains and external correlations and structural analyses demonstrated that CAPP assessment is a solid and robust way of evaluating psychopathy in a correctional setting. Best fit was found for a three-factor model: attachment and emotional items associated with a callous and unemotional trait, dominance and self items associated with a pathological interpersonal style, and behavioural and residual items from other domains associated with impulsivity.
Muhammad Imran Qadeer
Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3 and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479 with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003. This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2 of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression.
Since 1994, hospital pharmaceutical teams have been in charge of pharmaceutical tasks in "unités de consultation et de soins ambulatoires" (UCSA), which are hospital consulting care units in French prisons. In 2008, pharmaceutical team in Parisian prisons received 6500 prescriptions and prepared 85,000 nominative bags containing drugs. Prisoners were 1.3% to receive treatments against HIV, 8.2% cardiovascular drugs, 7.2% opioid substitution treatments, and 52.9% psychoactive drugs, including 39.3% hypnotics, 40.5% anxiolytics, 11.3% antidepressants and 12.2% neuroleptics. In prison, the dichotomy between somatic and mental care is marked, attitudes of prisoners about their medicines are complex (important claims, embezzlement, etc.) and it is difficult for law defendants to maintain treatment confidentiality and to prepare prison outing in terms of health. To attenuate the heterogeneity of drug distribution systems in French prisons, we propose pharmaceutical analysis of prescriptions and nominative dispensation, computerization in UCSA in coordination with hospitals, a better contribution of prison medical and pharmaceutical staff in hospital "drug committees" and the redaction of pharmaceutical guidelines. Acting in concert with multidisciplinary medical staff in UCSA, pharmaceutical teams have to develop epidemiological studies to improve knowledge in prisoner's health and also prevention and health care in prison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Leira Prison is a branch of Trondheim Prison, functioning as a relatively small,open prison with a maximum capacity of only 29 inmates. Leira Prison appliesthe method ‘consequence pedagogy.’ This article aims to pinpoint howconsequence pedagogy is executed at Leira. 50% of the Leira inmates arereleased back into society, while new ones enter the prison. It is thereforeinteresting to see how they balance structure and at the same time adjust tochanges, enabling Leira Prison to continue as a learning organization. This articleidentifies three items, consequence pedagogy and the view of humans,maintenance of the philosophy and coherence in the community, and selfregulationof justice through interaction. The use of consequence pedagogyis deeply aligned to their positive view of humans and has generated a constructiveorganization based on empowerment and involvement of both staffand inmates. Consequently, management, staff and inmates maintain thephilosophy of consequence pedagogy through interaction and self-regulation.However, questions regarding the fundamentals of the consequence pedagogyare not raised.
Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Xu, Fujie; Patel, Priti; O'Cain, Michael; Schillinger, Julia A.; St. Louis, Michael E.; Finelli, Lyn
Objectives. After syphilis outbreaks were reported at 3 Alabama State men's prisons in early 1999, we conducted an investigation to evaluate risk factors for syphilis infection and describe patterns of syphilis transmission. Methods. We reviewed medical, patient interview, and prison transfer records and documented sexual networks. Presumptive source cases were identified. Odds of exposure to unscreened jail populations and transfer from other prisons were calculated for case patients at 1 prison. Results. Thirty-nine case patients with early syphilis were identified from 3 prisons. Recent jail exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 8.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3, 158.7, P = .14) and prison transfer (OR = 32.0, 95% CI = 1.6, 1668.1, P prisons included mixing of prisoners with unscreened jail populations, transfer of infected inmates between prisons, and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships. Reducing sexual transmission of disease in correctional settings is a public health priority and will require innovative prevention strategies. PMID:11499107
Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J
The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.
Fuge, Terefe G; Ayanto, Samuel Y
People concentrated in congregated systems such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for tuberculosis transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. The condition is more serious in Africa particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its poor living conditions and ineffective health services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June 2013 in Hadiya Zone prison. Prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through compound light microscopy. The data obtained was analyzed using statistical software like Epidata and STATA. A total of 164 prisoners were included in the survey using active screening strategy and the point prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the prison was 349.2 per 100,000 populations; about three times higher than its prevalence in the general population. Even though lack of visit from family was the only variable identified as a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.029), almost all of the PTB positive cases were rural residents, farmers, male youngsters and those who shared cell with TB patients and chronically coughing persons as well as those who stayed in a cell that contains >100 inmates. There is high prevalence of TB in Hadiya Zone prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. The study also documented a number of factors which may facilitate exposures to TB though most of them are not significantly associated. Therefore, strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.
Chen, L.K.; Ang, Huiling; Kiang, D.; Kwek, L.C.; Lo, C.F.
It has recently been established that quantum strategies are superior to classical ones for games such as the prisoner's dilemma. However, quantum states are subject to decoherence. In this Letter, we investigate the effects of decoherence on a quantum game, namely the prisoner dilemma, through three prototype decoherence channels. We show that in the case of prisoner dilemma, the Nash equilibria are not changed by the effects of decoherence for maximally entangled states
Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans
Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners. PMID:22390510
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine the level of security deprivation in convicted persons in different types of correctional institutions, and to determine the relation between deprivation and demographic, socio-psychological, criminal and penal characteristics. Another goal of this research was to obtain scientific information about the quality and intensity of security deprivation, as one of the consequences of imprisonment and perception differences of different categories of convicted persons. The sample consisted of 183 male convicts serving their sentence in Correctional institution for juvenile delinquents and young adults in Valjevo, Correctional institution Padinska Skela, Correctional Institution Požarevac, and County prison in Pančevo. The examinees were questioned by means of a general questionnaire for collecting data on the variables related to basic criminal, penal, and socio-psychological information, and by the Scale for testing security deprivation - SIG (Radovanović, 1992, consisting of 34 questions following the principle of the Likert scale (Cronbach's α=0,952. Research results indicate that about 15% of the examinees express low level of deprivation, about 56% increased level, and about 28% high level of deprivation. Security deprivation is significantly related to age (r=0,163; p=0,028, in a way that the level of deprivation increases with age. There is no correlation with other tested independent variables. Such situation raises questions about respecting the rules related to categorization of prisons, placing convicts in prisons, special protection of old people in prison, separating aggressive and dangerous convicts, monitoring their behavior, controlling informal groups of convicts, and similar problems related to imprisonment.
Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Niewoudt, Pieter
During the era of apartheid in South Africa, a number of mental health professionals were vocal about the need for socio-economic and political reform. They described the deleterious psychological and social impact of the oppressive and discriminatory Nationalist state policies. However, they remained optimistic that democracy would usher in positive changes. In this article, we consider how mental health professionals working in post-apartheid South Africa experience their work. Our aim was to describe the experience of mental health professionals working in prisons who provide care to suicidal prisoners. Data were collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Findings draw attention to the challenges mental health professionals in post-apartheid South Africa face when attempting to provide psychological care in settings where resources are scarce and where the environment is anti-therapeutic. Findings highlight the significant gap between current policies, which protect prisoners' human rights, and every-day practices within prisons. The findings imply that there is still an urgent need for activism in South Africa, particularly in the context of providing mental health care services in settings which are anti-therapeutic and inadequately resourced, such as prisons.
Mª del Mar García-Vita
Full Text Available The daily life of prison deserves studies that investigate the diversity of interactions that take placewithin itswalls. These interactions largely determine the climate that governs the centers and the possibilities offered by the prison of the treatment of inmates of both sexes.In our research on women prisoners and reintegration processes, we have noticed some peculiarities thatmay be useful in treatment. This is a national research, with a stratified sample of 599 inmates in second and third degree of compliance (we have obtained 538 valid questionnaires and 61 interviews and 36 professionals. The informationwas collected in 2011 using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews of inmates, along with a questionnaire for professionals of prisons.The analysis of the information gathered has caused us to observe the influence of the organization of prison personnel, their relationship with women prisoners, alongwith the relationships formed in prison, in the existing environment in prisons and the re-education process itself of prisons. It likewise shows howand inwhatways the stay in prison can be a positive factor, enhancing the social, personal and emotional conditions thatwill facilitatethereintegration of prisoners and their return to life in freedom.
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Couvillion, Kathryn A; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: counseling only (counseling in prison; n= 70); counseling plus transfer (counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; n= 70); and counseling plus methadone (methadone maintenance in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release; n= 71). Entered prison treatment (p prison treatment (pprison sentences may have better outcomes than younger individuals with shorter sentences, meaning they are more likely to enter and complete prison-based treatment. Furthermore, implications for the treatment of prisoners with prior heroin dependence and for conducting clinical trials may indicate the importance of examining individual characteristics and the possibility of the examination of patient preference.
Allen, Scott A.; Wakeman, Sarah E.; Cohen, Robert L.; Rich, Josiah D.
The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world’s prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve cli...
The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...
Full Text Available Objectives. The oral health services of the prison population are considered more complex than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health status (the DMFT index and OHI index and to evaluate the relation between the oral health and risk factors of inmates of this population, thus identifying the dental health status of inmates by gender, age, and the duration of their sentence. Materials and Methods. Our study has included a total number of 150 inmates, of both genders, from Lipjan prison house in Kosovo. Results. Oral health condition of inmates in Lipjan prison house is severe; the average value of DMFT is 8.44: for minors 6.22, while for adults 9.55. The assessment of DMFT index within the recruited inmates in our study shows that the mean rate of oral cure was 3.21, while the mean extraction value and caries were 3.55 and 3.58, respectively. The mean plaque test value was 1.44. Conclusion. Based on this research, we have concluded that the oral health condition of the inmates in Lipjan prison is not good, due to the presence of different risk factors among them.
Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans-Joachim
The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the concepts of provision of mental health services for prison inmates in 24 countries in the European Union and the EFTA. Data were gathered by means of a structured questionnaire that was completed by national experts in the participating countries. This article stresses the different organizational models of mental health care for inmates, different legal standards for screening their mental health status and different pathways to psychiatric care and aftercare. The study revealed serious shortcomings. Even the most rudimentary health reporting standards for mental health care in prison are lacking almost everywhere in Europe. Psychiatric screening and assessment procedures at prison entry and during imprisonment differ substantially and do not fulfil recognized quality standards. In many countries, the appointment of inadequately trained staff to perform such screenings increases considerably the risk that mental disorders or psychiatric needs of the inmates will remain undetected. Furthermore, the pathways to care in the case of an acute psychotic episode differ significantly, since referral to prison hospitals, medical prison wards, forensic hospitals, or general psychiatric hospital are used in various combinations depending on different national legal regulations and on the availability of services or other regional circumstances. Therefore, the collaborating experts place the quality of European prison mental health care into serious question. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Allen, Scott A; Wakeman, Sarah E; Cohen, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D
The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world's prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve clinical care for prisoners, physicians have an opportunity and an obligation to advocate for reform in the system of corrections when it conflicts with patient well-being.
Molleman, Toon; van Ginneken, Esther F J C
Prisons worldwide operate under crowded conditions, in which prisoners are forced to share a cell. Few studies have looked at the relationship between cell sharing and the quality of prison life in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap with a multilevel analysis on the link between cell sharing and quality of prison life, using results from a Dutch prisoner survey. Findings show that cell sharing is associated with lower perceived prison quality, which is partially mediated by reduced quality of staff-prisoner relationships. Cell sharing thus undermines the Dutch penological philosophy, which considers staff-prisoner relationships to be at the heart of prisoner treatment and rehabilitation. It is recommended that prisoners are held in single rather than double cells. © The Author(s) 2014.
Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J
To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer
Ryberg, Anne Egelund
Sexual relations between men in prisons occur all over the world, also in African prisons. Sex between men is considered deviant in Zambian society, yet for some prisoners it is a way to cope with the stress of incarceration. Prisoners have to cope with extreme challenges in terms of insufficient...
Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.
This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…
Lisa D. Henry
Abu Ghraib, located a few miles on the western end of Baghdad, was an infamous prison facility, during the reigns of Saddam Hussein. Thousands of inmates were held at one time in the facility. Inmates were subjected to executions and torture along with despicable living conditions. After U.S. intimated the collapse of the vile regime of Hussein in 2002-03, lootings followed. The prison facility was also a target of such mob attacks. This led to the facility’s already bare minimum fixtures des...
Osses-Paredes, C; Riquelme-Pereira, N
There are population groups nowadays that are regarded as vulnerable, one of which is the prison population, considered to have major health needs. Nonetheless, people deprived of liberty maintain inherent human rights such as that of health care, which in some situations may take second place. Cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out at El Manzano Prison compliance centre, Concepción, from October 2011 to February 2012 with the implementation of a preventive health exam and a socio-demographic and health questionnaire, for 18+, female and male prisoners in a closed system, on reception of written informed consent. in the study, the population was 85% men, the average age was 34 years, 91.2% receive visits, average term of imprisonment 38 months. At least 45% have a diagnosed disease, prioritizing mental disorders, and respiratory and circulatory system diseases. 56% of prisoners have requested health care infrequently, 33% of which were very satisfied and 32% satisfied with prison health services. The health of the prison population is more impaired than that of the general population, with a larger number of needs that are also different, but there is a positive perception of health by prisoners and a high degree of satisfaction with health services.
Walters, Glenn D
There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'. Institutional misconduct was measured for 1 year prior to completion of the course and 2 years subsequently. Using variable-oriented analysis, post-test GCT scores were compared with change in prison conduct, controlling for the pre-test thinking scores. Calculations were repeated by using person-oriented analysis. Prisoners who displayed a drop in GCT scores between pre-test and post-test levels were significantly more likely to show a reduction in prison misconduct, whereas prison misconduct was likely to escalate among those who displayed a rise in criminal thinking scores from pre-test to post-test. These findings must still be regarded as preliminary, but taken together with other work and with cognitive behavioural theory, they suggest that development of more prosocial thinking and abilities may have an early beneficial effect on institutional behaviour. Their measurement may offer a practical way in which men could be assessed for readiness to return to the community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stevens, Gail Flint
Surveyed and interviewed 53 clinicians who work with prison inmates. Results indicated that clinicians used diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder liberally among inmates and felt majority of inmates could be so diagnosed. Large minority of clinicians went beyond Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria and reported…
Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt
Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…
Phillips, Laura L.; Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Presnell, Andrew H.; DeCoster, Jamie; Cavanaugh, Ronald
Purpose: With the rapid growth in the older inmate population and the economic impact of end-of-life treatments within the cash-strapped prison system, consideration should be given to inmate treatment preferences. We examined end-of-life treatment preferences and days of desired life for several health scenarios among male inmates incarcerated…
Nielsen, Bjarke; Kolind, Torsten
The last 20 years has witnessed a rise in prison-based drug treatment in Nordic countries. This increase has challenged the prominence of the punitive prison, and created changes in the roles of both clients and staff. This article explores the development of two institutional inmate identities......: the offender and the client, which have occurred as a consequence of this shift in prison policy. However, in their institutional narratives and daily practice both prison officers and counsellors often fluctuate when addressing inmates as offenders and/or clients. This fluctuation creates a “fuzzy” dynamic....... These institutional identities are characterized, on the one hand, by inmates being dealt with by counsellors as ‘real people' and ‘equals’, but simultaneously counsellors are resorting to the control opportunities allowed by the prison authorities such as urine tests and the use of isolation cells. On the other hand...
Kjær Minke, Linda
The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners.......The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners....
This chapter calls for educators to specifically engage the needs of African-American men, who often comprise the largest demographic in prison, in what the author calls the Humiliation-to-Humility Perspective.
Nous avons vu au précédent chapitre de quelle façon les temples de la déesse Gula, dont la santé était la spécialité au sein du panthéon mésopotamien, fonctionnaient comme centres de cure : les plaies des patients y étaient léchées par des chiens élevés dans des chenils, on les pansait avec des onguents préparés dans l’herboristerie, les gens à bout de force venaient s’y reposer. Le présent chapitre s’intéresse aux banques, aux tribunaux et aux prisons. D’une façon qui peut nous paraître éton...
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Imamura, Fumie; Kobayashi, Ohji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Ozaki, Shiro; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Masahiko; Imamura, Yoko; Tania, Yuko; Adachi, Yasumori
In Japan, methamphetamine (MAP) abuse has been a serious problem for 60 years, and many of MAP abusers have been incarcerated in prisons as a violator of the Stimulant Control Law in Japan. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate effectiveness of the relapse prevention guidance for drug-dependent inmates using a self-teaching workbook for drug-abusing adolescents and group therapy, conducted in the Harima Rehabilitation Program Center, one of the new prisons which the Ministry of Justice founded cooperating private enterprises as a "Private Finance Initiative" project. We provided for 89 male drug-dependent inmates, incarcerated in the Harima Rehabilitation Program Center, with the relapse prevention guidance consisting of a self-teaching workbook and group therapy, and implement pre-and post-evaluations by the Self-efficacy Scale for Drug Dependence (SES) and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale, 8th version for Drug Dependence (SOCRATES-8D). After a waiting term, the participants were provided with a self-teaching program, subsequently with a group program. At the point of completing the waiting term, no significant changes were observed in the SES and SOCRATES-8D scores. However, at the point of completing the self-teaching program, the SES scores significantly fell, while the total SOCRATES-8D score and the scores of the two subscales, the "Recognition" and "Ambivalence," significantly rose. Further, at the point of completing the group program, the total scores of the SES and SOCRATES-8D, and the score of the two SOCRATES-8D subscales, the "Recognition" and "Taking Steps," significantly rose. The relapse prevention guidance consisting of a self-teaching workbook and group therapy, conducted in the Harima Rehabilitation Program Center, were supposed to bring same internal changes as the "Stage of Changes" model, proposed by Prochaska and DiClemente, to drug-dependent inmates.
The subject of place is salient certainly when deliberating the health of prisoners as a social group. This paper provides an overview and assessment of health and place in relation to mental health and the prison locale. Particular attention is devoted to prison culture, both staff and inmate. The incarceration experience (i.e. the nature of enforced residence in the prison environment) can affect negatively prisoners' mental health. The mental health of the prison population is poor, and mental health services in the prison setting have need of further improvement. However, the provision of mental healthcare and the pursuit of good mental health in the prison milieu are challenging. The prison-based-exceedingly complex-three-way relationship between culture-mental and health-mental healthcare is debated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valera, Pamela; Chang, Yvonne; Lian, Zi
HIV prevalence in correctional populations is approximately five times that of the general adult population. This systematic review examines the broad question of HIV prevention and interventions to reduce inmate HIV-related risk behaviors in U.S. federal and state prisons. We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases and Google Scholar to identify behavioral, biomedical, social, and policy studies related to HIV among U.S. prison populations from 1980-2014. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on HIV, prison inmates, if they were conducted outside of the U.S., if they involved juvenile offenders, or if they included post-release outcomes. Twenty-seven articles met the study criteria. Evidence suggests that research related to the HIV care continuum, risk behaviors, gender, prevention (e.g., peer education), and policy are key topics to enhance HIV prevention interventions in the criminal justice system. This review provides a prison-specific overview of HIV in U.S. correctional populations and highlight effective interventions, including inmate peer education. There is an urgent need to continue to implement HIV prevention interventions across all prisons and improve the quality of life among those at heightened risk of HIV infection.
implications, not just for the criminal justice system, but for the larger economy. About 770,000 people worked in the corrections sector in 2008. The U.S...Many incarcerated parents previously were main breadwinners , and the instability and increased poverty resulting from their imprisonment is leading...for rehabilitation and reform, not just retribution.30 The first U.S. state prison was established in Philadelphia in 1790. Other prisons followed
Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun
This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.
Full Text Available The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by inmates. There are different theoretical approaches in explaining this phenomenon. Treatment programs based on empirically validated principles that guarantee the effectiveness, may be one strategy for solving the problem of drug abuse in prisons, with multiple positive effects.
Examines the nature, the task, and the impact of teaching in a maximum security prison for males. Data are presented concerning the curriculum design used in order to create a nonevaluative atmosphere. Inmates' reactions to self-disclosure and open communication in a prison setting are evaluated. (CT)
Miller, Katrina R.
The entire deaf prison population in the state of Texas formed the basis for this research. The linguistic skills of prison inmates were assessed using the following measures: (1) Kannapell's categories of bilingualism, (2) adaptation of the diagnostic criteria for Primitive Personality Disorder, (3) reading scores on the Test of Adult Basic…
Strom, Kevin J.
This report presents data on all individuals under age 18 in state prisons, whether under the original jurisdiction of the juvenile or adult criminal system. Most of the data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program. On December 31, 1997, less than 1% of inmates in state prisons were under age 18, a proportion that has remained stable…
van Wormer, Katherine; Persson, Lance Edwards
A large percentage of inmates in the U.S. federal prison system have serious drug problems and are in need of treatment before they return to society. Accordingly, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has revamped substance abuse programming consistent with the latest research and expanded treatment services throughout its institutions. This article…
Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.
The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…
The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…
... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on anonymous surveys by the BJS of inmates and youth...
Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.
Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…
Giannoukos, Georgios; Armaos, Remos
This paper is an attempt to explore educational issues in a school operating in a prison in the hope that findings will be useful in further and larger-scale research. The objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes of inmates attending the Second Chance School, Domokos prison, Greece, towards the use of computers with the help of the…
Melville, Charles; Brown, Calvin
Presented four-hour multimedia workshop for 31 schizophrenic prison inmates to help them understand schizophrenia and its treatment. Comparison of pretest and posttest showed highly significant increase in knowledge about symptoms of schizophrenia, causes, and treatment. (Author)
health. Subjects and Methods: The study involved 230 inmates of the Federal Prison in. Enugu. .... the study participants had unhealthy periodontal tissues, this finding is consistent with .... disease, and other stress‑related illnesses. J Health ...
Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A
We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.
Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach
The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.
A. Orly de Labry Lima
Full Text Available Introducción: Entre los pacientes infectados por el VIH el recuento linfocitario y fundamentalmente la carga viral, son los mejores predictores al estado definitorio de SIDA o muerte. Objetivo: analizar los factores asociados a la evolución delrecuento de linfocitos CD4 y carga viral en reclusos en tratamiento con antirretrovirales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte fija a reclusos VIH positivos en tratamiento con antirretrovirales de tres prisiones españolas. La adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral se midió a través del cuestionario SMAQ. Para analizar la evolución de los parámetros clínicos de CD4 y carga viral se realizaron dos modelos de regresión lineal multinivel de efectos fijos. Resultados: El 10% eran mujeres, el 42% refirió padecer ansiedad o depresión en la última semana y el 46,6% refirió tener apoyo social dentro de la prisión. En cuanto a la media de los parámetros clínicos de log10 CD4 y log10 carga viral fueron de 2,48 y 2,89 respectivamente, teniendo el 38,6% carga viral indetectable. Se encontró una relación inversa entre la carga viral y el recuento de linfocitos CD4 (pIntroduction: Among HIV positive patients the CD4 lymphocyte count, especially the viral load, are the best predictors for progress to full blown AIDS or death. Objective: To analyze the factors associated with progress of the CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load in prison inmates in antiretroviral treatment. Methods: A fixed cohort study was conducted with HIV positive inmates receiving antiretroviral therapy in three Spanish prisons. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment was assessed with the SMAQ questionnaire. To analyze the progress of CD4 and viral load clinical parameters, two fixed effect multilevel linear regression models were utilised. Results: 10% of the sample were women, 42% referred for anxiety or symptoms of depression in the final week, and 46.6% reported having social support inside the prison. CD4 and viral load
Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus
The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.
Full Text Available Cases of HIV are common in Benin, with infection rates varying according to socioeconomic and cultural factors, and by region. Certain segments of the population, such as prison inmates, sex worker clients and truck drivers are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to identify which behavioral and serological indicators contribute to the spread of HIV among prisoners. A total of 496 inmates from prisons located in all major cities in Benin were surveyed. Data was collected through interview sessions carried out using a questionnaire and through blood samples. The results show that most inmates are Beninese (83.5%, and the average age is 33 years (range: 14-80 years. No prisoner reported using a condom the last time they engaged in sexual intercourse. Blood exposure was found in 14.6% of inmates and HIV was detected in 1.4% of cases. Our analysis indicates that the length of detention and gender are factors that influence HIV status. However, age, education, nationality and HIV awareness had no significant effect on HIV prevalence among inmates. The results highlight the need to raise awareness in prisons about HIV. This can be achieved by strengthening communication strategies and by organizing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases information sessions for both prison officers and inmates.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...
Jan 1, 2006 ... J. Noeske, MD, German Technical Cooperation, BP 4400 (gtz), Douala, Cameroon, ... Conclusion: The study results confirm the high prevalence rates of PTB in prison .... Since prison is a potentially high risk environment for.
attention they deserve in terms of education and counselling, rehabilitation and ... society. This introductory part will discuss the following terms more explicitly. The Prison: A prison is .... The instrument was divided into two sections. Section A ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. CONCLUSION: This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there
Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony
Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for
Keena, Linda; Simmons, Chris
The purpose of this article was to present a description and first-stage evaluation of the impact of the Ice House Entrepreneurship Program on the learning experience of participating prerelease inmates at a Mississippi maximum-security prison and their perception of the transfer of skills learned in program into securing employment upon reentry. The Ice House Entrepreneurship Program is a 12-week program facilitated by volunteer university professors to inmates in a prerelease unit of a maximum-security prison in Mississippi. Participants' perspectives were examined through content analysis of inmates' answers to program Reflection and Response Assignments and interviews. The analyses were conducted according to the constant comparative method. Findings reveal the emergent of eight life-lessons and suggest that this is a promising approach to prison programming for prerelease inmates. This study discusses three approaches to better prepare inmates for a mindset change. The rethink, reform, and reenter approaches help break the traditional cycle of release, reoffend, and return. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.
Goomany, A; Dickinson, T
Little is known about how the prison environment may impact upon the mental health of adult prisoners. This paper highlights that prisoners perceive that the prison environment has a negative influence upon their mental health. However, a small number regarded prison as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is a need for more research in this area specifically relating to the impact the prison climate may have upon those from black and minority ethic groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Little is known regarding how the prison environment may affect the mental health of adult prisoners. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how this setting may exacerbate mental distress among this community. This literature review explores how the prison climate influences the mental health of adult prisoners. A thematic synthesis approach was used to elicit data relating to the aspects of the prison climate, which influence the mental health of prisoners. Four primary themes emerged from the synthesis: social, emotional, organizational and physical aspects. Prisoners perceive the prison climate to have a negative influence upon their mental health. However, perceived positively, prison was regarded as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is limited research available specifically exploring the potential impact of the prison climate upon those from black and ethnic minorities groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Additionally nurses need to take an active role in influencing and structuring the political agenda, which governs the
Olesen, Annette; Storgaard, Anette
In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support the paro......In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support...... the parolees. The primary purpose of the Schedule was to prevent crime and secure parolees’ rights to social security and support. This chapter focuses on parolees in Denmark; their experiences of transitioning from prison back into society and life after prison; and whether the Danish state’s reentry...... ambitions can be mirrored in the parolees’ first-hand experiences. Our findings suggest that parolees experienced their reentry as chaotic; that their supervision lacked vision; and ‘informal’ punishment was severe and permeated their lives post-prison....
Gee, Joanna; Loewenthal, Del; Cayne, Julia
The purpose of this paper is to outline research which aimed to explore psychotherapists' experience of working with despair, in the UK prison setting, through a qualitative phenomenological approach. Within the forensic psychological literature, despair is considered a pathology, associated with suicide and self-harm, resulting from the prisoners histories and the coercive prison setting. In turn, therapeutic writings outline the importance of therapy in the prison setting with despair in providing coping skills, containment and learning opportunities for the prisoners involved. Within the study, ten psychotherapists were interviewed as to their experience of working with clients in despair in the prison setting. The data were analysed via the phenomenological research method Empirical Phenomenological Analysis (EPA), and a secondary analysis through reverie. Through the analysis by EPA, despair emerged in the prison setting as a destabilising phenomenon to which there was no protocol for working with it. Participants also described the prisoners' despair and the despairing prison setting, touching on their own sense of vulnerability and despair. However, drawing on the secondary analysis by reverie, the researcher also became aware of how the phenomenon of despair emerged not simply through the said, but also through the intersubjective. It was therefore through the secondary analysis by reverie that the importance of the attendance to aspects of intersubjectivity in prison research emerged. This paper contributes to the therapeutic writings on despair in the prison setting, alongside holding implications for qualitative research in the prison setting.
have total assurance of enjoyment of the freedom of personal liberty under the law .... 11 National Human Rights Commission Nigeria Report of Prison Audit, 2009, p. 129. ..... Prisons Act also provides that the Director of the Nigerian Prison Service ..... punishment under any circumstances.95 This principle should, therefore,.
Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec
We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…
Going inside the prison to teach is similar to traveling to a foreign country and encountering a new culture. When educators enter the prison, they experience a physical and social distance from other groups such as teachers on the outside, prison system employees, community members, and even family. Although educators who teach college in prison…
The article describes the development of a project-based approach to learning in seven Scottish prisons. It argues that the project-based approach is ideally suited to prison education due to its flexibility and ability to enrich the relatively narrow prison curriculum and create meaningful links with wider society, reducing the isolation of…
Nakhaee, F H
Knowledge of prisoners regarding HIV/AIDS in Kerman was evaluated. Analysis indicated that the sample (n = 350) of prisoners had relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its modes of transmission. However, they had a lower level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention. The overall knowledge of men about AIDS was significantly lower than women. Persons aged 46 years and older and illiterate inmates had the least knowledge about modes of transmission. In addition, the knowledge of illiterate prisoners about HIV/AIDS prevention was significantly lower than others. Evaluation of attitudes and practices of prisoners and implementation of educational programmes regarding HIV/AIDS are suggested.
Caravaca-Sánchez, Francisco; Falcón Romero, María; Luna, Aurelio
The use of psychoactive substances among the prison population is an important public health issue because of its magnitude and health consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among the prison population and to analyse its association with sociodemographic and penitentiary factors, particularly the size of the prison. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire among 2,484 random male inmates in eight prisons of different sizes in Spain. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) during the last 6 months in prison were estimated. Prevalence ratios were used to estimate the association between psychoactive substance use and sociodemographic and penitentiary characteristics. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use in the past 6 months in prison was 59.9% (95% CI: 57.9-62.0). Notable among the sociodemographic variables associated with substance use were drug consumption prior to imprisonment (6.90; 95% CI: 5.51-8.65) and recidivism in prison (2.41; 95% CI: 2.04-2.85). The largest prisons showed a higher frequency of drug use than other prisons. A high prevalence of psychoactive substance use was found in prisons and significant differences were found according to delinquent profile and the size of the prison. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Blitz, Cynthia L; Wolff, Nancy; Paap, Kris
This study examined whether women with behavioral health needs are more likely to receive treatment for these problems in prison or in the community and to what extent prison disrupts or establishes involvement in treatment for these women. Data were collected in August 2004 as part of a population survey of female inmates in the only state correctional facility for women in New Jersey. A total of 908 women were surveyed. Fifty-six percent of the women surveyed reported needing behavioral health treatment before incarceration, but only 62 percent of this group reported receiving such treatment in the community. The rate at which treatment matched need within this population before incarceration varied by type of treatment needed: it was the highest (58 percent) for women who needed treatment for mental health problems, lower (52 percent) for those who needed substance abuse treatment, and lowest (44 percent) for those who needed treatment for comorbid mental health and substance abuse problems. In comparison, the rate of match between need for and receipt of treatment in prison was higher for all three types of behavioral health treatment (78 percent, 57 percent, and 65 percent, respectively). Additionally, the findings suggest that prison did not disrupt the type of behavioral health treatment that inmates had previously received in the community. At least in New Jersey, prison appears to improve access to behavioral health treatment among female inmates. Although this conclusion is consistent with the rehabilitation goals of incarceration, it also suggests that some women may have been able to avoid prison if treatment had been provided in the community, especially for substance-related problems.
Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G
In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.
Hoffmann Norman G
Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.
Connell, Nadine M.
Objectives. We assessed mental health screening and medication continuity in a nationally representative sample of US prisoners. Methods. We obtained data from 18 185 prisoners interviewed in the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. We conducted survey logistic regressions with Stata version 13. Results. About 26% of the inmates were diagnosed with a mental health condition at some point during their lifetime, and a very small proportion (18%) were taking medication for their condition(s) on admission to prison. In prison, more than 50% of those who were medicated for mental health conditions at admission did not receive pharmacotherapy in prison. Inmates with schizophrenia were most likely to receive pharmacotherapy compared with those presenting with less overt conditions (e.g., depression). This lack of treatment continuity is partially attributable to screening procedures that do not result in treatment by a medical professional in prison. Conclusions. A substantial portion of the prison population is not receiving treatment for mental health conditions. This treatment discontinuity has the potential to affect both recidivism and health care costs on release from prison. PMID:25322306
Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L
Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bowen, Robert A; Rogers, Anne; Shaw, Jennifer
Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore a key marker of the extent to which the health practices in prison settings equate with those of the NHS. The research reported here considers the influences on medication management during the early stages of custody and the impact it has on prisoners. The study employed a qualitative design incorporating semi-structured interviews with 39 prisoners and 71 staff at 4 prisons. Participant observation was carried out in key internal prison locations relevant to the management of vulnerable prisoners to support and inform the interview process. Thematic analysis of the interview data and interpretation of the observational field-notes were undertaken manually. Emergent themes included the impact that delays, changes to or the removal of medication have on prisoners on entry to prison, and the reasons that such events take place. Inmates accounts suggested that psychotropic medication was found a key and valued form of support for people with mental health problems entering custody. Existing regimes of medication and the autonomy to self-medicate established in the community are disrupted and curtailed by the dominant practices and prison routines for the taking of prescribed medication. The continuity of mental health care is undermined by the removal or alteration of existing medication practice and changes on entry to prison which exacerbate prisoners' anxiety and sense of helplessness. Prisoners with a dual diagnosis are likely to be doubly vulnerable because of inconsistencies in substance
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS. Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore a key marker of the extent to which the health practices in prison settings equate with those of the NHS. The research reported here considers the influences on medication management during the early stages of custody and the impact it has on prisoners. Methods The study employed a qualitative design incorporating semi-structured interviews with 39 prisoners and 71 staff at 4 prisons. Participant observation was carried out in key internal prison locations relevant to the management of vulnerable prisoners to support and inform the interview process. Thematic analysis of the interview data and interpretation of the observational field-notes were undertaken manually. Emergent themes included the impact that delays, changes to or the removal of medication have on prisoners on entry to prison, and the reasons that such events take place. Results and Discussion Inmates accounts suggested that psychotropic medication was found a key and valued form of support for people with mental health problems entering custody. Existing regimes of medication and the autonomy to self-medicate established in the community are disrupted and curtailed by the dominant practices and prison routines for the taking of prescribed medication. The continuity of mental health care is undermined by the removal or alteration of existing medication practice and changes on entry to prison which exacerbate prisoners' anxiety and sense of helplessness. Prisoners with a dual diagnosis are likely
Elger, Bernice S
To compare how prisoners complaining of insomnia and prisoners without sleep problems describe their daily activities, stress factors and the perceived reasons for their sleep quality in prison. 102 randomly chosen remanded prisoners complaining of insomnia and 61 randomly chosen prisoners who did not complain of insomnia. Prisoners complaining of insomnia and those reporting good sleep differed significantly in their lifestyle in prison. A significantly higher percentage of the former than of the latter reported writing letters, diaries or a book in prison, as well as doing "arts-related" activities such as painting and listening to music. A significantly higher percentage of non insomniac prisoners than of prisoners complaining of insomnia practiced sports in prison, watched television, and spent their day discussing and meeting other detainees. PSQI and GHQ scores were significantly different between insomniac and non insomniac prisoners. Insomniac prisoners complained significantly more often than non-insomniac prisoners about sleep disturbances, in the first place by roommates, but also by guards. Activities in prison and stressful events were significant factors associated with the variable "insomnia versus no insomnia" Worries about medical problems (odds ratio: 12.9), being separated or divorced (odds ratio: 8.8), having experienced stressful events during the past week (odds ratio: 8.7), "art" activity (odds ratio: 8.6), and having a GHQ score>10 (odds ratio: 7.7) had the highest odds ratios among the tested covariates. No sports in prison and some activities were also predictors of insomnia when entered separately or conditionally. Our study provides arguments on how to alleviate insomnia in prison: changing conditions of imprisonment is of public health benefit. Increased opportunities to practice sports in prison as well as adequate care for medical problems and psychological support to reduce context related stress should be routinely offered to
The article describes the complexity of researching staff—prisoner relationships ethnographically, and scrutinizes how the complexity linked to the research process may inform an analysis of relationships in prison. I argue that ethnographic research comes with uncertainty and insecurity, because...... the participation of the researcher, as an informed and involved outsider, requires shifting social engagements in relation to which the researcher constantly has to guard and disguise information and positioning to observe confidentiality and build trust. I demonstrate how the experience of the researcher mirrors...
Estudio multicéntrico de prevalencia de infección tuberculosa latente en los internados en prisiones españolas Multi-centre study of the prevalance of latent tuberculosis infection amongst inmates in spanish prisons
Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar la prevalencia de infección tuberculosa latente (ITL entre los presos internados en las prisiones españolas. Material y Método: Estudio multicéntrico, observacional y transversal; muestreo por conglomerado bietápico. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, penitenciarias y clínico-serológicas. Se realizó análisis univariante, bivariante y multivariante mediante regresión logística con las variables que mostraron significación estadística. Se calculó la odds ratio con intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: 378 pacientes. Se dispuso de intradermorreacción de Mantoux (IDRM valorable en el 90,2%. 91,2% hombres, 37,8% extranjeros con edad media de 35,9±10,3 años. Mediana de estancia en prisión: 2 años y el 28,7% había estado > 5 años en prisión. El 49,6% ingresó en prisión en 2006 o antes. El 24,5% tenía antecedentes de uso de drogas intravenosas (UDI. El 50,4% presentaba ITL que se asoció a: edad > 40 años (63,2 vs 43,8%; IC: 1,39-3,49; OR: 2,20; p=0,001; haber estado > 5 años en prisión (71,2 vs 41,3%; IC: 2,13-5,75; OR: 3,50; p 40 años (OR:1,76; IC: 1,08-2,87; p=0,024; y b estancia > 5 años en prisión (OR: 2,50; IC: 1,41-4,43; p=0,002. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de ITL en prisión es muy alta, sobre todo en los mayores de 40 años y los que están más de cinco años en prisión. Para evitar el riesgo de progresión a tuberculosis, se recomienda tratar a los infectados que lo precisen y mantener los programas de control de esta patología.Aims: To study the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI amongst inmates in Spanish prisons. Materials and Methods: Multi-centre, cross-sectional study; two stage sampling. Socio-demographic, prison and clinical variables were gathered. A univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression with the variables that showed statistical significance. The odds ratio was calculated with a confidence interval
Muro, Pilar; Enjuanes, Jordi; Morata, Txus; Palasí, Eva
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse experiences of a health promotion intervention implemented by the Therapeutic and Educational Unit at Villabona prison in Spain, which aimed to create drug-free spaces as part of a model of social rehabilitation. Design: As part of a larger participatory evaluation study concerning the efficacy of…
Validez del Cuestionario International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE en una muestra de población penitenciaria Validity of the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE questionnaire in a sample of prison inmates
Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer los índices validez y establecer el punto de corte más adecuado cuando se utiliza el cuestionario IPDE en una muestra de población penitenciaria. Material y método: Estudio transversal realizado con una muestra de 100 penados de dos centros penitenciarios de Madrid seleccionados de forma correlativa. Instrumentos de evaluación, cuestionario de datos demográficos, penitenciarios y toxicológicos; y entrevista completa y cuestionario de evaluación IPDE versión DSM-IV. Estudio de sensibilidad y especificidad del cuestionario IPDE con distintos puntos de corte utilizando como "patrón oro" la entrevista IPDE. Resultados: Utilizando el punto de corte 3 o más respuestas no coincidentes con la esperadas, se encuentra baja especificidad (2,5% para la presencia de uno o más trastornos de la personalidad, y baja sensibilidad para los trastornos antisocial (56,7% y límite (58,8% de la personalidad. Discusión: El cuestionario IPDE tiene escasa utilidad en la población penitenciaria estudiada cuando se aplica con los estándares de referencia habituales, pues el número de falsos positivos que produce es muy elevado. Los mejores índices de validez para identificar uno o más trastornos de la personalidad se obtienen con el punto de corte probable igual a 4 o más respuestas no coincidentes con las esperadas. En cualquier caso el uso del cuestionario IPDE en los reclusos evaluados no aporta beneficios ya que, incluso con el punto de corte habitual de 3 o más respuestas no coincidentes, para los trastornos de personalidad más frecuentes en la muestra estudiada, el antisocial y el límite, se observa que la sensibilidad es baja.Objective: To discover the validity indices and establish the most adequate cut off point when using the IPDE questionnaire on a sample of prison inmates. Materials and Methods: A transversal study was carried out on a correlatively selected sample of 100 inmates at two prisons in Madrid. Evaluation
Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone
Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison.
Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy
Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...
Julián Chaves Palacios
Full Text Available The prison policy implemented by the Franco regime brought about a major reverse vis-à-vis the important humanitarian advances that the Second Republic had managed to achieve through its programme of prison legislation. From the very beginning, the Nationalist side passed coercive legislation, which would apply not only during the war period, but would remain in place for decades to come. Republican prisoners were subjected to acts of humiliation in unhealthy and overcrowded jails, where they fought to survive in precarious circumstances, particularly during the war years and the post-war period which are the focus of this article. Such was the fate of the prison population of Extremadura, who would first be locked away in overcrowded provincial prisons and municipal cells, later in improvised concentration camps, and finally, in the post-war period, in penal colonies. | La política carcelaria franquista significó un notable retroceso al importante avance humanitario que logró impulsar la Segunda República en cuanto a legislación penitenciaria. Desde un principio, el bando sublevado aprobó una legislación coercitiva cuya aplicación, lejos de circunscribirse al período bélico, se extendió a décadas posteriores. Los prisioneros republicanos fueron víctimas de vejaciones en cárceles insalubres y hacinadas de reclusos donde trataron de sobrevivir, especialmente en los años de guerra y posguerra a que está referido este artículo, en una situación muy precaria. La población reclusa extremeña sufrió esas consecuencias, primero en las saturadas prisiones provinciales y depósitos municipales, después en los improvisados campos de concentración y con posterioridad, ya en plena posguerra, con las Colonias Penitenciarias.
Dogbeh, Audrey; Jomaas, Grunde; Bjarløv, Søren Peter
The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... a compromise must be found to ensure that the building can comply with minimum health and comfort standards. The findings of this study can be used as background for recommendations for renovation of prison buildings.......The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... in Danish buildings. The mean CO2 concentrations were generally low, but reached high maximum levels up to 5000 ppm. Thirty-one inmates responded to the questionnaire. They spent on average 19 h in the cell per day (range 12–23 h). Sixty-nine percent of the inmates expressed dissatisfaction...
Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Prisons continue to fuel tuberculosis (TB) epidemics particularly in settings where access to TB screening and prevention services is limited. Malaysia is a middle-income country with a relatively high incarceration rate of 138 per 100,000 population. Despite national TB incidence rate remaining unchanged over the past ten years, data about TB in prisons and its contribution to the overall national rates does not exist. This survey was conducted to address the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in Malaysia's largest prison. From July to December 2010, all HIV-infected and a comparative group of HIV-uninfected prisoners housed separately in Kajang prison were asked to participate in the survey after explaining the study protocol. Subjects providing informed consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire followed by the placement of tuberculin skin test (TST) with 2 TU of PPD RT-23 to subjects not being treated for active TB. TST was read after 48-72 hours and indurations of ≥ 5 mm and ≥ 10 mm were considered positive among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects, respectively. Additionally, HIV-infected inmates underwent phlebotomy for CD4 lymphocyte count assessment. A logistic regression model was explored to determine factors associated with TST positivity. Overall, 286 subjects (138 HIV-infected and 148 HIV-uninfected) had complete data and TST results. The majority were men (95.1%), less than 40 years old (median age 36.0, SD 7.87), and Malaysians (93.3%). Most (82.5%) had been previously incarcerated and more than half (53.1%) reported sharing needles just prior to their incarceration. TST was positive in 88.8% (84.7% among HIV-infected and 92.5% among HIV-uninfected subjects) and was independently associated with being HIV-uninfected (AOR = 2.97, p = 0.01) and with frequent previous incarcerations (AOR = 1.22 for every one previous incarceration, p = 0.01) after adjusting for other potential confounding factors
Dolan, Kate; Rodas, Ana; Bode, Adam
The purpose of this paper is to compare the use of drugs and alcohol by Indigenous and non-Indigenous prisoners and examine relevant treatment in Australian prisons. Prison authorities were surveyed about alcohol and drug use by prisoners prior to and during imprisonment and drug and alcohol treatment programs in prison. The literature was review for information on alcohol and drug use and treatment in Australian prisons. In 2009, over 80 percent of Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates smoked. Prior to imprisonment, many Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates drank alcohol at risky levels (65 vs 47 percent) and used illicit drugs (over 70 percent for both groups). Reports of using heroin (15 vs 21 percent), ATS (21 vs 33 percent), cannabis (59 vs 50 percent) and injecting (61 vs 53 percent) were similarly high for both groups. Prison-based programs included detoxification, Opioid Substitution Treatment, counselling and drug free units, but access was limited especially among Indigenous prisoners. Drug and alcohol use was a significant issue in Australian prisons. Prisoners were over five times more likely than the general population to have a substance use disorder. Imprisonment provides an important opportunity for rehabilitation for offenders. This opportunity is especially relevant to Indigenous prisoners who were more likely to use health services when in prison than in the community and given their vast over representations in prison populations. Given the effectiveness of treatment in reducing re-offending rates, it is important to expand drug treatment and especially culturally appropriate treatment programs for Indigenous inmates. Very little is known about Indigenous specific drug and alcohol programs in Australian prisons.
Michel, L; Maguet, O
Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of
... the health care of the inmates and the safety and security of the prisons and the public. (p) The... Mental Health Record System (JUSTICE/BOP-007). (7) Inmate Safety and Accident Compensation Record System... Mental Health Records System, (Justice/BOP-007). (o) These exemptions apply only to the extent that...
Raney, Valerie K.; Magaletta, Philip; Hubbert, Timothy A.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which an early prison release incentive impacted inmates' perceptions of substance abuse treatment helpfulness, overall satisfaction and focus on treatment issues. Three groups of inmates participating in their first, third or sixth month of residential drug abuse treatment were…
Sorensen, Jon; Cunningham, Mark D.
The characteristics of, and 2003 disciplinary data on, 51,527 inmates in the Florida Department of Corrections, including 9,586 inmates who had been convicted of some degree of homicide, were examined for rates and correlates of prison misconduct and violence. Disciplinary misconduct and institutional acts of violence committed by an admissions…
Boyd, Elizabeth; Grant, Tim
The introduction of women officers into HM Prison Service raised questions regarding women's ability to perform what had traditionally been a male role. Existing research is inconclusive as to whether female prison officers are as competent as male prison officers, and whether there are gender differences in job performance. This study examined prisoners' perceptions of male and female prison officers' performance. The hypotheses were that overall competence and professionalism ratings would not differ for men and women officers, but that there would be differences in how men and women were perceived to perform their roles. Women were expected to be rated as more communicative, more empathic and less disciplining. The Prison Officer Competency Rating Scale (PORS) was designed for this study. Ratings on the PORS for male and female officers were given by 57 adult male prisoners. There was no significant difference in prisoners' ratings of overall competence of men and women officers. Of the PORS subscales, there were no gender differences in Discipline and Control, Communication or Empathy, but there was a significant difference in Professionalism, where prisoners rated women as more professional. The failure to find any differences between men and women in overall job competence, or on communication, empathy and discipline, as perceived by prisoners, suggests that men and women may be performing their jobs similarly in many respects. Women were rated as more professional, and items contributing to this scale related to respecting privacy and keeping calm in difficult situations, where there may be inherent gender biases.
Liddicoat, Rebecca V; Zheng, Hui; Internicola, Jeanne; Werner, Barbara G; Kazianis, Arthur; Golan, Yoav; Rubinstein, Eric P; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P
Although U.S. prison inmates have higher rates of HIV infection than the general population, most inmates are not routinely tested for HIV infection at prison entry. The study objective was to implement a routine, voluntary HIV testing program in a Massachusetts county prison. During admission, inmates were given group HIV pre-test counseling and were subsequently offered private HIV testing. This intervention was compared to a control period during which HIV testing was provided only upon inmate or physician request. Between November 2004 and April 2005, 1,004 inmates met inclusion criteria and were offered routine, voluntary HIV testing. Of these, 734 (73.1%) accepted, 2 (0.3%) were HIV-infected, and 457 (45.5%) had been tested for HIV in the previous year. The testing rate of 73.1% was significantly increased from the rate of 18.0% (318 of 1,723) during the control period (pprison setting. Careful attention should be paid to prevent redundancy of testing efforts in the prison population. Implementing a routine HIV testing program among prison inmates greatly increased testing rates compared to on-request testing.
Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally
This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.
Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Molleman, T.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the
Sahajian, F; Berger-Vergiat, A; Pot, E
In prison, in 2012, according to various sources, from 4 to 56% of the European inmate population used psychoactive substances (PAS). The aim of our study was to describe PAS consumption during incarceration in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, France. A transversal descriptive study was conducted between September 23rd and September 27th 2013 among all inmates of this prison. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, distributed at lunchtime and collected, the same day, at dinnertime, by the mental health service personnel. Among 785 inmates present at the time of the study in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, 710 were included and the response rate was 64.4% (95% CI [60.8-67.8]). Among 457 responding inmates, 16.4% (95% CI [13.2-20.0]) reported no PAS consumption. Among 382 consumers, 74.4% (95% CI [69.8-78.5]) used tobacco, 36.8% (95% CI [32.2-41.8]) cannabis, 30.4% (95% CI [25.9-35.1]) alcohol, 7.7% (95% CI [5.2-10.6]) heroin and 10.3% (95% CI [7.5-13.6]) cocaine. Furthermore, 15% of consumers had started PAS consumption during their incarceration. Among consumers of at least one PAS other than tobacco, cannabis and alcohol, the way of consumption was sniff for 60.0% (95% CI [48.5-70.2]) and injection for 31.0% (95% CI [21.6-42.1]). Use of several PAS at the same time and sharing sniffing and/or injection paraphernalia were other risky behaviors observed; 12% (95% CI [5.8-20.4]) of drug injectors declared using chlorine to sterilize their injection paraphernalia. Our study provides worrying data about PAS consumption in prison. The measures of prohibition do not prevent this consumption. There is even an initiation of consumption of PAS for 15% of the first-time incarcerated inmates. This finding should encourage public authorities to facilitate access of inmates to the care structures in prisons, to improve drug use prevention and care programs and to develop activities (sports, cultural, educational and vocational). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS
Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of
Full Text Available Tattooing of the incarcerated is an unwritten custom in Polish prisons. Yet it has its historical background. For ages the practice of “body painting” of criminals had been used. Nowadays, however, a tattoo in the prison has got a completely different use. It has got many functions and multiple meanings. It should be noticed that tattoos have a broad meaning. They usually refer to: subculture (prison slang, humour, eroticism, love (sentimental, warnings, information, history (discography, ideology, religion, crime, brand (company, increasing self-esteem, martyrdom, emotions, sentences (catch phrases. By means of the contents mentioned above the tattoo can be and often is a perfect way of a non-verbal communication between inmates. In this case the drawing for those unfamiliar is only an incompatible set of random marks, such as dots and lines, but for those familiar with the subject it is a clear signal or information about the bearer.
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom
An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Allwright Shane PA
Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel
To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Harcouët, L; Balanger, S; Meunier, N; Mourgues, A; Grabar, S; Haouili, B; Guillevin, L
Little is known about free nicotine transdermal patch efficacy on tobacco reduction in prisoners. The objective is to study this efficacy in prison as well as motivations to reduce and influence of socioeconomic conditions and other addictions in prisoners' aspiration to stop smoking. A prospective study was proposed to prisoners candidate to tobacco cessation. Assessment was made by questionnaires and visits to physicians working at the prison. Nicotinic patches were systematically proposed to patients with a starting 15 mg/16 h dose (or 10 mg/16 h if the dependence was low), followed by a 10 and 5 mg/16 h dose reduction. Prisoners motivated to smoking cessation (N=73) generally had multiaddictive behaviours and precarious socioeconomic profile. Thirty percent of prisoners self-reported a reduction of 50% of their cigarettes consumption until they left prison. Median duration of this successful treatment was 45 days. Median duration of treatment response for patients who relapsed in prison (15 %) was 75 days. No predictive factor of success was found. Tobacco reduction is possible in prison even if living conditions are not favourable.
Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana
Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners' perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners' representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity. PMID:22791960
Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana
Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners' perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners' representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.
Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha
Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German
Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402
Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent
Prison institutional conditions affect risk for self-harm among detainees. In particular, prison overcrowding may increase the likelihood of self-harm by creating competition for resources, space, and enhancing a "deprivation state." The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between overcrowding and prisoner acts of self-harm. This cross-sectional study took place at Geneva's pre-trial prison (capacity:376) between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes were acts of self-harm that required medical attention, and self-strangulation/hanging events (combined into one group, as these are difficult to differentiate). Dichotomous predictors were overcrowding index- annual mean daily population divided by capacity ( > 200 percent vs prison change in gender, area of origin, foreign residency, religion, or psychiatric treatment. The present study is limited by the definition and identification of self-harm. The distinction between self-strangulation and self-hanging, and the precise classification of an intent to die is difficult to make in practice, especially with limited prison data records available. The relevant literature addresses the complexity of the association between non-suicidal and suicidal behavior. Despite this, the combined category self-strangulations/hangings gives some indication of severe self-harm events, especially since the methodology of categorization employed was consistent throughout the entire period of the study. Other limitations include the small sample size and the lack of individual patient data and prison data to help control for confounding factors. Despite these drawbacks, pertinent data (socio-demographics and number of prisoners treated for mental health and drug abuse) remained stable over the years. Thus, there are no apparent changes in the inmate population that could be linked to an increase in self-harm. High-security placements and mean prisoner stay have increased over time, with a decrease in staff to prisoner ratio - and these
Smith, James A., III; Faubert, Marie
Reviews literature concerning men in prisons. Describes specific program at a prison mental health center which prepares men for reentry into society. Closes with reflections on one man's struggle to grow and prepare for the outside. (CM)
Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle
This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…
Individuals high in social dominance orientation (SDO; Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) endorse group hierarchies and social inequality. Surprisingly little research has addressed contextual factors associated with reduced intergroup biases among such individuals. The present investigation considers a Person x Situation approach to this question in two British prisons, exploring the contextual factors outlined in the Contact Hypothesis (Allport, 1954). White inmates scoring higher in SDO exhibited significantly less in-group bias when reporting increased contact with Black inmates (Studies 1 & 2), when perceiving that favourable contact conditions are institutionally supported (Study 1), or when experiencing more pleasant personal interactions with Black inmates (Study 2). These SDO x Contact Condition moderation effects were mediated in Study 2: among high-SDO individuals, increased empathy towards Black inmates mediated the relation between contact variables and lower in-group bias. Implications for considering individual differences and empathy in contact settings are considered.
Dvoskin, Joel A; Spiers, Erin M
This article discusses the role of correctional line staff in treatment of prison inmates with serious mental illness. The authors assert that many roles and duties traditionally attributed to clinicians can and often should be performed not only by mental health professionals, but by line staff such as correctional officers and nurses. Moreover, the optimal climate for effective treatment is one in which mental health professionals and line staff work collaboratively, especially since line staff alone are in contact with inmates 24 hours per day. The specific activities which comprise mental health treatment in prison are described as: 1) counseling and psychotherapy-talking with inmates, 2) consultation-talking about inmates, 3) special housing, activities, and behavioral programs, and 4) medication. Case examples demonstrate how correctional officers, nurses, and other line staff perform each of these activities. Recognition and nurturance of these activities will improve the quality of services and reduce stress on staff and inmates alike. Consultation with line staff, joint training, and use of multi-disciplinary treatment teams are advocated as methods of reaching these goals.
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom
Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...
ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS
PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...
Pinheiro, Marília Cléssia; de Araújo, Janieiry Lima; de Vasconcelos, Renata Borges; do Nascimento, Ellany Gurgel Cosme
To understand the needs and health profile of men incarcerated in the Pau dos Ferros Regional Criminal Complex (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil). Quanti-qualitative research conducted with 30 men incarcerated in November 2012. Semi-structured interviews were the primary data collection method. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of the speeches were used for data analysis. The participants' health profile, resulting from deficits in living conditions prior to their imprisonment, is heightened by the degrading conditions of their prison stay, and plays a role in their exclusion and lack of care when admitted as prisoners. The disorders and symptoms most often self-reported by participants were: headache (86.6%), respiratory infections (66.6%), diarrhea (60.0%), stress (60.0%), and depression or deep sadness (56.6%). The responses showed that there is a social gap, especially related to health care, in the prison complex. We recognize a need to ensure the physical and moral integrity of inmates, which is compromised by life in prison; the inmates' health problems and needs differ from those of the general population, and require solutions; the inmates' health-disease process deteriorates due to the mere situation of entering the prison system; the inmates' health problems and health needs are treated with palliative and / or no assistance by those legally responsible for their protection; few human and financial resources exist to ensure health actions for the inmates; and there are no interventions or actions of disease prevention and health promotion.
Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D
Arguably one of the most marginalized populations in our society, prisoners bear a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV. In addition, groups known to be at an inordinately higher risk of HIV, including minorities, the addicted, the mentally ill and the impoverished are overrepresented among incarcerated populations. This concentration of HIV among groups that have been historically difficult to reach, with limited intersections with healthcare, provides an opportunity for testing, diagnosis, treatment, linkage to care and prevention. Providing HIV care within correctional facilities poses unique challenges. Barriers to confidentiality, access to medication and prior records, and lack of comprehensive discharge planning can serve as obstacles to providing optimal care. This article discusses the public health implications and importance of providing HIV care to prisoners, and also discusses the practicalities of working within an environment that poses particular barriers to care.
van Ditmarsch, Hans
A group of 100 prisoners, all together in the prison dining area, are told that they will be all put in isolation cells and then will be interrogated one by one in a room containing a light with an on/off switch. The prisoners may communicate with one another by toggling the light switch (and that is the only way in which they can communicate). The light is initially switched off. There is no fixed order of interrogation, or interval between interrogations, and the same prisoner may be interrogated again at any stage. When interrogated, a prisoner can either do nothing, or toggle the light switch, or announce that all prisoners have been interrogated. If that announcement is true, the prisoners will (all) be set free, but if it is false, they will all be executed. While still in the dining room, and before the prisoners go to their isolation cells (forever), can the prisoners agree on a protocol that will set them free? At first glance, this riddle may seem impossible to solve: how can all of the necessary in...
Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569
Thomas, David L
Much has been written about prisoner research and the controversies surrounding prisoners as human subjects. The Institute of Medicine recently released a report addressing some of these issues. This report, which generated further controversy, needs to be fully discussed in the literature and certain aspects are examined in this work. Further, in the body of literature there has been little acknowledgement of the concept of the right of prisoners to be involved in research. This needs to be pursued from an ethical perspective and eventually a legal one. This paper explores that concept and documents some facilities in which a prisoner's right to research has occurred.
Simpson, Alexander I F; McMaster, Jeffry J; Cohen, Steven N
The number of prison inmates is predicted to rise in Canada, as is concern about those among them with mental illness. This article is a selective literature review of the epidemiology of serious mental illness (SMI) in prisons and how people with SMI respond to imprisonment. We review the required service components with a particular focus on care models for people with SMI in the Canadian correctional system. An estimated 15 to 20 percent of prison inmates have SMI, and this proportion may be increasing. The rate of incarceration of aboriginal people is rising. Although treatment in prison is effective, it is often unavailable or refused. Many of those with SMI are lost to follow-up within months of re-entering the community. There is much policy and service development aimed at improving services in Canada. However, the multijurisdictional organization of health care and the heterogeneity of the SMI population complicate these developments.
Petterson, Aase Grønlien; Madah-Amiri, Desiree
Prison inmates face a ten times increased risk of experiencing a fatal drug overdose during their first 2 weeks upon release than their non-incarcerated counterparts. Naloxone, the antidote to an opioid overdose, has been shown to be feasible and effective when administered by bystanders. Given the particular risk that newly released inmates face, it is vital to assess their knowledge about opioid overdoses, as well as the impact of brief overdose prevention training conducted inside prisons. Prison inmates nearing release (within 6 months) in Oslo, Norway, voluntarily underwent a brief naloxone training. Using a questionnaire, inmates were assessed immediately prior to and following a naloxone training. Descriptive statistics were performed for main outcome variables, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the participants' two questionnaire scores from pre-and post-training. Participating inmates (n = 31) were found to have a high baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and care regarding opioid overdoses. Nonetheless, a brief naloxone training session prior to release significantly improved knowledge scores in all areas assessed (p < 0.001). The training appears to be most beneficial in improving knowledge regarding the naloxone, including its use, effect, administration, and aftercare procedures. Given the high risk of overdosing that prison inmates face upon release, the need for prevention programs is critical. Naloxone training in the prison setting may be an effective means of improving opioid overdose response knowledge for this particularly vulnerable group. Naloxone training provided in the prison setting may improve the ability of inmates to recognize and manage opioid overdoses after their release; however, further studies on a larger scale are needed.
Full Text Available This paper argues that designers have a future role to play in redesigning prison systems. It describes the Makeright anti-theft bag action research project that first ran at HMP Thameside, London (UK in 2015, and later at Sabarmati Central Jail, Ahmedabad (India in 2016. It offers an account of the strengths and limitations of utilizing co-design methods to deliver transformational learning for prison inmates, and build resilience and entrepreneurship skills. Between 2015–17 we delivered seven iterations of the Makeright design course. A total of eighty-five UK inmates and twenty-five Indian inmates participated; we also performed twenty-six interviews with inmate participants, which we report on here. This article reflects on our practice, including our engagement with prison staff to iteratively improve our approach. We conclude that whilst inmates can strongly engage with design thinking and collaborative design practices—and benefit from the skills and competencies this fosters—for design education to be meaningful to their lives as returning citizens, opportunities for collaboration and learning through making need to continue beyond prison gates linked to resettlement programs. We suggest that prisons need to redesign their systems both inside prison walls and beyond to better connect inmates to reflexive relational networks that can facilitate social integration and, ultimately, abstinence from crime. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Design education, Design thinking, Resilience, Effectuation, Empathy
Byrne, Mary Woods
Incarcerated populations have disparities in health risks and illness conditions meriting study, but the history of prison research is marred by unethical conduct. Ethical participation strategies are discussed in the context of studies implemented by the author in a state prison system. This study used ethnographic approaches, observed adherence to federal and institutional review board regulations and corrections department directives, and maintained continuous communication with vested interests to provide entry and long-term access for studies on female prisoners and their civilian infants. A culture clash between the punitive restrictive environment that serves the custody–control–care mission of corrections systems and the open inquiry environment needed for conduct of health research exists. Federal regulations protect prisoners as human subjects but additional vigilance and communication by researchers are required. Gaining and maintaining access to prison inmates for nursing research are leadership challenges that can be met within the caring and collaborative paradigm of nursing. PMID:16061169
Kerley, Kent R; Copes, Heith; Tewksbury, Richard; Dabney, Dean A
The relationship between religiosity and crime has been the subject of much empirical debate and testing over the past 40 years. Some investigators have argued that observed relationships between religion and crime may be spurious because of self-control, arousal, or social control factors. The present study offers the first investigation of religiosity, self-control, and deviant behavior in the prison context. We use survey data from a sample of 208 recently paroled male inmates to test the impact of religiosity and self-control on prison deviance. The results indicate that two of the three measures of religiosity may be spurious predictors of prison deviance after accounting for self-control. Participation in religious services is the only measure of religiosity to significantly reduce the incidence of prison deviance when controlling for demographic factors, criminal history, and self-control. We conclude with implications for future studies of religiosity, self-control, and deviance in the prison context.
Prisons are seen as a (temporary) home and community for offenders, yet they also have a dual role as a workplace for prison staff. This article explores how the "healthy settings" philosophy, commonly used in schools, applies in the prison environment. The article explores the concept of the health-promoting prison from the perspective of prison staff using semistructured interviews in three English prisons. Data were analyzed using Attride-Stirling's thematic network approach. The findings indicate that working in a prison can be highly stressful and can have a negative impact on physical and mental health. Staff perceived that the focus of health promotion efforts was in many cases exclusively focused on prisoners, and many suggested that prison staff needs were being overlooked. The article argues that the theory and practice of a health-promoting prison have developed rapidly in recent years but still lag behind developments in other organizations. The article suggests that health promotion policy and practice in prison settings may need to be reconfigured to ensure that the needs of all those who live and work there are recognized.
Marzano, Lisa; Ciclitira, Karen; Adler, Joanna
To further understanding of how health and correctional staff responses to self-harming behaviours influence prisoners and their subsequent actions. Participant-centred, qualitative methods were used to explore the complex and under-researched perspectives of self-harming male prisoners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult male prisoners who had engaged in repetitive, non-suicidal self-harm during their current prison sentence, or considered doing so. The interviews were analyzed drawing on principles of thematic analysis and discourse analysis. With some exceptions, prison officers, nurses, and doctors are portrayed by prisoners as being ill-prepared to deal with repetitive self-harm, often displaying actively hostile attitudes and behaviours. These findings underscore the need for appropriate training, support and supervision for staff working with self-harming prisoners. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Loeb, Susan J; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Myco, Priscilla M
U.S. prisons are experiencing an exponential growth in inmates aged 50 years and older, a group with disproportionately high disease burden. The purpose of this study was to examine, in largely exploratory terms, the health beliefs and concerns of older male inmates and the health challenges they anticipate facing upon their return to the community. Results indicate that there is much to be gained from the assessments and insights of older prisoners with regard to health changes that occur during incarceration, health programs that they desire, the reasons for their confidence (or lack thereof) in health self-management, and fears about their health upon release. Geriatric nurses are well positioned to heed these important insights of inmates and translate them into steps for 1) preventing many of the health deteriorations experienced by older prisoners and 2) advocating for more seamless health care when incarcerated offenders transition back into the community.
Brooke, D.; Taylor, C.; Gunn, J.; Maden, A.
OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of mental disorder among male unconvicted prisoners and to assess the treatment needs of this population. DESIGN: Semi-structured interview and case note review of randomly selected cross section of male remand population. Non-attenders were replaced by the next name on prison roll. SETTING: Three young offenders' institutions and 13 adult men's prisons. SUBJECTS: 750 prisoners, representing 9.4% cross sectional sample of male unconvicted population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorder, and associated treatment needs. RESULTS: Psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 469 (63%) inmates. The main diagnoses were: substance misuse, 285 (38%); neurotic illness, 192 (26%); personality disorder, 84 (11%); psychosis, 36 (5%); other and uncertain, 36 (0.5%). Subjects could have more than one diagnosis. The average refusal rate was 18%. In total 414 inmates (55%) were judged to have an immediate treatment need: transfer to an NHS bed, 64 (9%); treatment by prison health care services, 131 (17%); motivational interviewing for substance misuse, 115 (15%); and therapeutic community placement, 104 (14%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorder was common among male unconvicted prisoners. Psychosis was present at four or five times the level found in the general population. Extrapolation of our results suggests that remand population as a whole probably contains about 680 men who need transfer to hospital for psychiatric treatment, including about 380 prisoners with serious mental illness. PMID:8978228
To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.
Hayden, J W; Laney, C; Kellermann, A L
The alteration of a knee immobilizer into a sharp weapon by a prisoner prompted us to survey neighboring penal institutions to determine the frequency of such events. We mailed a nine-item survey to all detention facilities in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi. A second survey was sent to nonresponding institutions 6 weeks after the initial mailing. The Regional Medical Center at Memphis, the designated facility for evaluation and treatment of prisoners from the county jail and state penitentiary. Survey respondents included 25 state penitentiaries, 31 county jails, 1 state minimum-security facility, 1 state maximum-security facility, 1 work-release center, 1 county detention center for drunken-driving offenders, and 1 federal penitentiary. Of the 81 institutions surveyed, 77% responded to one of the two mailings. Forty percent responded in the affirmative when asked whether stolen or unauthorized medical equipment from outside their institutions had been discovered among inmates. When respondents were questioned as to whether medical equipment, prescribed or not, had been used or altered in a criminal manner, 34% responded "yes." Medications and medical appliances were listed in the responses. A survey of 81 local and neighboring penal institutions in a three-state area revealed that the illicit use of medicine and medical devices by prisoners is a legitimate safety concern of prison personnel and health care workers when medical care for inmates must be sought outside the security of their institutions. The modification of medical equipment into weapons by incarcerated patients, although clearly recognized as a security and safety problem by police authorities, appears to be unappreciated by health care workers providing episodic care to inmates.
Banks, Martha E.; Ackerman, Rosalie J.
Little research exists that addresses the issue of rehabilitation of women prisoners. To examine the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy program in assisting women prisoners to make the transition to the community and their families, 16 institutionalized women participated in a workshop. The program involved both individual and group…
Marie Heard, Emma; Mutch, Allyson; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Pensalfini, Rob
This research aimed to investigate the impacts of the Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble Prison Project (QSEPP) on the health and wellbeing of participants, specifically with regard to social support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with prisoners participating in the project to gain insight into perceived sense of support within the QSEPP and across the prison context more broadly. The QSEPP encouraged participants to foster a range of support networks through the development of relationships built on trust, respect and shared experiences. Participants also developed communication skills which may assist with establishing and maintaining supportive relationships inside and outside of prison. This research highlights the inevitable challenges for researchers working within the prison context, including: correctional services' limitations, time and space restrictions and small sample sizes. This research offers some potentially innovative ways to combat such challenges. The study highlights the potential of theatre-based interventions in the prison context and their role in fostering social support and enhancing wellbeing. The research explores the potential role theatre may play in improving the health and wellbeing of a disadvantaged and marginalised group, providing skills to enhance access to supportive networks inside and outside prison. To the best of our knowledge this is the first research of its kind and provides valuable insights into the role that theatre may play in fostering social support in the prison context.
Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.
Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…
Boodle, Anna; Ellem, Kathy; Chenoweth, Lesley
People with an intellectual disability in prison can be at increased risk of victimisation, segregation and isolation (Mullen ). Prison systems usually have very few resources to cater to this group's particular needs, and many people may re-enter the community with little or no rehabilitation, poor social connections, poor mental health and…
Wright, Kevin A.
Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…
Tomlin, Angela; Pickholtz, Naomi; Green, Allison; Rumble, Patricia
The United States has more people in prison than any other country, and more than half of those incarcerated are parents. This article reviews the challenges to parenting while in prison and considers how parental attachment experiences and difficult life trajectories have an impact on parent-child relationships. The authors provide examples of…
Costelloe, Anne; Warner, Kevin
The nature of the education offered in prisons varies greatly. Provision can be focused narrowly on limited objectives, such as training for employment or seeking to "address offending behaviour." On the other hand, where prison education follows the policies of the Council of Europe or the European Union, which are drawn from the…
Owens, Emily G.
The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…
Abstract. This paper examines the concept of human right as well as the universality in the application of the concept to the prisoners' welfare in most countries of the world. To determine the level of conformity of this concept in Nigeria, the paper discusses the post-conviction problems prisoners face in Nigeria as against ...
Kjær Minke, Linda
of the human–animal bond within prisons. To document how well it might work, qualitative methods for data collection were used, including interviews with incarcerated women (n = 12) and staff (n = 3) and participant observation (67 hours) within the women’s workshop. The dog contributed to normalize the prison...... prison, a women’s prison workshop was established in 2014. In response to prisoners’ requests for contact with animals, an employee brought her own dog during the hours of the workshop, from Monday to Friday. In Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries, not much attention has been given to the effect...... setting, and participants revealed that the dog improved social relations between inmates and between staff and inmates. Finally, the dog provided comfort to the incarcerated women when they had to deal with difficult personal feelings. A recommendation for policy makers and prison officials arising from...
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien
Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.
Official and unofficial reports indicate that the South African government is in the process of entering into prisoner transfer agreements or making prisoner transfer arrangements. This comes after many years of reluctance on the part of the government to sign a prisoner transfer agreement or enter into any prisoner transfer ...
The purpose of this two-part article is to examine in detail the public discourse surrounding the Barberton Prison Complex during the early 1980s, at the height of the apartheid era. The prisons within the Barberton Prison Complex were notorious as being among the most punitive of the many prisons within apartheid South ...
Appelbaum, Paul S
Skyrocketing inmate populations have put considerable pressure on prison mental health services. In California, prison populations have exceeded 200% of capacity, and litigation to rectify constitutionally inadequate care has been under way for more than two decades. After the failure of other remedies, a federal court ordered the state to reduce its inmate population to 137.5% of capacity in two years. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the order, although it signaled that California could obtain more time to comply. Other states now are on notice that the justices will not permit grossly inadequate treatment conditions to continue indefinitely.
Abraham K. Akih
Full Text Available Penal reform is a challenge across the world. In Africa, those who are incarcerated are especially vulnerable and often deprived of basic human rights. Prison conditions are generally dire, resources are limited, and at times undue force is used to control inmates. The public attitude towards offenders is also not encouraging. Reform efforts include finding alternative ways of sentencing such as community service, making use of halfway houses and reducing sentences. These efforts have not yet yielded the desired results. The four principles of retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation guide penal practice in Africa. Retribution and rehabilitation stand in tension. Deterrence and incapacitation aim at forcing inmates to conform to the social order. The article argues that prison chaplaincy can make a valuable contribution to restoring the dignity and humanity of those who are incarcerated. Chaplaincy can contribute to improving attitudes and practices in the penal system and society. In addition to the social objective of rehabilitation, prison ministry can, on a spiritual level, also facilitate repentance, forgiveness and reconciliation. The aim is the holistic restoration of human beings.
Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the prison population can be either by death or by being released from prison, as compared to a general population in which removal is only by death. We describe conditions, including non-inflow of infectives into the prison, which will ensure that TB can be eradicated from the prison population. The model is calibrated for the South African prison system, by using data in existing literature. The model can be used to make quantitative projections of TB prevalence and to measure the effect of interventions. Illustrative simulations in this regard are presented. The model can be used for other prison populations too, if data is available to calculate the model parameters. Various simulations generated with our model serve to illustrate how it can be utilized in making future projections of the levels of prevalence of TB, and to quantify the effect of interventions such as screening, treatment or reduction of transmission parameter values through improved living conditions for inmates. This makes it particularly useful as there are various targets set by the World Health Organization and by governments, for reduction of TB prevalence and ultimately its eradication. Towards eradication of TB from a prison system, the theorem on global stability of the disease-free state is a useful indicator.
Topp, Stephanie M; Moonga, Clement N; Luo, Nkandu; Kaingu, Michael; Chileshe, Chisela; Magwende, George; Heymann, S Jody; Henostroza, German
Prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experience a high burden of disease and poor access to health care. Although it is generally understood that environmental conditions are dire and contribute to disease spread, evidence of how environmental conditions interact with facility-level social and institutional factors is lacking. This study aimed to unpack the nature of interactions and their influence on health and healthcare access in the Zambian prison setting. We conducted in-depth interviews of a clustered random sample of 79 male prisoners across four prisons, as well as 32 prison officers, policy makers and health care workers. Largely inductive thematic analysis was guided by the concepts of dynamic interaction and emergent behaviour, drawn from the theory of complex adaptive systems. A majority of inmates, as well as facility-based officers reported anxiety linked to overcrowding, sanitation, infectious disease transmission, nutrition and coercion. Due in part to differential wealth of inmates and their support networks on entering prison, and in part to the accumulation of authority and material wealth within prison, we found enormous inequity in the standard of living among prisoners at each site. In the context of such inequities, failure of the Zambian prison system to provide basic necessities (including adequate and appropriate forms of nutrition, or access to quality health care) contributed to high rates of inmate-led and officer-led coercion with direct implications for health and access to healthcare. This systems-oriented analysis provides a more comprehensive picture of the way resource shortages and human interactions within Zambian prisons interact and affect inmate and officer health. While not a panacea, our findings highlight some strategic entry-points for important upstream and downstream reforms including urgent improvement in the availability of human resources for health; strengthening of facility-based health services systems
Smoking, with a prevalence ranging from 42% to 91%, and secondhand smoke (SHS), with a high exposure level of 3 to 11 μg/m, are frequently seen in prisons. We aimed at investigating the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among inmates and prison staff. This study included prisoners and prison staff in Bolvadin Closed and Open Prison in Turkey. All volunteers went through a standard spirometry and completed the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. A total of 179 volunteers, 109 of whom were prisoners and 70 prison staff, were involved in the study. Average age was 35.6 ± 11.9 years. There were 123 smokers (68.7%), 26 ex-smokers (14.5%), and 30 nonsmokers (16.8%). Up to 89.4% of participants reported that they were exposed to SHS. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) value was found to be 3.68 ± 0.80 (93.9 ± 15.1%), forced vital capacity (FVC) value to be 3.87 ± 0.83 (83.1 ± 14.3%), and FEV1/FVC to be 98.4 ± 19.6. Eighteen inmates and 2 prison staff members had the diagnosis of COPD; 22 prisoners (20.2%) and 4 prison staff members (5.7%) had COPD. There were pulmonary symptoms in 49.2% of the volunteers; the symptoms were statistically higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers (P = 0.000). There was a statistically significant relationship between exposure to SHS and presence of COPD (P = 0.043), and pulmonary symptoms (P = 0.008). The frequency of smoking in this prison was considerably high (68.7%, compared against 22%-31% in non-incarcerated populations). The prevalence of COPD was also found high among inmates (20.2% vs 4.2%-23% in non-incarcerated populations). Therefore, pulmonary symptoms should be examined carefully when screening prisoners, including consideration for the use of lung spirometry and screening for tobacco use disorder.
Fayyaz, M.; Qazi, M.A.
of 28). Prisoners shaved by barber were also at higher risk than self shaving (p value <0.001). H/o operation (p<0.02) and rural origin (p<0.02) were other significant risk factors. Other risk factors evaluated were not statistically significant. Sero prevalence of hepatitis, both B and C is more in prison inmate than healthy blood donors. Main risk factor in them is drug abuse, especially intravenous. Other significant risk factor is shaving by harbor. There is a need to make some strategy to reduce the risk factors. (author)
Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.
Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J
Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Baybutt, Michelle; Dooris, Mark; Farrier, Alan
Globally, prisoners tend to come from marginalized and socially disadvantaged sections of the society and exhibit a high incidence of ill health, linked to social exclusion and multiple complex needs. Prisons therefore offer an important opportunity to tackle inequality and injustice, through promoting health, reducing reoffending and facilitating community reintegration.This paper reports on and critically discusses findings from an evaluative research study, which aimed to identify and explore impacts of prisoners' participation in an innovative social and therapeutic horticultural programme, 'Greener on the Outside for Prisons' (GOOP), delivered in prisons in North West England. Focus groups with 16 prisoners and semi-structured interviews with six prison staff were conducted at five sites. Presented under three overarching themes (health and well-being; skills development, employability, and work preparedness; and relationships), findings suggest that engagement with and participation in GOOP were important in improving positive mental well-being, increasing physical activity and knowledge about healthier eating; developing skills and work readiness; and building relationships and catalysing and strengthening prosocial behaviours, important for good citizenship and effective resettlement. The paper concludes that - in the context of the current UK prison reform agenda and concern about the high incidence of violence, substance misuse, self-harm and suicide - prison-based horticulture can offer multiple benefits and make a significant contribution to the creation of safe, secure, supportive and health-enhancing environments. Furthermore, it contends that by joining up health and justice agendas, programmes such as GOOP have the potential to serve as powerful catalysts for wider systemic change, thereby helping tackle inequalities and social exclusion within societies across the globe.
Lafferty, L; Treloar, C; Guthrie, J; Chambers, G M; Butler, T
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment. Analysis was conducted with participants including men with experiences of HCV treatment (n=10) (including those currently accessing treatment and those with a history of treatment) and those who were treatment naïve (n=18). Social capital was a resourceful commodity for inmates considering and undergoing treatment while in custody. Inmates were a valuable resource for information regarding HCV treatment, including personal accounts and reassurance (bonding social capital), while nurses a resource for the provision of information and care (linking social capital). Although linking social capital between inmates and nurses appeared influential in HCV treatment access, there remained opportunities for increasing linking social capital within the prison setting (such as nurse-led engagement within the prisons). Bonding and linking social capital can be valuable resources in promoting HCV treatment awareness, uptake and adherence. Peer-based programmes are likely to be influential in promoting HCV outcomes in the prison setting. Engagement in prisons, outside of the clinics, would enhance opportunities for linking social capital to influence HCV treatment outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sreenivasan, Nandini; Person, Bobbie; Shew, Mark; Wheeler, Daniel; Hall, Julia; Bogdanow, Linda; Leniek, Karyn; Rao, Agam
Objectives. Since 2011, 3 outbreaks of botulism in US prisons have been attributed to pruno, which is an alcoholic beverage made by inmates. Following 1 outbreak, we conducted a qualitative inquiry to understand pruno brewing and its social context to inform outbreak prevention measures. Methods. We interviewed staff, inmates, and parolees from 1 prison about pruno production methods, the social aspects of pruno, and strategies for communicating the association between botulism and pruno. Results. Twenty-seven inmates and parolees and 13 staff completed interviews. Pruno is fermented from water, fruit, sugar, and miscellaneous ingredients. Knowledge of pruno making was widespread among inmates; staff were familiar with only the most common ingredients and supplies inmates described. Staff and inmates described inconsistent consequences for pruno possession and suggested using graphic health messages from organizations external to the prison to communicate the risk of botulism from pruno. Conclusions. Pruno making was frequent in this prison. Improved staff recognition of pruno ingredients and supplies might improve detection of brewing activities in this and other prisons. Consistent consequences and clear messages about the association between pruno and botulism might prevent outbreaks. PMID:26378846
Farhoudi, Behnam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Tabarsi, Payam; Mohraz, Minoo; Golrokhy, Raheleh; Farnia, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Alasvand, Ramin; Ebrahimi, Bahman; Esfehani, Jafar; Tashakoriyan, Mehrzad
To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on prison health. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised. The Great Tehran Prison contains three separate units; all prisoners are taken first to "reception and identification unit (quarantine)" and then send to two housing units according to their legal status. An HIV ACF strategy was employed in the quarantine, and two units through a voluntary provider-initiated HIV testing. Three staff of the triangular clinic trained the prisoners about common routes of HIV transmission and the symptoms of TB in the units. In the quarantine, all prisoners were examined for all HIV-risk factors, HIV testing and symptoms of TB. In unit one, healthcare staff continued the ACF process, while in unit two, the peers of prisoners were assigned as the healthcare communicators to proceed with the strategy. At this caring process, when the test result was positive, then the process of care, treatment and follow ups was initiated. Moreover, the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB was applied to the sick prisoners. There was also a follow-up caring for released prisoner to refer them to care and treatment services outside the prison. The guideline was implemented in the prison successfully. Regarding feasibility of the guideline, the investigators of this study suggest that the guideline should be implemented in other prisons across the country. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Smoyer, Amy B.; Blankenship, Kim M.
Background Prison is a major “place” for drug users in the US, yet remarkably little is known about the lived experience of incarceration. More information about prison life is needed to improve health outcomes for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated people. Methods Thirty (30) formerly incarcerated women were interviewed about prison food. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis software was used to code and organize the data using thematic analysis. Results As described in these participants’ narratives, prison food systems contributed to the construction of boundaries that distinguished the prison place from places and life outside the institution's walls. Participants also described boundaries within the prison that resulted in a patchwork of interior places, each with their own unique structure, meaning, and food system. These places, constructed by physical location, movement, and power, or lack thereof, included various micro-geographies that further defined women's individual prison experience. The boundaries that separated these places were not fixed: Women shifted and diminished internal and external borders by resisting food policies and reproducing their outside lives inside. Conclusion These findings call for public policy officials and prison administrators to reexamine the prison place in order to facilitate healthier eating behaviors and lay the groundwork for more positive communication between inmates and correctional staff and administration. More research is needed to measure how these types of changes to the prison food environment impact nutritional, mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice outcomes. PMID:24412007
Smoyer, Amy B; Blankenship, Kim M
Prison is a major "place" for drug users in the US, yet remarkably little is known about the lived experience of incarceration. More information about prison life is needed to improve health outcomes for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated people. Thirty (30) formerly incarcerated women were interviewed about prison food. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis software was used to code and organize the data using thematic analysis. As described in these participants' narratives, prison food systems contributed to the construction of boundaries that distinguished the prison place from places and life outside the institution's walls. Participants also described boundaries within the prison that resulted in a patchwork of interior places, each with their own unique structure, meaning, and food system. These places, constructed by physical location, movement, and power, or lack thereof, included various micro-geographies that further defined women's individual prison experience. The boundaries that separated these places were not fixed: Women shifted and diminished internal and external borders by resisting food policies and reproducing their outside lives inside. These findings call for public policy officials and prison administrators to reexamine the prison place in order to facilitate healthier eating behaviors and lay the groundwork for more positive communication between inmates and correctional staff and administration. More research is needed to measure how these types of changes to the prison food environment impact nutritional, mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laursen, Julie; Laws, Ben
to create accountable and rational actors, who ‘self-manage’, the therapeutic ethos neglects participants’ life experiences and subcultural capital. Open expressions of moral values by prisoners (such as displays of honour and respect) are considered to be cognitive distortions which are dismissed......Using empirical data from prison-based cognitive-behavioural programmes, this article considers how prisoners’ subcultural capital shapes their responses to demands for ‘cognitive self-change’. We argue that accounts of ‘respect’ in the prior literature fail to capture how prisoners react...
Hall, Stephen T
Drawing upon experiences as a prison chaplain and a state director of prison chaplaincy services, the author proposes a working theology of prison ministry. Such a theology begins with an understanding of the inherent worth of humankind as created by God in God's own image, addresses the question of hope, embodies the incarnate presence of God by being present with people in their alienation, enables the giving and receiving of forgiveness, deals with issues of power and control, and respects the diverse paths that humans take in their walk toward and with God.
Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Reeve, William G.; Schafheitle, Joachim M.
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to establish whether the meals provided by the prison service enable prisoners to follow government guidelines on nutrition and healthy eating, and the extent to which they do so.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A total of eight prisons, four male (category A, B and C), two female and two young offenders’ institutes were randomly identified and visited. Data collection involved taking three days of cyclical menus, the institution’s recipes and me...
Oluyinka Emmanuel Majekodunmi
Full Text Available Studies have shown that mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general population. However, most studies in this environment had only looked at nonspecific psychiatric morbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of major depressive disorder, its associated sociodemographic and clinical variables in a population of inmates in Nigeria. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 196 prisoners consisting of 136 awaiting trials (AT and 60 convicted inmates (CI. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Depression was assessed with the depression module of the Structured Clinical Interview Schedule for Axis 1 Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV Disorders. The diagnosis was made according to the DSM-IV criteria and severity assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Forty-one (30.1% of AT compared with 21 (35.0% of the CI were depressed. The mean total MADRS score for AT was 23.90 standard deviation (SD ±7.97 while the mean total MADRS score for the convicted was 25.50 SD ± 8.70, P= 0.479. Unlike the general population, there were no sociodemographic predictors of depression. Among the ATs, depression was associated with the presence of physical complaints, having a chronic illness and family history of psychiatric illness among the CI. The prevalence of depression among prisoners was found to be high and associated with clinical variables. Due attention needs to be given to address the mental health needs of the prisoners.
Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse
Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive.
Valença, Mariana Soares; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Brum, Clarice Brinck; Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da
This study seeks to analyze the process of detection and treatment of cases of tuberculosis (TB) in a prison in the south of Brazil. An active and passive search for TB was conducted to estimate the scale of TB in a prison with 764 inmates. In conjunction with the detection strategies and clinical follow-up of the 41 TB cases, participant observation and records in field diaries were performed, making it possible to analyze the scope and limitations of detection and treatment of cases of TB in prison. The development of search strategies is discussed along with the use of questionnaires to detect symptomatic cases, as well as the inadequacy of the clinical follow-up of TB cases, involvement of different workers and coordination between prison and health services. There is clear potential for the control of TB using an active search to induce the passive detection and screening for symptoms that - even skewed by the perceptions of inmates regarding symptoms of TB - enabled an increase in detection. The functional dynamics of prison life hamper the inclusion of health routines and can restrict actions to control TB and other diseases. In the process of control of TB in prisons, the feasibility of effective detection methods is as important as planning based on disease conditions, network services and workers involved.
Galanek, Joseph D
Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals' responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs' illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons.
Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545
“No bastan muros de piedra para hacer una prisión” la vida cotidiana de los internos de la cárcel villahermosa, cali, colombia (“stone walls are not enough to build a prison.” the daily life of inmates at “villahermosa” prison in cali, colombia
Harold Mauricio Nieto Castillo
Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente artículo derivado de investigación, describe la situación carcelaria en Colombia en los últimos años, haciendo énfasis sobre la situación particular del hacinamiento en el establecimiento carcelario Villahermosa de la ciudad de Cali (Colombia. Finalmente se realiza un análisis sobre la manera en que transcurre la vida cotidiana en dicho Centro Carcelario ABSTRACT The current article, derived from a piece of research, describes the prison situation in Colombia, in the last few years, making emphasis on the particular overcrowding situation at “Villahermosa” Prison in the city of Cali, Colombia. Lastly, an analysis of the daily living conditions at that prison is made.
Coffin, Jr., McKinley D
As a nation with the largest prison population in the world, the United States has all the ingredients for criminals, extremists, and religious radicals to collaborate in producing a new breed of homegrown terrorist...
Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja
As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.
Andersen, Dorte Raaby; Andersen, Lars Peter; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann
Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808......) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61.2% of the baseline population, and 36.2% of the invited population. Burnout and work...... characteristics were measured with validated scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, and data was analysed by logistic regression. Results Risk factors with the highest impact on burnout were work environmental factors: quantitative demands, emotional demands, involvement in and meaning of work...
This environmental report assesses the potential impact of developing a geothermal resource for space heating at the Utah State Prison. Wells will be drilled on prison property for production and for injection to minimize reservoir depletion and provide for convenient disposal of cooled fluid. The most significant environmental concerns are the proper handling of drilling muds during well drilling and the disposal of produced water during well testing. These problems will be handled by following currently accepted practices to reduce the potential risks.
Gill, G V; Bell, D R
Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nu...
J Akbari; R Akbari; F Farasati; B Mahaki
Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for asse...
Sigrid J A Lindbom
Full Text Available This qualitative study explores former prison inmates' perceptions and attitudes towards HIV risk inside Swedish prisons.In 2014, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with former male prisoners to gain a deeper understanding of situations perceived to be associated with risk of HIV transmission. The material gathered from the interviews was analyzed by manifest and latent qualitative content analysis.The findings revealed that risky behavioral practices, such as sharing needles, unprotected sexual activity, and lack of openness about HIV status represented potential health threats with regard to the risk of HIV transmission.Evidence from the study indicates that educational interventions regarding HIV and the transmission routes are required for HIV prevention in Swedish prisons.
Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin
In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.
Ujeyl, M; Habermann, N; Briken, P; Berner, W; Hill, A
Empirical data are lacking that answer the question of how sexual murderers detained in forensic mental hospitals can be differentiated from those sentenced to prison. Psychiatric court reports and national criminal records on sexual murderers detained in a forensic mental hospital (n=45) were compared with those of prisoners (n=89) regarding diagnostic, criminologic, and prognostic characteristics and criminal recidivism rates after detention. Sexual murderers detained in forensic mental hospitals were characterized by higher psychiatric morbidity and slightly higher risk of future sexual and nonsexual violence. They were released from incarceration less often than the prison inmates but did not show higher sexual or nonsexual violence recidivism rates than those from the prison group.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.
Full Text Available Prison is the last possible destination for a humanistic society where the community exert its social, moral and normative borders. A total institution that offers a low mobility and a diminished level of freedom may have contrary effects towards society expectations. Neutralizing the individual for limited periods cannot be sufficient in a society of communication and openness towards others. This utopian society may be considered a social mirror that reflects the failure of the community to accommodate and operate human adaptability. The concepts of freedom, family, visit and imprisonment routine are transposed to a qualitative analyze after interviewing 37 inmates from Bucharest-Jilava Penitentiary
Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.
Full Text Available Introduction: Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. Objective: To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Methodology: Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Results: Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management. Conclusion: The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.
Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Di Fiorino, Mario
Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in many countries. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of detention of persons suffering from dementia. Medline searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters and books published until August 2016. Search terms included dementia, elderly, prison and criminal. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. As results, there is a lack of data about elderly with dementia in prisons. Given the rise in the average age, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the number of older prisoners is growing. Moreover, some elderly are imprisoned with a concomitant cognitive impairment or psychiatric disorder while others will develop such diseases once incarcerated. At the present time, legal and social systems seem unprepared to handle the phenomenon of dementia in prison. As proposal, health assessments for older first time offenders should become a practice inside the correctional facilities and include an evaluation for specific health issues, such as psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Worldwide, it is increasingly recognized that sex occurs in prisons and this condition promotes HIV transmission among men. It is noted that in prisons, men usually engage in consensual or forced anal sex for lust, comfort, privileges or domination. This sexual behavior is one of the riskiest sexual practices in transmitting HIV infection because of the frequent tearing of sensitive anal membranes. In view of such a serious problem, that will also impact widely on the community when prisoners are released, a multi-pronged strategy is needed. Several initiatives addressing the issue are being reviewed or implemented in various countries. In Zimbabwe, among the listed options under consideration in the draft National Policy on HIV/AIDS, the most debated policy issue is the dissemination of condoms in prison. Much public dissent has been noted, in which the fear is that this would be seen as condoning homosexuality. However, it is emphasized that the issue in prisons is not one of homosexuality, but of recognizing that many heterosexual men in prison will take the only sexual outlet available to them (in addition to masturbation). In doing so, they are at great risk of HIV infection, hence encouraging mutual or self masturbation and actively promoting condom use must be part of the response to the epidemic issue.
Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management). The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.
Haesen, Sophie; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice S
The increasing numbers of aging prisoners raise the issue of how they maintain their personal identity and self-esteem in light of long-standing detention. This study sought to answer this question since identity and self-esteem could influence mental and physical health. We conducted a secondary analysis of 35 qualitative interviews that were carried out with older inmates aged 51-75 years (mean age: 61 years) living in 12 Swiss prisons. We identified three main themes that characterized their identity: personal characterization of identity, occupational identity, and social identity. These main themes were divided into sub-themes such as familial network, retirement rights or subjective social position. Personal characterization of identity mostly happened through being part of a network of family and/or friends that supported them during imprisonment and where the prisoner could return to after release. Individual activities and behavior also played an important role for prisoners in defining themselves. Occupational identity was drawn from work that had been carried out either before or during imprisonment although in some cases the obligation to work in prison even after reaching retirement age was seen as a constraint. Social identity came from a role of mentor or counselor for younger inmates, and in a few cases older prisoners compared themselves to other inmates and perceived themselves as being in a higher social position. Identity was often expressed as a mix between positive and negative traits. Building on those elements during incarceration can contribute to better mental health of the individual prisoner which in turn influences the chances for successful rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.
Juda, Daniel P.
Describes attempts to form a communication group among male and female inmates. The failure of this effort is discussed with emphasis on the special problems and needs of groups in prisons and the lack of insight among the institution's administration and staff. (JAC)
Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack
As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…
Sibley, David; van Hoven, Bettina
In this paper, inmates in dormitories in a prison in New Mexico, USA, talk about their everyday lives. We are particularly interested in the ways in which they think about space. Their principal concern appears to be the definition of personal space in an environment where boundaries are weak. The
Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.
This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…
Full Text Available Tendency to ex-prisoners back into previous environment after being released from the detention center is a phenomenon that raises a big question. Although training programs have become routine activities provided by the government every year and inmates are trained in various skills in preparation for their after-free, some still choose to return to the criminal world. Empirical studies show that there are two main causes, namely (1 the training program is given to make them skilled workers that after they acquire freedom no company will hire former prisoners, (2 there are constraints such as capital and knowledge emerge as for those starting and running a business. A new approach is necessary for construction problems. This study attempts to test the model of human resource development for former prisoners to prepare them for entrepreneurship. This study is the first step in testing the model of development of human resources for ex-prisoners to prepare them for entrepreneurship. In this study, the object to be examined is inmates of a prison in Banjarmasin. The data collection is done by filling in questionnaires, in-depth interviews to 150 inmates of their last year before the end of the period of detention, business confidence surveys, training and mentoring consultancy. The results from the test using MSC-T Miner questionnaire method showed 100 of the 150 prisoners have entrepreneurial potential. 100 people have been matched with their preferred business qualifications only 50 people who have interest in accordance with market rates. Intervention by the research team is to provide motivation and knowledge about entrepreneurship and personality development showed better results than before the intervention of the 50 inmates in preparing for entrepreneurship.
Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Strang, J S
. From it, we infer that 24% of inmates at the six adult prisons in Scotland were current inside-users of opiates, compared to 11% at the 14 adult prisons where survey data were available in England and Wales. The corresponding April to September 1997 percentage of opiate positives in rMDT were: 13% (results from the six Scottish prisons) and 5.4% (results from 14 prisons in England and Wales), a two-fold under-estimate of % current users of opiates in prison (24% and 11%). Planning of drug rehabilitation places for prisoners should thus be based on twice the percentage of prisoners testing opiate positive in rMDT. This correction factor of two should be kept under review.
Full Text Available Se estudia la prevalencia de los Trastornos de Personalidad (TP en una prisión y su efecto en el clima social del establecimiento. El trabajo demuestra una relación estadísticamente significativa entre indicadores de desajuste del clima social en una prisión, como por ejemplo las conductas interpersonales agresivas o la demanda compulsiva de psicofármacos en las consultas médicas y el diagnóstico de TP. Este tipo de trastorno mental, uno de los más frecuentes en prisión, requiere especial atención por parte de los servicios sanitarios y su manejo es extraordinariamente complejo en el medio penitenciario.The prevalence of Personality Disorders (PD in a prison and its effect on prison social climate are studied. Our research shows a statistically significant relationship between diagnosis of PD and indicators of social climate disruption such as aggressive interpersonal conduct or compulsive demand for psychoactive drugs in medical consultations. PD is one of the most common mental disorders in prison, and requires special attention from health services, while management of the disorder is a tremendously complex issue in the prison context.
Rouxel, P.; Duijster, D.; Tsakos, G.; Watt, R.G.
Objectives This study describes the oral health status and associated risk factors in a sample of female prisoners and compares their oral health to that of the female population from the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Method A random sample of prisoners was selected from HMP Holloway, London.
Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan
Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…
Kreager, Derek A; Schaefer, David R; Bouchard, Martin; Haynie, Dana L; Wakefield, Sara; Young, Jacob; Zajac, Gary
The mid-twentieth century witnessed a surge of American prison ethnographies focused on inmate society and the social structures that guide inmate life. Ironically, this literature virtually froze in the 1980s just as the country entered a period of unprecedented prison expansion, and has only recently begun to thaw. In this manuscript, we develop a rationale for returning inmate society to the forefront of criminological inquiry, and suggest that network science provides an ideal framework for achieving this end. In so doing, we show that a network perspective extends prison ethnographies by allowing quantitative assessment of prison culture and illuminating basic characteristics of prison social structure that are essential for improving inmate safety, health, and community reentry outcomes. We conclude by demonstrating the feasibility and promise of inmate network research with findings from a recent small-scale study of a maximum-security prison work unit.
Grinstead, Olga; Seal, David W; Wolitski, Richard; Flanigan, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Christine; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Askew, John
Because individuals at risk for HIV and STDs are concentrated in prisons and jails, incarceration is an opportunity to provide HIV and STD testing. We interviewed 72 service providers working in U.S. prisons in four states about their experiences with and perceptions regarding HIV and STD testing in prison. Providers' job duties represented administration, education, security, counseling, and medical care. Providers' knowledge of prison procedures and programs related to HIV and STD testing was narrowly limited to their specific job duties, resulting in many missed opportunities for prevention counseling and referral. Suggestions include increasing health care and counseling staff so posttest counseling can be provided for those with negative as well as positive test results, providing additional prevention programs for incarcerated persons, improving staff training about HIV and STD testing, and improving communication among in-prison providers as well as between corrections and public health staff.
As Head of the Prison Administration of Saxony, the author describes the difficulties and problems that exist in the care and treatment of prisoners who are addicted to drugs or alcohol. Up to now, these problems have been dealt with in a manner that was too much concentrated on ideas and aspects of security by using systems of control and restrictions. Social contacts inside and outside of the prison and a sense of freedom are, however, the requirements of the legal concept of resettling prisoners. There is a great need for more counselling and therapy. It should also be attempted to improve the conditions for the individual prisoners, e.g. by setting up drug-free units and, thus, provide a environment to the addicts that enables them to live their lives without the daily struggle for drugs and alcohol.
Cloyes, Kristin Gates
Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process.
van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L
In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help.
Arroyo-Cobo, J M
A review was carried out of scientific literature on health care strategies for mental health problems in the prison environment. Data is given about the main activities put into practice by prison administrations as a response to the worrying information that has come to light in recent epidemiological studies on mental disorders in prison, with figures that, when compared to the general population, give results of double the number of cases of Common Mental Illness (CMI) and four times the number of cases of Severe Mental Illness (SMI) amongst prison inmates. A review was made of the most important bibliographical databases containing health care policies for mental health problems in prison published by prison administrations in the last 10 years. This information was completed with other data obtained from an analysis of the indicators available in Health Care Coordination on its health care strategies for mental health in centres run by the Secretary General of Prisons, in Spain. There is little in the way of scientific literature that clearly states health care policies for mental illness in the prison environment. Those that do tend to agree with a number of affirmations that include the obligation to offer a therapeutic response of equal quality to that received by patients in the community, the need for a multi-disciplinary team responsible for caring for this type of patient, along with a coordinated effort between the medical, social, legal and prison administrations that at a given time have to care for them.
Marília Cléssia Pinheiro
Full Text Available Objective. To understand the needs and health profile of men incarcerated in the Pau dos Ferros Regional Criminal Complex (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Methodology. Quanti-qualitative research conducted with 30 men incarcerated in November 2012. Semi-structured interviews were the primary data collection method. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of the speeches were used for data analysis. Results. The participants' health profile, resulting from deficits in living conditions prior to their imprisonment, is heightened by the degrading conditions of their prison stay, and plays a role in their exclusion and lack of care when admitted as prisoners. The disorders and symptoms most often self-reported by participants were: headache (86.6%, respiratory infections (66.6%, diarrhea (60.0%, stress (60.0%, and depression or deep sadness (56.6%. The responses showed that there is a social gap, especially related to health care, in the prison complex. Conclusion. We recognize a need to ensure the physical and moral integrity of inmates, which is compromised by life in prison; the inmates' health problems and needs differ from those of the general population, and require solutions; the inmates' health-disease process deteriorates due to the mere situation of entering the prison system; the inmates' health problems and health needs are treated with palliative and / or no assistance by those legally responsible for their protection; few human and financial resources exist to ensure health actions for the inmates; and there are no interventions or actions of disease prevention and health promotion.
Hércules de Oliveira Carmo
Full Text Available This work is a present reality in this century, and that is demanding attention, especially in the context of public health and human rights - the elderly-con. A complex problem that arose for our consideration is that the person who, besides being old, and the inmate is most often in pain, due to a pathological condition related to organic factors, mental or subjective, in old age, worsens. Without being accompanied by public policies, these realities are not provided before, we now gain a greater complexity in the prison context, reveal an increase of HIV / AIDS, the presence of sexually transmitted disease, increased depression and neuropsychiatric diseases. The questions posed in this research, which attempted to answer here may well be subsumed: - How to think the nursing practices before the issue of the growing aging population with its pathologies further complexizadas in prison? The objective, therefore, this study: (i to investigate the growing presence of the elderly Brazilian penitentiary system, based on existing literature, (ii verify the potential risk factors on the health of the elderly population in the Brazilian prison system, and the weight the presence of a nursing team in this context. Urgent attention, therefore, it is required of health professionals, authorities and civil society to the complexity of aging silenced behind bars.
Martin, Michael S; Potter, Beth K; Crocker, Anne G; Wells, George A; Grace, Rebecca M; Colman, Ian
While there is general consensus about the need to increase access to mental health treatment, it is debated whether screening is an effective solution. We examined treatment use by inmates in a prison system that offers universal mental health screening. We conducted an observational study of 7,965 consecutive admissions to Canadian prisons. We described patterns of mental health treatment from admission until first release, death, or March, 2015 (median 14-month follow-up). We explored the association between screening results and time of first treatment contact duration of first treatment episode, and total number of treatment episodes. Forty-three percent of inmates received at least some treatment, although this was often of short duration; 8% received treatment for at least half of their incarceration. Screening results were predictive of initiation of treatment and recurrent episodes, with stronger associations among those who did not report a history prior to incarceration. Half of all inmates with a known mental health need prior to incarceration had at least 1 interruption in care, and only 46% of inmates with a diagnosable mental illness received treatment for more than 10% of their incarceration. Screening results were associated with treatment use during incarceration. However, mental health screening may have diverted resources from the already known highest need cases toward newly identified cases who often received brief treatment suggestive of lower needs. Further work is needed to determine the most cost-effective responses to positive screens, or alternatives to screening that increase uptake of services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
We finally determine analytically (i.e. without using simulation) the probability ... Having insufficient evidence for convicting the prisoners on a major charge, the ...... tionary prisoner's dilemma on a path, Discrete Applied Mathematics, 160, pp.
Prison Clinic, Mangaung Maximum Security Prison, Bloemfontein. F Kleinhans, BA (Cur) .... HIV positivity rate and the use of the rectum to store foreign objects. ... fruit in sunlight. Other positive health-promoting factors may also play a role,.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Kubiak, Sheryl P; Brenner, Hannah J; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Cummings, Cristy E; Darcy, Kathleen M; Fedock, Gina; Goodman-Williams, Rachael
More than 80,000 prisoners each year are sexually victimized during incarceration, but only about 8% report victimization to correctional authorities. Complicating reporting is the fact that half of the perpetrators are staff members. Given the restrictive and highly regulated prison environment, studies that examine reporting behaviors are difficult to conduct and to date information available relied on those who have reported or hypothetical victimization studies. This study uses an ecological framework and archival data from a class action lawsuit of sexual misconduct to determine predictors of reporting. Relying on a subsample of 179 women, chosen because they have all experienced at least 1 penetration offense, we use bivariate and multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analyses to examine individual, assault, and context-level predictors of reporting on 397 incidents of staff sexual misconduct. The final model revealed that that 6 predictors (age at time of assault, physical injury, multiple incidents, perpetrator with multiple victims, the year the abuse began, and the number of years women have left on their sentence) account for 58% of the variance in reporting. Disclosure to inmate peers and/or family and friends was significant in the bivariate results. These findings indicate the need for stronger and more systematic implementation of Prison Rape Elimination Act guidelines and remedies that create and enforce sanctions, including termination, for staff violating policy and state law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah
Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered...
Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana S; Tootell, Elena; Baumrind, Nikki; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Leistikow, Bruce; Harriman, Kathleen H; Preas, Christopher P; Cosentino, Giorgio; Bialek, Stephanie R; Marin, Mona
This article describes the epidemiology of varicella in one state prison in California during 2010 and 2011, control measures implemented, and associated costs. Eleven varicella cases were reported, of which nine were associated with two outbreaks. One outbreak consisted of three cases and the second consisted of six cases with two generations of spread. Among exposed inmates serologically tested, 98% (643/656) were varicella-zoster virus seropositive. The outbreaks resulted in > 1,000 inmates exposed, 444 staff exposures, and > $160,000 in costs. The authors documented the challenges and costs associated with controlling and managing varicella in a prison setting. A screening policy for evidence of varicella immunity for incoming inmates and staff and vaccination of susceptible persons has the potential to mitigate the impact of future outbreaks and reduce resources necessary to manage cases and outbreaks. © The Author(s) 2014.
Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana S.; Tootell, Elena; Baumrind, Nikki; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Leistikow, Bruce; Harriman, Kathleen H.; Preas, Christopher P.; Cosentino, Giorgio; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Marin, Mona
We describe the epidemiology of varicella in one state prison in California during 2010–2011, control measures implemented, and associated costs. Eleven varicella cases were reported, 9 associated with 2 outbreaks. One outbreak consisted of 3 cases and the second consisted of 6 cases with 2 generations of spread. Among exposed inmates serologically tested, 98% (643/656) were VZV sero-positive. The outbreaks resulted in >1,000 inmates exposed, 444 staff exposures, and >$160,000 in costs. We documented the challenges and costs associated with controlling and managing varicella in a prison setting. A screening policy for evidence of varicella immunity for incoming inmates and staff and vaccination of susceptible persons has the potential to mitigate the impact of future outbreaks and reduce resources necessary for managing cases and outbreaks. PMID:25201912
Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L
Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.
Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Hartawan, Anak Agung Gede; Craine, Noel; Sari, Ayu Kartika; Septarini, Ni Wayan; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman
The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix. Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8 percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV. The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics. The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting. This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program.
Full Text Available As tumors outgrow their blood supply and become oxygen deprived, they switch to less energetically efficient but oxygen-independent anaerobic glucose metabolism. However, cancer cells maintain glycolytic phenotype even in the areas of ample oxygen supply (Warburg effect. It has been hypothesized that the competitive advantage that glycolytic cells get over aerobic cells is achieved through secretion of lactic acid, which is a by-product of glycolysis. It creates acidic microenvironment around the tumor that can be toxic to normal somatic cells. This interaction can be seen as a prisoner's dilemma: from the point of view of metabolic payoffs, it is better for cells to cooperate and become better competitors but neither cell has an incentive to unilaterally change its metabolic strategy. In this paper a novel mathematical technique, which allows reducing an otherwise infinitely dimensional system to low dimensionality, is used to demonstrate that changing the environment can take the cells out of this equilibrium and that it is cooperation that can in fact lead to the cell population committing evolutionary suicide.
Full Text Available Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners’ perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners’ representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.
Banerjee, Arnab; Sengupta, Prativa; Ray, Tapas Kumar
A research project entitled 'operation oasis' was implemented in West Bengal prisons by SEVAC, supported by the National Human Rights Commission of India for identification of the persons suffering from major psychiatric illnesses (ie, schizophrenia, psychosis not otherwise specified, mood disorder not otherwise specified) in prisons, making arrangements for their psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation and assessing the changes in them after intervention. Dum Dum Central Jail, Presidency Jail (female section), and Berhampore Central Jail were selected as the project fields. The prison inmates were screened through clinical examination and mental state examination. Among them who were found suffering from mental illness were brought under psychiatric and psychological treatment, rehabilitation and restoration. Their sociodemographical data were also collected on the basis of a structured information schedule developed by the SEVAC team. The patients were followed-up for three consecutive years (2001 to 2004). The global assessment of functioning scores of the patients recorded at the time of initiation and completion of project were compared. During the project implementation period, 3871 prison inmates (male 3527 + female 344) were screened and 10% (n = 401) were identified as suffering from major psychiatric illnesses, of which 64% (n = 258) were housed in the prisons for minor offences/stray cases and 90% (n = 363) were undertrials. The findings concluded with a global assessment of functioning score improvement with a statistical significance of p treatment and rehabilitation.
Jeane Zanini Rocha
Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: This study is justified by the high TB prevalence in prisons, which constitutes a public health problem and aims to estimate the prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB and determine the variables associated with respiratory symptoms in a prison in Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive study of 262 inmates divided into respiratory symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Samples were evaluated by microscopy following the cultivation of the sputum from symptomatic individuals. Associated epidemiological variables were also evaluated. Results: Among the 262 inmates included, 178 (68% were considered symptomatic, and of these, 25 (14% were diagnosed with active TB. The contribution of culturing in the detection of TB cases was 48%. The prevalence of active TB was 9,542/100.000. Low educational level, use of drugs and alcohol, prison recidivism, and previous TB and HIV-positive status were associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms. Being male, single, black, a prison recidivist, an alcoholic and HIV-seropositive was associated with the development of TB. The rate of TB/HIV co infection was 60%. The outcome was death in 12% of patients. Drug therapy interruption was reported by 96% of patients. Conclusions: The studied population showed a high prevalence of TB and TB/HIV co-infection. In addition, the rates of drug therapy interruption and mortality were alarmingly elevated. KEYWORDS: Epidemiology. Tuberculosis. Coinfections. HIV infection. Prisons.
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Friestad, Christine
To explore possible systematic differences between prison inmates serving their first sentence and inmates having experienced previous incarcerations. It is hoped that a better knowledge of these issues will make us better equipped to meet the rehabilitation needs of our prisoners and decrease their risk of reoffending and reincarceration. In this cross-sectional study a randomly selected and nationally representative sample of 260 Norwegian prisoners, 100 serving their first sentence and 160 recidivists, was interviewed with special focus on childhood circumstances, education, work experience, and present social and economic situation. In addition their criminal records were collected from the National Crime Registry. In males multivariate analyses identified a number of variables independently and significantly associated with being a repeat offender. The odds for reincarceration increased significantly if the person fulfilled any one of the following criteria: having experienced the incarceration of a family member during childhood (OR = 3.6); having experienced childcare interventions during childhood (OR = 3.2); current drug abuse (OR = 2.6); current housing problems (OR = 2.3). In females only one strong correlation emerged: if the person had current drug problems the odds for being a recidivist increased substantially (OR = 10.9). While criminal reoffending and reincarceration seemed to be primarily associated with drug abuse in females, the childhood problems of male repeat offenders, compared with males serving their first sentence, indicate that these individuals' current multiple social and economic disadvantages were complex in origin and of long standing. Interventions aimed at preventing reoffending must take into account the gender differences demonstrated. ing at primary prevention, the negative effects associated with parental incarceration are crucial: how can one prevent the perpetuation of these problems from one generation to the next?
Cosman, J. W.
Education does not flourish in prisons because of prevailing notions about the punitive and retributive purposes of prisons. The United Nations is considering a Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners that is intended to bring education to the forefront of criminal justice policy. (SK)
Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V; Ménard, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Aurégan, G; Gicquel, B; Chanteau, S
The prevalence of tuberculosis in the Antananarivo prison is 16 times higher than that in the general population of Madagascar. We compared the clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains within and outside the prison and studied the transmission of strains in the prison. M. tuberculosis strains isolated in 1994 to 1995 from 146 prisoners and from 260 nonprisoner patients from Antananarivo were typed using the genetic markers IS6110 and direct repeat. We compared the strains isolated from prisoners and nonprisoners and found that the clustering rate was higher within (58.9%) than outside the prison (40%) suggesting that the transmission rate was higher in prison. Of the 146 incarcerated patients, 82 were grouped into 22 clusters. We checked for possible tuberculosis transmission between prisoners with identical strains by epidemiological investigation of the various prison clusters. We found that 9.5% of the incarcerated patients could have been sources of infection and that only 15.1% could have been infected in the prison. One hundred and twenty-seven prison patients were new cases. Epidemiological data suggested that 37% of them resulted from a reactivation of an old infection, due to poor living conditions or recent transmission from an index case outside the prison.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...
Background. Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept.
Develay, Aude-Emmanuelle; Verdot, Charlotte; Grémy, Isabelle
This article presents the results of two studies designed to define the feasibility and framework of the future prison health monitoring system in France. The objective of the first study was to obtain the points of view of professionals involved in prison health and the second study was designed to assess the feasibility of using prisoner's medical files for epidemiological purposes. The point of view of various professionals was collected by questionnaire sent to 43 randomly selected prison physicians and by 22 semi-directive interviews. The feasibility study was based on analysis of the medical files of 330 randomly selected prisoners in eleven prisons chosen in order to reflect the diversity of correctional settings and prison populations. Additional interviews were conducted with the medical staff of these prison facilities. There is a consensus on the need to monitor prison health, but there are contrasting views on data collection methods (surveys or routinely collected data]. The feasibility study also showed that the implementation of a prison health monitoring system based on routinely collected data from prisoner's medical records was not feasible at the present time in France. In the light of these findings, it is recommended to initially develop a monitoring system based on regular nationwide surveys, while pursuing computerization and standardization of health data in prison.
Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel
Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…
Tânia Cristina Falquetto
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare hepatitis C prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors between prisoners and non-prisoners in the city of Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved approximately 1,600 residents and 730 prisoners, all of whom were living in Colatina. The percentage of individuals who tested positive for anti-HCV was 0.1% (2/1,600 in the non-prisoner group and 1.0% (7/730 in the prisoner group, confirming a higher risk of hepatitis C in the latter group. The percentage of subjects who progressed to HCV-RNA negative was 11.1% (1/9, confirming the high probability of evolution to chronicity. Genotype 1 was the most predominant genotype found. Factors associated with increased risk of hepatitis C were being male, being institutionalized, having an income of less than three minimum wages, having low educational attainment, and using injected drugs. Alcohol use, pain in the liver, migraine, and reported history of hepatitis were markedly associated with hepatitis C. The prison population tested positive for anti-HCV at a higher rate than the non-prison population.
Hassiotis, Angela; Gazizova, Dina; Akinlonu, Leah; Bebbington, Paul; Meltzer, Howard; Strydom, Andre
A substantial number of prisoners have intellectual disabilities. We analysed data on a sample drawn from all prisons in England and Wales. Intellectual disability was defined as Quick Test scores equivalent to an IQ of ≤65. We found a significantly higher prevalence of probable psychosis, attempted suicide and cannabis use in prisoners with intellectual disabilities. Presence of intellectual disability was twice as likely to be associated with probable psychosis but the relationship was fully mediated by self-rated health status. It is important to identify this group as early as possible in order to provide timely interventions to cope in adverse environments and manage substance misuse.
Akbari, J; Akbari, R; Farasati, F; Mahaki, B
Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Job stress was highest among employees of "correction and rehabilitation center" of Ilam province followed by "Dalab vocational training center." There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.
This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating.…
Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E
There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto
We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction.
Merid, Y; Woldeamanuel, Y; Abebe, M; Datiko, D G; Hailu, T; Habtamu, G; Assefa, G; Kempker, R R; Blumberg, H M; Aseffa, A
Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen. The median age of these 372 persons was 23 years, 97% were male and 63% were from urban areas. Among those with a positive symptom screen, 8 (2%) were AFB sputum smear-positive and 31 (8%) were Xpert-positive. The point prevalence of pulmonary TB at the prison was 1748 per 100 000 persons. In multivariate analysis, persons with cough >4 weeks were more likely to have TB (OR 3.34, 95%CI 1.54-7.23). A high prevalence of TB was detected among inmates at a large Ethiopian prison. Active case finding using a cough symptom screen in combination with Xpert had high utility, and has the potential to interrupt transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in correctional facilities in low- and middle-income, high-burden countries.
Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of restorative justice, including its use within the prison environment. This literature review first considers some of the theory and practice of restorative approaches in general terms before turning to consider their application in the Bahamian and wider Caribbean setting, particularly Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The literature review was undertaken collaboratively with the College of The Bahamas faculty involved in a profiling study of the inmates held at Her Majesty’s Prison Fox Hill, Nassau. The findings of that study relating to restorative justice are referred to in the review of sources.
Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of restorative justice, including its use within the prison environment. This literature review first considers some of the theory and practice of restorative approaches in general terms before turning to consider their application in the Bahamian and wider Caribbean setting, particularly Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The literature review was undertaken collaboratively with the College of The Bahamas faculty involved in a profiling study of the inmates held at Her Majesty’s Prison Fox Hill, Nassau. The findings of that study relating to restorative justice are referred to in the review of sources.
Getaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Motamed, Sandrine; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Chappuis, Francois; Wolff, Hans
Purpose - The environmental and demographic characteristics of closed institutions, particularly prisons, precipitate morbidity during hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. Given the high prevalence of chronic liver disease and other risk factors in the prison setting, the purpose of this paper is to examine HAV-immunity and its associated factors in this population. Design/methodology/approach - The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009: a serology screening for HAV IgG was carried out among 116 inmates in Switzerland's largest pre-trial prison. Other participant characteristics were collected through a structured face-to-face questionnaire with a physician. Findings - In terms of significant demographics, Africa (53.5 percent) and the Balkans/Eastern Europe (36.2 percent) were the main regions of origin; a minority of inmates were from Western Europe (6.9 percent), Latin America (2.6 percent) or Asia (0.9 percent). The authors identified hepatitis A antibody-negative serology (lack of immunity) in five out of 116 prisoners (4.3 percent, 95 percent CI 1.4-9.7). Among participants of European origin alone, five out of 50 inmates were hepatitis A antibody-negative (10 percent, 95 percent CI 3.3-21.8), whereas the 66 inmates from other all continents were hepatitis A antibody-positive (immune) (p=0.026). Originality/value - In this prison population composed of mostly African migrants, hepatitis A immunity was high. This reaffirms that region of origin is highly associated with childhood immunity against HAV. HAV vaccination should take into account a patient's area of origin and his/her risk factors for systemic complications, if ever infected. This targeted strategy would offer herd immunity, and seek out the most vulnerable individuals who are potentially at risk of new exposure in this precarious setting.
Gill, G V; Bell, D R
Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369
Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard
Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.
Supermaxes are prisons designed to impose long-term solitary confinement. Supermax prisoners spend 23 h or more per day in windowless cells. Technology, like centrally controlled automated cell doors and fluorescent lights that are never turned off, allows prisoners to be under constant surveillance, while minimizing all human contact. California built two of the first and largest supermaxes in 1988 and 1989. Corcoran State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison, which together house more than 3...
Tuberculosis activa en una cohorte de reclusos infectados por VIH en una cárcel de la Ciudad de México: características clínicas y epidemiológicas Active tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-infected inmates in a prison in Mexico City: clinical and epidemiological characteristics
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos con tuberculosis (TB activa en población de cárceles con VIH, que se ve especialmente afectada por ambas epidemias. La infección por VIH incrementa significativamente la probabilidad del desarrollo de TB. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en sujetos infectados por VIH e internados en un reclusorio de la Ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 172 pacientes con VIH, 28 con TB activa (16.3% - 21 (12.2% con afección pulmonar - con una tasa de incidencia de 7.7 por 100 sujetos/año para TB activa y de 4.7 por 100 sujetos/ año para TB pulmonar. No se encontró drogorresistencia. Dieciocho aislados fueron tipificados por RFLP, con una tasa de transmisión calculada de 11%. CONCLUSIÓN: Se encontró una prevalencia de TB en esta población mil veces superior a la observada en la población general y datos sugerentes de transmisión al interior de la cárcel.OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of prison inmates with active tuberculosis in HIV-positive prison populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in HIV-infected subjects in a prison in Mexico City, with the aim of determining clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with active TB. RESULTS: We detected 172 HIV infected inmates and TB in 28 of them (16.3% - 21 (12.2 with pulmonary TB - with an incidence rate of 7.7/100 persons/year for active TB and 4.7/100 persons/year for pulmonary TB. No drug resistance was found. Two clusters (4 and 2 subjects were observed after RFLP-typing of 18 isolates, with a transmission rate of 11% by molecular and clinical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of active TB was found to be a thousand times greater than in the general population. Evidence of transmission inside the prison was also found
McMurran, M; Baldwin, S
Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research.
Kerryn E. Bell
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the history occurrence and development of the problem of prison violence from the viewpoint of the intersectionality of raceethnicity and gender factors. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors predetermined the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal and sociological. Results Minority men and women are significantly impacted by mass incarceration. Mass incarceration has also resulted in a growth in prison violence and previous studies in this area have focused on individuals and not their interconnected statuses. This study specifically considers the role of intersectional criminology and the commitment of prison violence in a large western state on female inmates. Intersectional criminology is a theoretical approach that enables a critical look at the impact of individuals39 interconnected statuses in relation to crime. The authors do not hypothesize about the reasons for the dependences between raceethnicity and gender factors and the level of prison violence but state that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Intersectionality allows coming closer to solving the problem of identifying the incarcerated females as members of criminal groups and study the potential impact of this factor on the violence level. Scientific novelty for the first time the research proves that intersectionality allows receiving more reliable statistical results when estimating the level of prison violence. It has been proved that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Thus this study builds upon previous arguments that intersectionality should be more widely used in future research and discusses implications for the findings. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article
Ünal, Volkan; Özgün Ünal, Esra; Çetinkaya, Zafer; İmalı, Murat; Gürler, Selçuk; Koç, Sermet
The occurred death of a convict in prison, police custody cell or in a hospital always attracts public attention and can be considered as a complex phenomenon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the data obtained from autopsies performed to the custody and prison deaths in Istanbul and to discuss the possible solutions by comparing with the literature. It is also aimed to discuss the postponement of the sentence and presidential amnesty facts in Turkey. Deaths of inmates, which occurred in hospitals, prisons, prison medical rooms, police vans and police custody cells between 2010 and 2012 in Istanbul, Turkey were included in the study. Totally 125 cases were found and 98.4% of them were male. Natural deaths accounted for a great majority of deaths (83.2%). The most common natural cause was cardiovascular diseases. Unnatural deaths accounted for 15.2% of the deaths. Death reason cannot be determined for 1.6% of the cases. More than half of the cases (56%) were died at the hospital, 34.4% were died at the prison, 4% of them at the police van, 3.2% were died under police custody and 2.4% were died at the prison medical room. Moreover, twelve of these cases had applied to Third Specialization Board previously for postponement of the sentence or Presidential amnesty. Totally five of these cases found suitable for postponement of the sentence. Prison conditions should be improved, prisoners with chronic diseases should be examined periodically and if appropriate their sentences should be postponed until they heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.
Full Text Available Working in prison is a stressful situation for a clinical psychologist, given the contextual constraints. The psychologist is supposed to build caring relationships with psychiatric patients restricted in a iatrogenic context as the prison is. The authoridentifiesthree clustersof constraints at work in the prison context: legislative, institutional and cultural. Within this framework, the prison is faced to a conflict between custody and rehabilitation. The clinical psychologist has to manage this conflict and must build clinical settings similar to those outside the prison. The paper is based on the authors experience with short-time groups, of which a short description is givenKeywords:Prison; Prison and mental health; Custody; Rehabilitation; Clinical practice
Full Text Available Prison agencies around the world are reporting a rise in the use of illicit communication devices in prison. Nevertheless, there have been no criminological studies examining prisoners’ online behavior. Using Russia as a case study, this paper reports findings from new research on prisoners’ illicit internet use and the effects on prisoner agency and prison structure. Our main finding is that Russian penality sits at the nexus of two processes. First, penality is de-institutionalised whereby the prison, discursively speaking, is no longer fixed to a built form. Second, penality is reflexively re-territorialised by placing prisoner agency onto a third space. The paper presents a new conceptual framework of prisoners as absent, which reveals Russian penality as culturally contingent and politically resilient. The interplay between de-institutionalisation and re-territorialisation has produced a new penal imaginary - a carceral motif for the twenty first century - in the form of a virtual world. Con Rusia como estudio de caso, este artículo informa acerca de los hallazgos de nuevas investigaciones sobre el uso ilícito de Internet por parte de los reclusos, y de los efectos sobre la agencia de los reclusos y sobre la estructura de la prisión. Nuestro principal hallazgo es que las prisiones de Rusia son el punto de encuentro de dos procesos: primero, la vida en prisión se desinstitucionaliza, de modo que la prisión, en sentido discursivo, ya no está vinculada a una edificación; segundo, la existencia carcelaria se reterritorializa de forma reflexiva, a través de la traslación de la agencia del prisionero a un tercer espacio. El artículo presenta un marco conceptual nuevo de prisioneros en ausencia, que revela que la vida carcelaria de Rusia es culturalmente contingente y políticamente resiliente. La interrelación entre desinstitucionalización y reterritorialización ha producido un nuevo imaginario - un motivo carcelario para el
Marsh, John J.
This article provides a short history of education in correction, reviews selected college-level inmate education programs, and offers a model for the establishment of postsecondary education programs for offenders. (Author)
Dixey, R; Nyambe, S; Foster, S; Woodall, J; Baybutt, M
The health needs of women in sub-Saharan African prisons are both neglected and poorly understood. Outside South Africa, little research exists on African prison health; what is available tends to be gender-blind and concerned with disease prevention rather than with health promotion. While Vetten (2008) has raised this concern previously, a comprehensive overview of women’s health and health promotion in African jails is clearly absent. Available evidence shows that the conditions in African...
This thesis represents a sociological exploration of Her Majesty’s Prison Service, male prisoners’ mental health, and the provision of National Health Service mental healthcare in a prison setting. This qualitative social science study is conducted in one prison establishment. The work is characterised as a policy and practice orientated exploratory case study. The study implements an inductive approach to the datum–theory relationship, a constructionist ontological position, and an interpret...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. METHODS: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia. Men were asked, "Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?" If they responded Yes: "Have you ever done so while you were in prison?" Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. RESULTS: A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8% reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73% had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001. Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001, to have had body piercings (p<0.001 or tattoos in prison (p<0.001, and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk.
Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E
Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.
Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M.; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R.; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. Results A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Conclusion Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required. PMID
Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra
There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.
Maschi, Tina; Kwak, Jung; Ko, Eunjeong; Morrissey, Mary B.
The number of older adults with dementia in U.S. prisons is rapidly rising. Yet, the vast majority of this marginalized subgroup of the aging population is left neglected behind bars without access to adequate medical and mental health care services. We assert that proactive, interdisciplinary collaborative efforts to improve practice, policy, and…
Dock, Lavinia L
Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives for more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article, from the March 1910 issue, addresses the force-feeding of female political prisoners in Great Britain. It was written by nurse and social activist Lavinia Dock, a cofounder of the Nurses Associated Alumnae (which later became the American Nurses Association) and the International Council of Nurses and a contributing editor to AJN. Dock wrote, "Among the prisoners thus cruelly treated have been several nurses." She shared physicians' outrage that the Home Office ordered the force-feeding but tried to place responsibility for the practice entirely on prison physicians. More than a century later, the force-feeding of political prisoners continues to raise ethical and legal issues within the nursing and medical communities (see "Ethical Issues for Nurses in Force-Feeding Guantánamo Bay Detainees" in this issue).
... Prison Industries. 0.98 Section 0.98 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.98 Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons is authorized as ex officio Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries and...
Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F
Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive
Alves, Joana; Maia, Ângela; Teixeira, Filipa
Detained women have certain health conditions prior to incarceration and these conditions can improve, worsen, or remain the same in prison, depending on the prisoner's background, the characteristics of the prison, and the arrest experience. This study investigated the health of detained women and the influence of incarceration from their perspective. Three focus groups were conducted among 15 inmates, and data were analyzed according to thematic analysis procedures. Detainer's health backgrounds varied with regard to their level of health concerns, contact with health services, and health behaviors. A positive influence of incarceration was described by patients with chronic illness, patients with drug addiction, and victims of interpersonal violence. Among women with mental illnesses or those without previous health problems, reports do not reveal benefits of imprisonment for mental health. These data emphasize the importance of specialized health care and the need to invest in mental health care in corrective institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract Prisoners are entitled to have a reduction in criminal past remission as stipulated in the Indonesian Criminal Justice System still being debated to this day. This research reviews the essence of the implementation of the substantive law in granting remission against inmate corruption cases from the perspective of public and individual interests. The type of research used in this paper is socio-legal research reviewing remission policy from the perspective of the criminal law system with philosophical and statute approach. The outcomes of the research indicate that the implementation of granting remission for corruption prisoners does not provide justice both procedural and substantive does not provide legal expediency and arising imbalance of justice for individuals communities and countries. The need to implement remissions with impartial justice for corruption prisoners in granting remission to be useful for individuals communities and countries.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 540 [BOP-1149] RIN 1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice Department. ACTION: Interim final rule; technical correction. [[Page 25111
López de Goicoechea-Saiz, M E; Sternberg, F; Portilla-Sogorb, J
To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTI) in a Spanish prison, analyze the main sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with this condition and estimate the percentage of individuals with LTI who have received chemoprophylactic treatment. Cross-sectional study including inmates hosted in the Madrid VI Prison on 16/07/2016. Exclusion criteria: history of tuberculosis; non-updated tuberculin test according to the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program in Prisons protocol. Information of the variables was collected from SANIT and SIP programs, and by checking the clinical records of inmates. Description of the participant population and comparison between the frequency of distribution of the independent variables in LTI present and absent groups were performed, the last calculating the p value with Ji2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bivariate and multivariate analysis have been carried out with a logistic regression model. 936 individuals have been included. The prevalence of LTI in prison is 54.6%. This condition has been linked to the sociodemographic variables age, sex and nationality of origin, being age the one that has shown the strongest association. Among the other factors analyzed, only HCV infection behaves as a predictor of LTI. 30.3% of the individuals with LTI have completed or are receiving chemoprophylactic treatment in the moment of the study. LTI prevalence is high in the Spanish current prison population. The results of the study emphasize the relevance of the LTI screening in the prison setting, specially among high risk groups, and point out the need of a greater effort in the indication and completion of the chemoprophylactic treatment.
ME López de Goicoechea-Saiz
Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTI in a Spanish prison, analyze the main sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with this condition and estimate the percentage of individuals with LTI who have received chemoprophylactic treatment. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study including inmates hosted in the Madrid VI Prison on 16/07/2016. Exclusion criteria: history of tuberculosis; non-updated tuberculin test according to the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program in Prisons protocol. Information of the variables was collected from SANIT and SIP programs, and by checking the clinical records of inmates. Description of the participant population and comparison between the frequency of distribution of the independent variables in LTI present and absent groups were performed, the last calculating the p value with Ji2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bivariate and multivariate analysis have been carried out with a logistic regression model. Results: 936 individuals have been included. The prevalence of LTI in prison is 54.6%. This condition has been linked to the sociodemographic variables age, sex and nationality of origin, being age the one that has shown the strongest association. Among the other factors analyzed, only HCV infection behaves as a predictor of LTI. 30.3% of the individuals with LTI have completed or are receiving chemoprophylactic treatment in the moment of the study. Discussion: LTI prevalence is high in the Spanish current prison population. The results of the study emphasize the relevance of the LTI screening in the prison setting, specially among high risk groups, and point out the need of a greater effort in the indication and completion of the chemoprophylactic treatment.
Choudhry, Khurshid; Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alexandru
The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges. This study used a review of literature published over the last 11 years exploring nurses' beliefs, thoughts, and feelings toward delivering care within prison environment. With time, nurses working within prison environments develop specific skills to be able to deliver appropriate care to their patients. These skills include adapting to both the prison environment and the prison culture. Ultimately, adaptations lead to a change in identity allowing nurses to work effectively within prison. Providers of prison healthcare should ensure that induction (orientation) processes for new nurses are designed to address specific challenges that nurses face including the potential for cognitive dissonance. They should ensure that nurses receive training to develop and acquire the skills highlighted in this review. Ensuring that this training is in place may increase nurse retention.
Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean
In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
“No bastan muros de piedra para hacer una prisión” la vida cotidiana de los internos de la cárcel villahermosa, cali, colombia (“stone walls are not enough to build a prison.” the daily life of inmates at “villahermosa” prison in cali, colombia)
Harold Mauricio Nieto Castillo
RESUMEN El presente artículo derivado de investigación, describe la situación carcelaria en Colombia en los últimos años, haciendo énfasis sobre la situación particular del hacinamiento en el establecimiento carcelario Villahermosa de la ciudad de Cali (Colombia). Finalmente se realiza un análisis sobre la manera en que transcurre la vida cotidiana en dicho Centro Carcelario ABSTRACT The current article, derived from a piece of research, describes the prison situation in Colombia,...
In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner’s time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one’s sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such ‘mixed mechanisms’ in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a ‘transparent’ and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham’s model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327
Algora-Donoso, I; Varela-González, O
Annual pharmaceutical expenditures in prisons increases dramatically and the rising costs of psychoactive drugs have especially contributed to this. These drugs are often prescribed in order to find therapeutic uses in the field of personality disorders, addictions, and dysfunctional behaviours that are not included in the authorized indications (compassionate use). This study has enabled a detailed description of the use of psychoactive drugs at the Madrid III prison, a centre with one of the lowest levels of pharmaceutical expenditure in this autonomous community. During a two-week period, all prescriptions of psychoactive drugs were collected and registered along with data of several possible conditioning factors. 20.5% of the population was receiving some kind of psychoactive drug; 76% of those inmates undergoing treatment were receiving one or two substances; 65% were taking anxiolytics, 38% antidepressants and 27% antipsychotics. The total amount of psychoactive drugs consumed was 9,840 defined daily doses, 46% of which were anxiolytics, 17% antidepressants and 14% antipsychotics. The total cost of the fortnight's treatment was euros 5,379 with a saving of euro 611 due to requesting and selecting offers carried out by the pharmacist. 72% of the costs were spent on anti-psychotics and the newer psychoactive drugs, representing 66% of the prescriptions, accounted for 98% of expenditure. The prescriber was one of the key influential factors over the amount, type and cost of the treatments. There are signs that compassionate use of current antipsychotics and antiepileptics, and newer antidepressants are a main cause of the dramatic increase in the costs, with cost-efficiency not always clearly demonstrated. These results are not an isolated fact restricted only to prisons, as demonstrated by consumption data published by the National Health System in the same year.
Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the state of mental and physical health and the expressed strategies for coping with stress of prison officers which are a group that is relatively unknown and seldom subjected to the tests. Among the coping strategies, the authors also identified those that were predictors of mental and physical well-being at work men working professionally in penitentiary institutions. Material and Methods The sample consisted of 90 prison officers working in the security department who are in direct contact with inmates. The control group consisted of 85 men working in services and trade in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland, chosen by the authors as a result of intentional selection. The study used the following tools: "Psychosocial Working Conditions" Questionnaire by R. Cieślak, M. Widerszal – Bazyl, Mini-COPE Questionnaire by C.S. Carver, adapted to Poland by Z. Juczyński and N. Ogińska-Bulik. Socio-demographic data were also collected. The results were compared with a group of men working outside the uniformed services. Results In the group of prison officers, longer seniority was associated with a statistically significant deterioration of mental and physical well-being. Based on higher level of seeking support in stressful situations as well as a lower level of helplessness, one could predict a higher general level of physical and mental well-being. Conclusions Due to the character of the work and the risk of negative phenomena is important broad-based health promotion in this occupational group.
Lucas, Kimberley D; Eckert, Valorie; Behrends, Czarina N; Wheeler, Charlotte; MacGowan, Robin J; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C
Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission. Before 2010, HIV testing was available to inmates in the California state prison system upon request. In 2010, the California Correctional Health Care Services (CCHCS) integrated HIV opt-out screening into the health assessment for inmates entering California state prisons. Under this system, a medical care provider informs the inmate that an HIV test is routinely done, along with screening for sexually transmitted, communicable, and vaccine-preventable diseases, unless the inmate specifically declines the test. During 2012-2013, CCHCS, the California Department of Public Health, and CDC evaluated HIV screening, rates of new diagnoses, linkage to and retention in care, ART response, and post-release linkage to care among California prison inmates. All prison inmates are processed through one of eight specialized reception center facilities, where they undergo a comprehensive evaluation of their medical needs, mental health, and custody requirements for placement in one of 35 state prisons. Among 17,436 inmates who entered a reception center during April-September 2012, 77% were screened for HIV infection; 135 (1%) tested positive, including 10 (0.1%) with newly diagnosed infections. Among the 135 HIV-positive patient-inmates, 134 (99%) were linked to care within 90 days of diagnosis, including 122 (91%) who initiated ART. Among 83 who initiated ART and remained incarcerated through July 2013, 81 (98%) continued ART; 71 (88%) achieved viral suppression (care within 30 days of release were virally suppressed at that time. Only one of nine persons with a viral load test conducted between 91 days and 1 year post-release had viral suppression. Although high rates of viral suppression were achieved in prison, continuity of care in the community remains a challenge. An infrastructure for post
John M. Eason
Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.
Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole Johan; Asbjørnsen, Arve
From a lifelong learning perspective, education during incarceration is crucial for prisoners' rehabilitation. This article describes the authors' development of their Perceived Barriers to Prison Education Scale (PBPES) and examines what deters prisoners from participating in education during their incarceration, how their perceptions differ depending on gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties, length of prison sentence, and whether the prisoners express a desire to participate in education or not. Within a larger survey conducted in all Norwegian prisons among all prisoners with Norwegian citizenship, the authors focused on those who did not participate in education (n = 838). To reveal the underlying constructs that comprise perceived barriers, they hypothesised a three-factor model to which they applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The analysis confirmed the model, which comprised institutional barriers (e.g. insufficient practical arrangements; lack of access to computers and to the Internet), situational barriers (e.g. education is not considered to be of help in the current situation) and dispositional barriers (e.g. having difficulties in mathematics, reading, writing and concentrating), with good fit to the data. The authors used mixed-model analyses of variance to examine differences between subgroups of prisoners. Gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties and length of prison sentence were found to influence perceived barriers. The authors also observed that prisoners who wished to participate in education were more likely than others to perceive institutional barriers and less likely to perceive situational barriers.
Full Text Available Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE. Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review of medical records and three group sessions with theoretical and practical content of these diseases, as well as dietary recommendations, Mediterranean diet and exercise. Knowledge gained from surveys conducted for that purpose was evaluated. Results: A total of 33 (21% of 160. Average age 38.2 (35.2 to 41.3. Prevalence: Normal weight (BMI 18 to 24.9 18 (54.5%, overweight BMI (25.0 to 29.9 11 (33.3%, obesity (IBMI from 30 4 (12. 1%. Cardiovascular risk (CVR as ICC (waist hip ratio 10 (30% high risk, REGICOR 4 (12.1% moderate risk. Relative risk of comorbidity in 2 (6.0% had a slightly increased risk, 4 (12.1% had increased risk. Conclusions: HE interventions are necessary and effective in modifying lifestyles. The calculation of CVT should serve to implement preventive measures to reduce the factors of cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the provision of the prisoner’s rights protection in Indonesia law system of justice and its relation to the exemption conditional (EC in correctional institution. As an important issue, here is if the defendant override rules associated with the controversial issue in society, they will both at national and international level, such as human rights issues. The case was appeared recently, especially in the connection with the cases of exemption conditional, i.e. Pollycarpus Budihari Priyanto’s case. The case has become the center of public attention, especially after release of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, who has been freeing the prisoners that related to the homicides Human Rights Activists (HRA i.e Munir Said Thalib. In the community, this decision raises the pro and contra. This paper concludes that all persons deprived of their liberty will be treated with humanity and guaranteed them with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person to be in accordance with the existing rules. In this case, the government of Indonesia has given the rights of prisoners through the stages of development of the inmates according to the stage of the penal process that refers to laws and regulations and implementation of technical regulations. The paper also recommends that the need for the government to deliver data either traditionally or electronically linked plan of exemption conditional.
Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Nathaniel B. D.
This chapter describes the author's experience teaching ethnic studies inside a unique California prison, and calls for college-in-prison educators to engage culturally appropriate curricula to realize the full transformative potential of the prison classroom.
Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan
Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this article, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), are used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate that (a) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (b) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (c) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals.
Full Text Available Although much research considers the relationship between imprisonment and mortality, little existing research has tested whether the short-term mortality advantage enjoyed by prisoners extends to Hispanics. We compared the mortality rates of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners to mortality rates in the general population using data from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, the National Prisoner Statistics, the National Corrections Reporting Program, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results indicate that the mortality advantage for prisoners was greatest for black males, followed by black females, Hispanic males, white females, and white males. Hispanic female prisoners were the only group not at a mortality advantage relative to the general population, with an SMR of 1.18 [95% CI: 0.93–1.43]. Taken together, the results suggest that future research should seek to better understand the curious imprisonment–mortality relationship among Hispanic females, although given the small number of inmate deaths that happen to this group (~0.6%, this research should not detract from broader research on imprisonment and mortality. Keywords: Imprisonment, Mortality, Population health, Racial disparities