WorldWideScience

Sample records for priori distinct communities

  1. Art Priori = Art Priori / Kristel Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kristel, 1983-

    2015-01-01

    Restoran Art Priori Tallinna vanalinnas Olevimägi 7. Sisekujunduse autor Kristel Jakobson (Haka Disain). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima restorani eest. Lühidalt Kristel Jakobsonist

  2. Koncepce a priori Mikela Dufrenna

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    Felix Borecký

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The principle aim of this essay is to present Mikel Dufrenne’s conception of the a priori as an effort to overcome the sociological and historical relativism that dominates in aesthetics as in all other human sciences. Dufrenne endeavours to show that the understanding of sense cannot be derived only from an empirical framework. It does not suffice to consider only that what one has experienced or the habits, norms and values of the society in which one has grown up and by means of which one perceives reality (common sense; human beings also have a priori constants that are of crucial significance for cognition. The second section of the article presents an interpretation of how Dufrenne delimits his conception of the a priori against epistemology, and, mainly, in the third section, against Kant. The article continues, in the fourth and the sixth section respectively with an endeavour to overcome subjectivism and intellectualism, and focuses, in the fifth section, on the a priori as a historical concept that is inseparably connected with the imaginary (discussed in the seventh section. All these points are completely heterogeneous with the traditional delimitations of the a priori according to the rules of logic. Dufrenne’s notion of the a priori constitutes an original contribution to solving the problem of cognitio sensitiva, which deals with the question of the extent to which it is possible to recognize universal truths on a sensuous individual being. Dufrenne is convinced that the aesthetic aspects of experience, such as the sensuous, the imaginary, and the corporeal, are the truest guide to recognition of the deep truths about human being in the world. Here is manifested the a priori basis that is common both to human beings and the world and guaranteed by Nature. The supreme examples of aesthetic phenomena are works of art and the supreme type of experience is the aesthetic experience.

  3. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  4. Optimal phase estimation with arbitrary a priori knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    The optimal-phase estimation strategy is derived when partial a priori knowledge on the estimated phase is available. The solution is found with the help of the most famous result from the entanglement theory: the positive partial transpose criterion. The structure of the optimal measurements, estimators, and the optimal probe states is analyzed. This Rapid Communication provides a unified framework bridging the gap in the literature on the subject which until now dealt almost exclusively with two extreme cases: almost perfect knowledge (local approach based on Fisher information) and no a priori knowledge (global approach based on covariant measurements). Special attention is paid to a natural a priori probability distribution arising from a diffusion process.

  5. A priori imaginace

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    Mikel Dufrenne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Dufrenne argues that imagination need not be only the subjective capacity to invent the unreal (dreams, fantasies, but that it is actually capable of revealing images that bring human beings closer to the hidden plenitude of Nature. Among these a priori images, such as heaven, water, blood, and earth, Dufrenne emphasizes the elementary, power, depth, and purity, which he believes are the most fundamental of them. He considers a potential classification of these images on the principle of ontological quality.

  6. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

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    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  7. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (Ppermanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  8. A priori a matematika u Berkeleyho

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomeček, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 369-385 ISSN 0015-1831 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/0371 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : a priori * mathematics * empiricism * George Berkeley Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach’s early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach’s conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant’s conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounti...

  10. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

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    Lidianne L. Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1 to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2 and Rhizophora mangle (S3. Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  11. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Lidianne L.; Colares, Geórgia B.; Nogueira, Vanessa L. R.; Paes, Fernanda A.; Melo, Vânia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole. PMID:26989418

  12. A Posteriori Approach for Community Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Shi; Zhen-Yu Yan; Xin Pan; Ya-Nan Cai; Bin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Conventional community detection approaches in complex network are based on the optimization of a priori decision,i.e.,a single quality function designed beforehand.This paper proposes a posteriori decision approach for community detection.The approach includes two phases:in the search phase,a special multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is designed to search for a set of tradeoff partitions that reveal the community structure at different scales in one run; in the decision phase,three model selection criteria and the Possibility Matrix method are proposed to aid decision makers to select the preferable solutions through differentiating the set of optimal solutions according to their qualities.The experiments in five synthetic and real social networks illustrate that,in one run,our method is able to obtain many candidate solutions,which effectively avoids the resolution limit existing in priori decision approaches.In addition,our method can discover more authentic and comprehensive community structures than those priori decision approaches.

  13. A priori knowledge and the Kochen-Specker theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and formalize a notion of 'a priori knowledge' about a quantum system, and show some properties about this form of knowledge. Finally, we show that the Kochen-Specker theorem follows directly from this study

  14. A Priori Regularity of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Berkemeier, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider parabolic partial differential equations such as the heat equation, the Fokker-Planck equation, and the porous media equation. Our aim is to develop methods that provide a priori estimates for solutions with singular

  15. Total Evidence, Uncertainty and A Priori Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin; Felline, Laura; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco; Rossanese, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Defining the rational belief state of an agent in terms of her initial or a priori belief state as well as her total evidence can help to address a number of important philosophical problems. In this paper, I discuss how this strategy can be applied to cases in which evidence is uncertain. I argue

  16. Deep-sea seabed habitats: Do they support distinct mega-epifaunal communities that have different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Leduc, Daniel; Beaumont, Jennifer; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Growing economic interest in seabed resources in the deep-sea highlights the need for information about the spatial distribution and vulnerability to disturbance of benthic habitats and fauna. Categorisation of seabed habitats for management is often based on topographic features such as canyons and seamounts that can be distinguished using regional bathymetry ('mega-habitats'). This is practical but because such habitats are contiguous with others, there is potential for overlap in the communities associated with them. Because concepts of habitat and community vulnerability are based on the traits of individual taxa, the nature and extent of differences between communities have implications for strategies to manage the environmental effects of resource use. Using towed video camera transects, we surveyed mega-epifaunal communities of three topographically-defined habitats (canyon, seamount or knoll, and continental slope) and two physico-chemically defined meso-scale habitats (cold seep and hydrothermal vent) in two regions off New Zealand to assess whether each supports a distinct type of community. Cold seep and hydrothermal vent communities were strongly distinct from those in other habitats. Across the other habitats, however, distinctions between communities were often weak and were not consistent between regions. Dissimilarities among communities across all habitats were stronger and the density of filter-feeding taxa was higher in the Bay of Plenty than on the Hikurangi Margin, whereas densities of predatory and scavenging taxa were higher on the Hikurangi Margin. Substratum diversity at small spatial scales (the general utility of topographically-defined mega-habitats in environmental management, (2) fine-scale survey of individual features is necessary to identify the locations, characteristics, and extents of ecologically important or vulnerable seabed communities, and (3) evaluation of habitat vulnerability to future events should be in the context of

  17. Neurobiological Correlates and Predictors of Two Distinct Personality Trait Pathways to Escalated Alcohol Use

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    Malak Abu Shakra

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: This double dissociation provides evidence of distinct neurobiological profiles in a priori identified personality trait-based risk groups for AUDs, and links these signatures to clinically relevant substance use outcomes at follow-up. AUD subtypes might benefit from motivationally and personality-specific ameliorative and preventative interventions.

  18. Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show Distinct Recovery Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Li, Song; Avera, Bethany N; Strahm, Brian D; Badgley, Brian D

    2017-07-15

    Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decade-scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition, and cooccurrence network properties. Bacterial communities shifted gradually, with overlapping β-diversity patterns across chronosequence ages, while shifts in fungal communities were more distinct among different ages. In addition, the magnitude of intra-annual variability in bacterial β-diversity was comparable to the changes across decades of chronosequence age, while fungal communities changed minimally across months. Finally, the complexity of bacterial cooccurrence networks increased with chronosequence age, while fungal networks did not show clear age-related trends. We hypothesize that these contrasting dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the chronosequence result from (i) higher growth rates for bacteria, leading to higher intra-annual variability; (ii) higher tolerance to environmental changes for fungi; and (iii) stronger influence of vegetation on fungal communities. IMPORTANCE Both bacteria and fungi play essential roles in ecosystem functions, and information about their recovery after extreme disturbances is important for understanding whole-ecosystem development. Given their many differences in phenotype, phylogeny, and life history, a comparison of different bacterial and fungal recovery

  19. Learning to improve medical decision making from imbalanced data without a priori cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-05

    In a medical data set, data are commonly composed of a minority (positive or abnormal) group and a majority (negative or normal) group and the cost of misclassifying a minority sample as a majority sample is highly expensive. This is the so-called imbalanced classification problem. The traditional classification functions can be seriously affected by the skewed class distribution in the data. To deal with this problem, people often use a priori cost to adjust the learning process in the pursuit of optimal classification function. However, this priori cost is often unknown and hard to estimate in medical decision making. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, named RankCost, to classify imbalanced medical data without using a priori cost. Instead of focusing on improving the class-prediction accuracy, RankCost is to maximize the difference between the minority class and the majority class by using a scoring function, which translates the imbalanced classification problem into a partial ranking problem. The scoring function is learned via a non-parametric boosting algorithm. We compare RankCost to several representative approaches on four medical data sets varying in size, imbalanced ratio, and dimension. The experimental results demonstrate that unlike the currently available methods that often perform unevenly with different priori costs, RankCost shows comparable performance in a consistent manner. It is a challenging task to learn an effective classification model based on imbalanced data in medical data analysis. The traditional approaches often use a priori cost to adjust the learning of the classification function. This work presents a novel approach, namely RankCost, for learning from medical imbalanced data sets without using a priori cost. The experimental results indicate that RankCost performs very well in imbalanced data classification and can be a useful method in real-world applications of medical decision making.

  20. Distinct responses of bacterial communities to agricultural and urban impacts in temperate southern African estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, G. F.; Froneman, P. W.; Meiklejohn, I.; Dorrington, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, estuaries are regarded as amongst the most ecologically threatened ecosystems and are increasingly being impacted by urban development, agricultural activities and reduced freshwater inflow. In this study, we examined the influence of different human activities on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in the water column and sediment in three distinct, temperate permanently open estuarine systems within the same geographic region of southern Africa. The Kariega system is freshwater-deprived and is considered to be relatively pristine; the Kowie estuary is marine-dominated and impacted by urban development, while the Sundays system is fresh-water dominated and impacted by agricultural activity in its catchment. The bacterial communities in all three systems comprise predominantly heterotrophic species belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla with little overlap between bacterioplankton and benthic bacterial communities at the species level. There was overlap between the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Kowie and Kariega, both marine-influenced estuaries. However, lower species richness in the Kowie, likely reflects the impact of human settlements along the estuary. The dominant OTUs in the Sundays River system were distinct from those of the Kariega and Kowie estuaries with an overall decrease in species richness and evenness. This study provides an important snapshot into the microbial population structures of permanently open temperate estuarine systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on bacterial diversity and community structure.

  1. Practical interior tomography with radial Hilbert filtering and a priori knowledge in a small round area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaojie; Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Interior tomography problem can be solved using the so-called differentiated backprojection-projection onto convex sets (DBP-POCS) method, which requires a priori knowledge within a small area interior to the region of interest (ROI) to be imaged. In theory, the small area wherein the a priori knowledge is required can be in any shape, but most of the existing implementations carry out the Hilbert filtering either horizontally or vertically, leading to a vertical or horizontal strip that may be across a large area in the object. In this work, we implement a practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and thus the small area with the a priori knowledge can be roughly round (e.g., a sinus or ventricles among other anatomic cavities in human or animal body). We also conduct an experimental evaluation to verify the performance of this practical implementation. We specifically re-derive the reconstruction formula in the DBP-POCS fashion with radial Hilbert filtering to assure that only a small round area with the a priori knowledge be needed (namely radial DBP-POCS method henceforth). The performance of the practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and a priori knowledge in a small round area is evaluated with projection data of the standard and modified Shepp-Logan phantoms simulated by computer, followed by a verification using real projection data acquired by a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The preliminary performance study shows that, if a priori knowledge in a small round area is available, the radial DBP-POCS method can solve the interior tomography problem in a more practical way at high accuracy. In comparison to the implementations of DBP-POCS method demanding the a priori knowledge in horizontal or vertical strip, the radial DBP-POCS method requires the a priori knowledge within a small round area only. Such a relaxed requirement on the availability of a priori knowledge can be readily met in practice, because a variety of small

  2. Forensic microbiology: Evolving from discriminating distinct microbes to characterizing entire microbial communities on decomposing remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The body of an animal encompasses a multitude of compositionally and functionally unique microbial environments, from the skin to the gastrointestinal system. Each of these systems harbor microbial communities that have adapted in order to cohabitate with their specific host resulting in a distinct...

  3. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

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    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  4. Introduction of a priori information in the elastic linearized inversion of seismic data before stacking; Introduction d'informations a priori dans l'inversion linearisee elastique de donnees sismiques de surface avant sommation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonellot, Th.L.

    2000-03-24

    In this thesis, we propose a method which takes into account a priori information (geological, diagraphic and stratigraphic knowledge) in linearized pre-stack seismic data inversion. The approach is based on a formalism in which the a priori information is incorporated in an a priori model of elastic parameters - density, P and S impedances - and a model covariance operator which describes the uncertainties in the model. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the study of this covariance operator and to the norm associated to its inverse. We have generalized the exponential covariance operator in order to describe the uncertainties in the a priori model elastic parameters and their correlations at each location. We give the analytical expression of the covariance operator inverse in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D, and we discretized the associated norm with a finite element method. The second part is dedicated to synthetic and real examples. In a preliminary step, we have developed a pre-stack data well calibration method which allows the estimation of the source signal. The impact of different a priori information is then demonstrated on synthetic and real data. (author)

  5. Intention to use a fully automated car: attitudes and a priori acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    PAYRE, William; CESTAC, Julien; DELHOMME, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    If previous research studied acceptability of partially or highly automated driving, few of them focused on fully automated driving (FAD), including the ability to master longitudinal control, lateral control and maneuvers. The present study analyzes a priori acceptability, attitudes, personality traits and intention to use a fully automated vehicle. 421 French drivers (153 males, M= 40.2 years, age range 19-73) answered an online questionnaire. 68.1% of the sample a priori accepted FAD. P...

  6. Conventional Principles in Science: On the foundations and development of the relativized a priori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Milena; Farr, Matt

    2015-11-01

    The present volume consists of a collection of papers originally presented at the conference Conventional Principles in Science, held at the University of Bristol, August 2011, which featured contributions on the history and contemporary development of the notion of 'relativized a priori' principles in science, from Henri Poincaré's conventionalism to Michael Friedman's contemporary defence of the relativized a priori. In Science and Hypothesis, Poincaré assessed the problematic epistemic status of Euclidean geometry and Newton's laws of motion, famously arguing that each has the status of 'convention' in that their justification is neither analytic nor empirical in nature. In The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Hans Reichenbach, in light of the general theory of relativity, proposed an updated notion of the Kantian synthetic a priori to account for the dynamic inter-theoretic status of geometry and other non-empirical physical principles. Reichenbach noted that one may reject the 'necessarily true' aspect of the synthetic a priori whilst preserving the feature of being constitutive of the object of knowledge. Such constitutive principles are theory-relative, as illustrated by the privileged role of non-Euclidean geometry in general relativity theory. This idea of relativized a priori principles in spacetime physics has been analysed and developed at great length in the modern literature in the work of Michael Friedman, in particular the roles played by the light postulate and the equivalence principle - in special and general relativity respectively - in defining the central terms of their respective theories and connecting the abstract mathematical formalism of the theories with their empirical content. The papers in this volume guide the reader through the historical development of conventional and constitutive principles in science, from the foundational work of Poincaré, Reichenbach and others, to contemporary issues and applications of the

  7. Sensitivity of the OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) to a priori assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) algorithm to a number of a priori assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved ozone profile. Then, we studied how to

  8. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently. PMID:26389950

  9. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

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    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata D'Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently.

  11. Razonamiento a priori y argumento ontológico en Antonio Rosmini

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    Juan F. Franck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosmini’s criticism of the ontological argument finds its place between those of Aquinas and of Kant. With the former he shares the denial of the evidence of God’s essence quoad nos, and with the latter, his acknowledgment of the decisive character of the nucleus of the ontological argument for all other proofs of God’s existence. Such nucleus consists for Rosmini in the possibility of developing an a priori reasoning, different from the ontological one, be it in its Anselmian, Cartesian or Leibnizian form, which would justify the validity of the other proofs and the fascination exercised by the ontological argument. Key words: A Priori Reasoning, Ontological Argument, Antonio Rosmini.

  12. A Priori Knowledge and Heuristic Reasoning in Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that the various classes of a priori knowledge incorporated in heuristic reasoning processes exert a strong influence over architectural design activity. Some design problems require exercise of some provisional set of rules, inference, or plausible strategy which requires heuristic reasoning. A case study illustrates this concept.…

  13. A concept for automated nanoscale atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements using a priori knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, C; Rothe, H

    2009-01-01

    The nanometer coordinate measuring machine (NCMM) is developed for comparatively fast large area scans with high resolution. The system combines a metrological atomic force microscope (AFM) with a precise positioning system. The sample is moved under the probe system via the positioning system achieving a scan range of 25 × 25 × 5 mm 3 with a resolution of 0.1 nm. A concept for AFM measurements using a priori knowledge is implemented. The a priori knowledge is generated through measurements with a white light interferometer and the use of CAD data. Dimensional markup language is used as a transfer and target format for a priori knowledge and measurement data. Using the a priori knowledge and template matching algorithms combined with the optical microscope of the NCMM, the region of interest can automatically be identified. In the next step the automatic measurement of the part coordinate system and the measurement elements with the AFM sensor of the NCMM is done. The automatic measurement involves intelligent measurement strategies, which are adapted to specific geometries of the measurement feature to reduce measurement time and drift effects

  14. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our

  15. Incorporating a priori knowledge into initialized weights for neural classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhe; Feng, T.J.; Feng, Tian-Jin; Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), especially, multilayer perceptrons (MLP) have been widely used in pattern recognition and classification. Nevertheless, how to incorporate a priori knowledge in the design of ANNs is still an open problem. The paper tries to give some insight on this topic

  16. Mineral and organic growing media have distinct community structure, stability and functionality in soilless culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Perneel, Maaike; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Reheul, Dirk; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-05

    The choice of soilless growing medium for plant nutrition, growth and support is crucial for improving the eco-sustainability of the production in horticultural systems. As our current understanding of the functional microbial communities inhabiting this ecosystem is still limited, we examined the microbial community development of the two most important growing media (organic and mineral) used in open soilless horticultural systems. We aimed to identify factors that influence community composition over time, and to compare the distribution of individual taxa across growing media, and their potential functionality. High throughput sequencing analysis revealed a distinctive and stable microbial community in the organic growing medium. Humidity, pH, nitrate-N, ammonium-N and conductivity were uncovered as the main factors associated with the resident bacterial communities. Ammonium-N was correlated with Rhizobiaceae abundance, while potential competitive interactions among both Methylophilaceae and Actinobacteridae with Rhizobiaceae were suggested. Our results revealed that soilless growing media are unique niches for diverse bacterial communities with temporal functional stability, which may possibly impact the resistance to external forces. These differences in communities can be used to develop strategies to move towards a sustainable horticulture with increased productivity and quality.

  17. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    their roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables......FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise...... the emergency dispatcher to send an organised team of three first responders with distinct roles to the scene automatically. During the first 24 months the FirstAED system was used 718 times. Three first responders arrived in ∼89% of the cases, and they arrived before the ambulance in ∼94% of the cases. First...

  18. Psicoanálisis y filosofía: el problema del a priori de la investigación en Heidegger y Winnicott Psychoanalysis and philosophy: the problem of a priori research in Heidegger and Winnicott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bareiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intenta presentar la relación entre saber psicoanalítico y filosofía a partir de un diálogo entre Winnicott y Heidegger. Para ello se llevará a cabo dos reconstrucciones argumentativas. En primer lugar, se expondrá el modo en que Heidegger determina el carácter a priori de su investigación. En segundo lugar, se hará un recorrido por la obra de Winnicott a fin de determinar cómo concibe el vínculo entre psicoanálisis y filosofía y, fundamentalmente, para establecer si hay lugar en su pensamiento para un a priori que permita trazar un vínculo con la filosofía.This paper aims to present the relationship between psychoanalytic knowledge and philosophy through to dialogue between Winnicott and Heidegger. This will take place two reconstructions argumentative. First, it exposed the way in which Heidegger determines the a priori character of their research. Secondly, it will go through to Winnicott´s work to determine how he conceives the relationship between psychoanalysis and philosophy and, crucially, to establish if a form in their thinking to a priori that allows a link with philosophy.

  19. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  20. A priori data-driven multi-clustered reservoir generation algorithm for echo state network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Li

    Full Text Available Echo state networks (ESNs with multi-clustered reservoir topology perform better in reservoir computing and robustness than those with random reservoir topology. However, these ESNs have a complex reservoir topology, which leads to difficulties in reservoir generation. This study focuses on the reservoir generation problem when ESN is used in environments with sufficient priori data available. Accordingly, a priori data-driven multi-cluster reservoir generation algorithm is proposed. The priori data in the proposed algorithm are used to evaluate reservoirs by calculating the precision and standard deviation of ESNs. The reservoirs are produced using the clustering method; only the reservoir with a better evaluation performance takes the place of a previous one. The final reservoir is obtained when its evaluation score reaches the preset requirement. The prediction experiment results obtained using the Mackey-Glass chaotic time series show that the proposed reservoir generation algorithm provides ESNs with extra prediction precision and increases the structure complexity of the network. Further experiments also reveal the appropriate values of the number of clusters and time window size to obtain optimal performance. The information entropy of the reservoir reaches the maximum when ESN gains the greatest precision.

  1. Monte Carlo full-waveform inversion of crosshole GPR data using multiple-point geostatistical a priori information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a general Monte Carlo full-waveform inversion strategy that integrates a priori information described by geostatistical algorithms with Bayesian inverse problem theory. The extended Metropolis algorithm can be used to sample the a posteriori probability density of highly nonlinear...... inverse problems, such as full-waveform inversion. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a method that allows efficient sampling of a priori probability densities described by geostatistical algorithms based on either two-point (e.g., Gaussian) or multiple-point statistics. We outline the theoretical framework......) Based on a posteriori realizations, complicated statistical questions can be answered, such as the probability of connectivity across a layer. (3) Complex a priori information can be included through geostatistical algorithms. These benefits, however, require more computing resources than traditional...

  2. Why Even Mind? -- On The A Priori Value Of “Life”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amien Kacou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: Arial"span style="font-weight: normal; font-size: 12pt; text-decoration: none"font face="Times New Roman"span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"This article presentsnbsp;an analysis of the matter of the ldquo;meaningrdquo; of life in terms of whether it should even be lived in the first place. It begins with an attempt at defining the question as an inquiry on the ema priori/em value of attention in general, and develops into an axiological reflection distantly inspired from Martin Heideggerrsquo;s notion of ldquo;care.rdquo; The main objective of the article is (1 to ldquo;answerrdquo; the question (or to proceed as if the question could be answered objectively by ldquo;playing alongrdquo; with its naiuml;ve logicmdash;that is, by finding a basis for comparing the good that can be found ema priori/em in life (mainly, pleasure with the good that can be found ema priori/em in death (mainly, the absence of painmdash;and, then, (2 to suggest why we have no good reason to feel dissatisfied with where this leaves us (i.e., possibly facing a certain specter of ethical foundationalism: the question of the ldquo;value of valuerdquo;. Its basic conclusion is, assuming we are committed to assigning value to life emin general/em, that we should be able to say that life is good emirrespective of /emany explanation for its existence./span/font/span/span

  3. Elimination of hidden a priori information from remotely sensed profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Profiles of atmospheric state variables retrieved from remote measurements often contain a priori information which causes complication in the statistical use of data and in the comparison with other measured or modeled data. For such applications it often is desirable to remove the a priori information from the data product. If the retrieval involves an ill-posed inversion problem, formal removal of the a priori information requires resampling of the data on a coarser grid, which in some sense, however, is a prior constraint in itself. The fact that the trace of the averaging kernel matrix of a retrieval is equivalent to the number of degrees of freedom of the retrieval is used to define an appropriate information-centered representation of the data where each data point represents one degree of freedom. Since regridding implies further degradation of the data and thus causes additional loss of information, a re-regularization scheme has been developed which allows resampling without additional loss of information. For a typical ClONO2 profile retrieved from spectra as measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, the constrained retrieval has 9.7 degrees of freedom. After application of the proposed transformation to a coarser information-centered altitude grid, there are exactly 9 degrees of freedom left, and the averaging kernel on the coarse grid is unity. Pure resampling on the information-centered grid without re-regularization would reduce the degrees of freedom to 7.1 (6.7 for a staircase (triangular representation scheme.

  4. New a priori estimates for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-01

    We present recent developments in crowd dynamics models (e.g. pedestrian flow problems). Our formulation is given by a mean-field game (MFG) with congestion. We start by reviewing earlier models and results. Next, we develop our model. We establish new a priori estimates that give partial regularity of the solutions. Finally, we discuss numerical results.

  5. New a priori estimates for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2016-01-06

    We present recent developments in crowd dynamics models (e.g. pedestrian flow problems). Our formulation is given by a mean-field game (MFG) with congestion. We start by reviewing earlier models and results. Next, we develop our model. We establish new a priori estimates that give partial regularity of the solutions. Finally, we discuss numerical results.

  6. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  7. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  8. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  9. Plasma ascorbic acid, a priori diet quality score, and incident hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, D.R.; Steffen, L.M.; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other's predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and

  10. Improving multiple-point-based a priori models for inverse problems by combining Sequential Simulation with the Frequency Matching Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine

    In order to move beyond simplified covariance based a priori models, which are typically used for inverse problems, more complex multiple-point-based a priori models have to be considered. By means of marginal probability distributions ‘learned’ from a training image, sequential simulation has...... proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...

  11. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Importance of A Priori Vertical Ozone Profiles for TEMPO Air Quality Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address the limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm is suggested to use a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB-Clim) O3 climatology). This study evaluates the TB-Clim dataset and model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time data assimilation model products (NASA GMAO's operational GEOS-5 FP model and reanalysis data from MERRA2) and a full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem. In this study, vertical profile products are evaluated with surface (0-2 km) and tropospheric (0-10 km) TOLNet observations and the theoretical impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of TEMPO O3 retrievals in the troposphere and at the surface are presented. Results indicate that while the TB-Clim climatological dataset can replicate seasonally-averaged tropospheric O3 profiles, model-simulated profiles from a full CTM resulted in more accurate tropospheric and surface-level O3 retrievals from

  13. Image reconstruction in electrostatic tomography using a priori knowledge from ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Zhang Jianyong; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A dual-mode sensor technique based on ECT and EST is proposed. → The interference of the charged particles to ECT can be eliminated. → A priori knowledge from ECT improves the inversion accuracy. - Abstract: In gas-solid two-phase flow, the charge distribution is a very important process parameter which is useful to the study of electrostatic adhesion. Electrostatic tomography (EST) is a relatively new non-intrusive technique which can be used to acquire charge distribution. However, due to limited measurements, the quality of image reconstruction is poor. In this paper, a dual-mode sensor technique based on electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and EST is proposed. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation results reveal that the permittivity distribution obtained from ECT can provide a priori knowledge for the inversion calculation of EST, so that the accuracy of spatial sensitivity calculation in EST can be improved. This proposed technique is expected to be prospective in industrial applications and will also be beneficial to the research on the fluid dynamics of gas-solid two-phase flow.

  14. Profile reconstruction from neutron reflectivity data and a priori knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of incomplete and noisy information in profile reconstruction from neutron reflectometry data is considered. In particular methods of Bayesian statistics in combination with modelling or inverse scattering techniques are considered in order to properly include the required a priori knowledge to obtain quantitatively reliable estimates of the reconstructed profiles. Applying Bayes theorem the results of different experiments on the same sample can be consistently included in the profile reconstruction

  15. Full 3-D stratigraphic inversion with a priori information: a powerful way to optimize data integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizon, L.; Leger, M.; Dequirez, P.Y.; Dumont, F.; Richard, V.

    1998-12-31

    Integration between seismic and geological data is crucial to ensure that a reservoir study is accurate and reliable. To reach this goal, there is used a post-stack stratigraphic inversion with a priori information. The global cost-function combines two types of constraints. One is relevant to seismic amplitudes, and the other to an a priori impedance model. This paper presents this flexible and interpretative inversion to determine acoustic impedances constrained by seismic data, log data and geologic information. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. LMFBR safety criteria: cost-benefit considerations under the constraint of an a priori risk criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.

    1979-01-01

    The role of cost-benefit considerations and a priori risk criteria as determinants of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA)-related safety criteria for large LMFBR's is explored with the aid of quantitative risk and probabilistic analysis methods. A methodology is described which allows a large number of design and siting alternatives to be traded off against each other with the goal of minimizing energy generation costs subject to the constraint of both an a priori risk criterion and a cost-benefit criterion. Application of this methodology to a specific LMFBR design project is described and the results are discussed. 5 refs

  17. Realism, functions, and the a priori: Ernst Cassirer's philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heis, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the main ideas of Cassirer's general philosophy of science, focusing on the two aspects of his thought that--in addition to being the most central ideas in his philosophy of science--have received the most attention from contemporary philosophers of science: his theory of the a priori aspects of physical theory, and his relation to scientific realism.

  18. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer

  19. Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intes, Xavier; Maloux, Clemence; Guven, Murat; Yazici, Birzen; Chance, Britton

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is a typical inverse problem plagued by ill-condition. To overcome this drawback, regularization or constraining techniques are incorporated in the inverse formulation. In this work, we investigate the enhancement in recovering functional parameters by using physiological and spatial a priori constraints. More accurate recovery of the two main functional parameters that are the blood volume and the relative saturation is demonstrated through simulations by using our method compared to actual techniques. (note)

  20. Approximate deconvolution model for the simulation of turbulent gas-solid flows: An a priori analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Simon; Saeedipour, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    Highly resolved two-fluid model (TFM) simulations of gas-solid flows in vertical periodic channels have been performed to study closures for the filtered drag force and the Reynolds-stress-like contribution stemming from the convective terms. An approximate deconvolution model (ADM) for the large-eddy simulation of turbulent gas-solid suspensions is detailed and subsequently used to reconstruct those unresolved contributions in an a priori manner. With such an approach, an approximation of the unfiltered solution is obtained by repeated filtering allowing the determination of the unclosed terms of the filtered equations directly. A priori filtering shows that predictions of the ADM model yield fairly good agreement with the fine grid TFM simulations for various filter sizes and different particle sizes. In particular, strong positive correlation (ρ > 0.98) is observed at intermediate filter sizes for all sub-grid terms. Additionally, our study reveals that the ADM results moderately depend on the choice of the filters, such as box and Gaussian filter, as well as the deconvolution order. The a priori test finally reveals that ADM is superior compared to isotropic functional closures proposed recently [S. Schneiderbauer, "A spatially-averaged two-fluid model for dense large-scale gas-solid flows," AIChE J. 63, 3544-3562 (2017)].

  1. LandScape: a simple method to aggregate p--Values and other stochastic variables without a priori grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuf, Carsten; Pallesen, Jonatan; Foldager, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    variables without assuming a priori defined groups. We provide different ways to evaluate the significance of the aggregated variables based on theoretical considerations and resampling techniques, and show that under certain assumptions the FWER is controlled in the strong sense. Validity of the method...... and the results might depend on the chosen criteria. Methods that summarize, or aggregate, test statistics or p-values, without relying on a priori criteria, are therefore desirable. We present a simple method to aggregate a sequence of stochastic variables, such as test statistics or p-values, into fewer...

  2. Natural Microbial Assemblages Reflect Distinct Organismal and Functional Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to link microbial community structure to function has long been a primary focus of environmental microbiology. With the advent of community genomic and proteomic techniques, along with advances in microscopic imaging techniques, it is now possible to gain insights into the organismal and functional makeup of microbial communities. Biofilms growing within highly acidic solutions inside the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, Redding, California) exhibit distinct macro- and microscopic morphologies. They are composed of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life, including archaea, bacteria and eukarya. The proportion of each organismal type depends on sampling location and developmental stage. For example, mature biofilms floating on top of acid mine drainage (AMD) pools exhibit layers consisting of a densely packed bottom layer of the chemoautolithotroph Leptospirillum group II, a less dense top layer composed mainly of archaea, and fungal filaments spanning across the entire biofilm. The expression of cytochrome 579 (the most highly abundant protein in the biofilm, believed to be central to iron oxidation and encoded by Leptospirillum group II) is localized at the interface of the biofilm with the AMD solution, highlighting that biofilm architecture is reflected at the functional gene expression level. Distinct functional partitioning is also apparent in a biological wastewater treatment system that selects for distinct polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Community genomic data from " Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" dominated activated sludge has enabled high mass-accuracy shotgun proteomics for identification of key metabolic pathways. Comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins suggests distinct partitioning of protein variants involved in both core-metabolism and specific metabolic pathways among the dominant population and closely related species. In addition, strain- resolved proteogenomic analysis of the AMD biofilms

  3. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Bai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2 techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai, an Oxisol (Leizhou, and an Ultisol (Taoyuan along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria, β-proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and

  4. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ren; Wang, Jun-Tao; Deng, Ye; He, Ji-Zheng; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2) techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai), an Oxisol (Leizhou), and an Ultisol (Taoyuan) along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth) in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria , Chloroflexi , and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria , β -proteobacteria , and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota , Thaumarchaeota , and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and

  5. Unique hyper-thermal composting process in Kagoshima City forms distinct bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Tabata, Hanae; Itahara, Asuka; Shimizu, Natsuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    A unique compost, Satsuma soil, is produced from three types of wastewater sludge using hyper-thermal processes at temperatures much higher than that of general thermophilic processes in Kagoshima City, Japan. We analyzed the bacterial community structures of this hyper-thermal compost sample and other sludges and composts by a high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 621,076 reads were derived from 17 samples and filtered. Artificial sequences were deleted and the reads were clustered based on the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. Phylum-level analysis of the hyper-thermal compost revealed drastic changes of the sludge structures (each relative abundance) from Firmicutes (average 47.8%), Proteobacteria (average 22.3%), and Bacteroidetes (average 10.1%) to two main phyla including Firmicutes (73.6%) and Actinobacteria (25.0%) with less Proteobacteria (∼0.3%) and Bacteroidetes (∼0.1%). Furthermore, we determined the predominant species (each relative abundance) of the hyper-thermal compost including Firmicutes related to Staphylococcus cohnii (13.8%), Jeotgalicoccus coquinae (8.01%), and Staphylococcus lentus (5.96%), and Actinobacteria related to Corynebacterium stationis (6.41%), and found that these species were not predominant in wastewater sludge. In contrast, we did not observe any common structures among eight other composts produced, using the hyper-thermal composts as the inoculums, under thermophilic conditions from different materials. Principle coordinate analysis of the hyper-thermal compost indicated a large difference in bacterial community structures from material sludge and other composts. These results suggested that a distinct bacterial community structure was formed by hyper-thermal composting. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. © FEMS 2017.

  7. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  8. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Leblanc, T.; Berkoff, T.; Gronoff, G.; Chen, G.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  9. Solution of underdetermined systems of equations with gridded a priori constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiros, Stathis C; Saltogianni, Vasso

    2014-01-01

    The TOPINV, Topological Inversion algorithm (or TGS, Topological Grid Search) initially developed for the inversion of highly non-linear redundant systems of equations, can solve a wide range of underdetermined systems of non-linear equations. This approach is a generalization of a previous conclusion that this algorithm can be used for the solution of certain integer ambiguity problems in Geodesy. The overall approach is based on additional (a priori) information for the unknown variables. In the past, such information was used either to linearize equations around approximate solutions, or to expand systems of observation equations solved on the basis of generalized inverses. In the proposed algorithm, the a priori additional information is used in a third way, as topological constraints to the unknown n variables, leading to an R(n) grid containing an approximation of the real solution. The TOPINV algorithm does not focus on point-solutions, but exploits the structural and topological constraints in each system of underdetermined equations in order to identify an optimal closed space in the R(n) containing the real solution. The centre of gravity of the grid points defining this space corresponds to global, minimum-norm solutions. The rationale and validity of the overall approach are demonstrated on the basis of examples and case studies, including fault modelling, in comparison with SVD solutions and true (reference) values, in an accuracy-oriented approach.

  10. The Mediterranean Diet: its definition and evaluation of a priori dietary indexes in primary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.

  11. Geopositioning with a quadcopter: Extracted feature locations and predicted accuracy without a priori sensor attitude information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Edwards, David; Theiss, Henry; Braun, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Full Motion Video-Geopositioning Test Bed (FMV-GTB) developed to investigate algorithm performance and issues related to the registration of motion imagery and subsequent extraction of feature locations along with predicted accuracy. A case study is included corresponding to a video taken from a quadcopter. Registration of the corresponding video frames is performed without the benefit of a priori sensor attitude (pointing) information. In particular, tie points are automatically measured between adjacent frames using standard optical flow matching techniques from computer vision, an a priori estimate of sensor attitude is then computed based on supplied GPS sensor positions contained in the video metadata and a photogrammetric/search-based structure from motion algorithm, and then a Weighted Least Squares adjustment of all a priori metadata across the frames is performed. Extraction of absolute 3D feature locations, including their predicted accuracy based on the principles of rigorous error propagation, is then performed using a subset of the registered frames. Results are compared to known locations (check points) over a test site. Throughout this entire process, no external control information (e.g. surveyed points) is used other than for evaluation of solution errors and corresponding accuracy.

  12. A priori and a posteriori approaches in human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon-Fouco, M.; Gagnolet, P.

    1981-09-01

    The French atomic energy commission (CEA) and the French supplier in electric power (EDF) have joint studies on human factors in nuclear safety. This paper deals with these studies which are a combination of two approaches: - An a posteriori approach so as to know the rate of human errors and their causes: an analysis of incident data banks and an analysis of human errors on simulator are presented. - An a priori approach so as to know the potential factors of human errors: an analysis of the control rooms design and an analysis of the writing of procedures are presented. The possibility to take into account these two approaches to prevent and quantify human errors is discussed

  13. Towards Improving Satellite Tropospheric NO2 Retrieval Products: Impacts of the spatial resolution and lighting NOx production from the a priori chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, C. D.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Boersma, F.

    2009-12-01

    Polar orbiting satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns are important to a variety of scientific applications. These NO2 retrievals rely on a priori profiles from chemical transport models and radiative transfer models to derive the vertical columns (VCs) from slant columns measurements. In this work, we compare the retrieval results using a priori profiles from a global model (TM4) and a higher resolution regional model (REAM) at the OMI overpass hour of 1330 local time, implementing the Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) retrieval. We also compare the retrieval results using a priori profiles from REAM model simulations with and without lightning NOx (NO + NO2) production. A priori model resolution and lightning NOx production are both found to have large impact on satellite retrievals by altering the satellite sensitivity to a particular observation by shifting the NO2 vertical distribution interpreted by the radiation model. The retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCs may increase by 25-100% in urban regions and be reduced by 50% in rural regions if the a priori profiles from REAM simulations are used during the retrievals instead of the profiles from TM4 simulations. The a priori profiles with lightning NOx may result in a 25-50% reduction of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCs compared to the a priori profiles without lightning. As first priority, a priori vertical NO2 profiles from a chemical transport model with a high resolution, which can better simulate urban-rural NO2 gradients in the boundary layer and make use of observation-based parameterizations of lightning NOx production, should be first implemented to obtain more accurate NO2 retrievals over the United States, where NOx source regions are spatially separated and lightning NOx production is significant. Then as consequence of a priori NO2 profile variabilities resulting from lightning and model resolution dynamics, geostationary satellite, daylight observations would further promote the next

  14. Verdad y apertura de mundo. El problema de los juicios sintéticos a priori tras el giro lingüístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LAFONT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo analiza el impacto del giro lingüístico en la transformación de la concepción kantiana de los juicios sintéticos a priori. Se centra para ello en dos concepciones contemporáneas de los mismos, a saber, el a priori hermenéutico de Heidegger y el a priori contextual de Putnam, y saca a relucir expresamente tanto sus rasgos similares como sus importantes diferencias: mientras que la concepción heideggeriana mantiene el idealismo transcendental de Kant a través de la suposición hermenéutica de que el significado determina la referencia, la concepción de Putnam rompe por completo con la teoría kantiana de los juicios sintéticos a priori, según la cual éstos no pueden ser modificados por la sola experiencia, al tiempo que rechaza la suposición kantiana de que los juicios sintéticos a priori y aposteriori son dos clases permanentes de juicios. En contraste con Heidegger, Putnam es por eso capaz de mostrar que los juicios sintéticos apriori son modificables bajo condiciones especiales.ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the impact of the linguistic turn in the transformation of the Kantian conception of the synthetic a priori. It focuses on two contemporary conceptions of the synthetic apriori, namely, Heidegger's hermeneutic apriori and Putnam's contextual apriori and shows their strikingly similar features as well as their important differences: whereas Heidegger's conception retains Kant's transcendental idealism via the hermeneutic assumption that meaning determines reference, Putnam's conception breaks entirely of Kant's conception fo synthetic a priori judgments, namely, that they cannot be revised by experience alone, while rejecting the Kantian assumption that synthetic apriori and aposteriori are permanent statuses of judgments. In contradistinction to Heidegger, Putnam is thus able to show that synthetic apriori judgments are revisable under special conditions.

  15. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below -10ºC. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA......The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78º......N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable...

  16. Content analyses of a priori qualitative phantom limb pain descriptions and emerging categories in mid-southerners with limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cecile B

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were (a) to identify the relative frequencies of a priori categories of phantom limb pain (PLP) quality descriptors reported by Mid-Southerners with limb loss, (b) to analyze their descriptions for emerging categories of PLP, and (c) to identify the relative frequencies of the emerging categories. This cross-sectional descriptive verbal survey assessed PLP descriptors. A content analyses determined relative frequencies of a priori PLP descriptors as well as emerging categories that were identified. The most common a priori PLP quality descriptors reported by 52 amputees with PLP were intermittent, tingling/needles/numb, sharp, cramping, burning, and stabbing. The most common emerging categories reported were pain compared to illness/injury, electrical cyclical, and manipulated/positional. The detailed descriptions of PLP provide insight into the vivid experiences of PLP. Rehabilitation nurses can use this information with PLP assessment, patient teaching, and counseling. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  17. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-12-06

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance.

  18. A Priori Regularity of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Berkemeier, Francisco

    2018-05-13

    In this thesis, we consider parabolic partial differential equations such as the heat equation, the Fokker-Planck equation, and the porous media equation. Our aim is to develop methods that provide a priori estimates for solutions with singular initial data. These estimates are obtained by understanding the time decay of norms of solutions. First, we derive regularity results for the heat equation by estimating the decay of Lebesgue norms. Then, we apply similar methods to the Fokker-Planck equation with suitable assumptions on the advection and diffusion. Finally, we conclude by extending our techniques to the porous media equation. The sharpness of our results is confirmed by examining known solutions of these equations. The main contribution of this thesis is the use of functional inequalities to express decay of norms as differential inequalities. These are then combined with ODE methods to deduce estimates for the norms of solutions and their derivatives.

  19. Global a priori estimates for the inhomogeneous Landau equation with moderately soft potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stephen; Silvestre, Luis; Snelson, Stanley

    2018-05-01

    We establish a priori upper bounds for solutions to the spatially inhomogeneous Landau equation in the case of moderately soft potentials, with arbitrary initial data, under the assumption that mass, energy and entropy densities stay under control. Our pointwise estimates decay polynomially in the velocity variable. We also show that if the initial data satisfies a Gaussian upper bound, this bound is propagated for all positive times.

  20. Tomographic inversion of time-domain resistivity and chargeability data for the investigation of landfills using a priori information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, Giorgio; Cardarelli, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new code for the modelling and inversion of resistivity and chargeability data using a priori information to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed model for landfill. When a priori information is available in the study area, we can insert them by means of inequality constraints on the whole model or on a single layer or assigning weighting factors for enhancing anomalies elongated in the horizontal or vertical directions. However, when we have to face a multilayered scenario with numerous resistive to conductive transitions (the case of controlled landfills), the effective thickness of the layers can be biased. The presented code includes a model-tuning scheme, which is applied after the inversion of field data, where the inversion of the synthetic data is performed based on an initial guess, and the absolute difference between the field and synthetic inverted models is minimized. The reliability of the proposed approach has been supported in two real-world examples; we were able to identify an unauthorized landfill and to reconstruct the geometrical and physical layout of an old waste dump. The combined analysis of the resistivity and chargeability (normalised) models help us to remove ambiguity due to the presence of the waste mass. Nevertheless, the presence of certain layers can remain hidden without using a priori information, as demonstrated by a comparison of the constrained inversion with a standard inversion. The robustness of the above-cited method (using a priori information in combination with model tuning) has been validated with the cross-section from the construction plans, where the reconstructed model is in agreement with the original design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Identification of parasitic communities within European ticks using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents.We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species.Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe.

  3. Brezzi-Pitkaranta stabilization and a priori error analysis for the Stokes Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Cibik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a Brezzi-Pitkaranta stabilization scheme for the optimal control problem governed by stationary Stokes equation, using a P1-P1 interpolation for velocity and pressure. We express the stabilization as extra terms added to the discrete variational form of the problem.  We first prove the stability of the finite element discretization of the problem. Then, we derive a priori error bounds for each variable and present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the stabilization clearly.

  4. The effect of a priori probability and complexity on decision making in a supervisory control task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Passenier, P.O.; Houttuin, K.; Schuffel, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we investigated how monitoring and fault management in a ship control task are affected by complexity and a priori probability of disturbances. Partici-pants were required to supervise four independent shipping subsystems and to adjust the subsystems whenever deviations

  5. Sampling informative/complex a priori probability distributions using Gibbs sampling assisted by sequential simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    2010-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo methods such as the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis algorithm can be used to sample the solutions to non-linear inverse problems. In principle these methods allow incorporation of arbitrarily complex a priori information, but current methods allow only relatively simple...... this algorithm with the Metropolis algorithm to obtain an efficient method for sampling posterior probability densities for nonlinear inverse problems....

  6. Using A Priori Information to Improve Atmospheric Duct Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of refractivity condition in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is crucial for the prediction of radar and communication systems performance at frequencies above 1 GHz on low-altitude paths. Since early this century, the `refractivity from clutter (RFC)' technique has been proved to be an effective way to estimate the MABL refractivity structure. Refractivity model is very important for RFC techniques. If prior knowledge of the local refractivity information is available (e.g., from numerical weather prediction models, atmospheric soundings, etc.), more accurate parameterized refractivity model can be constructed by the statistical method, e.g. principal analysis, which in turn can be used to improve the quality of the local refractivity retrievals. This work extends the adjoint parabolic equation approach to range-varying atmospheric duct structure inversions, in which a linear empirical reduced-dimension refractivity model constructed from the a priori refractive information is used.

  7. Considerations about expected a posteriori estimation in adaptive testing: adaptive a priori, adaptive correction for bias, and adaptive integration interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy

    2009-01-01

    In a computerized adaptive test, we would like to obtain an acceptable precision of the proficiency level estimate using an optimal number of items. Unfortunately, decreasing the number of items is accompanied by a certain degree of bias when the true proficiency level differs significantly from the a priori estimate. The authors suggest that it is possible to reduced the bias, and even the standard error of the estimate, by applying to each provisional estimation one or a combination of the following strategies: adaptive correction for bias proposed by Bock and Mislevy (1982), adaptive a priori estimate, and adaptive integration interval.

  8. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  9. A priori estimates of global solutions of superlinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Pacuta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the parabolic system $ u_{t}-\\Delta u = u^{r}v^{p}$, $v_{t}-\\Delta v = u^{q}v^{s}$ in $\\Omega\\times(0,\\infty$, complemented by the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and the initial conditions $(u,v(\\cdot,0 = (u_{0},v_{0}$ in $\\Omega$, where $\\Omega $ is a smooth bounded domain in $ \\mathbb{R}^{N} $ and $ u_{0},v_{0}\\in L^{\\infty}(\\Omega$ are nonnegative functions. We find conditions on $ p,q,r,s $ guaranteeing a priori estimates of nonnegative classical global solutions. More precisely every such solution is bounded by a constant depending on suitable norm of the initial data. Our proofs are based on bootstrap in weighted Lebesgue spaces, universal estimates of auxiliary functions and estimates of the Dirichlet heat kernel.

  10. Parameter transferability within homogeneous regions and comparisons with predictions from a priori parameters in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaib, Wafa; Alila, Younes; Caldwell, Peter V.

    2018-05-01

    The need for predictions of flow time-series persists at ungauged catchments, motivating the research goals of our study. By means of the Sacramento model, this paper explores the use of parameter transfer within homogeneous regions of similar climate and flow characteristics and makes comparisons with predictions from a priori parameters. We assessed the performance using the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS), bias, mean monthly hydrograph and flow duration curve (FDC). The study was conducted on a large dataset of 73 catchments within the eastern US. Two approaches to the parameter transferability were developed and evaluated; (i) the within homogeneous region parameter transfer using one donor catchment specific to each region, (ii) the parameter transfer disregarding the geographical limits of homogeneous regions, where one donor catchment was common to all regions. Comparisons between both parameter transfers enabled to assess the gain in performance from the parameter regionalization and its respective constraints and limitations. The parameter transfer within homogeneous regions outperformed the a priori parameters and led to a decrease in bias and increase in efficiency reaching a median NS of 0.77 and a NS of 0.85 at individual catchments. The use of FDC revealed the effect of bias on the inaccuracy of prediction from parameter transfer. In one specific region, of mountainous and forested catchments, the prediction accuracy of the parameter transfer was less satisfactory and equivalent to a priori parameters. In this region, the parameter transfer from the outsider catchment provided the best performance; less-biased with smaller uncertainty in medium flow percentiles (40%-60%). The large disparity of energy conditions explained the lack of performance from parameter transfer in this region. Besides, the subsurface stormflow is predominant and there is a likelihood of lateral preferential flow, which according to its specific properties further explained the reduced

  11. O Caráter a priori das Estruturas Necessárias ao Conhecimento, Construídas segundo a Epistemologia Genética

    OpenAIRE

    Marçal, Vicente Eduardo Ribeiro; Tassinari, Ricardo Pereira [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the question of the a priori character of the necessary structures of knowledge according to Genetic Epistemology, focusing on the notion of space in particular. We establish some relations between Jean Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology and Immanuel Kant’s Critical Philosophy, discuss the notion of the a priori according to Kant in relation to the notion of space, and discuss the construction of the notion of space by the epistemic subject according to Genetic Epistemolog...

  12. Characteristic Investigation of Unfolded Neutron Spectra with Different Priori Information and Gamma Radiation Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Hwan

    2006-01-01

    Neutron field spectrometry using multi spheres such as Bonner Spheres (BS) has been almost essential in radiation protection dosimetry for a long time at workplace in spite of poor energy resolution because it is not asking the fine energy resolution but requiring easy operation and measurement performance over a wide range of energy interested. KAERI has developed and used extended BS system based on a LiI(Eu) scintillator as the representative neutron spectrometry system for workplace monitoring as well as for the quantification of neutron calibration fields such as those recommended by ISO 8529. Major topics in using BS are how close the unfolded spectra is the real one and to minimize the interference of gamma radiation in neutron/gamma mixed fields in case of active instrument such as a BS with a LiI(Eu) scintillator. The former is related with choosing a priori information when unfolding the measured data and the latter is depend on how to discriminate it in intense gamma radiation fields. Influence of a priori information in unfolding and effect of counting loss due to pile-up of signals for the KAERI BS system were investigated analyzing the spectral measurement results of Scattered Neutron Calibration Fields (SNCF)

  13. Contribution to restoration of degraded images by a space-variant system: use of an a priori model of the image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Imaging systems often present shift-variant point spread functions which are usually approximated by shift-invariant ones, in order to simplify the restoration problem. The aim of this thesis is to show that, if this shift-variant degradation is taken into account, it may increase strongly the quality of restoration. The imaging system is a pinhole, used to acquire images of high energy beams. Three restoration methods have been studied and compared: the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, the Markov-fields and the Maximum-Entropy methods. These methods are based on the incorporation of an a priori knowledge into the restoration process, to achieve stability of the solution. An improved restoration method is proposed: this approach is based on the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, combined with an a priori model of the solution. The idea of such a model is to express local characteristics to be reconstructed. The concept of parametric models described by a set of parameters (shape of the object, amplitude values,...) is used. A parametric optimization is used to find the optimal estimation of parameters close to the correct a priori information data of the expected solution. Several criteria have been proposed to measure the restoration quality. (author) [fr

  14. Community stakeholder responses to advocacy advertising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.; Sinclair, J. [Elon University, Elon, NC (United States). School Community

    2009-07-01

    Focus group research was used to examine how community stakeholders, a group with local industry experience, responded to coal industry advocacy messages. The stakeholders expressed beliefs about both the advertiser and the coal industry, and while their knowledge led to critical consideration of the industry campaign, they also expressed a desire to identify with positive messages about their community. Applying a postpositivist research perspective, a new model is introduced to integrate these beliefs in terms of advertiser trust and industry accountability under the existing theoretical framework of persuasion knowledge. Agent and topic knowledge are combined in this model based on responses to the industry advocacy campaign. In doing so, this study integrates a priori theory within a new context, extending the current theoretical framework to include an understanding of how community stakeholders - a common target for marketplace advocacy - interpret industry messages.

  15. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  16. Community Identity and User Engagement in a Multi-Community Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Justine; Hamilton, William L; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-05-01

    A community's identity defines and shapes its internal dynamics. Our current understanding of this interplay is mostly limited to glimpses gathered from isolated studies of individual communities. In this work we provide a systematic exploration of the nature of this relation across a wide variety of online communities. To this end we introduce a quantitative, language-based typology reflecting two key aspects of a community's identity: how distinctive , and how temporally dynamic it is. By mapping almost 300 Reddit communities into the landscape induced by this typology, we reveal regularities in how patterns of user engagement vary with the characteristics of a community. Our results suggest that the way new and existing users engage with a community depends strongly and systematically on the nature of the collective identity it fosters, in ways that are highly consequential to community maintainers. For example, communities with distinctive and highly dynamic identities are more likely to retain their users. However, such niche communities also exhibit much larger acculturation gaps between existing users and newcomers, which potentially hinder the integration of the latter. More generally, our methodology reveals differences in how various social phenomena manifest across communities, and shows that structuring the multi-community landscape can lead to a better understanding of the systematic nature of this diversity.

  17. Use of a priori information in incomplete data x-ray CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Hedengren, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for utilizing a priori information is presented which uses CAD electronic part models to make use of effectively all the information which is available in the blueprint of a selected industrial part. Significant improvements in x-ray image quality are demonstrated using the technique in the image enhancement of the model of an exhaust nozzle actuation ring for the F110 aircraft. Three approaches were evaluated: a projection data approach, an iterative reconstruction approach, and an image processing and analysis approach. Results for these approaches are included. X-ray CT images of the simulated part image reconstructed with several choices of available angular range are shown

  18. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  19. Developing an A Priori Database for Passive Microwave Snow Water Retrievals Over Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengtao; Liu, Guosheng

    2017-12-01

    A physically optimized a priori database is developed for Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) snow water retrievals over ocean. The initial snow water content profiles are derived from CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) measurements. A radiative transfer model in which the single-scattering properties of nonspherical snowflakes are based on the discrete dipole approximate results is employed to simulate brightness temperatures and their gradients. Snow water content profiles are then optimized through a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method. The standard deviations of the difference between observed and simulated brightness temperatures are in a similar magnitude to the observation errors defined for observation error covariance matrix after the 1D-Var optimization, indicating that this variational method is successful. This optimized database is applied in a Bayesian retrieval snow water algorithm. The retrieval results indicated that the 1D-Var approach has a positive impact on the GMI retrieved snow water content profiles by improving the physical consistency between snow water content profiles and observed brightness temperatures. Global distribution of snow water contents retrieved from the a priori database is compared with CloudSat CPR estimates. Results showed that the two estimates have a similar pattern of global distribution, and the difference of their global means is small. In addition, we investigate the impact of using physical parameters to subset the database on snow water retrievals. It is shown that using total precipitable water to subset the database with 1D-Var optimization is beneficial for snow water retrievals.

  20. Determining the depth of certain gravity sources without a priori specification of their structural index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Huang, Danian

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a new method for the interpretation of gravity tensor data based on the generalized Tilt-depth method. Cooper (2011, 2012) extended the magnetic Tilt-depth method to gravity data. We take the gradient-ratio method of Cooper (2011, 2012) and modify it so that the source type does not need to be specified a priori. We develop the new method by generalizing the Tilt-depth method for depth estimation for different types of source bodies. The new technique uses only the three vertical tensor components of the full gravity tensor data observed or calculated at different height plane to estimate the depth of the buried bodies without a priori specification of their structural index. For severely noise-corrupted data, our method utilizes different upward continuation height data, which can effectively reduce the influence of noise. Theoretical simulations of the gravity source model with and without noise illustrate the ability of the method to provide source depth information. Additionally, the simulations demonstrate that the new method is simple, computationally fast and accurate. Finally, we apply the method using the gravity data acquired over the Humble Salt Dome in the USA as an example. The results show a good correspondence to the previous drilling and seismic interpretation results.

  1. The analysis of long-term changes in plant communities using large databases: the effect of stratified resampling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Releves in large phytosociological databases used for analysing long-term changes in plant communities are biased towards easily accessible places and species-rich stands. How does this bias influence trend analysis of floristic composition within a priori determined vegetation types and

  2. Transient multilingual communities as a field of investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption in linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics has traditionally been that interaction within communities tends to proceed on the basis of some degree of shared understanding of social and linguistic norms. However, in transient multilingual communities, defined here as social...... configurations where people from diverse sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds come together (physically or otherwise) for a limited period of time around a shared activity, such shared assumptions cannot be assumed to be in place a priori. By examining the social and linguistic processes that characterize...... transient communities, researchers are invited to analyze and theorize meaning-making in ways that hold the potential to enrich current work at the interface between sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. The article aims to take a first step in this direction by offering a definition...

  3. A priori study of subgrid-scale features in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.

    2017-10-01

    At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and turbulence modeling, a priori studies are a reliable tool to understand the underlying physics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) motions in turbulent flows. In this paper, properties of the SGS features in the framework of a large-eddy simulation are studied for a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). To do so, data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent air-filled RBC in a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio unity and π spanwise open-ended distance are used at two Rayleigh numbers R a ∈{1 08,1 010 } [Dabbagh et al., "On the evolution of flow topology in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Fluids 28, 115105 (2016)]. First, DNS at Ra = 108 is used to assess the performance of eddy-viscosity models such as QR, Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE), and the recent S3PQR-models proposed by Trias et al. ["Building proper invariants for eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models," Phys. Fluids 27, 065103 (2015)]. The outcomes imply that the eddy-viscosity modeling smoothes the coarse-grained viscous straining and retrieves fairly well the effect of the kinetic unfiltered scales in order to reproduce the coherent large scales. However, these models fail to approach the exact evolution of the SGS heat flux and are incapable to reproduce well the further dominant rotational enstrophy pertaining to the buoyant production. Afterwards, the key ingredients of eddy-viscosity, νt, and eddy-diffusivity, κt, are calculated a priori and revealed positive prevalent values to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. The topological analysis suggests that the effective turbulent diffusion paradigm and the hypothesis of a constant turbulent Prandtl number are only applicable in the large-scale strain-dominated areas in the bulk. It is shown that the bulk-dominated rotational structures of vortex-stretching (and its synchronous viscous dissipative structures) hold

  4. In silico approaches to study mass and energy flows in microbial consortia: a syntrophic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallette Natasha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three methods were developed for the application of stoichiometry-based network analysis approaches including elementary mode analysis to the study of mass and energy flows in microbial communities. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages suitable for analyzing systems with different degrees of complexity and a priori knowledge. These approaches were tested and compared using data from the thermophilic, phototrophic mat communities from Octopus and Mushroom Springs in Yellowstone National Park (USA. The models were based on three distinct microbial guilds: oxygenic phototrophs, filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two phases, day and night, were modeled to account for differences in the sources of mass and energy and the routes available for their exchange. Results The in silico models were used to explore fundamental questions in ecology including the prediction of and explanation for measured relative abundances of primary producers in the mat, theoretical tradeoffs between overall productivity and the generation of toxic by-products, and the relative robustness of various guild interactions. Conclusion The three modeling approaches represent a flexible toolbox for creating cellular metabolic networks to study microbial communities on scales ranging from cells to ecosystems. A comparison of the three methods highlights considerations for selecting the one most appropriate for a given microbial system. For instance, communities represented only by metagenomic data can be modeled using the pooled method which analyzes a community's total metabolic potential without attempting to partition enzymes to different organisms. Systems with extensive a priori information on microbial guilds can be represented using the compartmentalized technique, employing distinct control volumes to separate guild-appropriate enzymes and metabolites. If the complexity of a compartmentalized network creates an

  5. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  6. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Bælum, Jacob; Taş, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priemé, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below −10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface. PMID:25983731

  7. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  8. Identifying and characterizing key nodes among communities based on electrical-circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenghui; Wang, Wenxu; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks with community structures are ubiquitous in the real world. Despite many approaches developed for detecting communities, we continue to lack tools for identifying overlapping and bridging nodes that play crucial roles in the interactions and communications among communities in complex networks. Here we develop an algorithm based on the local flow conservation to effectively and efficiently identify and distinguish the two types of nodes. Our method is applicable in both undirected and directed networks without a priori knowledge of the community structure. Our method bypasses the extremely challenging problem of partitioning communities in the presence of overlapping nodes that may belong to multiple communities. Due to the fact that overlapping and bridging nodes are of paramount importance in maintaining the function of many social and biological networks, our tools open new avenues towards understanding and controlling real complex networks with communities accompanied with the key nodes.

  9. Methods for improving limited field-of-view radiotherapy reconstructions using imperfect a priori images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Kapatoes, Jeffrey M.; Reckwerdt, Paul J.; Mackie, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    There are many benefits to having an online CT imaging system for radiotherapy, as it helps identify changes in the patient's position and anatomy between the time of planning and treatment. However, many current online CT systems suffer from a limited field-of-view (LFOV) in that collected data do not encompass the patient's complete cross section. Reconstruction of these data sets can quantitatively distort the image values and introduce artifacts. This work explores the use of planning CT data as a priori information for improving these reconstructions. Methods are presented to incorporate this data by aligning the LFOV with the planning images and then merging the data sets in sinogram space. One alignment option is explicit fusion, producing fusion-aligned reprojection (FAR) images. For cases where explicit fusion is not viable, FAR can be implemented using the implicit fusion of normal setup error, referred to as normal-error-aligned reprojection (NEAR). These methods are evaluated for multiday patient images showing both internal and skin-surface anatomical variation. The iterative use of NEAR and FAR is also investigated, as are applications of NEAR and FAR to dose calculations and the compensation of LFOV online MVCT images with kVCT planning images. Results indicate that NEAR and FAR can utilize planning CT data as imperfect a priori information to reduce artifacts and quantitatively improve images. These benefits can also increase the accuracy of dose calculations and be used for augmenting CT images (e.g., MVCT) acquired at different energies than the planning CT

  10. A priori tests of combustion models based on a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} Triple Flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombard, J.; Naud, B.; Jimenez Sanchez, C.

    2008-07-01

    This document reproduces the final project of Jerome Dombard, presented on June 25, 2008, for the obtention of the Master degree MIMSE (Master Ingenierie Mathematique, Statistique et Economique) of Bordeaux University (Universite Bordeaux 1). We make an a priori study of FPI/FGM-type turbulent combustion models using a 2D DNS of a triple flame. A reduced chemical scheme of 16 species and 12 reactions is used (ARM1, proposed by J.-Y. Chen at Berkeley University). The fuel (CH4/H2 mixture) and oxidizer (air) correspond to the inlet composition of the Sydney bluff-body stabilised flame experiments (flames HM1-3). First, we compute 1D laminar premixed flames. The purpose of those calculations is twofold: 1. check the differences between different computer programs and different treatments of molecular diffusion, and 2. calibrate the 2D-DNS of the laminar triple flame (mainly decide on the grid resolution). Then, the solution of the 2D laminar triple flame is used to test a priori FPI/FGM tables. Finally, preliminary considerations on sub-grid scale modelling in the context of Large Eddy Simulation are made. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. A priori which-way information in quantum interference with unstable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, D.E.; Fischbach, E.; Rohrbach, Z.J.

    2014-01-01

    If an unstable particle used in a two-path interference experiment decays before reaching a detector, which-way information becomes available that reduces the detected interference fringe visibility V. Here we argue that even when an unstable particle does not decay while in the interferometer, a priori which-way information is still available in the form of path predictability P which depends on the particle's decay rate Γ. We further demonstrate that in a matter-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer using an excited atom with an appropriately tuned cavity, P is related to V through the duality relation P 2 +V 2 =1. - Highlights: • Even undecayed unstable particles exhibit novel interference effects. • Interference is studied in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with a cavity. • More which-way information is available when using unstable particles. • A relation between which-way information and interference is satisfied

  12. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  13. Coastal habitats as surrogates for taxonomic, functional and trophic structures of benthic faunal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (β) and within-habitat (α) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning.

  14. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  15. Community detection algorithm evaluation with ground-truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebabli, Malek; Cherifi, Hocine; Cherifi, Chantal; Hamouda, Atef

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is of paramount importance for the understanding of complex networks. Consequently, there is a tremendous effort in order to develop efficient community detection algorithms. Unfortunately, the issue of a fair assessment of these algorithms is a thriving open question. If the ground-truth community structure is available, various clustering-based metrics are used in order to compare it versus the one discovered by these algorithms. However, these metrics defined at the node level are fairly insensitive to the variation of the overall community structure. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the topological features of the 'community graphs' (where the nodes are the communities and the links represent their interactions) in order to evaluate the algorithms. To illustrate our methodology, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of overlapping community detection algorithms using a set of real-world networks with known a priori community structure. Results provide a better perception of their relative performance as compared to classical metrics. Moreover, they show that more emphasis should be put on the topology of the community structure. We also investigate the relationship between the topological properties of the community structure and the alternative evaluation measures (quality metrics and clustering metrics). It appears clearly that they present different views of the community structure and that they must be combined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of community detection algorithms.

  16. Two distinct clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the same USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile: a potential pitfall for identification of USA300 community-associated MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Rhod; Goering, Richard; Stegger, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) characterized as USA300 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified two distinct clones. One was similar to community-associated USA300 MRSA (ST8-IVa, t008, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive). The second (ST8-IVa, t024...

  17. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...... different scenarios. After each scenario, two different numerical rating scales were used. There was a tendency toward positive attitudes regarding semi- autonomous driving systems, especially the use of a parking assistant and while driving in city traffic congestion. However, there were also major...

  18. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  19. Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Kent, Angela D; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wang, Gejiao; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have been rising due to human activities. However, little is known about how such increases influence soil microbial communities. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 (eCO2) and elevated O3 (eO3) would significantly affect the functional composition, structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities, and that various functional groups would respond to such atmospheric changes differentially. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed 96 soil samples from a soybean free-air CO2 enrichment (SoyFACE) experimental site using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0). The results showed the overall functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifted under eCO2, eO3 or eCO2+eO3. Key functional genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and methane metabolism were stimulated under eCO2, whereas those involved in N fixation, denitrification and N mineralization were suppressed under eO3, resulting in the fact that the abundance of some eO3-supressed genes was promoted to ambient, or eCO2-induced levels by the interaction of eCO2+eO3. Such effects appeared distinct for each treatment and significantly correlated with soil properties and soybean yield. Overall, our analysis suggests possible mechanisms of microbial responses to global atmospheric change factors through the stimulation of C and N cycling by eCO2, the inhibition of N functional processes by eO3 and the interaction by eCO2 and eO3. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial functional processes in response to global atmospheric change in soybean agro-ecosystems.

  20. Managing today's complex healthcare business enterprise: reflections on distinctive requirements of healthcare management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, William E

    2004-01-01

    In early 2001, the community of educational programs offering master's-level education in healthcare management began an odyssey to modernize its approach to the organization and delivery of healthcare management education. The community recognized that cumulative long-term changes within healthcare management practice required a careful examination of healthcare management context and manpower requirements. This article suggests an evidence-based rationale for defining the distinctive elements of healthcare management, thus suggesting a basis for review and transformation of master's-level healthcare management curricula. It also suggests ways to modernize these curricula in a manner that recognizes the distinctiveness of the healthcare business enterprise as well as the changing management roles and careers within these complex organizations and systems. Through such efforts, the healthcare management master's-level education community would be better prepared to meet current and future challenges, to increase its relevance to the management practice community, and to allocate scarce faculty and program resources more effectively.

  1. Upper Arctic Ocean water masses harbor distinct communities of heterotrophic flagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of heterotrophic flagellates (HFL in marine waters has been recognized for several decades, but the phylogenetic diversity of these small (ca. 0.8–20 μm cell diameter, mostly phagotrophic protists in the upper pelagic zone of the ocean is underappreciated. Community composition of microbes, including HFL, is the result of past and current environmental selection, and different taxa may be indicative of food webs that cycle carbon and energy very differently. While all oceanic water columns can be density stratified due to the temperature and salinity characteristics of different water masses, the Arctic Ocean is particularly well stratified, with nutrients often limiting in surface waters and most photosynthetic biomass confined to a subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer, where light and nutrients are both available. This physically well-characterized system provided an opportunity to explore the community diversity of HFL from different water masses within the water column. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques as a rapid means of surveying the diversity of HFL communities in the southern Beaufort Sea (Canada, targeting the surface, the subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCM and just below the SCM. In addition to identifying major clades and their distribution, we explored the micro-diversity within the globally significant but uncultivated clade of marine stramenopiles (MAST-1 to examine the possibility of niche differentiation within the stratified water column. Our results strongly suggested that HFL community composition was determined by water mass rather than geographical location across the Beaufort Sea. Future work should focus on the biogeochemical and ecological repercussions of different HFL communities in the face of climate-driven changes to the physical structure of the Arctic Ocean.

  2. A program for the a priori evaluation of detection limits in instrumental neutron activation analysis using a SLOWPOKE II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinier, J.L.; Zikovsky, L.

    1982-01-01

    A program that permits the a priori calculation of detection limits in monoelemental matrices, adapted to instrumental neutron activation analysis using a SLOWPOKE II reactor, is described. A simplified model of the gamma spectra is proposed. Products of (n,p) and (n,α) reactions induced by the fast components of the neutron flux that accompanies the thermal flux at the level of internal irradiation sites in the reactor have been included in the list of interfering radionuclides. The program calculates in a systematic way the detection limits of 66 elements in an equal number of matrices using 153 intermediary radionuclides. Experimental checks carried out with silicon (for short lifetimes) and aluminum and magnesium (for intermediate lifetimes) show satisfactory agreement with the calculations. These results show in particular the importance of the contribution of the (n,p) and (n,α) reactions in the a priori evaluation of detection limits with a SLOWPOKE type reactor [fr

  3. Evaluating macroinvertebrate community shifts in the confluence of freestone and limestone streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Hellmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are critical to ecosystem functioning through their regulation of many essential top-down and bottom-up ecosystem processes such as energy translocation, nutrient flow, and detrital decomposition. However, specific preferences by macroinvertebrates for certain ranges of abiotic and biotic characteristics mean that changes in these factors often create large differences in benthic community structure. Investigations into drivers of community structure have found distinct patterns of variation between ecosystems, but drivers of macroscale variation may differ from drivers of microscale variation. Such microscale variation in macroinvertebrate community structure as a function of abiotic conditions may be found in the confluence of two geologically distinct freshwater streams. Variation in the origin, underlying bedrock, and watershed of a stream results in drastically different physical and chemical characteristics and correspondingly distinct macroinvertebrate community structures. In areas where water from geologically distinct streams flows together, a mixing zone emerges with unique chemical and physical characteristics. There is little information on how invertebrate communities are structured within this mixing zone. To investigate this, we examined how the structure of the macroinvertebrate community changed downstream of the confluence. Up to thirty metres downstream, we found distinct stream sections that mirrored physical and chemical conditions found in limestone and freestone streams, and a mixing zone with emergent properties. These physical and chemical changes between sites were accompanied by shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition. Diversity indices indicated significantly higher diversity in freestone sites than in limestone sites or the mixing zone and there was a unique composition of genera in the mixing zone that were distinct from both limestone and freestone sites. Factors driving

  4. A priori analysis: an application to the estimate of the uncertainty in course grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G. L.

    2014-07-01

    A priori analysis (APA) is discussed as a tool to assess the reliability of grades in standard curricular courses. This unusual, but striking, application is presented when teaching the section on the data treatment of a laboratory course to illustrate the characteristics of the APA and its potential for widespread use, beyond the traditional physics curriculum. The conditions necessary for this kind of analysis are discussed, the general framework is set out and a specific example is given to illustrate its various aspects. Students are often struck by this unusual application and are more apt to remember the APA. Instructors may also benefit from some of the gathered information, as discussed in the paper.

  5. A priori analysis: an application to the estimate of the uncertainty in course grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippi, G L

    2014-01-01

    A priori analysis (APA) is discussed as a tool to assess the reliability of grades in standard curricular courses. This unusual, but striking, application is presented when teaching the section on the data treatment of a laboratory course to illustrate the characteristics of the APA and its potential for widespread use, beyond the traditional physics curriculum. The conditions necessary for this kind of analysis are discussed, the general framework is set out and a specific example is given to illustrate its various aspects. Students are often struck by this unusual application and are more apt to remember the APA. Instructors may also benefit from some of the gathered information, as discussed in the paper. (paper)

  6. Musical Probabilities, Abductive Reasoning, and Brain Mechanisms: Extended Perspective of "A Priori" Listening to Music within the Creative Cognition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Troge, Thomas A.; Lorrain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    A theory of listening to music is proposed. It suggests that, for listeners, the process of prediction is the starting point to experiencing music. This implies that perception of music starts through both a predisposed and an experience-based extrapolation into the future (this is labeled "a priori" listening). Indications for this…

  7. Diversity and Adaptation of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Genotypes Circulating in Two Distinct Communities: Public Hospital and Day Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha Garcia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HRSV is one of the most important pathogens causing acute respiratory tract diseases as bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants. HRSV was isolated from two distinct communities, a public day care center and a public hospital in São José do Rio Preto – SP, Brazil. We obtained partial sequences from G gene that were used on phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis. HRSV accounted for 29% of respiratory infections in hospitalized children and 7.7% in day care center children. On phylogenetic analysis of 60 HRSV strains, 48 (80% clustered within or adjacent to the GA1 genotype; GA5, NA1, NA2, BA-IV and SAB1 were also observed. SJRP GA1 strains presented variations among deduced amino acids composition and lost the potential O-glycosilation site at amino acid position 295, nevertheless this resulted in an insertion of two potential O-glycosilation sites at positions 296 and 297. Furthermore, a potential O-glycosilation site insertion, at position 293, was only observed for hospital strains. Using SLAC and MEME methods, only amino acid 274 was identified to be under positive selection. This is the first report on HRSV circulation and genotypes classification derived from a day care center community in Brazil.

  8. Factor analysis with a priori knowledge - application in dynamic cardiac SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, A.; Di Bella, E.V.R.; Gullberg, G.T. [Medical Imaging Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Utah, CAMT, 729 Arapeen Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1218 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Two factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) methods for the extraction of time-activity curves (TACs) from cardiac dynamic SPECT data sequences were investigated. One method was based on a least squares (LS) approach which was subject to positivity constraints. The other method was the well known apex-seeking (AS) method. A post-processing step utilizing a priori information was employed to correct for the non-uniqueness of the FADS solution. These methods were used to extract {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime TACs from computer simulations and from experimental canine and patient studies. In computer simulations, the LS and AS methods, which are completely different algorithms, yielded very similar and accurate results after application of the correction for non-uniqueness. FADS-obtained blood curves correlated well with curves derived from region of interest (ROI) measurements in the experimental studies. The results indicate that the factor analysis techniques can be used for semi-automatic estimation of activity curves derived from cardiac dynamic SPECT images, and that they can be used for separation of physiologically different regions in dynamic cardiac SPECT studies. (author)

  9. Identification of parametric models with a priori knowledge of process properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiszowski Krzysztof B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to estimation of a parametric discrete-time model of a process in the case of some a priori knowledge of the investigated process properties is presented. The knowledge of plant properties is introduced in the form of linear bounds, which can be determined for the coefficient vector of the parametric model studied. The approach yields special biased estimation of model coefficients that preserves demanded properties. A formula for estimation of the model coefficients is derived and combined with a recursive scheme determined for minimization of the sum of absolute model errors. The estimation problem of a model with known static gains of inputs is discussed and proper formulas are derived. This approach can overcome the non-identifiability problem which has been observed during estimation based on measurements recorded in industrial closed-loop control systems. The application of the proposed approach to estimation of a model for an industrial plant (a water injector into the steam flow in a power plant is presented and discussed.

  10. A Priori Analysis of a Compressible Flamelet Model using RANS Data for a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; McDaniel, James C.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to make large eddy simulation of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors more computationally accessible using realistic chemical reaction mechanisms, a compressible flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model was proposed that extends current FPV model formulations to high-speed, compressible flows. Development of this model relied on observations garnered from an a priori analysis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) data obtained for the Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HI-FiRE) dual-mode scramjet combustor. The RANS data were obtained using a reduced chemical mechanism for the combustion of a JP-7 surrogate and were validated using avail- able experimental data. These RANS data were then post-processed to obtain, in an a priori fashion, the scalar fields corresponding to an FPV-based modeling approach. In the current work, in addition to the proposed compressible flamelet model, a standard incompressible FPV model was also considered. Several candidate progress variables were investigated for their ability to recover static temperature and major and minor product species. The effects of pressure and temperature on the tabulated progress variable source term were characterized, and model coupling terms embedded in the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied. Finally, results for the novel compressible flamelet/progress variable model were presented to demonstrate the improvement attained by modeling the effects of pressure and flamelet boundary conditions on the combustion.

  11. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J.; Klingler, John  P.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas  P.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor Analysis of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Krowchuk, Natasha M; Goldsmith, Charles H; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of balance is an important first step in characterizing the risk of falls. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) is a test of balance and mobility that was designed to assess performance on advanced tasks necessary for independence in the community. However, other factors that can affect balancing ability may also be present during performance of the real-world tasks on the CB&M. It is important for clinicians to understand fully what other modifiable factors the CB&M may encompass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying constructs in the CB&M in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was an observational study, with a single testing session. Participants with knee OA aged 50 years and older completed the CB&M, a clinical test of balance and mobility. Confirmatory factor analysis was then used to examine whether the tasks on the CB&M measure distinct factors. Three a priori theory-driven models with three (strength, balance, mobility), four (range of motion added) and six (pain and fear added) constructs were evaluated using multiple fit indices. A total of 131 participants (mean [SD] age 66.3 [8.5] years, BMI 27.3 [5.2] kg m -2 ) participated. A three-factor model in which all tasks loaded on these three factors explained 65% of the variance and yielded the most optimal model, as determined using scree plots, chi-squared values and explained variance. The first factor accounted for 49% of the variance and was interpreted as lower limb muscle strength. The second and third factors were interpreted as mobility and balance, respectively. The CB&M demonstrated the measurement of three distinct factors, interpreted as lower limb strength, balance and mobility, supporting the use of the CB&M with people with knee OA for evaluation of these important factors in falls risk and functional mobility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  15. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  16. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  17. Root-derived organic matter confines sponge community composition in mangrove ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Ubels, S.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Caribbean mangrove-associated sponge communities are very distinct from sponge communities living on nearby reefs, but the mechanisms that underlie this distinction remain uncertain. It has been hypothesized that dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from mangrove roots and the

  18. Predicting thermal history a-priori for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia of internal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Sirisha Maganti, Lakshmi

    2017-08-01

    This article proposes a simplistic and realistic method where a direct analytical expression can be derived for the temperature field within a tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. The approximated analytical expression for thermal history within the tumour is derived based on the lumped capacitance approach and considers all therapy protocols and parameters. The present method is simplistic and provides an easy framework for estimating hyperthermia protocol parameters promptly. The model has been validated with respect to several experimental reports on animal models such as mice/rabbit/hamster and human clinical trials. It has been observed that the model is able to accurately estimate the thermal history within the carcinoma during the hyperthermia therapy. The present approach may find implications in a-priori estimation of the thermal history in internal tumours for optimizing magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocols with respect to the ablation time, tumour size, magnetic drug concentration, field strength, field frequency, nanoparticle material and size, tumour location, and so on.

  19. Body perceptions and health behaviors in an online bodybuilding community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In this article we explore the social constructions, body perceptions, and health experiences of a serious recreational and competitive bodybuilder and powerlifter community. Data were obtained from a discussion forum appearing within an online community dedicated to muscular development. Forum postings for a period of 36 months were transposed to QSR NVivo, in which a narrative-based analytical method employing Gee's coding approach was employed. We used a priori codes based on Bourdieu's multipronged conceptual categories of social field, habitus, and capital accumulation as a theoretical frame. Our results expose an extreme social reality held by a devoted muscle-building community with a fanatical obsession with muscular hypertrophy and any accouterment helpful in its acquisition, from nutrition and supplements to training regimes and anabolic androgenic substances. Few health costs were considered too severe in this muscular meritocracy, where the strong commanded deference and the massive dominated the social field.

  20. Investigating industrial investigation: examining the impact of a priori knowledge and tunnel vision education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Carla L; Brimacombe, C A Elizabeth; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The current study addressed tunnel vision in industrial incident investigation by experimentally testing how a priori information and a human bias (generated via the fundamental attribution error or correspondence bias) affected participants' investigative behavior as well as the effectiveness of a debiasing intervention. Undergraduates and professional investigators engaged in a simulated industrial investigation exercise. We found that participants' judgments were biased by knowledge about the safety history of either a worker or piece of equipment and that a human bias was evident in participants' decision making. However, bias was successfully reduced with "tunnel vision education." Professional investigators demonstrated a greater sophistication in their investigative decision making compared to undergraduates. The similarities and differences between these two populations are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Almost half of the Danish general practitioners have negative a priori attitudes towards a mandatory accreditation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nicolaisdottir, Dagny Ros; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to analyse Danish general practitioners' (GPs) a priori attitudes and expectations towards a nationwide mandatory accreditation programme. METHODS: This study is based on a nationwide electronic survey comprising all Danish GPs (n = 3,403). RESULTS...... accreditation. FUNDING: The three Research Units for General Practice in Odense, Aarhus and Copenhagen initiated and funded this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The survey was recommended by the Danish Multipractice Committee (MPU 02-2015) and evaluated by the Danish Data Agency (2015-41-3684)....

  2. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-03-01

    Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity). Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression. Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively ( P -trend obesity ( P -trend dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit significant. Conclusions: Consuming an ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern and lack of adherence to the recommendations of the 2015 DGAI were associated with

  3. River routing at the continental scale: use of globally-available data and an a priori method of parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two applications of a river routing model based on the observed river network and a linearised solution to the convective-diffusion equation are presented. One is an off-line application to part of the Amazon basin (catchment area 2.15 M km2 using river network data from the Digital Chart of the World and GCM-generated runoff at a grid resolution of 2.5 degrees latitude and 3.75 degrees longitude. The other application is to the Arkansas (409,000 km2 and Red River (125,500 km2 basins as an integrated component of a macro-scale hydrological model, driven by observed meteorology and operating on a 17 km grid. This second application makes use of the US EPA reach data to construct the river network. In both cases, a method of computing parameter values a priori has been applied and shows some success, although some interpretation is required to derive `correct' parameter values and further work is needed to develop guidelines for use of the method. The applications, however, do demonstrate the possibilities for applying the routing model at the continental scale, with globally-available data and a priori parameter estimation, and its value for validating GCM output against observed flows.

  4. Planning Community-Based Youth Services in Cork, Ireland: The Relevance of the Concepts "Youth" and "Community."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetz, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    A weakness in the approach to community-based youth services in Cork (Ireland) involves viewing the terms "youth" and "community" as though they represented homogeneous categories. Ethnographic data highlight the difficulties of monolithic classification by describing the experiences of three distinct categories of young…

  5. Practical Considerations about Expected A Posteriori Estimation in Adaptive Testing: Adaptive A Priori, Adaptive Correction for Bias, and Adaptive Integration Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy

    In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), it would be desirable to obtain an acceptable precision of the proficiency level estimate using an optimal number of items. Decreasing the number of items is accompanied, however, by a certain degree of bias when the true proficiency level differs significantly from the a priori estimate. G. Raiche (2000) has…

  6. Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yandong; Angulo, Marco Tulio; Friedman, Jonathan; Waldor, Matthew K; Weiss, Scott T; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-12-11

    Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities is a necessary step toward understanding their assembly rules and predicting their temporal behavior. However, existing methods require assuming a particular population dynamics model, which is not known a priori. Moreover, those methods require fitting longitudinal abundance data, which are often not informative enough for reliable inference. To overcome these limitations, here we develop a new method based on steady-state abundance data. Our method can infer the network topology and inter-taxa interaction types without assuming any particular population dynamics model. Additionally, when the population dynamics is assumed to follow the classic Generalized Lotka-Volterra model, our method can infer the inter-taxa interaction strengths and intrinsic growth rates. We systematically validate our method using simulated data, and then apply it to four experimental data sets. Our method represents a key step towards reliable modeling of complex, real-world microbial communities, such as the human gut microbiota.

  7. Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms, and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous studies. Vegetation biomass samples were collected along transects across Water Conservation Area 3A South (3AS). Ten community types were present between November 2002 and 2005. Separate analyses for key a priori groups (slough, wet prairie, and sawgrass) provided detailed conclusions about effects of historic hydrology on the vegetation of 3AS. Communities were affected by hydrologic variables LIP to four years previous to the sample. We identified wet prairie/slough species such as Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata as short-term sentinel species of community change. Sawgrass and N. odorata should be monitored for long-term change. Comparisons to preceding studies indicated that many of the communities of previous times, when conditions were drier, no longer exist in our study area and have been replaced by deeper water community types.

  8. Reimagining Communities and Implementing Social Learning: Contemporary Community Theatre Development in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have encountered political, social, economic and cultural challenges. During this period, their community theatres have played distinctive roles in activating their public space to reimagine their communities, form dialogues with their governments and construct learning experiences amongst various…

  9. Geography of resonances and Arnold diffusion in a priori unstable Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshams, Amadeu; Huguet, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the case of a general C r+2 perturbation, for r large enough, of an a priori unstable Hamiltonian system of 2 + 1/2 degrees of freedom, and we provide explicit conditions on it, which turn out to be C 2 generic and are verifiable in concrete examples, which guarantee the existence of Arnold diffusion. This is a generalization of the result in Delshams et al (2006 Mem. Am. Math. Soc.) where the case of a perturbation with a finite number of harmonics in the angular variables was considered. The method of proof is based on a careful analysis of the geography of resonances created by a generic perturbation and it contains a deep quantitative description of the invariant objects generated by the resonances therein. The scattering map is used as an essential tool to construct transition chains of objects of different topology. The combination of quantitative expressions for both the geography of resonances and the scattering map provides, in a natural way, explicit computable conditions for instability

  10. A contextual image segmentation system using a priori information for automatic data classification in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, A.; Auger, G.; Chbihi, A.; Bloyet, D.; Plagnol, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach to solve an automatic data classification problem by means of image processing techniques. The classification is achieved using image segmentation techniques for extracting the meaningful classes. Two types of information are merged for this purpose: the information contained in experimental images and a priori information derived from underlying physics (and adapted to image segmentation problem). This data fusion is widely used at different stages of the segmentation process. This approach yields interesting results in terms of segmentation performances, even in very noisy cases. Satisfactory classification results are obtained in cases where more ''classical'' automatic data classification methods fail. (authors). 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 append

  11. A contextual image segmentation system using a priori information for automatic data classification in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkirane, A; Auger, G; Chbihi, A [Grand Accelerateur National d` Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bloyet, D [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Plagnol, E [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an original approach to solve an automatic data classification problem by means of image processing techniques. The classification is achieved using image segmentation techniques for extracting the meaningful classes. Two types of information are merged for this purpose: the information contained in experimental images and a priori information derived from underlying physics (and adapted to image segmentation problem). This data fusion is widely used at different stages of the segmentation process. This approach yields interesting results in terms of segmentation performances, even in very noisy cases. Satisfactory classification results are obtained in cases where more ``classical`` automatic data classification methods fail. (authors). 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 append.

  12. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong eShen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000–2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil total carbon and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient.

  13. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrte J. Tielemans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69 for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q. Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99 Q4 vs. Q1. Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00 per SD. The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.

  14. Distinct microbial communities in the active and permafrost layers on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Liang; Deng, Ye; Ding, Jin-Zhi; Hu, Hang-Wei; Xu, Tian-Le; Li, Fei; Yang, Gui-Biao; Yang, Yuan-He

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost represents an important understudied genetic resource. Soil microorganisms play important roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and maintaining ecosystem function. However, our knowledge of patterns and drivers of permafrost microbial communities is limited over broad geographic scales. Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing, this study compared soil bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities between the active and permafrost layers on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results indicated that microbial alpha diversity was significantly higher in the active layer than in the permafrost layer with the exception of fungal Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson's diversity index, and microbial community structures were significantly different between the two layers. Our results also revealed that environmental factors such as soil fertility (soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and total nitrogen contents) were the primary drivers of the beta diversity of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in the active layer. In contrast, environmental variables such as the mean annual precipitation and total phosphorus played dominant roles in driving the microbial beta diversity in the permafrost layer. Spatial distance was important for predicting the bacterial and archaeal beta diversity in both the active and permafrost layers, but not for fungal communities. Collectively, these results demonstrated different driving factors of microbial beta diversity between the active layer and permafrost layer, implying that the drivers of the microbial beta diversity observed in the active layer cannot be used to predict the biogeographic patterns of the microbial beta diversity in the permafrost layer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  16. Comparison of a priori versus provisional heparin therapy on radial artery occlusion after transradial coronary angiography and patent hemostasis (from the PHARAOH Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancholy, Samir B; Bertrand, Olivier F; Patel, Tejas

    2012-07-15

    Systemic anticoagulation decreases the risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization and standard occlusive hemostasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of provisional heparin use only when the technique of patent hemostasis was not achievable to standard a priori heparin administration after radial sheath introduction. Patients referred for coronary angiography were randomized in 2 groups. In the a priori group, 200 patients received intravenous heparin (50 IU/kg) immediately after sheath insertion. In the provisional group, 200 patients did not receive heparin during the procedure. After sheath removal, hemostasis was obtained using a TR band (Terumo corporation, Tokyo, Japan) with a plethysmography-guided patent hemostasis technique. In the provisional group, no heparin was given if radial artery patency could be obtained and maintained. If radial patency was not achieved, a bolus of heparin (50 IU/kg) was given. Radial artery patency was evaluated at 24 hours (early RAO) and 30 days after the procedure (late RAO) by plethysmography. Patent hemostasis was obtained in 67% in the a priori group and 74% in the provisional group (p = 0.10). Incidence of RAO remained similar in the 2 groups at the early (7.5% vs 7.0%, p = 0.84) and late (4.5% vs 5.0%, p = 0.83) evaluations. Women, patients with diabetes, patients having not received heparin, and patients without radial artery patency during hemostasis had more RAO. By multivariate analysis, patent radial artery during hemostasis (odds ratio [OR] 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.004 to 0.28, p = 0.002) and diabetes (OR 11, 95% CI 3 to 38,p patent hemostasis is maintained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct taxonomic and functional composition of soil microbiomes along the gradient forest-restinga-mangrove in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lucas William; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2018-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, and the central goal in microbial ecology studies is to elucidate which factors shape community structure. A better understanding of the relationship between microbial diversity, functions and environmental parameters would increase our ability to set conservation priorities. Here, the bacterial and archaeal community structure in Atlantic Forest, restinga and mangrove soils was described and compared based on shotgun metagenomics. We hypothesized that each distinct site would harbor a distinct taxonomic and functional soil community, which is influenced by environmental parameters. Our data showed that the microbiome is shaped by soil properties, with pH, base saturation, boron and iron content significantly correlated to overall community structure. When data of specific phyla were correlated to specific soil properties, we demonstrated that parameters such as boron, copper, sulfur, potassium and aluminum presented significant correlation with the most number of bacterial groups. Mangrove soil was the most distinct site and presented the highest taxonomic and functional diversity in comparison with forest and restinga soils. From the total 34 microbial phyla identified, 14 were overrepresented in mangrove soils, including several archaeal groups. Mangrove soils hosted a high abundance of sequences related to replication, survival and adaptation; forest soils included high numbers of sequences related to the metabolism of nutrients and other composts; while restinga soils included abundant genes related to the metabolism of carbohydrates. Overall, our finds show that the microbial community structure and functional potential were clearly different across the environmental gradient, followed by functional adaptation and both were related to the soil properties.

  18. Optimization of Decision-Making for Spatial Sampling in the North China Plain, Based on Remote-Sensing a Priori Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J.; Bai, L.; Liu, S.; Su, X.; Hu, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the MODIS remote sensing data, featured with low-cost, high-timely and moderate/low spatial resolutions, in the North China Plain (NCP) as a study region were firstly used to carry out mixed-pixel spectral decomposition to extract an useful regionalized indicator parameter (RIP) (i.e., an available ratio, that is, fraction/percentage, of winter wheat planting area in each pixel as a regionalized indicator variable (RIV) of spatial sampling) from the initial selected indicators. Then, the RIV values were spatially analyzed, and the spatial structure characteristics (i.e., spatial correlation and variation) of the NCP were achieved, which were further processed to obtain the scalefitting, valid a priori knowledge or information of spatial sampling. Subsequently, founded upon an idea of rationally integrating probability-based and model-based sampling techniques and effectively utilizing the obtained a priori knowledge or information, the spatial sampling models and design schemes and their optimization and optimal selection were developed, as is a scientific basis of improving and optimizing the existing spatial sampling schemes of large-scale cropland remote sensing monitoring. Additionally, by the adaptive analysis and decision strategy the optimal local spatial prediction and gridded system of extrapolation results were able to excellently implement an adaptive report pattern of spatial sampling in accordance with report-covering units in order to satisfy the actual needs of sampling surveys.

  19. The dominant Australian community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST93-IV [2B] is highly virulent and genetically distinct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Y L Chua

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159 to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding α-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and α-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total. These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300 share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2. This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid

  20. Distinctive fungal and bacterial communities are associated with mats formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel A. Kluber; Jane E. Smith; David D. Myrold

    2011-01-01

    The distinct rhizomorphic mats formed by ectomycorrhizal Piloderma fungi are common features of the organic soil horizons of coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. These mats have been found to cover 25-40% of the forest floor in some Douglas-fir stands, and are associated with physical and biochemical properties that distinguish them from...

  1. Can cross sections be accurately known for priori?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct maxima and minima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in our large scale covariance calculations using a spherical optical potential. In this contribution we investigate the physical origin of this oscillating structure. Specifically, we analyze the case of neutron reactions on 56 Fe, for which total cross section uncertainties are characterized by the presence of five distinct minima at 0.1, 1.1, 5, 25, and 70 MeV. To investigate their origin, we calculated total cross sections by perturbing the real volume depth V v by its expected uncertainty ±ΔV v . Inspecting the effect of this perturbation on the partial wave cross sections we found that the first minimum (at 0.1 MeV) is exclusively due to the contribution of the s-wave. On the other hand, the same analysis at 1.1 MeV showed that the minimum is the result of the interplay between s-, p-, and d-waves; namely the change in the s-wave happens to be counterbalanced by changes in the p- and d-waves. Similar considerations can be extended for the third minimum, although it can be also explained in terms of the Ramsauer effect as well as the other ones (at 25 and 70 MeV). We discuss the potential importance of these minima for practical applications as well as the implications of this work for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections

  2. Planning community-based assessments of HIV educational intervention programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben; Shen, Zuchao

    2017-08-01

    A key consideration in planning studies of community-based HIV education programs is identifying a sample size large enough to ensure a reasonable probability of detecting program effects if they exist. Sufficient sample sizes for community- or group-based designs are proportional to the correlation or similarity of individuals within communities. As a result, efficient and effective design requires reasonable a priori estimates of the correlational structure among individuals within communities. In this study, we investigate the degree of correlation among individuals within communities and regions using samples of sixth-grade adolescents from 609 local area district communities and 122 regions in 15 sub-Saharan African nations. We develop nation-specific and international summaries of these correlations using variance partitioning coefficients from multilevel models and subsequently assess the extent to which different types of background variables delineate key sources of these correlations. The results suggest persistent differences among communities and regions and that the degree of correlation among individuals within communities varied considerably by nation. The findings underscore the importance of empirically derived values of design parameters that are anchored in evidence specific to the outcome, nation and context of the planned study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Long-term oil contamination causes similar changes in microbial communities of two distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Dalin; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Since total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are toxic and persistent in environments, studying the impact of oil contamination on microbial communities in different soils is vital to oil production engineering, effective soil management and pollution control. This study analyzed the impact of oil contamination on the structure, activity and function in carbon metabolism of microbial communities of Chernozem soil from Daqing oil field and Cinnamon soil from Huabei oil field through both culture-dependent techniques and a culture-independent technique-pyrosequencing. Results revealed that pristine microbial communities in these two soils presented disparate patterns, where Cinnamon soil showed higher abundance of alkane, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs and TPH degraders, number of cultivable microbes, bacterial richness, bacterial biodiversity, and stronger microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism than Chernozem soil. It suggested that complicated properties of microbes and soils resulted in the difference in soil microbial patterns. However, the changes of microbial communities caused by oil contamination were similar in respect of two dominant phenomena. Firstly, the microbial community structures were greatly changed, with higher abundance, higher bacterial biodiversity, occurrence of Candidate_division_BRC1 and TAO6, disappearance of BD1-5 and Candidate_division_OD1, dominance of Streptomyces, higher percentage of hydrocarbon-degrading groups, and lower percentage of nitrogen-transforming groups. Secondly, microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism were significantly enhanced. Based on the characteristics of microbial communities in the two soils, appropriate strategy for in situ bioremediation was provided for each oil field. This research underscored the usefulness of combination of culture-dependent techniques and next-generation sequencing techniques both to unravel the microbial patterns and understand the ecological impact of

  5. On Evaluation of Recharge Model Uncertainty: a Priori and a Posteriori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Ye; Karl Pohlmann; Jenny Chapman; David Shafer

    2006-01-01

    Hydrologic environments are open and complex, rendering them prone to multiple interpretations and mathematical descriptions. Hydrologic analyses typically rely on a single conceptual-mathematical model, which ignores conceptual model uncertainty and may result in bias in predictions and under-estimation of predictive uncertainty. This study is to assess conceptual model uncertainty residing in five recharge models developed to date by different researchers based on different theories for Nevada and Death Valley area, CA. A recently developed statistical method, Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA), is utilized for this analysis. In a Bayesian framework, the recharge model uncertainty is assessed, a priori, using expert judgments collected through an expert elicitation in the form of prior probabilities of the models. The uncertainty is then evaluated, a posteriori, by updating the prior probabilities to estimate posterior model probability. The updating is conducted through maximum likelihood inverse modeling by calibrating the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model corresponding to each recharge model against observations of head and flow. Calibration results of DVRFS for the five recharge models are used to estimate three information criteria (AIC, BIC, and KIC) used to rank and discriminate these models. Posterior probabilities of the five recharge models, evaluated using KIC, are used as weights to average head predictions, which gives posterior mean and variance. The posterior quantities incorporate both parametric and conceptual model uncertainties

  6. Burden of Influenza in 4 Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru: Household Active Surveillance of a Community Cohort, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Yeny O; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Uyeki, Timothy M; Rázuri, Hugo R; Kasper, Matthew R; Romero, Candice; Silva, Maria E; Simons, Mark P; Soto, Giselle M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Gilman, Robert H; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-10-16

    There are limited data on the burden of disease posed by influenza in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore, most estimates of influenza disease burden worldwide rely on passive sentinel surveillance at health clinics and hospitals that lack accurate population denominators. We documented influenza incidence, seasonality, health-system utilization with influenza illness, and vaccination coverage through active community-based surveillance in 4 ecologically distinct regions of Peru over 6 years. Approximately 7200 people in 1500 randomly selected households were visited 3 times per week. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from persons with influenza-like illness and tested for influenza virus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We followed participants for 35353 person-years (PY). The overall incidence of influenza was 100 per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 97-104) and was highest in children aged 2-4 years (256/1000 PY [95% CI, 236-277]). Seasonal incidence trends were similar across sites, with 61% of annual influenza cases occurring during the austral winter (May-September). Of all participants, 44 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 42-46) sought medical care, 0.7 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 0.4-1.0) were hospitalized, and 1 person died (2.8/100000 PY). Influenza vaccine coverage was 27% among children aged 6-23 months and 26% among persons aged ≥65 years. Our results indicate that 1 in 10 persons develops influenza each year in Peru, with the highest incidence in young children. Active community-based surveillance allows for a better understanding of the true burden and seasonality of disease that is essential to plan the optimal target groups, timing, and cost of national influenza vaccination programs. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  8. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  9. Sand-mediated divergence between shallow reef communities on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand-mediated divergence between shallow reef communities on horizontal and vertical substrata in the western Indian Ocean. SN Porter, GM Branch, KJ Sink. Abstract. Distinctions are rarely made between vertical and horizontal surfaces when assessing reef community composition, yet physical differences are expected ...

  10. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Wan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS, an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  11. Overlapping communities from dense disjoint and high total degree clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-01

    Community plays an important role in the field of sociology, biology and especially in domains of computer science, where systems are often represented as networks. And community detection is of great importance in the domains. A community is a dense subgraph of the whole graph with more links between its members than between its members to the outside nodes, and nodes in the same community probably share common properties or play similar roles in the graph. Communities overlap when nodes in a graph belong to multiple communities. A vast variety of overlapping community detection methods have been proposed in the literature, and the local expansion method is one of the most successful techniques dealing with large networks. The paper presents a density-based seeding method, in which dense disjoint local clusters are searched and selected as seeds. The proposed method selects a seed by the total degree and density of local clusters utilizing merely local structures of the network. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel community refining phase via minimizing the conductance of each community, through which the quality of identified communities is largely improved in linear time. Experimental results in synthetic networks show that the proposed seeding method outperforms other seeding methods in the state of the art and the proposed refining method largely enhances the quality of the identified communities. Experimental results in real graphs with ground-truth communities show that the proposed approach outperforms other state of the art overlapping community detection algorithms, in particular, it is more than two orders of magnitude faster than the existing global algorithms with higher quality, and it obtains much more accurate community structure than the current local algorithms without any priori information.

  12. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  14. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  15. Distinct roles of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Hu, Yifan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several d...... polysaccharide is more important than Pel polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Our study thus suggests that different EPS materials play distinct roles during bacterial biofilm formation.......Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several...... distinguishable stages are observed during bacterial biofilm development. Biofilm formation is shown to be coordinated by EPS production, cell migration, subpopulation differentiation and interactions. However, the ways these different factors affect each other and contribute to community structural...

  16. On possible a-priori "imprinting" of General Relativity itself on the performed Lense-Thirring tests with LAGEOS satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-02-01

    The impact of possible a-priori "imprinting" effects of general relativity itself on recent attempts to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with the LAGEOS satellites orbiting the Earth and the terrestrial geopotential models from the dedicated mission GRACE is investigated. It is analytically shown that general relativity, not explicitly solved for in the GRACE-based models, may "imprint" their even zonal harmonic coefficients of low degrees J_l at a non-negligible level, given the present-day accuracy in recovering them. This translates into a bias of the LAGEOS-based relativistic tests as large as the Lense-Thirring effect itself. Further analyses should include general relativity itself in the GRACE data processing by explicitly solving for it.

  17. Communication Patterns of the Long Bedian Community: Implications for the Development of a Telecentre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnaniah, Jayapragas; Songan, Peter; yeo, Alvin; Zen, Hushairi; Hamid, Khairuddin A

    2004-01-01

    .... Findings from the study revealed that the Long Bedian community was deprived of the modern ICT benefits and there is a distinct information gap between the Long Bedian community and the urban community...

  18. Priori mask guided image reconstruction (p-MGIR) for ultra-low dose cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Justin C.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the compressed sensing (CS) based iterative reconstruction method has received attention because of its ability to reconstruct cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with good quality using sparsely sampled or noisy projections, thus enabling dose reduction. However, some challenges remain. In particular, there is always a tradeoff between image resolution and noise/streak artifact reduction based on the amount of regularization weighting that is applied uniformly across the CBCT volume. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel low-dose CBCT reconstruction algorithm framework called priori mask guided image reconstruction (p-MGIR) that allows reconstruction of high-quality low-dose CBCT images while preserving the image resolution. In p-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume was mathematically modeled as a combination of two regions: (1) where anatomical structures are complex, and (2) where intensities are relatively uniform. The priori mask, which is the key concept of the p-MGIR algorithm, was defined as the matrix that distinguishes between the two separate CBCT regions where the resolution needs to be preserved and where streak or noise needs to be suppressed. We then alternately updated each part of image by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively, where one minimization was focused on preserving the edge information of the first part while the other concentrated on the removal of noise/artifacts from the latter part. To evaluate the performance of the p-MGIR algorithm, a numerical head-and-neck phantom, a Catphan 600 physical phantom, and a clinical head-and-neck cancer case were used for analysis. The results were compared with the standard Feldkamp-Davis-Kress as well as conventional CS-based algorithms. Examination of the p-MGIR algorithm showed that high-quality low-dose CBCT images can be reconstructed without compromising the image resolution. For both phantom and the patient cases, the p-MGIR is able to achieve a clinically

  19. Soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling responses to agroecosystem management and carbon substrate addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Fertilizer application in conventional agriculture leads to N saturation and decoupled soil C and N cycling, whereas organic practices, e.g. complex rotations and legume incorporation, often results in increased SOM and tightly coupled cycles of C and N. These legacy effects of management on soils likely affect microbial community composition and microbial process rates. This project tested if agricultural management practices led to distinct microbial communities and if those communities differed in ability to utilize labile plant carbon substrates and to produce more plant available N. We addressed several specific questions in this project. 1) Do organic and conventional management legacies on similar soils produce distinct soil bacterial and fungal community structures and abundances? 2) How do these microbial community structures change in response to carbon substrate addition? 3) How do the responses of the microbial communities influence N cycling? To address these questions we conducted a laboratory incubation of organically and conventionally managed soils. We added C-13 labelled glucose either in one large dose or several smaller pulses. We extracted genomic DNA from soils before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting. We measured C in soil pools and respiration and N in soil extracts and leachates. Management led to different compositions of bacteria and fungi driven by distinct components in organic soils. Biomass did not differ across treatments indicating that differences in cycling were due to composition rather than abundance. C substrate addition led to convergence in bacterial communities; however management still strongly influenced the difference in communities. Fungal communities were very distinct between managements and plots with substrate addition not altering this pattern. Organic soils respired 3 times more of the glucose in the first week than conventional soils (1.1% vs 0.4%). Organic soils produced twice as much

  20. Structural and Community Change Outcomes of the Connect-to-Protect Coalitions: Trials and Triumphs Securing Adolescent Access to HIV Prevention, Testing, and Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J; Chiaramonte, Danielle; Strzyzykowski, Trevor; Spring, Hannah; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Chutuape, Kate; Cooper-Walker, Bendu; Boyer, Cherrie B; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-09-01

    Connect to Protect (C2P), a 10-year community mobilization effort, pursued the dual aims of creating communities competent to address youth's HIV-related risks and removing structural barriers to youth health. We used Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT) to examine the perceived contributions and accomplishments of 14 C2P coalitions. We interviewed 318 key informants, including youth and community leaders, to identify the features of coalitions' context and operation that facilitated and undermined their ability to achieve structural change and build communities' capability to manage their local adolescent HIV epidemic effectively. We coded the interviews using an a priori coding scheme informed by CCAT and scholarship on AIDS-competent communities. We found community mobilization efforts like C2P can contribute to addressing the structural factors that promote HIV-risk among youth and to community development. We describe how coalition leadership, collaborative synergy, capacity building, and local community context influence coalitions' ability to successfully implement HIV-related structural change, demonstrating empirical support for many of CCAT's propositions. We discuss implications for how community mobilization efforts might succeed in laying the foundation for an AIDS-competent community. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  1. Bacterial Communities Associated with the Lichen Symbiosis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T.; Cropsey, Garrett W. G.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and “algae” (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N2 fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N2 fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

  2. rRNA Operon Copy Number Can Explain the Distinct Epidemiology of Hospital-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluit, A.C.; Jansen, M.D.; Bosch, T.; Jansen, W.T.M.; Schouls, L.; Jonker, M.J.; Boel, C.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    The distinct epidemiology of original hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and early community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) is largely unexplained. S. aureus carries either five or six rRNA operon copies. Evidence is provided for a scenario in which MRSA has adapted

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of a priori information on process measures in a virtual reality inspection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Raye Bowling

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Normal 0 false false false Due to the nature of the complexity of the aircraft maintenance industry, much emphasis has been placed on improving aircraft inspection performance. One proven technique for improving inspection performance is the use of training. Several strategies have been implemented for training, one of which is giving feedforward information. The use of a priori (feedforward information is known to positively affect inspection performance (Ernst and Yovits, 1972; Long and Rourke, 1989; McKernan, 1989; Gramopadhye et al., 1997.  This information can consist of knowledge about defect characteristics (types, severity/criticality, and location and the probability of occurrence. Although several studies have been conducted that demonstrate the usefulness of feedforward as a training strategy, there are certain research issues that need to be addressed. This study evaluates the effects of feedforward information on process measures in a simulated 3-dimensional environment (aircraft cargo bay by the use of virtual reality.

  4. Effect of agricultural management regimes on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, Joanna; van Elsas, J.D.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  5. Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J.F.; Elsas, van J.D.; Veen, van J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  6. Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J. F.; van Elsas, J. D.; van Veen, J. A.

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  7. Comparative study and implementation of images re processing methods for the tomography by positrons emission: interest of taking into account a priori information; Etude comparative et implementation de methodes de reconstruction d`images pour la tomographie par emission de positons: interet de la prise en compte d`informations a priori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, F.

    1996-09-25

    The tomography by positron emission has for aim to explore an organ by injection of a radiotracer and bidimensional representation with processing techniques. The most used in routine is the filtered retro projection that gives smoothed images. this work realizes a comparative study of new techniques. The methods of preservations of contours are studied here, the idea is to use NMR imaging as a priori information. Two techniques of images construction are viewed more particularly: the resolution by pseudo inverse and the Bayesian method. (N.C.).

  8. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  9. A priori motion models for four-dimensional reconstruction in gated cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalush, D.S.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Cui, Lin

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the benefit of incorporating a priori assumptions about cardiac motion in a fully four-dimensional (4D) reconstruction algorithm for gated cardiac SPECT. Previous work has shown that non-motion-specific 4D Gibbs priors enforcing smoothing in time and space can control noise while preserving resolution. In this paper, we evaluate methods for incorporating known heart motion in the Gibbs prior model. The new model is derived by assigning motion vectors to each 4D voxel, defining the movement of that volume of activity into the neighboring time frames. Weights for the Gibbs cliques are computed based on these open-quotes most likelyclose quotes motion vectors. To evaluate, we employ the mathematical cardiac-torso (MCAT) phantom with a new dynamic heart model that simulates the beating and twisting motion of the heart. Sixteen realistically-simulated gated datasets were generated, with noise simulated to emulate a real Tl-201 gated SPECT study. Reconstructions were performed using several different reconstruction algorithms, all modeling nonuniform attenuation and three-dimensional detector response. These include ML-EM with 4D filtering, 4D MAP-EM without prior motion assumption, and 4D MAP-EM with prior motion assumptions. The prior motion assumptions included both the correct motion model and incorrect models. Results show that reconstructions using the 4D prior model can smooth noise and preserve time-domain resolution more effectively than 4D linear filters. We conclude that modeling of motion in 4D reconstruction algorithms can be a powerful tool for smoothing noise and preserving temporal resolution in gated cardiac studies

  10. Guiding health promotion efforts with urban Inuit: a community-specific perspective on health information sources and dissemination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E; Smylie, Janet K; Hastings, Paul D; Martin, Carmel M

    2006-01-01

    To develop a community-specific perspective of health information sources and dissemination strategies of urban Inuit to better guide health promotion efforts. Through a collaborative partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, a series of key informant interviews and focus groups were conducted to gather information on specific sources of health information, strategies of health information dissemination, and overall themes in health information processes. Distinct patterns of health information sources and dissemination strategies emerged from the data. Major themes included: the importance of visual learning, community Elders, and cultural interpreters; community cohesion; and the Inuit and non-Inuit distinction. The core sources of health information are family members and sources from within the Inuit community. The principal dissemination strategy for health information was direct communication, either through one-on-one interactions or in groups. This community-specific perspective of health information sources and dissemination strategies shows substantial differences from current mainstream models of health promotion and knowledge translation. Health promotion efforts need to acknowledge the distinct health information processes of this community, and should strive to integrate existing health information sources and strategies of dissemination with those of the community.

  11. Differential influence of distinct components of increased blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes: from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A Richey; Shah, Amil M; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D

    2013-09-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13340 participants (aged 54 ± 6 years, 56% women and 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure to risk for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log-likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 coronary heart disease events, 1669 heart failure events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during 18 ± 5 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were the following: systolic BP for coronary heart disease (AUC=0.74); pulse pressure for heart failure (AUC=0.79); systolic BP for stroke (AUC=0.74); and pulse pressure for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes.

  12. Impact of modellers' decisions on hydrological a priori predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, H. M.; Bormann, H.; Blume, T.; Buytaert, W.; Chirico, G. B.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Gustafsson, D.; Hölzel, H.; Krauße, T.; Kraft, P.; Stoll, S.; Blöschl, G.; Flühler, H.

    2014-06-01

    In practice, the catchment hydrologist is often confronted with the task of predicting discharge without having the needed records for calibration. Here, we report the discharge predictions of 10 modellers - using the model of their choice - for the man-made Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha, northeast Germany, Gerwin et al., 2009b) and we analyse how well they improved their prediction in three steps based on adding information prior to each following step. The modellers predicted the catchment's hydrological response in its initial phase without having access to the observed records. They used conceptually different physically based models and their modelling experience differed largely. Hence, they encountered two problems: (i) to simulate discharge for an ungauged catchment and (ii) using models that were developed for catchments, which are not in a state of landscape transformation. The prediction exercise was organized in three steps: (1) for the first prediction the modellers received a basic data set describing the catchment to a degree somewhat more complete than usually available for a priori predictions of ungauged catchments; they did not obtain information on stream flow, soil moisture, nor groundwater response and had therefore to guess the initial conditions; (2) before the second prediction they inspected the catchment on-site and discussed their first prediction attempt; (3) for their third prediction they were offered additional data by charging them pro forma with the costs for obtaining this additional information. Holländer et al. (2009) discussed the range of predictions obtained in step (1). Here, we detail the modeller's assumptions and decisions in accounting for the various processes. We document the prediction progress as well as the learning process resulting from the availability of added information. For the second and third steps, the progress in prediction quality is evaluated in relation to individual modelling experience and costs of

  13. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; McMillan, W Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  14. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin J Hammer

    Full Text Available Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  15. Practice Alignment and intent as distinctions for understanding cross-boundary knowledge creation practices in knowledge ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias

    This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice...... are identified and discussed. Potential implications for organisational and knowledge ecosystem conceptions are identified and discussed for further research....

  16. The Interplay Between Online and Offline Community Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia

    This study examines the interplay between online and offline community cultures based on identifying the distinct features of both. Studying this interaction explicitly and in empirical analysis is new to community literature and brands can through this better know the communities to which...... they relate. The findings reveal that without a thorough understanding of both online and offline cultures and their interaction, companies or brands may get a misleading picture of these cultures. For instance, if only looking at the culture online and not core values offline, the company might intervene...

  17. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-02-01

    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies.

  18. Evaluation of a compliance device in a subgroup of adult patients receiving specific immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets (GRAZAX) in a randomized, open-label, controlled study: an a priori subgroup analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.H.; Andersen, K.F.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This a priori subgroup analysis was conducted to assess patients' experience with a compliance device for the administration of sublingual specific immunotherapy for grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: The present paper reports the results of a subgroup analysis of a

  19. Distinct roles for soil fungal and bacterial communities associated with the suppression of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Rong; Ren, Yi; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Qingyun; Wu, Huasong; Jousset, Alexandre; Shen, Qirong

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing microbial communities associated with disease-suppressive soil is an important first step toward understanding the potential of microbiota to protect crops against plant pathogens. In the present study, we compared microbial communities in suppressive- and conducive-soils associated

  20. Statistical parameters as a means to a priori assess the accuracy of solar forecasting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Soubdhan, Ted; Lauret, Philippe; David, Mathieu; Muselli, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose to determinate and to test a set of 20 statistical parameters in order to estimate the short term predictability of the global horizontal irradiation time series and thereby to propose a new prospective tool indicating the expected error regardless the forecasting methods used. The mean absolute log return, which is a tool usually used in econometrics but never in global radiation prediction, proves to be a very good estimator. Some examples of the use of this tool are exposed, showing the interest of this statistical parameter in concrete cases of predictions or optimizations. This study gives a judgment for engineers and researchers on the installation or management of solar plants and could help in minimizing the energy crisis allowing to improve the renewable energy part of the energy mix. - Highlights: • Use of statistical parameter never used for the global radiation forecasting. • A priori index allowing to optimize easily and quickly a clear sky model. • New methodology allowing to quantify the prediction error regardless the predictor used. • The prediction error depends more on the location and the time series type than the machine Learning method used.

  1. Divulgación: Offering Minority Communities Equal Opportunities Through Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Cooney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of research has been undertaken in recent years giving prominence to the additional and distinctive challenges faced by female entrepreneurs and by ethnic entrepreneurs. However, other groups of minority entrepreneurs have received relatively little attention and so remain underexplored within entrepreneurship literature. This article introduces some of these minority communities (Ex–Prisoners, Disabled People, Travellers/Gypsies, Grey and Gay and highlights the research opportunities that exist for entrepreneurship academics who might wish to analyse such ‘silent’ minorities. These communities are all relatively large in terms of population numbers, require tailored support to overcome distinctive economic, social and personal obstacles, and would benefit from critical appraisals of their circumstances.

  2. Do community and autonomy moral violations elicit different emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareth, Dolichan; Kikutani, Mariko; Shirai, Mariko; Russell, James A

    2018-06-11

    According to one important set of theories, different domains of immorality are linked to different discrete emotions-panculturally. Violations against the community elicit contempt, whereas violations against an individual elicit anger. To test this theory, American, Indian and Japanese participants (N = 480) indicated contempt and anger reactions (with verbal rating and face selection) to both the types of immorality. To remedy method problems in previous research, community and autonomy violations were created for the same story-frame, by varying the target to be either the community or an individual. Community and autonomy violations did not differ significantly in the emotion elicited: overall, both types of violations elicited more anger than contempt (and more negative emotion of any kind than positive emotion). By verbal rating, Americans and Indians reported more anger than contempt for both types of violation, whereas Japanese reported more contempt than anger for both types. By face selection, the three cultural groups selected anger more than contempt for both types of violation. The results speak against defining distinct domains of morality by their association with distinct emotions. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. The ghost of fouling communities past: the effect of original community on subsequent recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Emily A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Biofouling on ships has been linked to the spread of invasive species, which has been identified as one of the current primary threats to the environment. Previous research on antifouling coatings suggested that the quantity of fouling, as well as community composition, on biocidal coatings was modified by prior fouling settlement. The experiment reported in this paper was designed to determine how preconditioning affected the rate and composition of subsequent fouling on transplanted silicone coatings. A series of 10 × 20 cm panels coated with Intersleek 700 or DC3140 were placed at three locations in Florida (Ponce Inlet, Sebastian Inlet, and Port of Miami), which were characterized by distinct fouling communities. Panels were immersed for four months, cleaned, and reciprocally transplanted among the three sites. Fouling community composition and coverage were characterized at bimonthly intervals both before and after transplantation. The original fouling community affected the subsequent fouling composition and recolonization by tunicates, sea anemones, barnacles, sponges, hydroids, and arborescent bryozoans. The community-level effects were short-term, lasting 2-4 months, but specific responses lasted up to 14 months post-transplant.

  4. Christian Community in Action: Bruderhof Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    The Bruderhof communities in the United States have organized their own private schools with a distinctly Christian philosophy of education, adding to the interesting mix of American private and religious schools. Rooted in early 20th century German pedagogy, romanticism, and shared responsibility, Bruderhof schools represent the essence of a…

  5. The Role of the Military in Building Political Community: The Case of the Two German States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    community is represented primarily by three vital intervening outcomes of the political socialization process: a distinct political culture, a separate...case-study attempts to first identify any conscious political socialization processes implemented by the two militaries, and then tries to link these processes to the two distinct German political communities....rapidly engineer political change in these cases, the resurrection and maintenance of a military may especially contribute to the process of political

  6. Light structures phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O Davies

    Full Text Available The upper few millimeters of soil harbour photosynthetic microbial communities that are structurally distinct from those of underlying bulk soil due to the presence of light. Previous studies in arid zones have demonstrated functional importance of these communities in reducing soil erosion, and enhancing carbon and nitrogen fixation. Despite being widely distributed, comparative understanding of the biodiversity of the soil surface and underlying soil is lacking, particularly in temperate zones. We investigated the establishment of soil surface communities on pasture soil in microcosms exposed to light or dark conditions, focusing on changes in phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface (0-3 mm and bulk soil (3-12 mm using ribosomal marker gene analyses. Microbial community structure changed with time and structurally similar phototrophic communities were found at the soil surface and in bulk soil in the light exposed microcosms suggesting that light can influence phototroph community structure even in the underlying bulk soil. 454 pyrosequencing showed a significant selection for diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena spp., in addition to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The soil surface also harboured distinct heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities in the presence of light, in particular, the selection for the phylum Firmicutes. However, these light driven changes in bacterial community structure did not extend to the underlying soil suggesting a discrete zone of influence, analogous to the rhizosphere.

  7. "Really Useful Research" for Real Equality and Justice in Adult and Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bríd

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, adult and community education has emerged as a distinctive discipline in its own right, based on scholarship in the quest for real equality and social justice. This distinctive discipline is already characterised by "really useful practice", that is, critical, creative pedagogy, heavily influenced by women's studies…

  8. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.

  9. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439

  10. Transformation of a Community College Budgeting Process Driven by the Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Renee R.

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges are unique in the higher education realm. Open access, the demographics of students, communities served, locations, and funding sources all present distinct circumstances. A strategic plan supported by leadership, faculty, staff and the external environment is needed to steer students on pathways to success. The focus on…

  11. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  12. A review of a priori regression models for warfarin maintenance dose prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Francis

    Full Text Available A number of a priori warfarin dosing algorithms, derived using linear regression methods, have been proposed. Although these dosing algorithms may have been validated using patients derived from the same centre, rarely have they been validated using a patient cohort recruited from another centre. In order to undertake external validation, two cohorts were utilised. One cohort formed by patients from a prospective trial and the second formed by patients in the control arm of the EU-PACT trial. Of these, 641 patients were identified as having attained stable dosing and formed the dataset used for validation. Predicted maintenance doses from six criterion fulfilling regression models were then compared to individual patient stable warfarin dose. Predictive ability was assessed with reference to several statistics including the R-square and mean absolute error. The six regression models explained different amounts of variability in the stable maintenance warfarin dose requirements of the patients in the two validation cohorts; adjusted R-squared values ranged from 24.2% to 68.6%. An overview of the summary statistics demonstrated that no one dosing algorithm could be considered optimal. The larger validation cohort from the prospective trial produced more consistent statistics across the six dosing algorithms. The study found that all the regression models performed worse in the validation cohort when compared to the derivation cohort. Further, there was little difference between regression models that contained pharmacogenetic coefficients and algorithms containing just non-pharmacogenetic coefficients. The inconsistency of results between the validation cohorts suggests that unaccounted population specific factors cause variability in dosing algorithm performance. Better methods for dosing that take into account inter- and intra-individual variability, at the initiation and maintenance phases of warfarin treatment, are needed.

  13. A review of a priori regression models for warfarin maintenance dose prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Ben; Lane, Steven; Pirmohamed, Munir; Jorgensen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A number of a priori warfarin dosing algorithms, derived using linear regression methods, have been proposed. Although these dosing algorithms may have been validated using patients derived from the same centre, rarely have they been validated using a patient cohort recruited from another centre. In order to undertake external validation, two cohorts were utilised. One cohort formed by patients from a prospective trial and the second formed by patients in the control arm of the EU-PACT trial. Of these, 641 patients were identified as having attained stable dosing and formed the dataset used for validation. Predicted maintenance doses from six criterion fulfilling regression models were then compared to individual patient stable warfarin dose. Predictive ability was assessed with reference to several statistics including the R-square and mean absolute error. The six regression models explained different amounts of variability in the stable maintenance warfarin dose requirements of the patients in the two validation cohorts; adjusted R-squared values ranged from 24.2% to 68.6%. An overview of the summary statistics demonstrated that no one dosing algorithm could be considered optimal. The larger validation cohort from the prospective trial produced more consistent statistics across the six dosing algorithms. The study found that all the regression models performed worse in the validation cohort when compared to the derivation cohort. Further, there was little difference between regression models that contained pharmacogenetic coefficients and algorithms containing just non-pharmacogenetic coefficients. The inconsistency of results between the validation cohorts suggests that unaccounted population specific factors cause variability in dosing algorithm performance. Better methods for dosing that take into account inter- and intra-individual variability, at the initiation and maintenance phases of warfarin treatment, are needed.

  14. Visualizing differences in phylogenetic information content of alignments and distinction of three classes of long-branch effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Christoph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published molecular phylogenies are usually based on data whose quality has not been explored prior to tree inference. This leads to errors because trees obtained with conventional methods suppress conflicting evidence, and because support values may be high even if there is no distinct phylogenetic signal. Tools that allow an a priori examination of data quality are rarely applied. Results Using data from published molecular analyses on the phylogeny of crustaceans it is shown that tree topologies and popular support values do not show existing differences in data quality. To visualize variations in signal distinctness, we use network analyses based on split decomposition and split support spectra. Both methods show the same differences in data quality and the same clade-supporting patterns. Both methods are useful to discover long-branch effects. We discern three classes of long branch effects. Class I effects consist of attraction of terminal taxa caused by symplesiomorphies, which results in a false monophyly of paraphyletic groups. Addition of carefully selected taxa can fix this effect. Class II effects are caused by drastic signal erosion. Long branches affected by this phenomenon usually slip down the tree to form false clades that in reality are polyphyletic. To recover the correct phylogeny, more conservative genes must be used. Class III effects consist of attraction due to accumulated chance similarities or convergent character states. This sort of noise can be reduced by selecting less variable portions of the data set, avoiding biases, and adding slower genes. Conclusion To increase confidence in molecular phylogenies an exploratory analysis of the signal to noise ratio can be conducted with split decomposition methods. If long-branch effects are detected, it is necessary to discern between three classes of effects to find the best approach for an improvement of the raw data.

  15. Reconstruction of Consistent 3d CAD Models from Point Cloud Data Using a Priori CAD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, A.; Chaine, R.; Marc, R.; Thibault, G.; Akkouche, S.

    2011-09-01

    We address the reconstruction of 3D CAD models from point cloud data acquired in industrial environments, using a pre-existing 3D model as an initial estimate of the scene to be processed. Indeed, this prior knowledge can be used to drive the reconstruction so as to generate an accurate 3D model matching the point cloud. We more particularly focus our work on the cylindrical parts of the 3D models. We propose to state the problem in a probabilistic framework: we have to search for the 3D model which maximizes some probability taking several constraints into account, such as the relevancy with respect to the point cloud and the a priori 3D model, and the consistency of the reconstructed model. The resulting optimization problem can then be handled using a stochastic exploration of the solution space, based on the random insertion of elements in the configuration under construction, coupled with a greedy management of the conflicts which efficiently improves the configuration at each step. We show that this approach provides reliable reconstructed 3D models by presenting some results on industrial data sets.

  16. The impact of student diversity on interest, design, and promotion of Web-based tailored nutrition and physical activity programs for community colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; De Jesus, Maria; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2011-01-01

    To examine an organizational level perspective of the process of adopting Web-based tailored nutrition and physical activity programs for community college students. In this qualitative study, 21 individual key informant interviews of community college student services and health center administrators were used to examine organizational-level perceptions of interest in, design characteristics of, and ways to promote health programs. A cross-classification matrix of a priori and emergent themes related to student diversity was created to describe cross-cutting patterns. Findings revealed 5 emergent themes for consideration in program development related to student diversity: (1) multiple roles played by students, (2) limited access to financial resources, (3) varied student demographics, (4) different levels of understanding, and (5) commuting to campus. Nutrition and physical activity programs for community colleges need to specifically address the diverse nature of their students to increase the potential of adoption. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  18. An experiment framework to identify community functional components driving ecosystem processes and services delivery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.; Berg, M.P.; de Bello, F.; van Oosten, A.R.; Bila, K.; Moretti, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that the distribution of species trait values in a community can greatly determine ecosystem processes and services delivery. Two distinct components of community trait composition are hypothesized to chiefly affect ecosystem processes: (i) the average trait value of the

  19. Taking Our Seat at the Table: Community Cancer Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Katie M; Smith, Caitlin

    Cancer survivors are at risk for occupational performance issues related to activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, work, and social and community participation. Occupational therapy practitioners can address these performance issues by offering services within existing community cancer survivorship programs that focus on adaptive and compensatory strategies to facilitate meaningful lifestyles and optimize health and well-being. Occupational therapy services do not currently exist at these community sites, nor are occupational therapy practitioners recognized as providers in existing community cancer survivorship programs. Recognition of practitioners' distinct value in cancer survivorship, advocacy for occupational therapy services in the community, development of supporting documentation for occupational therapy's role in community survivorship, and research on the efficacy of interventions in community cancer survivorship are needed to expand occupational therapy's role with this growing population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. First attempt to assess the viability of bluefin tuna spawning events in offshore cages located in an a priori favourable larval habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reglero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Atlantic bluefin tuna caught by the purse-seine fleet in the Mediterranean Sea are transferred alive into transport cages and towed to coastal facilities where they are fattened. This major fishery is targeting aggregations of reproductive bluefin tuna that continue spawning within the transport cages. Our study is the first attempt to assess the viability of the spawning events within transport cages placed offshore in a priori favourable locations for larval survival. The study was conducted in June 2010 in the Balearic Sea, a main spawning area for bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. The location of two transport cages, one with wild and one with captive tuna, coincide with the situation of the chlorophyll front using satellite imagery as a proxy for the salinity front between resident surface waters and those of recent Atlantic origin. The results showed that bluefin tuna eggs were spawned almost every day within the two cages but few or no larvae were found. The expected larval densities estimated after applying mortality curves to the daily egg densities observed in the cages were higher than the sampled larval densities. The trajectories of the eggs after hatching estimated from a particle tracking model based on observed geostrophic currents and a drifter deployed adjacent to the cage suggest that larvae were likely to be caught close to the cages within the sampling dates. Spawning events in captive tuna in transport cages may hatch into larvae though they may experience higher mortality rates than expected in natural populations. The causes of the larval mortality are further discussed in the text. Such studies should be repeated in other spawning areas in the Mediterranean if spawning in cages located offshore in areas favourable a priori for larval survival is likely to be considered a management measurement to minimize the impact of purse-seine fishing on tuna.

  1. Plant Communities Rather than Soil Properties Structure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Primary Succession on a Mine Spoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Claudia; Kohout, Petr; Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Frouz, Jan; Rydlová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations. On each site, we sampled twice a year roots of the perennial rhizomatous grass Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) to determine AMF root colonization and diversity (using 454-sequencing), determined the soil chemical properties and composition of plant communities. AMF taxa richness was unaffected by site age, but AMF composition variation increased along the chronosequences. AMF communities were unaffected by soil chemistry, but related to the composition of neighboring plant communities of the sampled C. epigejos plants. In contrast, the plant communities of the sites were more distinctively structured than the AMF communities along the four successional stages. We conclude that AMF and plant community successions respond to different factors. AMF communities seem to be influenced by biotic rather than by abiotic factors and to diverge with successional age. PMID:28473828

  2. Bilingualism and language shift in Western Cape communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers a number of pertinent sociolinguistic aspects of a distinct process of language shift recently noted in some historically Afrikaans first language (L1) communities established in the Cape Metropolitan area. Particularly, it considers qualitatively how a number of families made deliberate choices to change ...

  3. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, F L; Santos, H F; Peixoto, R S; Rosado, A S; Araujo, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin.

  4. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  5. Determinants of terrestrial arthropod community composition at Cape Hallett, Antarctica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinclair, BJ

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available . wadei. Arthropods were absent from areas occupied by the large Adelie penguin colony. There was some distinction among arthropod communities of different habitats, with water and a lichen species (indicative of scree slope habitats) ranking...

  6. Effects of triclosan on bacterial community composition and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including antimicrobials, can be found at trace levels in treated wastewater effluent. Impacts of chemical contaminants on coastal aquatic microbial community structure and pathogen abundance are unknown despite the potential for selection through antimicrobial resistance. In particular, Vibrio, a marine bacterial genus that includes several human pathogens, displays resistance to the ubiquitous antimicrobial compound triclosan. Here we demonstrated through use of natural seawater microcosms that triclosan (at a concentration of ~5 ppm) can induce a significant Vibrio growth response (68–1,700 fold increases) in comparison with no treatment controls for three distinct coastal ecosystems: Looe Key Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary), Doctors Arm Canal (Big Pine Key, FL), and Clam Bank Landing (North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC). Additionally, microbial community analysis by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing for Looe Key Reef showed distinct changes in microbial community structure with exposure to 5 ppm triclosan, with increases observed in the relative abundance of Vibrionaceae (17-fold), Pseudoalteromonadaceae (65-fold), Alteromonadaceae (108-fold), Colwelliaceae (430-fold), and Oceanospirillaceae (1,494-fold). While the triclosan doses tested were above concentrations typically observed in coastal surface waters, results identify bacterial families that are potentially resistant to triclosan and/or adapted to u

  7. Organizing for Change: A Case Study of Grassroots Leadership at a Kentucky Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borregard, Andrea Rae

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges constitute a special type of higher education organization: their complex mission, dynamics, personnel structures, and values require a distinct set of understandings and skills to lead and manage them well. Most of the research on leadership in community colleges focuses on leaders in positions of power (presidents, provosts,…

  8. Interacting growth and loss rates: The balance of top-down and bottom-up controls in plankton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Application of resource-based competition theory to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean suggests that single-factor controls on vertical export rates of carbon from euphotic zones are unlikely. High specific rates of grazing or sinking losses interact with growth physiology to produce nutrient requirements in situ that are much higher than those required for the growth of populations held in bottle bioassays. The efficiency of vertical export of carbon by sinking particulates can vary with species composition of the plankton, which in turn can be altered by nutrient manipulation. A simulation model explores possible changes to species composition and vertical carbon flux which might result from addition of Fe to Southern Ocean plankton communities. Nutrient manipulation permits invasion of plankton communities by taxa not originally present and does not necessarily increase the biomass or metabolism of resident species. This makes a priori prediction of fluxes associated with an enriched and altered community fundamentally uncertain if predictions are based on stoichiometries and physiologies of the original resident taxa. Vertical carbon flux could either increase or decrease in response to single-element addition, depending on the attributes of the invading species

  9. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  10. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  12. A priori estimation of accuracy and of the number of wells to be employed in limiting dilution assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Chaui-Berlinck

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of limiting dilution assay (LDA for assessing the frequency of responders in a cell population is a method extensively used by immunologists. A series of studies addressing the statistical method of choice in an LDA have been published. However, none of these studies has addressed the point of how many wells should be employed in a given assay. The objective of this study was to demonstrate how a researcher can predict the number of wells that should be employed in order to obtain results with a given accuracy, and, therefore, to help in choosing a better experimental design to fulfill one's expectations. We present the rationale underlying the expected relative error computation based on simple binomial distributions. A series of simulated in machina experiments were performed to test the validity of the a priori computation of expected errors, thus confirming the predictions. The step-by-step procedure of the relative error estimation is given. We also discuss the constraints under which an LDA must be performed.

  13. Community renewable energy: What should it mean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Community is a much used word that is readily attached to projects, initiatives and policies as part of the discursive politics of modern governance. In this viewpoint, we consider the way in which community has become attached to renewable energy projects in the UK, both in grassroot action and in mainstream energy policy. We ask what those involved have seen as distinctive about community renewable energy projects that makes them different from other renewable energy installations. We identify a diversity of understandings and interpretations that revolve around questions of both process (who the project is by) and outcome (who the project is for). We evaluate the implications of this diversity, identifying the importance of the process of project development for realising the catalytic and learning effects of meaningful and substantial local involvement

  14. Patchiness of Ciliate Communities Sampled at Varying Spatial Scales along the New England Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Grattepanche

    Full Text Available Although protists (microbial eukaryotes provide an important link between bacteria and Metazoa in food webs, we do not yet have a clear understanding of the spatial scales on which protist diversity varies. Here, we use a combination of DNA fingerprinting (denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis or DGGE and high-throughput sequencing (HTS to assess the ciliate community in the class Spirotrichea at varying scales of 1-3 km sampled in three locations separated by at least 25 km-offshore, midshelf and inshore-along the New England shelf. Analyses of both abundant community (DGGE and the total community (HTS members reveal that: 1 ciliate communities are patchily distributed inshore (i.e. the middle station of a transect is distinct from its two neighboring stations, whereas communities are more homogeneous among samples within the midshelf and offshore stations; 2 a ciliate closely related to Pelagostrobilidium paraepacrum 'blooms' inshore and; 3 environmental factors may differentially impact the distributions of individual ciliates (i.e. OTUs rather than the community as a whole as OTUs tend to show distinct biogeographies (e.g. some OTUs are restricted to the offshore locations, some to the surface, etc.. Together, these data show the complexity underlying the spatial distributions of marine protists, and suggest that biogeography may be a property of ciliate species rather than communities.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  16. A priori Considerations When Conducting High-Throughput Amplicon-Based Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sengupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amplicon-based sequencing strategies that include 16S rRNA and functional genes, alongside “meta-omics” analyses of communities of microorganisms, have allowed researchers to pose questions and find answers to “who” is present in the environment and “what” they are doing. Next-generation sequencing approaches that aid microbial ecology studies of agricultural systems are fast gaining popularity among agronomy, crop, soil, and environmental science researchers. Given the rapid development of these high-throughput sequencing techniques, researchers with no prior experience will desire information about the best practices that can be used before actually starting high-throughput amplicon-based sequence analyses. We have outlined items that need to be carefully considered in experimental design, sampling, basic bioinformatics, sequencing of mock communities and negative controls, acquisition of metadata, and in standardization of reaction conditions as per experimental requirements. Not all considerations mentioned here may pertain to a particular study. The overall goal is to inform researchers about considerations that must be taken into account when conducting high-throughput microbial DNA sequencing and sequences analysis.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure associated with cork oak in different landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Francisca; Valdiviesso, Teresa; Varela, Carolina; Tavares, Rui M; Baptista, Paula; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forests play an important ecological and economic role. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are key components for the sustainability and functioning of these ecosystems. The community structure and composition of ECMF associated with Q. suber in different landscapes of distinct Mediterranean bioclimate regions have not previously been compared. In this work, soil samples from cork oak forests residing in different bioclimates (arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid) were collected and surveyed for ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tips. A global analysis performed on 3565 ECM root tips revealed that the ECMF community is highly enriched in Russula, Tomentella, and Cenoccocum, which correspond to the ECMF genera that mainly contribute to community differences. The ECMF communities from the rainiest and the driest cork oak forests were distinct, with soils from the rainiest climates being more heterogeneous than those from the driest climates. The analyses of several abiotic factors on the ECMF communities revealed that bioclimate, precipitation, soil texture, and forest management strongly influenced ECMF structure. Shifts in ECMF with different hyphal exploration types were also detected among forests, with precipitation, forest system, and soil texture being the main drivers controlling their composition. Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the structuring of ECM communities could be the first step for promoting the sustainability of this threatened ecosystem.

  18. Permutation Tests of Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Carrion Communities and Their Potential Use in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L

    2016-05-19

    Forensic entomologists can use carrion communities' ecological succession data to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Permutation tests of hierarchical cluster analyses of these data provide a conceptual method to estimate part of the PMI, the post-colonization interval (post-CI). This multivariate approach produces a baseline of statistically distinct clusters that reflect changes in the carrion community composition during the decomposition process. Carrion community samples of unknown post-CIs are compared with these baseline clusters to estimate the post-CI. In this short communication, I use data from previously published studies to demonstrate the conceptual feasibility of this multivariate approach. Analyses of these data produce series of significantly distinct clusters, which represent carrion communities during 1- to 20-day periods of the decomposition process. For 33 carrion community samples, collected over an 11-day period, this approach correctly estimated the post-CI within an average range of 3.1 days. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Extracellular signals that define distinct and coexisting cell fates in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis differentiates into distinct subpopulations of specialized cells that coexist within highly structured communities. The coordination and interplay between these cell types requires extensive extracellular communication driven mostly by sensing self-generated secreted signals. These extracellular signals activate a set of sensor kinases, which respond by phosphorylating three major regulatory proteins, Spo0A, DegU and ComA. Each phosphorylated regulator triggers a specific differentiation program while at the same time repressing other differentiation programs. This allows a cell to differentiate in response to a specific cue, even in the presence of other, possibly conflicting, signals. The sensor kinases involved respond to an eclectic group of extracellular signals, such as quorum-sensing molecules, natural products, temperature, pH or scarcity of nutrients. This article reviews the cascades of cell differentiation pathways that are triggered by sensing extracellular signals. We also present a tentative developmental model in which the diverse cell types sequentially differentiate to achieve the proper development of the bacterial community.

  20. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Chandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  1. A retrospective cohort study on the risk of stroke in relation to a priori health knowledge level among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Lee, Ya-Ling; Ku, Po-Wen; Yen, Yung-Feng; Chu, Dachen

    2017-05-22

    Intervention of diabetes care education with regular laboratory check-up in outpatient visits showed long-term benefits to reduce the risk of macrovascular complications among people with type 2 diabetes. However, research on the level of a priori health knowledge to the prevention of diabetic complications in community settings has been scarce. We therefore aimed to investigate the association of health knowledge and stroke incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. A nationally representative sample of general Taiwanese population was selected using a multistage systematic sampling process from Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2005. Subjects were interviewed by a standardized face-to-face questionnaire in the survey, obtaining information of demographics, socioeconomic status, family medical history, obesity, health behaviors, and 15-item health knowledge assessment. The NHIS dataset was linked to Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data to retrieve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in NHIS participants at baseline and identify follow-up incidence of stroke from 2005 to 2013. Univariate and multivariate Cox regressions were used to estimate the effect of baseline health knowledge level to the risk of stroke incidence among this group of people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 597 diabetic patients with a mean age of 51.28 years old and nearly half of males were analyzed. During the 9-year follow-up period, 65 new stroke cases were identified among them. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the three groups of low/moderate/high knowledge levels revealed a statistical significance (p-value of log-rank test Taiwan. Development and delivery of health education on stroke prevention to people with type 2 diabetes are warranted.

  2. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions......, and possibly gut microenvironment constrain the magnitude of change. This thesis also characterises the fungus comb fungal communities (mycobiotas) in fungusgrowing termites, and shows that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained...

  3. Actinobacterial community dominated by a distinct clade in acidic soil of a waterlogged deciduous forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, J.; Kyselková, Martina; Omelka, M.; Čermák, L.; Novotná, J.; Grundmann, G.L.; Moënne-Loccoz, Y.; Ságová-Marečková, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2011), s. 386-394 ISSN 0168-6496 Grant - others:GA AVČR(CZ) IAA603020901; GA ČR(CZ) GPP201/11/P290 Program:IA; GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinobacterial community * gley soil * soil organic matter Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  4. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  5. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Li

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS. Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  6. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  8. Farmer knowledge and a priori risk analysis: pre-release evaluation of genetically modified Roundup Ready wheat across the Canadian prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-09-01

    corporations, previous experience with GM canola, and a strong belief in the importance of community and environment. Farmers were critical of expert-based risk assessment, particularly RRW field trials, and believed that their LK was valuable for assessing agbiotechnology as a whole. Over 90% of canola production across the Canadian prairies makes use of herbicide-tolerant (HT) varieties. Yet, respondents were generally uniform in their criticism of RRW, regardless whether they were HT users, non-HT-users, conservation tillage or organic in approach. They had a sophisticated understanding of how GM trait confinement was intrinsically tied to grain system segregation and, ultimately, market accessibility, and were concerned that gene flow in RRW would not be contained. Organic farmers were particularly critical of RRW, in large part because certification standards prohibit the presence of GM traits. Farmers practicing conservation tillage were also at relatively great risk, in part because their dependence on glyphosate to control weeds increases the likelihood that RRW volunteer would become more difficult and costly to control. This research is the first of its kind to include farmer knowledge in the a priori risk analysis of GM crops and, arguably, given its prairie-wide scope, is the largest scale, independent-farmer-focused study on GM crops ever conducted. The surprising uniformity in attitudes between users and non-users of GM technology and among organic, conventional, conservation tillage and GM using farmers speaks to the ability of farmers to discriminate among HT varieties. Our results clearly show that prairie farmers recognize that the risks associated with RRW commercialization outweigh any benefits. Farmer knowledge systems are holistic in nature, incorporating socioeconomic, cultural, political, and agroecological factors that all can contribute meaningfully to the pre-release evaluation of GM crops. The inclusion of farmers and other stakeholders in risk

  9. Architectural design drives the biogeography of indoor bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembel, Steven W; Meadow, James F; O'Connor, Timothy K; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Kline, Jeff; Moriyama, Maxwell; Brown, G Z; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    Architectural design has the potential to influence the microbiology of the built environment, with implications for human health and well-being, but the impact of design on the microbial biogeography of buildings remains poorly understood. In this study we combined microbiological data with information on the function, form, and organization of spaces from a classroom and office building to understand how design choices influence the biogeography of the built environment microbiome. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene from dust samples revealed that indoor bacterial communities were extremely diverse, containing more than 32,750 OTUs (operational taxonomic units, 97% sequence similarity cutoff), but most communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococci. Architectural design characteristics related to space type, building arrangement, human use and movement, and ventilation source had a large influence on the structure of bacterial communities. Restrooms contained bacterial communities that were highly distinct from all other rooms, and spaces with high human occupant diversity and a high degree of connectedness to other spaces via ventilation or human movement contained a distinct set of bacterial taxa when compared to spaces with low occupant diversity and low connectedness. Within offices, the source of ventilation air had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure. Our study indicates that humans have a guiding impact on the microbial biodiversity in buildings, both indirectly through the effects of architectural design on microbial community structure, and more directly through the effects of human occupancy and use patterns on the microbes found in different spaces and space types. The impact of design decisions in structuring the indoor microbiome offers the possibility to use ecological knowledge to shape our buildings in a way that will select for an indoor microbiome that promotes our health and well-being.

  10. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  11. Constructing Taxonomies to Identify Distinctive Forms of Primary Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Quebec that included urban, suburban, and rural areas. An organizational survey was conducted in 473 PHC practices. We used multidimensional nonparametric statistical methods, namely, multiple correspondence and principal component analyses, and an ascending hierarchical classification method to construct a taxonomy of organizations. Results. PHC organizations were classified into five distinct models: four professional and one community. Study findings indicate that the professional integrated coordination and the community model have great potential for organizational development since they are closest to the ideal type promoted by current reforms. Conclusion. Results showed that the configurational approach is useful to assess complex phenomena such as the organization of PHC. The analysis highlights the most promising organizational models. Our study enhances our understanding of organizational change in health services organizations. PMID:24959575

  12. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  13. Research Progress on the Relationship Between Oral Microbial Community and Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shujun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress was observed in studies of the relationship between oral Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer and tumors. Based on three distinct and close relationships, namely, the relationship between oral H. pylori and gastric cancer, between oral microbial communities and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and between oral microbial communities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and tumors, this work reviews the relationship between oral microbial communities and tumors. This research also provides reference for further analysis of the relationship between oral microorganisms and tumors to realize early diagnosis of tumor patients through detecting oral microorganisms under adjuvant therapy.

  14. Narrative and Experience of Community as Philosophy of Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the distinctive feature of African philosophising is a communitarian outlook expressed through various forms of narrative. The paper first illustrates the close relationship between narrative and community in the African cultural milieu. It then goes on to examine the way in which African academics in ...

  15. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  16. 'Catching up': The significance of occupational communities for the delivery of high quality home care by community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary; Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2013-07-01

    This article examines the importance of some informal work practices among community nurses during a period of significant organizational change. Ethnographic fieldwork in two purposively selected adult community nursing services in England comprised 79 hours of observation of routine practice, 21 interviews with staff and 23 interviews with patients. We identified the informal work practice of 'catching up', informal work conversations between immediate colleagues, as an important but often invisible aspect of satisfying work relationships and of the relational care of patients. Drawing on anthropological literatures on 'communities of practice' the article examines two central issues concerning the practices of 'catching up': (1) how informal learning processes shape community nursing work; (2) how this informal learning is shaped both in relation to the ideals of community nursing work and the wider political and organizational contexts of community nursing practice. Our findings highlight the distinctive value of informal workplace 'catch ups' for nurses to manage the inherent challenges of good home care for patients and to develop a shared ethic of care and professional identity. Our findings also indicate the decline of 'catching up' between nurses along with diminishing time and opportunity for staff to care holistically for patients in present service climates.

  17. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  18. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  19. Numerical aspects of drift kinetic turbulence: Ill-posedness, regularization and a priori estimates of sub-grid-scale terms

    KAUST Repository

    Samtaney, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical method based on an Eulerian approach to solve the Vlasov-Poisson system for 4D drift kinetic turbulence. Our numerical approach uses a conservative formulation with high-order (fourth and higher) evaluation of the numerical fluxes coupled with a fourth-order accurate Poisson solver. The fluxes are computed using a low-dissipation high-order upwind differencing method or a tuned high-resolution finite difference method with no numerical dissipation. Numerical results are presented for the case of imposed ion temperature and density gradients. Different forms of controlled regularization to achieve a well-posed system are used to obtain convergent resolved simulations. The regularization of the equations is achieved by means of a simple collisional model, by inclusion of an ad-hoc hyperviscosity or artificial viscosity term or by implicit dissipation in upwind schemes. Comparisons between the various methods and regularizations are presented. We apply a filtering formalism to the Vlasov equation and derive sub-grid-scale (SGS) terms analogous to the Reynolds stress terms in hydrodynamic turbulence. We present a priori quantifications of these SGS terms in resolved simulations of drift-kinetic turbulence by applying a sharp filter. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Numerical aspects of drift kinetic turbulence: ill-posedness, regularization and a priori estimates of sub-grid-scale terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samtaney, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical method based on an Eulerian approach to solve the Vlasov-Poisson system for 4D drift kinetic turbulence. Our numerical approach uses a conservative formulation with high-order (fourth and higher) evaluation of the numerical fluxes coupled with a fourth-order accurate Poisson solver. The fluxes are computed using a low-dissipation high-order upwind differencing method or a tuned high-resolution finite difference method with no numerical dissipation. Numerical results are presented for the case of imposed ion temperature and density gradients. Different forms of controlled regularization to achieve a well-posed system are used to obtain convergent resolved simulations. The regularization of the equations is achieved by means of a simple collisional model, by inclusion of an ad-hoc hyperviscosity or artificial viscosity term or by implicit dissipation in upwind schemes. Comparisons between the various methods and regularizations are presented. We apply a filtering formalism to the Vlasov equation and derive sub-grid-scale (SGS) terms analogous to the Reynolds stress terms in hydrodynamic turbulence. We present a priori quantifications of these SGS terms in resolved simulations of drift-kinetic turbulence by applying a sharp filter.

  1. A comparative study of amplitude calibrations for the East Asia VLBI Network: A priori and template spectrum methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilje; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Akiyama, Kazunori; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kino, Motoki; Byun, Do-Young; Sohn, Bong Won; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Hirota, Tomoya; Niinuma, Kotaro; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Kenta; Oyama, Tomoaki

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of amplitude calibrations for the East Asia VLBI Network (EAVN) at 22 and 43 GHz using two different methods of an "a priori" and a "template spectrum", particularly on lower declination sources. Using observational data sets of early EAVN observations, we investigated the elevation-dependence of the gain values at seven stations of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) and three additional telescopes in Japan (Takahagi 32 m, Yamaguchi 32 m, and Nobeyama 45 m). By comparing the independently obtained gain values based on these two methods, we found that the gain values from each method were consistent within 10% at elevations higher than 10°. We also found that the total flux densities of two images produced from the different amplitude calibrations were in agreement within 10% at both 22 and 43 GHz. By using the template spectrum method, furthermore, the additional radio telescopes can participate in KaVA (i.e., EAVN), giving a notable sensitivity increase. Therefore, our results will constrain the detailed conditions in order to measure the VLBI amplitude reliably using EAVN, and discuss the potential of possible expansion to telescopes comprising EAVN.

  2. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems.

  3. A community-wide media campaign to promote walking in a Missouri town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Ludwig-Bell, Cathy

    2005-10-01

    Engaging in moderate physical activity for 30 minutes five or more times per week substantially reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, colon cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity, and walking is an easy and accessible way to achieve this goal. A theory-based mass media campaign promoted walking and local community-sponsored wellness initiatives through four types of media (billboard, newspaper, radio, and poster advertisements) in St Joseph, Mo, over 5 months during the summer of 2003. The Walk Missouri campaign was conducted in four phases: 1) formative research, 2) program design and pretesting, 3) implementation, and 4) impact assessment. Using a postcampaign-only, cross-sectional design, a telephone survey (N = 297) was conducted in St Joseph to assess campaign impact. Study outcomes were pro-walking beliefs and behaviors. One in three survey respondents reported seeing or hearing campaign messages on one or more types of media. Reported exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with two of four pro-walking belief scales (social and pleasure benefits) and with one of three community-sponsored activities (participation in a community-sponsored walk) controlling for demographic, health status, and environmental factors. Exposure was also significantly associated with one of three general walking behaviors (number of days per week walking) when controlling for age and health status but not when beliefs were introduced into the model, consistent with an a priori theoretical mechanism: the mediating effect of pro-walking beliefs on the exposure-walking association. These results suggest that a media campaign can enhance the success of community-based efforts to promote pro-walking beliefs and behaviors.

  4. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-03-29

    Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation

  5. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  6. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  7. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  8. An Exploration of Strategic Planning Perspectives and Processes within Community Colleges Identified as Being Distinctive in Their Strategic Planning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Community college leaders face unprecedented change, and some have begun reexamining their institutional strategic planning processes. Yet, studies in higher education strategic planning spend little time examining how community colleges formulate their strategic plans. This mixed-method qualitative study used an expert sampling method to identify…

  9. Black Americans' Perspectives of Barriers and Facilitators of Community Screening for Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeukeje, Ebele M; Wild, Marcus G; Maripuri, Saugar; Davidson, Teresa; Rutherford, Margaret; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Lewis, Julia; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Cavanaugh, Kerri

    2018-04-06

    Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities. Researchers in collaboration with the Tennessee Kidney Foundation conducted three focus groups of adults in black American churches in Nashville, Tennessee. Questions examined views on CKD information, access to care, and priorities of kidney disease health. Content analysis was used. Guided by the Health Belief Model, a priori themes were generated, and additional themes were derived from the data using an inductive approach. Thirty-two black Americans completed the study in 2014. Participants were mostly women (79%) with a mean age of 56 years old (range, 24-78). Two major categories of barriers to kidney disease screening were identified: ( 1 ) participant factors, including limited kidney disease knowledge, spiritual/religious beliefs, emotions, and culture of the individual; and ( 2 ) logistic factors, including lack of convenience and incentives and poor advertisement. Potential facilitators of CKD screening included provision of CKD education, convenience of screening activities, and use of culturally sensitive and enhanced communication strategies. Program recommendations included partnering with trusted community members, selecting convenient locations, tailored advertising, and provision of compensation. Findings of this study suggest that provider-delivered culturally sensitive education and stakeholder engagement are critical to increase trust, decrease fear, and maximize participation and early identification of

  10. The continuing care retirement community executive: a manager for all seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, R E; Brewer, K P

    1991-01-01

    The continuing care retirement community industry is a growing source of residential and health care services for the elderly population. It is also a relatively new and expanding career path for both health care and hospitality managers. Using in-depth interviews with executives in a sample of 26 communities, this study provides one of the most complete portraits to date of the nature of managing these communities. The findings indicate that these organizations are complex and multifaceted, demanding versatile skills and abilities. Most critical are those skills that enable a manager to interact effectively with residents and staff to build and maintain a hospitable, accommodating community environment. As competition in the industry intensifies, community viability may become synonymous with customer satisfaction. Management training and development will need to be highly attentive to the distinctive features of these intriguing organizations.

  11. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Armour-Marshall, Katrina; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Isaac, Nick J B

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE). Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  12. Patterns of insect communities along a stress gradient following decommissioning of a Cu-Ni smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin-Fenske, Jennifer; Anand, Madhur

    2011-01-01

    The diversity, estimated richness and abundance of terrestrial insect communities were examined along a stress gradient of past pollution in the region of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This gradient represents the natural recovery and lingering effects of a decommissioned copper-nickel smelting complex. Ant genera and sixteen higher taxonomic groups (family and order) had the highest abundance at the sites with intermediate stress. Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the decommissioned source of pollution and eleven families decreased reflecting a complex response of diversity to pollution. Carabid beetles show an increase in diversity further from the smelter; however, examination of the species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter, emphasizing the unique habitat created by severe pollution. Although almost forty years since decomissioning of the smelter complex, the terrestrial insect community in the vicinity remains significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Highlights: → Several taxonomic groups had highest abundance at intermediate stress. → Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the source of pollution. → Eleven families decreased in abundance with distance. → Species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter. → Terrestrial insect community still significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Our study finds both unexpected and expected responses of insect communities to a landscape gradient of past pollution suggesting the emergence of novel ecosystems.

  13. Patterns of insect communities along a stress gradient following decommissioning of a Cu-Ni smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin-Fenske, Jennifer [Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Anand, Madhur, E-mail: manand@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    The diversity, estimated richness and abundance of terrestrial insect communities were examined along a stress gradient of past pollution in the region of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This gradient represents the natural recovery and lingering effects of a decommissioned copper-nickel smelting complex. Ant genera and sixteen higher taxonomic groups (family and order) had the highest abundance at the sites with intermediate stress. Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the decommissioned source of pollution and eleven families decreased reflecting a complex response of diversity to pollution. Carabid beetles show an increase in diversity further from the smelter; however, examination of the species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter, emphasizing the unique habitat created by severe pollution. Although almost forty years since decomissioning of the smelter complex, the terrestrial insect community in the vicinity remains significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Highlights: > Several taxonomic groups had highest abundance at intermediate stress. > Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the source of pollution. > Eleven families decreased in abundance with distance. > Species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter. > Terrestrial insect community still significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Our study finds both unexpected and expected responses of insect communities to a landscape gradient of past pollution suggesting the emergence of novel ecosystems.

  14. FORMALITÀ E MATERIALITÀ DELL’ETICA. DAL DOVER ESSERE ALL’EVIDENZA ASSIOLOGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, Maria Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to investigate the deconstruction of the kantian ethical formalism by Max Scheler, who, adopting the phenomenological method, establishes an order of a priori knowledge absolutely distinct from natural and the scientific knowledge. Phenomenological knowledge leads to intuition of essences, that, according to their degree of generality, can be formal or material. Identifying a form of knowledge different from intellectual synthesis and the sensitive perception, namely fühlen or axiological feeling, Scheler releases the a priori from legislator mechanism of intellect and also from characteristics of objects. The a priori is rather a plainness that appears immediately in eidetic intuition, such as hierarchical structure of meanings and values, which constitutes the logos that permeates the universe.

  15. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all p...

  16. Root-associated fungal communities along a primary succession on a mine spoil: Distinct ecological guilds assemble differently

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolaříková, Z.; Kohout, Petr; Krüger, C.; Janoušková, M.; Mrnka, L.; Rydlová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, OCT (2017), s. 143-0152 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Community composition * Ecological guilds * Primary succession Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  17. [Security of hospital infusion practices: From an a priori risk analysis to an improvement action plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignard, J; Cosserant, S; Traore, O; Souweine, B; Sautou, V

    2016-03-01

    Infusion in care units, and all the more in intensive care units, is a complex process which can be the source of many risks for the patient. Under cover of an institutional approach for the improvement of the quality and safety of patient healthcare, a risk mapping infusion practices was performed. The analysis was focused on intravenous infusion situations in adults, the a priori risk assessment methodology was applied and a multidisciplinary work group established. Forty-three risks were identified for the infusion process (prescription, preparation and administration). The risks' assessment and the existing means of control showed that 48% of them would have a highly critical patient security impact. Recommendations were developed for 20 risks considered to be most critical, to limit their occurrence and severity, and improve their control level. An institutional action plan was developed and validated in the Drug and Sterile Medical Devices Commission. This mapping allowed the realization of an exhaustive inventory of potential risks associated with the infusion. At the end of this work, multidisciplinary groups were set up to work on different themes and regular quarterly meetings were established to follow the progress of various projects. Risk mapping will be performed in pediatric and oncology unit where the risks associated with the handling of toxic products is omnipresent. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Tomographic image via background subtraction using an x-ray projection image and a priori computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin; Yi Byongyong; Lasio, Giovanni; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Yu, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    Kilovoltage x-ray projection images (kV images for brevity) are increasingly available in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for patient positioning. These images are two-dimensional (2D) projections of a three-dimensional (3D) object along the x-ray beam direction. Projecting a 3D object onto a plane may lead to ambiguities in the identification of anatomical structures and to poor contrast in kV images. Therefore, the use of kV images in IGRT is mainly limited to bony landmark alignments. This work proposes a novel subtraction technique that isolates a slice of interest (SOI) from a kV image with the assistance of a priori information from a previous CT scan. The method separates structural information within a preselected SOI by suppressing contributions to the unprocessed projection from out-of-SOI-plane structures. Up to a five-fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) was observed in selected regions of the isolated SOI, when compared to the original unprocessed kV image. The tomographic image via background subtraction (TIBS) technique aims to provide a quick snapshot of the slice of interest with greatly enhanced image contrast over conventional kV x-ray projections for fast and accurate image guidance of radiation therapy. With further refinements, TIBS could, in principle, provide real-time tumor localization using gantry-mounted x-ray imaging systems without the need for implanted markers.

  19. Elevational zonation of afrotropical forest bird communities along a homogeneous forest gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romdal, Tom Skovlund; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    studies, we find evidence of an elevational zonation of distinct communities within a seemingly homogeneous habitat. Although similar boundaries have been assumed to arise as a result of vegetational ecotones, or because of interspecific competition, these mechanisms are poorly corroborated. We suggest...

  20. Séparation des ondes P et S à l'aide de la matrice spectrale avec informations à priori The Separation of P and S Waves Using the Spectral Matrix with a Priori Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Classiquement, la technique de filtrage utilisant la matrice spectrale proposée par Mermoz ne permet une séparation automatique des ondes au sens des indicatrices sismiques que dans certains cas particuliers, à savoir lorsque les ondes à séparer sont naturellement alignées sur les vecteurs propres de la matrice spectrale. Dans les autres cas, nous montrons que l'introduction d'information a priori sur la vitesse apparente de quelques ondes et une limitation de la durée temporelle de ces dernières permettent d'estimer leurs vecteurs d'ondes. L'utilisation de ces vecteurs et une technique de projection au sens des moindres carrés conduit à une extraction optimale de ces ondes, sans dégrader les autres ondes. La technique de filtrage proposée a été appliquée sur des données sismiques de type PSV (profil sismique vertical déporté. Le PSV a été enregistré dans un puits entre les cotes 1050 m et 1755 m; la source est déportée de 654 m par rapport à la tête de puits. L'outil utilisé est un géophone de puits à trois composantes. Le puits traverse une structure géologique complexe. Le traitement réalisé a mis en évidence des réflexions sismiques d'ondes de compression et de cisaillement, associées à des marqueurs fortement pentés (10 à 25°. Après estimation des champs de vitesse et des pendages à l'aide d'abaques, la migration en profondeur des horizons temps pointés a permis d'obtenir un modèle structural faillé. Detailed structural analysis can be achieved by using 3-component vertical seismic profiling method which gives structural information at several hundred meters from the wellhead. The use of an offset VSP on the Auzance structure has led to obtain a structural model composed by faulted dipping reflectors. This is due to the robust nature of the wave separation method which is based on the spectral matrix and uses an a priori information. This method preserves the true amplitude and the local apparent

  1. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Richard J., E-mail: r.payne@mmu.ac.uk [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Geography, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stevens, Carly J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dise, Nancy B. [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Gowing, David J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pilkington, Michael G.; Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Emmett, Bridget A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Michael R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent. - Highlights: > Ozone exposure, N and base cation deposition modify UK acid grassland composition. > Ozone influences community composition without reducing species richness. > Nitrogen and base cation deposition have interacting impacts. > Distinct species responses to pollutants suggest potential for bioindication. - Ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition have distinct but additive impacts on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

  2. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Richard J.; Stevens, Carly J.; Dise, Nancy B.; Gowing, David J.; Pilkington, Michael G.; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Emmett, Bridget A.; Ashmore, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent. - Highlights: → Ozone exposure, N and base cation deposition modify UK acid grassland composition. → Ozone influences community composition without reducing species richness. → Nitrogen and base cation deposition have interacting impacts. → Distinct species responses to pollutants suggest potential for bioindication. - Ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition have distinct but additive impacts on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

  3. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  4. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments.

  5. Accurate detection of hierarchical communities in complex networks based on nonlinear dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    One of the most challenging problems in network science is to accurately detect communities at distinct hierarchical scales. Most existing methods are based on structural analysis and manipulation, which are NP-hard. We articulate an alternative, dynamical evolution-based approach to the problem. The basic principle is to computationally implement a nonlinear dynamical process on all nodes in the network with a general coupling scheme, creating a networked dynamical system. Under a proper system setting and with an adjustable control parameter, the community structure of the network would "come out" or emerge naturally from the dynamical evolution of the system. As the control parameter is systematically varied, the community hierarchies at different scales can be revealed. As a concrete example of this general principle, we exploit clustered synchronization as a dynamical mechanism through which the hierarchical community structure can be uncovered. In particular, for quite arbitrary choices of the nonlinear nodal dynamics and coupling scheme, decreasing the coupling parameter from the global synchronization regime, in which the dynamical states of all nodes are perfectly synchronized, can lead to a weaker type of synchronization organized as clusters. We demonstrate the existence of optimal choices of the coupling parameter for which the synchronization clusters encode accurate information about the hierarchical community structure of the network. We test and validate our method using a standard class of benchmark modular networks with two distinct hierarchies of communities and a number of empirical networks arising from the real world. Our method is computationally extremely efficient, eliminating completely the NP-hard difficulty associated with previous methods. The basic principle of exploiting dynamical evolution to uncover hidden community organizations at different scales represents a "game-change" type of approach to addressing the problem of community

  6. Characterization of bovine ruminal epithelial bacterial communities using 16S rRNA sequencing, PCR-DGGE, and qRT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiju; Zhou, Mi; Adamowicz, Elizabeth; Basarab, John A; Guan, Le Luo

    2012-02-24

    Currently, knowledge regarding the ecology and function of bacteria attached to the epithelial tissue of the rumen wall is limited. In this study, the diversity of the bacterial community attached to the rumen epithelial tissue was compared to the rumen content bacterial community using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR-DGGE, and qRT-PCR analysis. Sequence analysis of 2785 randomly selected clones from six 16S rDNA (∼1.4kb) libraries showed that the community structures of three rumen content libraries clustered together and were separated from the rumen tissue libraries. The diversity index of each library revealed that ruminal content bacterial communities (4.12/4.42/4.88) were higher than ruminal tissue communities (2.90/2.73/3.23), based on 97% similarity. The phylum Firmicutes was predominant in the ruminal tissue communities, while the phylum Bacteroidetes was predominant in the ruminal content communities. The phyla Fibrobacteres, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were only detected in the ruminal content communities. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial profiles of the rumen content and ruminal epithelial tissue samples from 22 steers further confirmed that there is a distinct bacterial community that inhibits the rumen epithelium. The distinctive epimural bacterial communities suggest that Firmicutes, together with other epithelial-specific species, may have additional functions other than food digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial communities related to sensory attributes in Korean fermented soy bean paste (doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Han Sub; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kim, Sang Sook

    2016-11-01

    Various microbial communities play a role in generating the distinctive sensory characteristics of the traditional Korean soybean paste, doenjang. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities in traditional doenjang. The results of the descriptive analysis revealed that some traditional doenjang (T1-T11) exhibited distinctive characteristics, such as fish sauce flavor, meju, bitterness, sourness, and saltiness, whereas the modified samples (M1-M3) demonstrated sweetness, umami, and an alcohol odor. According to the metagenomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the phylum Firmicutes was the dominant bacterium in most doenjang. At the genus level, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were frequently found in most doenjang. Among these LAB, the major genera of bacteria were Tetragenococcus in M2 (60.30%), T3 (91.20%), T8 (48.60%), and T9 (60.90%); Enterococcus in T1 (29.40%), T4 (34.10%), and T10 (50.50%); Leuconostoc in T7 (89.10%); and Lactobacillus in T9 (38.3%). The most frequently occurring non-LAB was Bacillus in M3 (50.10%), T5 (46.50%), and T6 (20.50%), and M1 and T2 contained Staphylococcus and Ochrobactrum as their major non-LAB, respectively. The results of a correlation analysis between the sensory attributes from the descriptive analysis and the microbial communities from 454 pyrosequencing provided an overview for the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities. Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, Rhodobacteraceae, Proteus, and Luteimonas were found in samples that had a strong fish sauce characteristic. The presence of LAB-Tetragenococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Carnobacterium, and Weissella-was related to sourness. Enterococcus and Enterobacter were found in samples with a matured flavor and a soft mouthfeel, respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrate that microbial communities found in doenjang were closely related to distinct

  8. Randomized clinical trials in orthodontics are rarely registered a priori and often published late or not at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Antonoglou, Georgios N; Sándor, George K; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    A priori registration of randomized clinical trials is crucial to the transparency and credibility of their findings. Aim of this study was to assess the frequency with which registered and completed randomized trials in orthodontics are published. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ISRCTN for registered randomized clinical trials in orthodontics that had been completed up to January 2017 and judged the publication status and date of registered trials using a systematic protocol. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher exact tests, and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. From the 266 orthodontic trials registered up to January 2017, 80 trials had been completed and included in the present study. Among these 80 included trials, the majority (76%) were registered retrospectively, while only 33 (41%) were published at the time. The median time from completion to publication was 20.1 months (interquartile range: 9.1 to 31.6 months), while survival analysis indicated that less than 10% of the trials were published after 5 years from their completion. Finally, 22 (28%) of completed trials remain unpublished even after 5 years from their completion. Publication rates of registered randomized trials in orthodontics remained low, even 5 years after their completion date.

  9. Impact of nonlinearity on changing the a priori of trace gas profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP estimates of atmospheric profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES contains a priori information that may vary geographically, which is a confounding factor in the analysis and physical interpretation of an ensemble of profiles. One mitigation strategy is to transform profile estimates to a common prior using a linear operation thereby facilitating the interpretation of profile variability. However, this operation is dependent on the assumption of not worse than moderate non-linearity near the solution of the non-linear estimate. The robustness of this assumption is tested by comparing atmospheric retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer processed with a uniform prior with those processed with a variable prior and converted to a uniform prior following the non-linear retrieval. Linearly converting the prior following a non-linear retrieval is shown to have a minor effect on the results as compared to a non-linear retrieval using a uniform prior when compared to the expected total error, with less than 10% of the change in the prior ending up as unbiased fluctuations in the profile estimate results.

  10. Enhancing the performance of model-based elastography by incorporating additional a priori information in the modulus image reconstruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyley, Marvin M; Srinivasan, Seshadri; Dimidenko, Eugene; Soni, Nirmal; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Model-based elastography is fraught with problems owing to the ill-posed nature of the inverse elasticity problem. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a novel inversion scheme that incorporates a priori information concerning the mechanical properties of the underlying tissue structures, and the variance incurred during displacement estimation in the modulus image reconstruction process. The information was procured by employing standard strain imaging methodology, and introduced in the reconstruction process through the generalized Tikhonov approach. In this paper, we report the results of experiments conducted on gelatin phantoms to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov (GTK) estimation criterion relative to those computed by employing the un-weighted least-squares estimation criterion, the weighted least-squares estimation criterion and the standard Tikhonov method (i.e., the generalized Tikhonov method with no modulus prior). The results indicate that modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov approach had superior elastographic contrast discrimination and contrast recovery. In addition, image reconstruction was more resilient to structural decorrelation noise when additional constraints were imposed on the reconstruction process through the GTK method

  11. Functional recovery of biofilm bacterial communities after copper exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, Marie-Elene Y.; Massieux, Boris; Breure, Anton M.; Greve, Gerdit D.; Rutgers, Michiel; Admiraal, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Potential of bacterial communities in biofilms to recover after copper exposure was investigated. Biofilms grown outdoor in shallow water on glass dishes were exposed in the laboratory to 0.6, 2.1, 6.8 μmol/l copper amended surface water and a reference and subsequently to un-amended surface water. Transitions of bacterial communities were characterised with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Exposure to 6.8 μmol/l copper provoked distinct changes in DGGE profiles of bacterial consortia, which did not reverse upon copper depuration. Exposure to 2.1 and 6.8 μmol/l copper was found to induce marked changes in CLPP of bacterial communities that proved to be reversible during copper depuration. Furthermore, copper exposure induced the development of copper-tolerance, which was partially lost during depuration. It is concluded that bacterial communities exposed to copper contaminated water for a period of 26 days are capable to restore their metabolic attributes after introduction of unpolluted water in aquaria for 28 days. - Genetically different bacterial communities can have similar functions and tolerance to copper

  12. One Happy Union: Infusing Community-Based Learning Projects through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason W.; Kane, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Both community-based learning (CBL) and online learning are popular pedagogical practices, with distinct benefits and issues for teaching and learning. The integration of these practices may seem challenging, but they can be compatible. This article seeks to provide effective examples and support for conducting CBL projects in online courses while…

  13. Climate interacts with soil to produce beta diversity in Californian plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Going, B M; Harrison, S P; Anacker, B L; Safford, H D

    2013-09-01

    Spatially distinct communities can arise through interactions and feedbacks between abiotic and biotic factors. We suggest that, for plants, patches of infertile soils such as serpentine may support more distinct communities from those in the surrounding non-serpentine matrix in regions where the climate is more productive (i.e., warmer and/or wetter). Where both soil fertility and climatic productivity are high, communities may be dominated by plants with fast-growing functional traits, whereas where either soils or climate impose low productivity, species with stress-tolerant functional traits may predominate. As a result, both species and functional composition may show higher dissimilarity between patch and matrix in productive climates. This pattern may be reinforced by positive feedbacks, in which higher plant growth under favorable climate and soil conditions leads to higher soil fertility, further enhancing plant growth. For 96 pairs of sites across a 200-km latitudinal gradient in California, we found that the species and functional dissimilarities between communities on infertile serpentine and fertile non-serpentine soils were higher in more productive (wetter) regions. Woody species had more stress-tolerant functional traits on serpentine than non-serpentine soil, and as rainfall increased, woody species functional composition changed toward fast-growing traits on non-serpentine, but not on serpentine soils. Soil organic matter increased with rainfall, but only on non-serpentine soils, and the difference in organic matter between soils was positively correlated with plant community dissimilarity. These results illustrate a novel mechanism wherein climatic productivity is associated with higher species, functional, and landscape-level dissimilarity (beta diversity).

  14. Familiar ethical issues amplified: how members of research ethics committees describe ethical distinctions between disaster and non-disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-06-28

    The conduct of research in settings affected by disasters such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes is challenging, particularly when infrastructures and resources were already limited pre-disaster. However, since post-disaster research is essential to the improvement of the humanitarian response, it is important that adequate research ethics oversight be available. We aim to answer the following questions: 1) what do research ethics committee (REC) members who have reviewed research protocols to be conducted following disasters in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) perceive as the key ethical concerns associated with disaster research?, and 2) in what ways do REC members understand these concerns to be distinct from those arising in research conducted in non-crisis situations? This qualitative study was developed using interpretative description methodology; 15 interviews were conducted with REC members. Four key ethical issues were identified as presenting distinctive considerations for disaster research to be implemented in LMICs, and were described by participants as familiar research ethics issues that were amplified in these contexts. First, REC members viewed disaster research as having strong social value due to its potential for improving disaster response, but also as requiring a higher level of justification compared to other research settings. Second, they identified vulnerability as an overarching concern for disaster research ethics, and a feature that required careful and critical appraisal when assessing protocols. They noted that research participants' vulnerabilities frequently change in the aftermath of a disaster and often in unpredictable ways. Third, they identified concerns related to promoting and maintaining safety, confidentiality and data security in insecure or austere environments. Lastly, though REC members endorsed the need and usefulness of community engagement, they noted that there are significant challenges in a disaster

  15. Root-associated fungal communities along a primary succession on a mine spoil: Distinct ecological guilds assemble differently

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolaříková, Zuzana; Kohout, Petr; Krüger, Claudia; Janoušková, Martina; Mrnka, Libor; Rydlová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, OCT 2017 (2017), s. 143-152 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10377S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : community composition * ecological guilds * primary succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  16. Analysis of soil whole- and inner-microaggregate bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummey, D L; Stahl, P D [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2004-07-01

    Although soil structure largely determines energy flows and the distribution and composition of soil microhabitats, little is known about how microbial community composition is influenced by soil structural characteristics and organic matter compartmentalization dynamics. A UV irradiation-based procedure was developed to specifically isolate inner-microaggregate microbial communities, thus providing the means to analyze these communities in relation to their environment. Whole- and inner-microaggregate fractions of undisturbed soil and soils reclaimed after disturbance by surface coal mining were analyzed using 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analyses to determine salient bacterial community structural characteristics. We hypothesized that inner-microaggregate environments select for definable microbial communities and that, due to their sequestered environment, inner-microaggregate communities would not be significantly impacted by disturbance. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated distinct differences between bacterial populations of inner-microaggregates of undisturbed and reclaimed soils. While both undisturbed and reclaimed inner-microaggregate bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, undisturbed soils contained only Actinobacteridae, while in inner-microaggregates of reclaimed soils Rubrobacteridae predominate. Spatial stratification of division-level lineages within microaggregates was also seen. The fractionation methods employed in this study therefore represent a valuable tool for defining relationships between biodiversity and soil structure.

  17. Supplementing Blends of Sugars, Amino Acids, and Secondary Metabolites to the Diet of Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Drive Distinct Gut Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Judd, Timothy M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2016-10-01

    Although it is well known that diet is one of the major modulators of the gut microbiome, how the major components of diet shape the gut microbial community is not well understood. Here, we developed a simple system that allows the investigation of the impact of given compounds as supplements of the diet on the termite gut microbiome. The 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis revealed that feeding termites different blends of sugars and amino acids did not majorly impact gut community composition; however, ingestion of blends of secondary metabolites caused shifts in gut bacterial community composition. The supplementation of sugars and amino acids reduced the richness significantly, and sugars alone increased the evenness of the gut bacterial community significantly. Secondary metabolites created the most dramatic effects on the microbial community, potentially overriding the effect of other types of compounds. Furthermore, some microbial groups were stimulated specifically by particular groups of compounds. For instance, termites fed with secondary metabolites contained more Firmicutes and Spirochaetes compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that the termite (Reticulitermes flavipes) can be used as a simple and effective system to test the effects of particular chemical compounds in modulating the gut microbiome.

  18. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  19. The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, A. D.; Strickland, M. S.; Fierer, N.; Bradford, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that function of distinct soil microbial communities in common environments (H1a) converge or (H1b) remain dissimilar over time. Using a 6 × 2 (soil community inoculum × litter environment) full-factorial design, we compare decomposition rates in experimental microcosms containing grass or hardwood litter environments. After 100 days, communities that develop are inoculated into fresh litters and decomposition followed for another 100 days. We repeat this for a third, 100-day period. In each successive, 100-day period, we find higher decomposition rates (i.e. functioning) suggesting communities function better when they have an experimental history of the contemporary environment. Despite these functional gains, differences in decomposition rates among initially distinct communities persist, supporting the hypothesis that dissimilarity is maintained across time. In contrast to function, community composition is more similar following a common, experimental history. We also find that "specialization" on one experimental environment incurs a cost, with loss of function in the alternate environment. For example, experimental history of a grass-litter environment reduced decomposition when communities were inoculated into a hardwood-litter environment. Our work demonstrates experimentally that despite expectations of fast growth rates, physiological flexibility and rapid evolution, initial functional differences between microbial communities are maintained across time. These findings question whether microbial dynamics can be omitted from models of ecosystem processes if we are to predict reliably global

  20. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE. Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  1. Distinctiveness and Sense of Community in the Historical Center of Naples: A Piece of Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…

  2. Lost in space: Onboard star identification using CCD star tracker data without an a priori attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    There are many algorithms in use today which determine spacecraft attitude by identifying stars in the field of view of a star tracker. Some methods, which date from the early 1960's, compare the angular separation between observed stars with a small catalog. In the last 10 years, several methods have been developed which speed up the process and reduce the amount of memory needed, a key element to onboard attitude determination. However, each of these methods require some a priori knowledge of the spacecraft attitude. Although the Sun and magnetic field generally provide the necessary coarse attitude information, there are occasions when a spacecraft could get lost when it is not prudent to wait for sunlight. Also, the possibility of efficient attitude determination using only the highly accurate CCD star tracker could lead to fully autonomous spacecraft attitude determination. The need for redundant coarse sensors could thus be eliminated at substantial cost reduction. Some groups have extended their algorithms to implement a computation intense full sky scan. Some require large data bases. Both storage and speed are concerns for autonomous onboard systems. Neural network technology is even being explored by some as a possible solution, but because of the limited number of patterns that can be stored and large overhead, nothing concrete has resulted from these efforts. This paper presents an algorithm which, by descretizing the sky and filtering by visual magnitude of the brightness observed star, speeds up the lost in space star identification process while reducing the amount of necessary onboard computer storage compared to existing techniques.

  3. Phillips-Tikhonov regularization with a priori information for neutron emission tomographic reconstruction on Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielecki, J.; Scholz, M.; Drozdowicz, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland); Giacomelli, L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Milano (Italy); Kiptily, V.; Kempenaars, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University (Sweden); Craciunescu, T. [IAP, National Institute for Laser Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    A method of tomographic reconstruction of the neutron emissivity in the poloidal cross section of the Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) tokamak was developed. Due to very limited data set (two projection angles, 19 lines of sight only) provided by the neutron emission profile monitor (KN3 neutron camera), the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. The aim of this work consists in making a contribution to the development of reliable plasma tomography reconstruction methods that could be routinely used at JET tokamak. The proposed method is based on Phillips-Tikhonov regularization and incorporates a priori knowledge of the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile. For the purpose of the optimal selection of the regularization parameters, the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile is approximated by the shape of normalized electron density profile measured by LIDAR or high resolution Thomson scattering JET diagnostics. In contrast with some previously developed methods of ill-posed plasma tomography reconstruction problem, the developed algorithms do not include any post-processing of the obtained solution and the physical constrains on the solution are imposed during the regularization process. The accuracy of the method is at first evaluated by several tests with synthetic data based on various plasma neutron emissivity models (phantoms). Then, the method is applied to the neutron emissivity reconstruction for JET D plasma discharge #85100. It is demonstrated that this method shows good performance and reliability and it can be routinely used for plasma neutron emissivity reconstruction on JET.

  4. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  5. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  6. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  7. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L McGuire

    Full Text Available In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  8. An analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj; Pankaj Mehta Biophysics Theory Group Team

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is to understand how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration yield observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we present an analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly and use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, diversity in competition, and stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In our PA model, we treat species as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent work on large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special (``critical'') point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. Our results suggest that the concepts of ``phases'' and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly. Pm was supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems and a Sloan Research Fellowship.

  9. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  10. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood, involving more complex mechanisms than those in the stomach and proximal duodenum. There is clear evidence for important contributions to NSAID enteropathy of enteric bacteria, bile and enterohepatic recirculation of the NSAID. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. Indeed, clinical data suggest little, if any, benefit. Animal studies suggest a significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy when proton pump inhibitors are co-administered with the NSAID. This worsening of damage appears to be linked to changes in the number and types of bacteria in the small intestine during proton pump inhibitor therapy. The distinct mechanisms of NSAID-induced injury in the stomach/proximal duodenum versus the more distal small intestine likely dictate distinct strategies for prevention. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Community Participation in the Development and Validation of a School Violence Observation Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Nilda; Fernández, Gisely; Cruz, Tania; Jordán, Natalia; Trenche, Maryanes

    2016-01-01

    School violence is a worldwide public health issue with negative effects on education. Official statistics and reports do not include daily occurrences of violent behavior that may precede severe incidents. This project aimed to engage school community members in the development, validation, and implementation of an observation instrument to identify characteristics of school violence in two Puerto Rican schools. The role of school community members in all phases of the research is described. The input of community partners contributed to enrich the process by providing insight into the problem studied and a more informed framework for interpreting results. Taking into account distinctive features of each particular school made results meaningful to the school community and fostered a sense of empowerment of community members as they recognized their knowledge is essential to the solution of their problems.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods. We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6%) of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil). The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the ambient

  13. Environmental Determinants Influencing Fish Community Structure and Diversity in Two Distinct Seasons among Wetlands of Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish community structure was assessed in six wetlands using cast nets, to correlate with environmental variables with diversity and distribution patterns, from 2010 to 2012. A total of 2,239 individuals belonging to 44 species and 1,938 individuals belonging to 40 species were sampled in the dry and wet seasons. Mochokid and Mormyrid families dominated fish community and constituted 14.8%, respectively, followed by Alestids (12.9% and Chlariids (11.1%. Rarer taxons were centropomids, channids, malapteruds, and oesteoglossids and represented 1.9%, respectively. Overall, CPUE per net did not vary significantly (Tukey HSD test, p=0.27 in the dry and wet seasons. Wuntori marsh consistently showed dominance in mean monthly CPUE per net (dry = 115±4.5; wet = 107±7.7 seasons, while Bunglung constructed wetland was the least recorded (dry = 56.5±6.2; wet = 58.3±4.1 seasons. Fish diversity and richness differed significantly (F=0.11, p=0.03 among seasons. Environmental disturbances were season-specific and did not differ significantly (F=0.16, df=14, p=0.97 among sites. A DCA ordination explained 69% variability in fish distribution patterns, while PCA showed that 81.8% of nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate, and grazing intensity on axis 1 and conductivity, temperature, and turbidity on axis 2 influenced fish community structure. Wetland conservation must be promoted to sustain fish abundance and overall ecosystem stability.

  14. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, C.

    2014-01-29

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. 2013 The Authors Molecular Ecology John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microbial community composition during anaerobic mineralization of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in fuel-contaminated aquifer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Finneran, Kevin T

    2011-04-01

    Anaerobic mineralization of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were studied in sediment incubations prepared with fuel-contaminated aquifer material. Microbial community compositions in all incubations were characterized by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The aquifer material mineralized 42.3±9.9% of [U-(14)C]-TBA to 14CO2 without electron acceptor amendment. Fe(III), sulfate, and Fe(III) plus anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate addition also promoted U-[14C]-TBA mineralization at levels similar to those of the unamended controls. Nitrate actually inhibited TBA mineralization relative to unamended controls. In contrast to TBA, [U-(14)C]-MTBE was not significantly mineralized in 400 days regardless of electron acceptor amendment. Microbial community analysis indicated that the abundance of one dominant clone group correlated closely with anaerobic TBA mineralization. The clone was phylogenetically distinct from known aerobic TBA-degrading microorganisms, Fe(III)- or sulfate-reducing bacteria. It was most closely associated with organisms belonging to the alphaproteobacteria. Microbial communities were different in MTBE and TBA amended incubations. Shannon indices and Simpson indices (statistical community comparison tools) both demonstrated that microbial community diversity decreased in incubations actively mineralizing TBA, with distinct "dominant" clones developing. These data contribute to our understanding of anaerobic microbial transformation of fuel oxygenates in contaminated aquifer material and the organisms that may catalyze the reactions.

  16. Methanotrophs, methanogens and microbial community structure in livestock slurry surface crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Y.F.; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , and Methylosarcina of Type I, and Methylocystis of Type II, dominated the methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) community, whereas Methanocorpusculum was the predominant methanogen. Higher numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing Type I than Type II MOB were found in all crusts. Potential CH4 oxidation...... rates were determined by incubating crusts with CH4, and CH4 oxidization was observed in cattle, but not in swine slurry crusts. Conclusions: Slurry surface crusts harbour a diverse microbial community. Type I MOB are more diverse and abundant than Type II MOB in this environment. The distinct CH4...

  17. Assessment methodology for new cooling lakes. Volume 2. Development of empirical multivariate relationships for evaluating fish communities in new cooling lakes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieb, T.M.; Porcella, D.B.; Ginn, T.C.; Lorenzen, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Numerical classification techniques were used to define groups of lakes with distinct fish community attributes. Simple linear and multiple regression were then used to identify the important environmental variables affecting the fish communities. Next, the multivariate statistical technique of discriminant analysis was tested and shown to predict the groups of lakes (defined in the initial step of classification) using the identified environmental variables. Classification equations derived in the discriminant analysis enable the user to predict fish community characteristics of a new lake. The equations combine the information from nine limnological parameters into a single index of classification. Based on the value of this index, the lake is classified into one of four distinct groups. The fishery characteristics of the indicated group are then used to predict fish community structure and recreational fishery use. Angler-use estimates for the group are used to project multiple use benefits

  18. A comparative test of phylogenetic diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Oliver; Klotz, Stefan; Durka, Walter; Kühn, Ingolf

    2008-09-01

    Traditional measures of biodiversity, such as species richness, usually treat species as being equal. As this is obviously not the case, measuring diversity in terms of features accumulated over evolutionary history provides additional value to theoretical and applied ecology. Several phylogenetic diversity indices exist, but their behaviour has not yet been tested in a comparative framework. We provide a test of ten commonly used phylogenetic diversity indices based on 40 simulated phylogenies of varying topology. We restrict our analysis to a topological fully resolved tree without information on branch lengths and species lists with presence-absence data. A total of 38,000 artificial communities varying in species richness covering 5-95% of the phylogenies were created by random resampling. The indices were evaluated based on their ability to meet a priori defined requirements. No index meets all requirements, but three indices turned out to be more suitable than others under particular conditions. Average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD) and intensive quadratic entropy (J) are calculated by averaging and are, therefore, unbiased by species richness while reflecting phylogeny per se well. However, averaging leads to the violation of set monotonicity, which requires that species extinction cannot increase the index. Total taxonomic distinctness (TTD) sums up distinctiveness values for particular species across the community. It is therefore strongly linked to species richness and reflects phylogeny per se weakly but satisfies set monotonicity. We suggest that AvTD and J are best applied to studies that compare spatially or temporally rather independent communities that potentially vary strongly in their phylogenetic composition-i.e. where set monotonicity is a more negligible issue, but independence of species richness is desired. In contrast, we suggest that TTD be used in studies that compare rather interdependent communities where changes occur more gradually by

  19. Differences between resource control types revisited : A short term longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265818494; Vermande, Marjolijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138483515; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Vink, Gerko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323348793; Aleva, Liesbeth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van der Meulen, Matty

    2018-01-01

    Hawley's influential resource control theory (RCT) posits that both coercive and prosocial strategies may yield social dominance, as indexed by resource control. Based on differences in youths’ relative use of these strategies, RCT a priori defines five distinct subtypes. Several studies by Hawley

  20. Exploring the Relevance of Feminist Pedagogy to Community Psychology: Continuing the Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germaine-Small, Melissa; Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Mitchell, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychology has made advances in rectifying its historical negation of women's perspectives, as evidenced by a steady increase in women's scholarship and distinctly feminist works. However, in community psychology, the scope and magnitude of works generated both by and about women from a feminist framework have not kept pace with discourse on the…

  1. Different substrates and starter inocula govern microbial community structures in biogas reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Preseela; Steinigeweg, Sven; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different starter inocula on the microbial communities in biogas batch reactors fed with fresh maize and maize silage as substrates was investigated. Molecular biological analysis by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that each inoculum bore specific microbial communities with varying predominant phylotypes. Both, bacterial and archaeal DGGE profiles displayed three distinct communities that developed depending on the type of inoculum. Although maize and silage are similar substrates, different communities dominated the lactate-rich silage compared to lactate-free fresh maize. Cluster analysis of DGGE gels showed the communities of the same substrates to be stable with their respective inoculum. Bacteria-specific DGGE analysis revealed a rich diversity with Firmicutes being predominant. The other abundant phylotypes were Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes. Archaea-specific DGGE analysis displayed less diverse community structures, identifying members of the Methanosarcinales as the dominant methanogens present in all the three biogas digesters. In general, the source of inoculum played a significant role in shaping microbial communities. Adaptability of the inoculum to the substrates fed also influenced community compositions which further impacted the rates of biogas production.

  2. An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena M Hira

    Full Text Available Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap.

  3. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagne Duguma

    Full Text Available Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis, the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus, and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae, was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  4. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  5. Mineralogic control on abundance and diversity of surface-adherent microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Brena S.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of mineral-bound P and Fe in defining microbial abundance and diversity in a carbon-rich groundwater. Field colonization experiments of initially sterile mineral surfaces were combined with community structure characterization of the attached microbial population. Silicate minerals containing varying concentrations of P (∼1000 ppm P) and Fe (∼4 wt % Fe 2 O3), goethite (FeOOH), and apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] were incubated for 14 months in three biogeochemically distinct zones within a petroleum-contaminated aquifer. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis of incubated mineral surfaces and groundwater was used as a measure of microbial community structure and biomass. Microbial biomass on minerals exhibited distinct trends as a function of mineralogy depending on the environment of incubation. In the carbon-rich, aerobic groundwater attached biomass did not correlate to the P- or Fe- content of the mineral. In the methanogenic groundwater, however, biomass was most abundant on P-containing minerals. Similarly, in the Fe-reducing groundwater a correlation between Fe-content and biomass was observed. The community structure of the mineral-adherent microbial population was compared to the native groundwater community. These two populations were significantly different regardless of mineralogy, suggesting differentiation of the planktonic community through attachment, growth, and death of colonizing cells. Biomarkers specific for dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria native to the aquifer were identified only on Fe-containing minerals in the Fe-reducing groundwater. These results demonstrate that the trace nutrient content of minerals affects both the abundance and diversity of surface-adherent microbial communities. This behavior may be a means to access limiting nutrients from the mineral, creating a niche for a particular microbial population. These results suggest that heterogeneity of microbial populations and their associated

  6. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper......, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  7. Asymmetric intimacy and algorithm for detecting communities in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Qin, Xiaomeng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an algorithm to choose a good partition in bipartite networks has been proposed. Bipartite networks have more theoretical significance and broader prospect of application. In view of distinctive structure of bipartite networks, in our method, two parameters are defined to show the relationships between the same type nodes and heterogeneous nodes respectively. Moreover, our algorithm employs a new method of finding and expanding the core communities in bipartite networks. Two kinds of nodes are handled separately and merged, and then the sub-communities are obtained. After that, objective communities will be found according to the merging rule. The proposed algorithm has been simulated in real-world networks and artificial networks, and the result verifies the accuracy and reliability of the parameters on intimacy for our algorithm. Eventually, comparisons with similar algorithms depict that the proposed algorithm has better performance.

  8. Community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Nebra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community composition and spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates were studied along the Ebro estuary, a highly stratified estuary located in the NE Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade the oligotrophication process occurring in the lower Ebro River and its estuary has allowed a complex benthic macroinvertebrate community to become established; these results contrast with the poor community found there in the early nineties. A total of 214 taxa were identified, and polychaetes dominated the community both in abundance and species richness. The results showed spatial differences in the structure and composition of macroinvertebrates, which suggests that there are two distinct communities along the estuary. Each community was found in a specific stretch (upper and lower estuary in function of the presence of the salt wedge. The macrobenthos of the upper estuary was dominated by freshwater taxa, but some euryhaline species were also found. The lower estuary showed a marine community typical of shallow Mediterranean environments. The transition between these two communities fits an ecotone model. The highest abundances, richness and diversities were recorded at the lower estuarine stations, especially those closer to the river mouth, whereas the lowest values corresponded to the stations adjacent to the tip of the salt wedge.

  9. Receivers matter: the meaning of alarm calls and competition for nest sites in a bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M; Expósito-Granados, Mónica

    2018-04-11

    Animal communities may constitute information networks where individuals gain information on predation risk by eavesdropping on alarm calls of other species. However, communities include species in different trophic levels, and it is not yet known how the trophic level of the receiver influences the informative value of a call. Furthermore, no empirical study has yet tested how increased competition may influence the value of alarm calls for distinct receivers. Here, we identify the importance of alarm calls emitted by a small owl, the little owl (Athene noctua), on the structure of a cavity-nesting bird community including mesopredators and primary prey under variable levels of competition for nest holes. Competitors sharing top predators with the callers and prey of the callers interpreted alarm and non-alarm calls differently. Competitors chose preferentially alarm and non-alarm patches over control patches to breed, while prey selected alarm patches. In contrast, competition for nest sites affected habitat selection of prey species more than that of competitors of the callers. This study provides support for a changing value of alarm calls and competition for nest sites for distinct receivers related to niche overlapping among callers and eavesdroppers, therefore, calling attention to possible cascading effects by the use of information in natural communities.

  10. Relations between water physico-chemistry and benthic algal communities in a northern Canadian watershed: defining reference conditions using multiple descriptors of community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn E; Hall, Roland I; Scrimgeour, Garry J

    2015-09-01

    Defining reference conditions is central to identifying environmental effects of anthropogenic activities. Using a watershed approach, we quantified reference conditions for benthic algal communities and their relations to physico-chemical conditions in rivers in the South Nahanni River watershed, NWT, Canada, in 2008 and 2009. We also compared the ability of three descriptors that vary in terms of analytical costs to define algal community structure based on relative abundances of (i) all algal taxa, (ii) only diatom taxa, and (iii) photosynthetic pigments. Ordination analyses showed that variance in algal community structure was strongly related to gradients in environmental variables describing water physico-chemistry, stream habitats, and sub-watershed structure. Water physico-chemistry and local watershed-scale descriptors differed significantly between algal communities from sites in the Selwyn Mountain ecoregion compared to sites in the Nahanni-Hyland ecoregions. Distinct differences in algal community types between ecoregions were apparent irrespective of whether algal community structure was defined using all algal taxa, diatom taxa, or photosynthetic pigments. Two algal community types were highly predictable using environmental variables, a core consideration in the development of Reference Condition Approach (RCA) models. These results suggest that assessments of environmental impacts could be completed using RCA models for each ecoregion. We suggest that use of algal pigments, a high through-put analysis, is a promising alternative compared to more labor-intensive and costly taxonomic approaches for defining algal community structure.

  11. Termites facilitate methane oxidation and shape the methanotrophic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Erens, Hans; Mujinya, Basile Bazirake; Boeckx, Pascal; Baert, Geert; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter; Boon, Nico; Van Ranst, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Termite-derived methane contributes 3 to 4% to the total methane budget globally. Termites are not known to harbor methane-oxidizing microorganisms (methanotrophs). However, a considerable fraction of the methane produced can be consumed by methanotrophs that inhabit the mound material, yet the methanotroph ecology in these environments is virtually unknown. The potential for methane oxidation was determined using slurry incubations under conditions with high (12%) and in situ (∼0.004%) methane concentrations through a vertical profile of a termite (Macrotermes falciger) mound and a reference soil. Interestingly, the mound material showed higher methanotrophic activity. The methanotroph community structure was determined by means of a pmoA-based diagnostic microarray. Although the methanotrophs in the mound were derived from populations in the reference soil, it appears that termite activity selected for a distinct community. Applying an indicator species analysis revealed that putative atmospheric methane oxidizers (high-indicator-value probes specific for the JR3 cluster) were indicative of the active nest area, whereas methanotrophs belonging to both type I and type II were indicative of the reference soil. We conclude that termites modify their environment, resulting in higher methane oxidation and selecting and/or enriching for a distinct methanotroph population.

  12. Macrozooplankton community structure off East Antarctica (80 150°E) during the Austral summer of 1995/1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, G. W.; Schultz, M. B.; Kitchener, J. A.; Cochran, T. G.; Richards, K.

    2000-08-01

    Zooplankton data from routine 0-200 m oblique trawls and targeted trawls were analysed using cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling to define the communities in Eastern Antarctica (80-150°E), their distribution patterns, indicator species, and species affinities. Three communities were defined based on routine trawls. The Main Oceanic Community comprising herbivorous copepods, chaetognaths, and the euphausiid Thysanoessa macrura dominated the area west of 120°E. The area east of 120°E was dominated by Salpa thompsoni. The third community located in the neritic zone was dominated by Euphausia crystallorophias. Antarctic krill Euphausia superba did not form a distinct community in its own right, unlike previous observations in Prydz Bay. Krill were distributed throughout most of the survey area but generally in higher abundances towards the shelf break. Overall, krill abundance was low compared with previous net surveys in Prydz Bay. Three main types of assemblages were identified based on target trawls. The first group was dominated by krill (mean 1149 individuals per 1000 m 3) which represented >99% of Group 1 catches in terms of numbers and biomass. Group 2 comprised the bulk of target trawls and comprised a wide diversity of species typical of the main oceanic community, with a mean abundance approximately half of that observed in the routine trawls. The third group comprised trawls in the neritic zone dominated by E. crystallorophias. No salp-dominated aggregation was found. While E. superba did not dominate a distinct community geographically as seen in previous Prydz Bay surveys, it did dominate discrete layers or aggregations, showing that both horizontal and vertical separation of communities exist.

  13. The Information Needs and Behavior of Mature Community College Students: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeit, Krystina

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…

  14. Community microrespirometry and molecular analyses reveal a diverse energy economy in Great Boiling Spring and Sandy's Spring West in the U.S. Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin N; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Babbitt, Aaron B; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-05-01

    Microrespirometry showed that several organic and inorganic electron donors stimulated oxygen consumption in two ∼80°C springs. Sediment and planktonic communities were structurally and functionally distinct, and quantitative PCR revealed catabolically distinct subpopulations of Thermocrinis. This study suggests that a variety of chemolithotrophic metabolisms operate simultaneously in these springs.

  15. Innovative Approaches Address Aging and Mental Health Needs in LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Ator, Michael; Kerr, Christopher; Milford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    LGBTQ older adults have higher levels of psychological distress as compared to older adults in general. They also experience multiple barriers to accessing equitable, culturally competent mental health and aging services because of their distinct histories and particular social contexts. This article discusses this lack of access to services, and highlights an innovative way mental health services are being delivered in LGBTQ communities.

  16. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  17. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  18. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  19. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  20. A Review of Predictive Software for the Design of Community Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rahimian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses adding a spatial dimension to the design of community microgrid projects in the interest of expanding the existing discourse related to energy performance optimization measures. A multidimensional vision for designing community microgrids with higher energy performance is considered, leveraging urban form (superstructure to understand how it impacts the performance of the system’s distributed energy resources and loads (infrastructure. This vision engages the design sector in the technical conversation of developing community microgrids, leading to energy efficient designs of microgrid-connected communities well before their construction. A new generation of computational modeling and simulation tools that address this interaction are required. In order to position the research, this paper presents a survey of existing software packages, belonging to two distinct categories of modeling, simulation, and evaluation of community microgrids: the energy infrastructure modeling and the urban superstructure energy modeling. Results of this software survey identify a lack in software tools and simulation packages that simultaneously address the necessary interaction between the superstructure and infrastructure of community microgrids, given the importance of its study. Conclusions represent how a proposed experimental software prototype may fill an existing gap in current related software packages.

  1. Diffuse flow environments within basalt- and sediment-based hydrothermal vent ecosystems harbor specialized microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J; Polson, Shawn W; Zeigler Allen, Lisa; Williamson, Shannon J; Lee, Charles K; Wommack, K Eric; Cary, S Craig

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents differ both in surface input and subsurface geochemistry. The effects of these differences on their microbial communities are not clear. Here, we investigated both alpha and beta diversity of diffuse flow-associated microbial communities emanating from vents at a basalt-based hydrothermal system along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and a sediment-based hydrothermal system, Guaymas Basin. Both Bacteria and Archaea were targeted using high throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analyses. A unique aspect of this study was the use of a universal set of 16S rRNA gene primers to characterize total and diffuse flow-specific microbial communities from varied deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Both surrounding seawater and diffuse flow water samples contained large numbers of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaea and Gammaproteobacteria taxa previously observed in deep-sea systems. However, these taxa were geographically distinct and segregated according to type of spreading center. Diffuse flow microbial community profiles were highly differentiated. In particular, EPR dominant diffuse flow taxa were most closely associated with chemolithoautotrophs, and off axis water was dominated by heterotrophic-related taxa, whereas the opposite was true for Guaymas Basin. The diversity and richness of diffuse flow-specific microbial communities were strongly correlated to the relative abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria, proximity to macrofauna, and hydrothermal system type. Archaeal diversity was higher than or equivalent to bacterial diversity in about one third of the samples. Most diffuse flow-specific communities were dominated by OTUs associated with Epsilonproteobacteria, but many of the Guaymas Basin diffuse flow samples were dominated by either OTUs within the Planctomycetes or hyperthermophilic Archaea. This study emphasizes the unique microbial communities associated with geochemically and geographically distinct hydrothermal diffuse flow environments.

  2. Diversity spurs diversification in ecological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Jarne, Philippe; Loreau, Michel; Mouquet, Nicolas; David, Patrice

    2017-06-01

    Diversity is a fundamental, yet threatened, property of ecological systems. The idea that diversity can itself favour diversification, in an autocatalytic process, is very appealing but remains controversial. Here, we study a generalized model of ecological communities and investigate how the level of initial diversity influences the possibility of evolutionary diversification. We show that even simple models of intra- and inter-specific ecological interactions can predict a positive effect of diversity on diversification: adaptive radiations may require a threshold number of species before kicking-off. We call this phenomenon DDAR (diversity-dependent adaptive radiations) and identify mathematically two distinct pathways connecting diversity to diversification, involving character displacement and the positive diversity-productivity relationship. Our results may explain observed delays in adaptive radiations at the macroscale and diversification patterns reported in experimental microbial communities, and shed new light on the dynamics of ecological diversity, the diversity-dependence of diversification rates, and the consequences of biodiversity loss.

  3. Diversity spurs diversification in ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Jarne, Philippe; Loreau, Michel; Mouquet, Nicolas; David, Patrice

    2017-06-09

    Diversity is a fundamental, yet threatened, property of ecological systems. The idea that diversity can itself favour diversification, in an autocatalytic process, is very appealing but remains controversial. Here, we study a generalized model of ecological communities and investigate how the level of initial diversity influences the possibility of evolutionary diversification. We show that even simple models of intra- and inter-specific ecological interactions can predict a positive effect of diversity on diversification: adaptive radiations may require a threshold number of species before kicking-off. We call this phenomenon DDAR (diversity-dependent adaptive radiations) and identify mathematically two distinct pathways connecting diversity to diversification, involving character displacement and the positive diversity-productivity relationship. Our results may explain observed delays in adaptive radiations at the macroscale and diversification patterns reported in experimental microbial communities, and shed new light on the dynamics of ecological diversity, the diversity-dependence of diversification rates, and the consequences of biodiversity loss.

  4. Capturing Tourists’ Preferences for the Management of Community-Based Ecotourism in a Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of community ecotourism will require the integration of experience, culture, and information for management decision-making. We use a choice experiment to build a community ecotourism preference model incorporating aspects of profound experience and economics in a forest park, test the tourists’ heterogeneity by using a random parameter logit model, and estimate the values of various community ecotourism programs. The empirical results reveal that: (1 Tourists’ preferences for community ecotourism will increase with the inclusion of a mini tour, experiential activities, and the opportunities to taste local dishes and stay at a distinctive bed & breakfast (B&B; (2 The variety of tourists’ social backgrounds and recreational experiences resulted in the heterogeneity of the attributes; (3 The best combinations regarding community ecotourism were a small group size, profound or in-depth experiences, and experiential activities in a forest park. This pilot study generates useful information by demonstrating possible community ecotourism programs in the forest park, along with suggestions for a quality improvement program.

  5. Followers are not enough: a multifaceted approach to community detection in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, David; Omodei, Elisa; Garland, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In online social media networks, individuals often have hundreds or even thousands of connections, which link these users not only to friends, associates, and colleagues, but also to news outlets, celebrities, and organizations. In these complex social networks, a 'community' as studied in the social network literature, can have very different meaning depending on the property of the network under study. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of these networks, we claim that community detection in online social networks should also be multifaceted in order to capture all of the different and valuable viewpoints of 'community.' In this paper we focus on three types of communities beyond follower-based structural communities: activity-based, topic-based, and interaction-based. We analyze a Twitter dataset using three different weightings of the structural network meant to highlight these three community types, and then infer the communities associated with these weightings. We show that interesting insights can be obtained about the complex community structure present in social networks by studying when and how these four community types give rise to similar as well as completely distinct community structure.

  6. Enterotypes in the landscape of gut microbial community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costea, Paul I.; Hildebrand, Falk; Manimozhiyan, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Population stratification is a useful approach for a better understanding of complex biological problems in human health and wellbeing. The proposal that such stratification applies to the human gut microbiome, in the form of distinct community composition types termed enterotypes, has been met...... with both excitement and controversy. In view of accumulated data and re-analyses since the original work, we revisit the concept of enterotypes, discuss different methods of dividing up the landscape of possible microbiome configurations, and put these concepts into functional, ecological and medical...... contexts. As enterotypes are of use in describing the gut microbial community landscape and may become relevant in clinical practice, we aim to reconcile differing views and encourage a balanced application of the concept....

  7. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  8. Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Paulson, Joseph Nathaniel; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-03-21

    Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains ( Enterobacter cloacae , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum , and Chryseobacterium indologenes ) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots. By using a selective culture-dependent method to track the abundance of each strain, we investigated the role that each plays in community assembly on roots of axenic maize seedlings. Only the removal of E. cloacae led to the complete loss of the community, and C. pusillum took over. This result suggests that E. cloacae plays the role of keystone species in this model ecosystem. In planta and in vitro, this model community inhibited the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , indicating a clear benefit to the host. Thus, combined with the selective culture-dependent quantification method, our synthetic seven-species community representing the root microbiome has the potential to serve as a useful system to explore how bacterial interspecies interactions affect root microbiome assembly and to dissect the beneficial effects of the root microbiota on hosts under laboratory conditions in the future.

  9. The ecology of hydric hammocks: a community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Susan W.; Humphrey, Stephen R.; Simons, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    This community profile is one in a series of Fish and Wildlife Service publications compiled to provide a state-of-knowledge synthesis of scientific information and literature on various coastal habitats. The subject of this profile is the hydric hammock, a distinctive type of forested wetland occurring at low elevations along the gulf coast of Florida from Aripeka to St. Marks and at various inland sites in Florida. Relatively little research has been conducted in hydric hammocks, and no thorough effort has been made previously to define this community. Consequently, no consensus has existed about the extent and nature of this community; some published works and active researchers have differed in their judgments about it; and the entity sometimes is ignored and often is lumped with other types of mixed hardwood forests. The purpose of this profile is to establish or clarify an identification and understanding of the hydric-hammock community. Information for the profile was gathered from published and unpublished literature, from persona 1 communication with many technical experts, and from our own fie 1 d experience. The profile includes some new data gathered in the field for the purpose of defining this community. It is hoped that the content and format of the profile will be useful to a broad spectrum of users, including other scientists, students, resource managers and planners, teachers, and interested citizens. The profile includes structural and functional aspects of the community: its physical setting, plant and animal composition and dynamics, interactions of its flora and fauna, and its relationships with other communities.

  10. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Belal; Marshall, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 - 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p 0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution and community structuring is more strongly influenced by sediment particle characteristics than by the

  11. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-12-15

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  12. Microbial community composition and functions are resilient to metal pollution along two forest soil gradients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarbad, H.; Niklinska, M.; Laskowski, R.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Zhou, J.; He, Z.; Wen, C.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long-term metal pollution. Studying 12 sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that functional

  13. Coupling Spatiotemporal Community Assembly Processes to Changes in Microbial Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B.; Crump, Alex R.; Resch, Charles T.; Fansler, Sarah; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Stegen, James C.

    2016-12-16

    Community assembly processes govern shifts in species abundances in response to environmental change, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely decoupled from ecosystem function. Here, we test hypotheses regarding assembly and function across space and time using hyporheic microbial communities as a model system. We pair sampling of two habitat types through hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that dual selective pressures assimilate to generate compositional changes at distinct timescales among habitat types, resulting in contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with selection and with seasonal changes in aerobic metabolism. Our results culminate in a conceptual model in which selection from contrasting environments regulates taxon abundance and ecosystem function through time, with increases in function when oscillating selection opposes stable selective pressures. Our model is applicable within both macrobial and microbial ecology and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem function.

  14. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  15. Richness patterns in the parasite communities of exotic poeciliid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A D

    2000-06-01

    Three species of poeciliids (Gambusia holbrooki, Xiphophorus helleri and X. maculatus) and 15 species of ecologically similar native freshwater fishes (mainly eleotrids, ambassids, melanotaeniids and retropinnids) were examined for parasite richness to investigate parasite flux, qualitative differences, quantitative differences and the structuring factors in parasite communities in the 2 fish types in Queensland, Australia. Theory suggests that poeciliids would harbour depauperate parasite communities. Results supported this hypothesis; poeciliids harboured more species-poor parasite infracommunities and regional faunas than natives (P analysis of presence/absence data for poeciliids and the 6 most-sampled native fishes revealed that parasite communities of the 2 fish groups are qualitatively distinct; the proportion of parasite species with complex life-cycles was lower in poeciliids than in native species, and Myxosporea, Microspora, Coccidia and parasitic Crustacea were all absent from poeciliids. Limited exchange of parasite species has occurred between natives and poeciliids. Logistic ordinal regression analysis revealed that fish origin (exotic or native), environmental disturbance and host sex were all significant determinants of parasite community richness (P competitive advantage over native fishes because of their lack of parasites.

  16. The changing face of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infection, both in hospitalised patients with significant healthcare exposure and in patients without healthcare risk factors. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA are known for their rapid community transmission and propensity to cause aggressive skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The distinction between the healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA is gradually fading owing to the acquisition of multiple virulence factors and genetic elements. The movement of CA-MRSA strains into the nosocomial setting limits the utility of using clinical risk factors alone to designate community or HA status. Identification of unique genetic characteristics and genotyping are valuable tools for MRSA epidemiological studies. Although the optimum pharmacotherapy for CA-MRSA infections has not been determined, many CA-MRSA strains remain broadly susceptible to several non-β-lactam antibacterial agents. This review aimed at illuminating the characteristic features of CA-MRSA, virulence factors, changing clinical settings and molecular epidemiology, insurgence into the hospital settings and therapy with drug resistance.

  17. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Erwin

    Full Text Available Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP, might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods.We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6% of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil.The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the

  18. Unique Prokaryotic Consortia in Geochemically Distinct Sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and Discovery Deep Brine Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Rania; Mustafa, Ghada A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Moustafa, Ahmed; Ramadan, Adham R.; Antunes, Andre; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Uli; Marsis, Nardine G. R.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Sogin, Mitchell; Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Dorry, Hamza El

    2012-01-01

    The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The ‘polyextremophiles’ that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that one sulfur (S)-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1), group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1), and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. PMID:22916172

  19. Unique prokaryotic consortia in geochemically distinct sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and discovery deep brine pools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Siam

    Full Text Available The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The 'polyextremophiles' that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA revealed that one sulfur (S-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1, group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1, and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction.

  20. Unique prokaryotic consortia in geochemically distinct sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and discovery deep brine pools.

    KAUST Repository

    Siam, Rania

    2012-08-20

    The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The \\'polyextremophiles\\' that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that one sulfur (S)-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1), group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1), and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction.

  1. An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    propose an aspirational community theory of the firm (ACT) as a candidate theory by conceptualizing the firm as an aspirational community, the core of which is a group of like-minded people sharing similar or same aspiration/vision. To explain the existence of the firm, we make a distinction between......All of the three major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, knowledge-based theory and the entrepreneurship theory, offer some insightful analyses of the nature of the firm. However, they all have limitations and weaknesses in answering the fundamental question of the existence...... of the firm. In addition, they are all partial due to their particular focus on the multifaceted phenomenon of the firm. We argue that it is necessary and sufficient to develop a comprehensive yet integrative theory of the firm that combines the three competing yet complementary logics. Toward this end, we...

  2. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  3. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  4. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  5. The effects of distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Nicholas; Collin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of face and name distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations. Four types of monitoring judgements were solicited during encoding and retrieval of face-name pairs that contained distinct or typical faces (Experiment 1) or names (Experiment 2). The beneficial effects of distinctiveness on associative memory were symmetrical between faces and names, such that relative to their typical counterparts, distinct faces enhanced memory for names, and distinct names enhanced memory for faces. These effects were also apparent in metamemory. Estimates of prospective and retrospective memory performance were greater for face-name associations that contained a distinct face or name compared with a typical face or name, regardless of whether the distinct item was a cue or target. Moreover, the predictive validity of prospective monitoring improved with name distinctiveness, whereas the predictive validity of retrospective monitoring improved with facial distinctiveness. Our results indicate that distinctiveness affects not only the strength of the association between a face and a name, but also the ability to monitor that association.

  6. Phylogenetic evidence that two distinct Trichuris genotypes infect both humans and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana F Ravasi

    Full Text Available Although there has been extensive debate about whether Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are separate species, only one species of the whipworm T. trichiura has been considered to infect humans and non-human primates. In order to investigate potential cross infection of Trichuris sp. between baboons and humans in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we sequenced the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of adult Trichuris sp. worms isolated from five baboons from three different troops, namely the Cape Peninsula troop, Groot Olifantsbos troop and Da Gama Park troop. This region was also sequenced from T. trichiura isolated from a human patient from central Africa (Cameroon for comparison. By combining this dataset with Genbank records for Trichuris isolated from other humans, non-human primates and pigs from several different countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, we confirmed the identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes that infect primates. Trichuris sp. isolated from the Peninsula baboons fell into two distinct clades that were found to also infect human patients from Cameroon, Uganda and Jamaica (named the CP-GOB clade and China, Thailand, the Czech Republic, and Uganda (named the DG clade, respectively. The divergence of these Trichuris clades is ancient and precedes the diversification of T. suis which clustered closely to the CP-GOB clade. The identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes infecting both humans and non-human primates is important for the ongoing treatment of Trichuris which is estimated to infect 600 million people worldwide. Currently baboons in the Cape Peninsula, which visit urban areas, provide a constant risk of infection to local communities. A reduction in spatial overlap between humans and baboons is thus an important measure to reduce both cross-transmission and zoonoses of helminthes in Southern Africa.

  7. Community size and composition of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in an alluvial intertidal wetland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziye eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Global nitrogen cycling is mainly mediated by the activity of microorganisms. Nitrogen cycle processes are mediated by functional groups of microorganisms that are affected by constantly changing environmental conditions and substrate availability. In this study, we investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of nitrifier and denitrifier communities in an intertidal wetland. Soil samples were collected over four distinct seasons from three locations with different vegetative cover. Multiple environmental factors and process rates were measured and analyzed together with the community size and composition profiles. We observed that the community size and composition of the nitrifiers and denitrifiers are affected significantly by seasonal factors, while vegetative cover affected the community composition. The seasonal impacts on the community size of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA are much higher than that of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB. The seasonal change was a more important indicator for AOA community composition patterns, while vegetation was more important for the AOB community patterns. The microbial process rates were correlated with both the community size and composition.

  8. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  9. TALL-FORB COMMUNITIES OF THE NORTH ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ERMAKOV

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Classification of tall-forb vegetation of the Altai using the Braun-Blanquet approach was carried out on the basis of a wide ranging set o[ data from different altitudinal belts. Three main phytosociological types of the tall-forb communities were distinguished within the class MulgedioAconitetea, order Tmllio - Crepidetalia due to performed syntaxonomic analysis. The thermophilous tall-forb communities occurring in the subnemoral belt at altitudes of 259-700 m were included in the alliance Cacalio hastatae - Aconition septentrionalis all. nova. The montain tall-forb meadows of the dark-coniferous taiga belt (altitudes of 800-1700 m were included in the alliance Triseto sibiricae-Aconirlon septentrionalis all. prov. The moderately cryophilous subalpine tall-forb communities widespread at the upper boundary of the forest belt at altitudes of 1000-1900 m were included in the alliance Rhaponticion carthamoidis. Altaian tall-forb vegetation shows a distinct phytosociological and plant geographical unity with European subalpine communities but the closeness of the floristic relations varies in certain altitudinal groups. Most thermophilous tall-forb Siberian meadows of the alliance Cacalio-Aconition which occur at lower altitudes demonstrate strong plant geographical relations with North and Central European meadows of the Adenostyletalia. Gradual decrease of the European floristic relations in the Altaian tall-forb meadows at higher altitudes is shown.

  10. Intersections of Critical Systems Thinking and Community Based Participatory Research: A Learning Organization Example with the Autistic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaker, Dora M

    2016-10-01

    Critical systems thinking (CST) and community based participatory research (CBPR) are distinct approaches to inquiry which share a primary commitment to holism and human emancipation, as well as common grounding in critical theory and emancipatory and pragmatic philosophy. This paper explores their intersections and complements on a historical, philosophical, and theoretical level, and then proposes a hybrid approach achieved by applying CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice to traditional systems thinking frameworks and practices. This hybrid approach is illustrated in practice with examples drawn from of the implementation of the learning organization model in an action research setting with the Autistic community. Our experience of being able to actively attend to, and continuously equalize, power relations within an organizational framework that otherwise has great potential for reinforcing power inequity suggests CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice could be useful in CST settings, and CST's vocabulary, methods, and clarity around systems thinking concepts could be valuable to CBPR practioners.

  11. Community Structure Analysis of Transcriptional Networks Reveals Distinct Molecular Pathways for Early- and Late-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Childhood Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bando, Silvia Yumi; Bertonha, Fernanda Bernardi; Iamashita, Priscila; Silva, Filipi Nascimento; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Silva, Alexandre Valotta; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Wen, Hung-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS) constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI) commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E) or late (L) disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs) were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i) the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE) and complete (CO) - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii) the study of interactions between all the system’s constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions) while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less able to

  12. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts.

  13. Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis Depends on Two Signaling Pathways Regulating Distinct Motility Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Kumar, Dhivya; Burriss, Nathan; Xie, Zhihong; Alexandre, Gladys

    2016-06-15

    The genomes of most motile bacteria encode two or more chemotaxis (Che) systems, but their functions have been characterized in only a few model systems. Azospirillum brasilense is a motile soil alphaproteobacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere of cereals. In response to an attractant, motile A. brasilense cells transiently increase swimming speed and suppress reversals. The Che1 chemotaxis pathway was previously shown to regulate changes in the swimming speed, but it has a minor role in chemotaxis and root surface colonization. Here, we show that a second chemotaxis system, named Che4, regulates the probability of swimming reversals and is the major signaling pathway for chemotaxis and wheat root surface colonization. Experimental evidence indicates that Che1 and Che4 are functionally linked to coordinate changes in the swimming motility pattern in response to attractants. The effect of Che1 on swimming speed is shown to enhance the aerotactic response of A. brasilense in gradients, likely providing the cells with a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere. Together, the results illustrate a novel mechanism by which motile bacteria utilize two chemotaxis pathways regulating distinct motility parameters to alter movement in gradients and enhance the chemotactic advantage. Chemotaxis provides motile bacteria with a competitive advantage in the colonization of diverse niches and is a function enriched in rhizosphere bacterial communities, with most species possessing at least two chemotaxis systems. Here, we identify the mechanism by which cells may derive a significant chemotactic advantage using two chemotaxis pathways that ultimately regulate distinct motility parameters. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Invasive lionfish harbor a different external bacterial community than native Bahamian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Olson, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The introduction and subsequent spread of lionfish into the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea has become a worldwide conservation issue. These highly successful invaders may also be capable of introducing non-native microorganisms to the invaded regions. This study compared the bacterial communities associated with lionfish external tissue to those of native Bahamian fishes and ambient water. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated that lionfish bacterial communities were significantly different than those associated with three native Bahamian fishes. Additionally, all fishes harbored distinct bacterial communities from the ambient bacterioplankton. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries from invasive lionfish and native squirrelfish indicated that lionfish communities were more diverse than those associated with squirrelfish, yet did not contain known fish pathogens. Using microscopy and molecular genetic approaches, lionfish eggs were examined for the presence of bacteria to evaluate the capacity for vertical transmission. Eggs removed from the ovaries of gravid females were free of bacteria, suggesting that lionfish likely acquire bacteria from the environment. This study was the first examination of bacterial communities associated with the invasive lionfish and indicated that they support different communities of environmentally derived bacteria than Caribbean reef fishes.

  15. Crosstalk Regulates the Capacity for Robust Collective Decision Making in Heterogeneous Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir; Boedicker, James

    Microbial communities frequently communicate via quorum sensing (QS), where cells produce, secrete, and respond to a threshold level of an autoinducer (AI) molecule, thereby modulating density-dependent gene expression. However, the biology of QS remains incompletely understood in heterogeneous communities, where crosstalk between distinct QS systems leads to novel effects. Such knowledge is necessary both for understanding signaling in real microbial communities, and for the rational design of synthetic communities with designer properties. As a step towards this goal, we investigate the effects of crosstalk between Gram-negative bacteria communicating via LuxI/LuxR-type QS systems, with acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) AI molecules. After mapping QS in a heterogeneous community onto an artificial neural network model, we systematically analyze how heterogeneity regulates the community's capability for stable yet flexible decision making. We find that there are preferred distributions of interactions which provide optimal tradeoffs between capacity, or the number of different decisions a population can make, and robustness, or the tolerance of the community to disturbances. We compare our results to inferences made from experimental data, and critically discuss implications for the biological significance of crosstalk.

  16. Detecting ALS and ACCase herbicide tolerant accession of Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch. in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altop, Emine Kaya; Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    used a novel method to separate heterogeneous data without a priori knowledge of grouping into more than one group. On the basis of the distribution of ED90 it was possible to identify two distinct groups of the 172 accessions tested, 78% were not controlled by ALS inhibitors (penoxsulam...

  17. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  18. A Tale of Two Sites: Cellphones, Participatory Video and Indigeneity in Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Cartas, Joshua; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This polyvocal text is both a narrative and a dialogue between two scholar-activist researchers working in rural communities in distinct parts of the world--South Africa and Southern Mexico--sharing their experiences of using cellular phone and camcorders, while also exploring the potential sustainability of these technologies in the context of…

  19. Cybersecurity Education in Community Colleges across America: A Survey of Four Approaches by Five Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.

    This document describes four distinct approaches to education in the area of cybersecurity currently taught at community colleges across America. The four broad categories of instruction are: (1) degree program--four semesters of study leading to an associate's degree; (2) certificate program--two semesters leading to an institution-conferred…

  20. Nematode communities in sediments of the Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.

    2018-04-01

    Hadal trenches are characterized by environmental conditions not found in any other deep-sea environment, such as steep topography and periodic disturbance by turbidity flows, which are likely responsible for the distinct nature of benthic communities of hadal trenches relative to those of the abyssal plain. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in the deep-sea benthos, but it is not yet clear if different trenches host distinct nematode communities, and no data are yet available on the communities of most trenches, including the Kermadec Trench in the Southwest Pacific. Quantitative core samples from the seafloor of the Kermadec Trench were recently obtained from four sites at 6000-9000 m depth which allowed for analyses of meiofauna, and nematodes in particular, for the first time. Nematode community and trophic structure was also compared with other trenches using published data. There was a bathymetric gradient in meiofauna abundance, biomass, and community structure within the Kermadec Trench, but patterns for species richness were ambiguous depending on which metric was used. There was a change in community structure from shallow to deep sites, as well as a consistent change in community structure from the upper sediment layers to the deeper sediment layers across the four sites. These patterns are most likely explained by variation in food availability within the trench, and related to trench topography. Together, deposit and microbial feeders represented 48-92% of total nematode abundance in the samples, which suggests that fine organic detritus and bacteria are major food sources. The relatively high abundance of epigrowth feeders at the 6000 and 9000 m sites (38% and 31%, respectively) indicates that relatively freshly settled microalgal cells represent another important food source at these sites. We found a significant difference in species community structure between the Kermadec and Tonga trenches, which was due to both the presence/absence of

  1. Transcriptional Activities of the Microbial Consortium Living with the Marine Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium Reveal Potential Roles in Community-Level Nitrogen Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Webb, Eric A; Walworth, Nathan G; Fu, Fei-Xue; Held, Noelle A; Saito, Mak A; Hutchins, David A

    2018-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a globally distributed cyanobacterium whose nitrogen-fixing capability fuels primary production in warm oligotrophic oceans. Like many photoautotrophs, Trichodesmium serves as a host to various other microorganisms, yet little is known about how this associated community modulates fluxes of environmentally relevant chemical species into and out of the supraorganismal structure. Here, we utilized metatranscriptomics to examine gene expression activities of microbial communities associated with Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) using laboratory-maintained enrichment cultures that have previously been shown to harbor microbial communities similar to those of natural populations. In enrichments maintained under two distinct CO 2 concentrations for ∼8 years, the community transcriptional profiles were found to be specific to the treatment, demonstrating a restructuring of overall gene expression had occurred. Some of this restructuring involved significant increases in community respiration-related transcripts under elevated CO 2 , potentially facilitating the corresponding measured increases in host nitrogen fixation rates. Particularly of note, in both treatments, community transcripts involved in the reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected, suggesting the associated organisms may play a role in colony-level nitrogen cycling. Lastly, a taxon-specific analysis revealed distinct ecological niches of consistently cooccurring major taxa that may enable, or even encourage, the stable cohabitation of a diverse community within Trichodesmium consortia. IMPORTANCE Trichodesmium is a genus of globally distributed, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria. As a source of new nitrogen in otherwise nitrogen-deficient systems, these organisms help fuel carbon fixation carried out by other more abundant photoautotrophs and thereby have significant roles in global nitrogen and carbon cycling. Members of the Trichodesmium genus tend to

  2. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P D; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C E; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Fiore, Marli F

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii . This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  3. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P. D.; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C. E.; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T.; Fiore, Marli F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes. PMID:29520256

  4. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. D. Andreote

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600 potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake. The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  5. Belowground biotic complexity drives aboveground dynamics: a test of the soil community feedback model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Thomas H; Burke, David J; Carson, Walter P

    2013-03-01

    Feedbacks between soil communities and plants may determine abundance and diversity in plant communities by influencing fitness and competitive outcomes. We tested the core hypotheses of soil community feedback theory: plant species culture distinct soil communities that alter plant performance and the outcome of interspecific competition. We applied this framework to inform the repeated dominance of Solidago canadensis in old-field communities. In glasshouse experiments, we examined the effects of soil communities on four plant species' performance in monoculture and outcomes of interspecific competition. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis to infer differences in the soil communities associated with these plant species. Soil community origin had strong effects on plant performance, changed the intensity of interspecific competition and even reversed whether plant species were limited by conspecifics or heterospecifics. These plant-soil feedbacks are strong enough to upend winners and losers in classic competition models. Plant species cultured significantly different mycorrhizal fungal and bacterial soil communities, indicating that these feedbacks are likely microbiotic in nature. In old-fields and other plant communities, these soil feedbacks appear common, fundamentally alter the intensity and nature of plant competition and potentially maintain diversity while facilitating the dominance of So. canadensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Discovery of enzymes for toluene synthesis from anoxic microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Harry R.; Rodrigues, Andria V.; Zargar, Kamrun

    2018-01-01

    Microbial toluene biosynthesis was reported in anoxic lake sediments more than three decades ago, but the enzyme catalyzing this biochemically challenging reaction has never been identified. Here we report the toluene-producing enzyme PhdB, a glycyl radical enzyme of bacterial origin that catalyzes...... phenylacetate decarboxylation, and its cognate activating enzyme PhdA, a radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme, discovered in two distinct anoxic microbial communities that produce toluene. The unconventional process of enzyme discovery from a complex microbial community (>300,000 genes), rather than from...... a microbial isolate, involved metagenomics- and metaproteomics-enabled biochemistry, as well as in vitro confirmation of activity with recombinant enzymes. This work expands the known catalytic range of glycyl radical enzymes (only seven reaction types had been characterized previously) and aromatic...

  7. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha−1 yr−1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  8. Enriching distinctive microbial communities from marine sediments via an electrochemical-sulfide-oxidizing process on carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiue-Lin eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide is a common product of marine anaerobic respiration, and a potent reactant biologically and geochemically. Here we demonstrate the impact on microbial communities with the removal of sulfide via electrochemical methods. The use of differential pulse voltammetry revealed that the oxidation of soluble sulfide was seen at + mV (vs. SHE at all pH ranges tested (from pH = 4 to 8, while non-ionized sulfide, which dominated at pH = 4 was poorly oxidized via this process. Two mixed cultures (CAT and LA were enriched from two different marine sediments (from Catalina Island, CAT; from the Port of Los Angeles, LA in serum bottles using a seawater medium supplemented with lactate, sulfate, and yeast extract, to obtain abundant biomass. Both CAT and LA cultures were inoculated in electrochemical cells (using yeast-extract-free seawater medium as an electrolyte equipped with carbon-felt electrodes. In both cases, when potentials of +630 or 130 mV (vs. SHE were applied, currents were consistently higher at +630 then at 0 mV, indicating more sulfide being oxidized at the higher potential. In addition, higher organic-acid and sulfate conversion rates were found at +630 mV with CAT, while no significant differences were found with LA at different potentials. The results of microbial-community analyses revealed a decrease in diversity for both CAT and LA after electrochemical incubation. In addition, some bacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Arcobacter not well known to be capable of extracellular electron transfer, were found to be dominant in the electrochemical cells. Thus, even though the different mixed cultures have different tolerances for sulfide, electrochemical-sulfide removal can lead to major population changes.

  9. The Youth as the Innovative Social Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zhuravleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the contemporary youth environment from the standpoint of juvenology. The youth is regarded as a distinct social community prone to violating the norms and rules due to the specific mentality and functional characteristics. The authors denote the youth age range, social status and roles, behavior patterns, life style and subculture preferences. The youth community is most open to innovation, being its generator and consumer, conductor of information flows, initiator of new behavior patterns and stereotypes including the negative ones. The main disadvantages of the given age group are the lack of social experience, rejection of traditional cultural behavior patterns on the one hand, and high susceptibility and imitation propensity on the other hand. The research demonstrates that social deviation often results from the young people’s dissatisfaction and lack of social prospects. Therefore, the factors determining the above trends are related to insufficient attention to the youth’s requirements and interests on the part of the government and society. 

  10. The Youth as the Innovative Social Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zhuravleva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the contemporary youth environment from the standpoint of juvenology. The youth is regarded as a distinct social community prone to violating the norms and rules due to the specific mentality and functional characteristics. The authors denote the youth age range, social status and roles, behavior patterns, life style and subculture preferences. The youth community is most open to innovation, being its generator and consumer, conductor of information flows, initiator of new behavior patterns and stereotypes including the negative ones. The main disadvantages of the given age group are the lack of social experience, rejection of traditional cultural behavior patterns on the one hand, and high susceptibility and imitation propensity on the other hand. The research demonstrates that social deviation often results from the young people’s dissatisfaction and lack of social prospects. Therefore, the factors determining the above trends are related to insufficient attention to the youth’s requirements and interests on the part of the government and society. 

  11. Patterns of behavior in an online community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros; Rybski, Diego; Liljeros, Fredrik; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    Human behavior can be seen as the expression of inherent motives. Despite the diverse range of these motives, social theorists have long identified a small number of distinct underlying mechanisms, where, consciously or unconsciously, every individual tries to exploit a different aspect of social interactions and/or optimize the efficiency of certain procedures for the benefit of the society or for personal gain. Here we show that users in an online community follow certain behavioral patterns and the choice of their favorite members is far from a random process. More importantly, these patterns are systematically modified with time as a member becomes more involved in such a community. We are able to identify a crossover in the average behavior of the members when their favorites list exceeds roughly 10 favorites. Additionally, this process allows us to identify individuals with a markedly different behavior than the average person. This study can help us understand the process of establishing friendships and the motives behind this process.

  12. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  13. Life in the "plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Erik R; Mincer, Tracy J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2013-07-02

    Plastics are the most abundant form of marine debris, with global production rising and documented impacts in some marine environments, but the influence of plastic on open ocean ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly for microbial communities. Plastic marine debris (PMD) collected at multiple locations in the North Atlantic was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and next-generation sequencing to characterize the attached microbial communities. We unveiled a diverse microbial community of heterotrophs, autotrophs, predators, and symbionts, a community we refer to as the "Plastisphere". Pits visualized in the PMD surface conformed to bacterial shapes suggesting active hydrolysis of the hydrocarbon polymer. Small-subunit rRNA gene surveys identified several hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, supporting the possibility that microbes play a role in degrading PMD. Some Plastisphere members may be opportunistic pathogens (the authors, unpublished data) such as specific members of the genus Vibrio that dominated one of our plastic samples. Plastisphere communities are distinct from surrounding surface water, implying that plastic serves as a novel ecological habitat in the open ocean. Plastic has a longer half-life than most natural floating marine substrates, and a hydrophobic surface that promotes microbial colonization and biofilm formation, differing from autochthonous substrates in the upper layers of the ocean.

  14. Active microorganisms thrive among extremely diverse communities in cloud water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Amato

    Full Text Available Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France were fixed upon sampling and examined by high-throughput sequencing from DNA and RNA extracts, so as to identify active species among community members. Communities consisted of ~103-104 bacteria and archaea mL-1 and ~102-103 eukaryote cells mL-1. They appeared extremely rich, with more than 28 000 distinct species detected in bacteria and 2 600 in eukaryotes. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes largely dominated in bacteria, while eukaryotes were essentially distributed among Fungi, Stramenopiles and Alveolata. Within these complex communities, the active members of cloud microbiota were identified as Alpha- (Sphingomonadales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales, Beta- (Burkholderiales and Gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonadales. These groups of bacteria usually classified as epiphytic are probably the best candidates for interfering with abiotic chemical processes in clouds, and the most prone to successful aerial dispersion.

  15. Changes in Soil Fungal Community Structure with Increasing Disturbance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.

  16. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  17. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  18. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  19. The Ecology of Microbial Communities Associated with Macrocystis pyrifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelou, Vanessa K; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests are characterized by high biodiversity and productivity, and the cycling of kelp-produced carbon is a vital process in this ecosystem. Although bacteria are assumed to play a major role in kelp forest carbon cycling, knowledge of the composition and diversity of these bacterial communities is lacking. Bacterial communities on the surface of Macrocystis pyrifera and adjacent seawater were sampled at the Hopkins Marine Station in Monterey Bay, CA, and further studied using 454-tag pyrosequencing of 16S RNA genes. Our results suggest that M. pyrifera-dominated kelp forests harbor distinct microbial communities that vary temporally. The distribution of sequence tags assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes differed between the surface of the kelp and the surrounding water. Several abundant Rhodobacteraceae, uncultivated Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes-associated tags displayed considerable temporal variation, often with similar trends in the seawater and the surface of the kelp. Bacterial community structure and membership correlated with the kelp surface serving as host, and varied over time. Several kelp-specific taxa were highly similar to other bacteria known to either prevent the colonization of eukaryotic larvae or exhibit antibacterial activities. Some of these kelp-specific bacterial associations might play an important role for M. pyrifera. This study provides the first assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial communities associated with M. pyrifera.

  20. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management. PMID:28141849

  1. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Oliveira Canedo-Júnior

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management.

  2. Sex Workers, Fem Queens, and Cross-Dressers: Differential Marginalizations and HIV Vulnerabilities Among Three Ethnocultural Male-to-Female Transgender Communities in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Hwahng, Sel Julian; Nuttbrock, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 3 distinct ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City: the low-income African American/Black1 and Latina(o) House Ball community; low-income, often undocumented immigrant Asian sex workers; and middle-class White cross-dressers. These communities are highly socially isolated from each other and are more connected to their ethnocultural contexts than to an abstract and shared transgender identity. Whereas previous research either has viewed mal...

  3. Case Studies of Community-Academic Partnerships Established Using the Give-Get Grid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Bruce; Southerland, Jodi L; Plummer, Robert M

    2017-11-01

    While partnerships for health delivery and improvement are frequently described by their structure, goals, and plans, less attention is paid to the interactive relationships among partners or for larger stakeholder groups' coalition memberships. The Give-Get Grid group process tool can be used to assess each stakeholders' expected benefits ("gets") and contributions ("gives") needed to establish and maintain long-term, mutually advantageous community-academic partnerships. This article describes three case study experiences using the Give-Get Grid in real-world context to understand and generate ideas to address contemporary health promotion opportunities among a variety of stakeholders. The case studies address three distinct community health promotion opportunities: prevention of school-based adolescent obesity disparities, higher education health professions training programs in rural community-based settings, and methods for engaging community coalitions in state Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs. The case studies demonstrate the Give-Get Grid's utility in both planning and evaluating partnerships and documenting key elements for progress in health promotion initiatives built on long-term community-academic relationships. Steps are explained with practical lessons learned in using the Grid.

  4. Litter Accumulation and Nutrient Content of Roadside Plant Communities in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiqin; Monaco, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    It is widely recognized that feedbacks exist between plant litter and plant community species composition, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. Given the need to expedite natural recovery of disturbed areas through restoration interventions, we characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic carbon, total N, and P) and quantified their association with key plant species. Plant species cover and litter characteristics were sampled at 18 successional forest plant communities along major roadways in Sichuan Basin, western China. Variation in litter across communities was assessed with principal component analysis (PCA) and species with the highest correlation to PCA axes were determined with Pearson's r coefficients. Plant communities with the longest time since road construction (i.e., 70 years) were distinctly different in litter total N and organic carbon compared to plant communities with a shorter disturbance history. We encountered 59 plant species across sampling plots, but only four rare species (i.e., frequency plant litter across heavily disturbed landscapes and how litter characteristics and rare plant species are correlated.

  5. Factors affecting the bacterial community composition and heterotrophic production of Columbia River estuarine turbidity maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Crump, Byron C; Fortunato, Caroline S; McCue, Lee Ann; Campbell, Victoria; Simon, Holly M; Baptista, António M; Zuber, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) function as hotspots of microbial activity and diversity in estuaries, yet, little is known about the temporal and spatial variability in ETM bacterial community composition. To determine which environmental factors affect ETM bacterial populations in the Columbia River estuary, we analyzed ETM bacterial community composition (Sanger sequencing and amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene) and bulk heterotrophic production ( 3 H-leucine incorporation rates). We collected water 20 times to cover five ETM events and obtained 42 samples characterized by different salinities, turbidities, seasons, coastal regimes (upwelling vs. downwelling), locations, and particle size. Spring and summer populations were distinct. All May samples had similar bacterial community composition despite having different salinities (1-24 PSU), but summer non-ETM bacteria separated into marine, freshwater, and brackish assemblages. Summer ETM bacterial communities varied depending on coastal upwelling or downwelling conditions and on the sampling site location with respect to tidal intrusion during the previous neap tide. In contrast to ETM, whole (>0.2 μm) and free-living (0.2-3 μm) assemblages of non-ETM waters were similar to each other, indicating that particle-attached (>3 μm) non-ETM bacteria do not develop a distinct community. Brackish water type (ETM or non-ETM) is thus a major factor affecting particle-attached bacterial communities. Heterotrophic production was higher in particle-attached than free-living fractions in all brackish waters collected throughout the water column during the rise to decline of turbidity through an ETM event (i.e., ETM-impacted waters). However, free-living communities showed higher productivity prior to or after an ETM event (i.e., non-ETM-impacted waters). This study has thus found that Columbia River ETM bacterial communities vary based on seasons, salinity, sampling location, and particle size, with the

  6. Determining What We Stand for Will Guide What We Do: Community Priorities, Ethical Research Paradigms, and Research With Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Henrie M.

    2009-01-01

    Prisoners, ex-offenders, and the communities they belong to constitute a distinct and highly vulnerable population, and research must be sensitive to their priorities. In light of recent suggestions that scientific experimentation involving prisoners be reconsidered, community-based participatory research can be a valuable tool for determining the immediate concerns of prisoners, such as the receipt of high-quality and dignified health care inside and outside prisons. In building research agendas, more must be done to ensure the participation of communities affected by the resulting policies. PMID:19141599

  7. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  8. Observações aos prolegômenos da teoria kantiana dos juízos jurídicos a priori em Rechtslehre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Scherer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the kantian Rechtslehre is interpreted as a critical juridical doctrine, understandable under the critical project – started in Kritik der reinen Vernunft and adapted to the practical field in Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. In particular, it is aimed to highlight, besides the apriority, the systematic character and the search for the completeness of the juridical principles, the use of the solubility of problems theory of the reasoning in general in the prolegomenon of Rechtslehre. The study of this preliminary part is justified in presenting the supreme division of the system according to principals, where it is derived a division of the law doctrine, which determines the object (Gegenstand and, therefore, the field of this particular science and the discussion of the research procedure. Such a priori frame of the Law doctrine is the basis of the following Kantian theory of private law and public law. In a bigger picture, this article can be understood as a renouncement to the idea that the Kantian Rechtslehre does not follow the requirements of the critical philosophy – created by Hermann Cohen (Ethik des reinen Willens, 1904 and detailed by Christian Ritter (Der Rechtsgedanke Kants nach den frühen Quellen, 1971.

  9. Estimating the Transfer Range of Plasmids Encoding Antimicrobial Resistance in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Liguan; Dechesne, Arnaud; He, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    sludge microbial community was challenged in standardized filter matings with one of three multidrug resistance plasmids (pKJK5, pB10, and RP4) harbored by Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas putida. Different donor–plasmid combinations had distinct transfer frequencies, ranging from 3 to 50 conjugation...... events per 100000 cells of the WWTP microbial community. In addition, transfer was observed to a broad phylogenetic range of 13 bacterial phyla with several taxa containing potentially pathogenic species. Preferential transfer to taxa belonging to the predicted evolutionary host range of the plasmids...... ARG transmission. However, the contribution of microbial communities in WWTPs to ARG dissemination remains poorly understood. Here, we examined for the first time plasmid permissiveness of an activated sludge microbial community by utilizing an established fluorescent bioreporter system. The activated...

  10. The Role of Reconciling Values in Efforts to Build Community Resilience to Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, S. C.; Ferguson, D. B.; Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has increasingly forced researchers and policy makers to reckon with the practical and philosophical need to integrate Indigenous knowledge with western science to support sustainable, resilient communities. Despite the recognition that integration of different ways of knowing offers a compelling approach for building long-term resilience, balancing the power dynamic that favors mainstream epistemologies over other ways of knowing remains elusive. Indigenous scholars themselves often speak of "walking in two worlds," acknowledging the distinction between Indigenous knowledge and western science and the difficulty of weaving together the two approaches. Central to the distinction between different ways of knowing are the core values that drive development and application of new knowledge. The DIKW pyramid describes the hierarchical relationships between wisdom, knowledge, information, and data. In these relationships, values drive how one turns data into information, then knowledge and wisdom. Thus, if building community resilience relies on integrating Indigenous science and Western science, a central point of focus must be on establishing which of the core values from these different knowledge systems can contribute and which may impede the goal of supporting community resilience. For example, does the absence of Western science data collection protocols (a core value of empirical science) eliminate the utility of community observations of environmental change from efforts to understand system change? Indigenous data sovereignty, an emerging framework, asserts Indigenous rights to information and promotes the role of community knowledge in creating metrics, outcomes, and ultimately actions toward resilient communities. Indigenous data sovereignty acknowledges that context and values shape data in addition to providing a lens for interpreting data. Can principles for the governance of Indigenous data, such as recognizing and supporting

  11. Topical Network of Breast Cancer Information in a Korean American Online Community: A Semantic Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health information-seeking and sharing online has become immensely intertwined with day-to-day information-seeking of US immigrants with health concerns. Despite the consistent recognition of unique health needs among different US immigrant communities, little is known about the distinctive patterns and extent of health information…

  12. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Pearson, Gareth A

    2015-04-14

    Functional genomics of diatom-dominated communities fromthe Antarctic Peninsula was studied using comparative metatranscriptomics. Samples obtained from diatom-rich communities in the Bransfield Strait, the western Weddell Sea and sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea/Wilkins Ice Shelf yielded more than 500K pyrosequencing reads that were combined to produce a global metatranscriptome assembly. Multi-gene phylogenies recovered three distinct communities, and diatom-assigned contigs further indicated little read-sharing between communities, validating an assembly-based annotation and analysis approach. Although functional analysis recovered a core of abundant shared annotations that were expressed across the three diatom communities, over 40% of annotations (but accounting for <10% of sequences) were community-specific. The two pelagic communities differed in their expression of N-metabolism and acquisition genes, which was almost absent in post-bloom conditions in the Weddell Sea community, while enrichment of transporters for ammonia and urea in Bransfield Strait diatoms suggests a physiological stance towards acquisition of reduced N-sources. The depletion of carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways in sea ice relative to pelagic communities, together with increased light energy dissipation (via LHCSR proteins), photorespiration, and NO3 - uptake and utilization all pointed to irradiance stress and/or inorganic carbon limitation within sea ice. Ice-binding proteins and cold-shock transcription factors were also enriched in sea ice diatoms. Surprisingly, the abundance of gene transcripts for the translational machinery tracked decreasing environmental temperature across only a 4 °C range, possibly reflecting constraints on translational efficiency and protein production in cold environments. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  13. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Pearson, Gareth A; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Cá novas, Fernando; Cox, Cymon J; Verret, Frederic; Lasternas, Sebastian; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana; Serrã o, Ester A

    2015-01-01

    Functional genomics of diatom-dominated communities fromthe Antarctic Peninsula was studied using comparative metatranscriptomics. Samples obtained from diatom-rich communities in the Bransfield Strait, the western Weddell Sea and sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea/Wilkins Ice Shelf yielded more than 500K pyrosequencing reads that were combined to produce a global metatranscriptome assembly. Multi-gene phylogenies recovered three distinct communities, and diatom-assigned contigs further indicated little read-sharing between communities, validating an assembly-based annotation and analysis approach. Although functional analysis recovered a core of abundant shared annotations that were expressed across the three diatom communities, over 40% of annotations (but accounting for <10% of sequences) were community-specific. The two pelagic communities differed in their expression of N-metabolism and acquisition genes, which was almost absent in post-bloom conditions in the Weddell Sea community, while enrichment of transporters for ammonia and urea in Bransfield Strait diatoms suggests a physiological stance towards acquisition of reduced N-sources. The depletion of carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways in sea ice relative to pelagic communities, together with increased light energy dissipation (via LHCSR proteins), photorespiration, and NO3 - uptake and utilization all pointed to irradiance stress and/or inorganic carbon limitation within sea ice. Ice-binding proteins and cold-shock transcription factors were also enriched in sea ice diatoms. Surprisingly, the abundance of gene transcripts for the translational machinery tracked decreasing environmental temperature across only a 4 °C range, possibly reflecting constraints on translational efficiency and protein production in cold environments. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonality and vertical structure of microbial communities in an ocean gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Vergin, Kevin L; Finlay, Liam A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Carlson, Craig A; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    Vertical, seasonal and geographical patterns in ocean microbial communities have been observed in many studies, but the resolution of community dynamics has been limited by the scope of data sets, which are seldom up to the task of illuminating the highly structured and rhythmic patterns of change found in ocean ecosystems. We studied vertical and temporal patterns in the microbial community composition in a set of 412 samples collected from the upper 300 m of the water column in the northwestern Sargasso Sea, on cruises between 1991 and 2004. The region sampled spans the extent of deep winter mixing and the transition between the euphotic and the upper mesopelagic zones, where most carbon fixation and reoxidation occurs. A bioinformatic pipeline was developed to de-noise, normalize and align terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data from three restriction enzymes and link T-RFLP peaks to microbial clades. Non-metric multidimensional scaling statistics resolved three microbial communities with distinctive composition during seasonal stratification: a surface community in the region of lowest nutrients, a deep chlorophyll maximum community and an upper mesopelagic community. A fourth microbial community was associated with annual spring blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton that occur in the northwestern Sargasso Sea as a consequence of winter convective mixing that entrains nutrients to the surface. Many bacterial clades bloomed in seasonal patterns that shifted with the progression of stratification. These richly detailed patterns of community change suggest that highly specialized adaptations and interactions govern the success of microbial populations in the oligotrophic ocean.

  15. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  16. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  17. A Global Community Psychology of Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C. Carr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue heralds the coalescence of a new field in social sciences – the psychology of global mobility. This field whilst distinctive is certainly not insular. Contributions in this special issue are interdisciplinary and cross-level, reflecting an open systems perspective. Political motivation, sociological networks, community inclusion, educational institutions, socio-cultural identity processes, and organizational processes are all represented in the collection. Organizational dynamics are perhaps a special theme that runs throughout. They are a timely reminder that the organizational level of analysis in general, and the psychology of work in particular, is a major yet often overlooked component in the study of global mobility processes, including policy development. In a wider sense, the contributions in this special issue cast new light on the interaction between psychology and social/community structures, and the role of these essentially interactive processes in human development. The special issue is about a developing global consciousness, and a role that psychology as one discipline and applied profession can play in this process. A major challenge remains, of course: Connecting psychological research and evidence with social policymaking. To achieve more credibility in the policy domain, psychology will need itself to become more political, and overtly skilled in social advocacy. As these papers remind us, we will need to build more stakeholder alliances, including between research and community groups.

  18. Swashed away? Storm impacts on sandy beach macrofaunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Smale, Malcolm; Schoeman, David

    2011-09-01

    Storms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely

  19. Heart rate variability is associated with psychosocial stress in distinct social domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Torsos the Basis for Infants' Categorization of Cats Versus Dogs? A Reply to Vidic and Haaf (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Vidic and Haaf (2004) questioned the idea that infants use head information to categorize cats as distinct from dogs (Quinn & Eimas, 1996) and argued instead that the torso region is important. However, only null results were observed in the critical test comparisons between modified and unmodified stimuli. In addition, a priori preferences for…

  1. Testing hypotheses for differences between linear regression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    Five hypotheses are identified for testing differences between simple linear regression lines. The distinctions between these hypotheses are based on a priori assumptions and illustrated with full and reduced models. The contrast approach is presented as an easy and complete method for testing for overall differences between the regressions and for making pairwise...

  2. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depths and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Mueller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0-0.5 cm or 0-10 cm across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7 and 15 kg ha-1 yr-1. We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  3. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Biogeography of cryoconite bacterial communities on glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Priscu, John C; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Keshao; Cong, Ziyuang; Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers. To further enhance our understanding of these glacial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau and to examine their role in carbon cycling as the glaciers respond to climate change, we explored the bacterial communities within cryoconite holes associated with three climatically distinct Tibetan Plateau glaciers using Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Cryoconite bacterial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Cryoconite bacterial community composition varied according to their geographical locations, exhibiting significant differences among glaciers studied. Regional beta diversity was driven by the interaction between geographic distance and environmental variables; the latter contributed more than geographic distance to the variation in cryoconite microbial communities. Our study is the first to describe the regional-scale spatial variability and to identify the factors that drive regional variability of cryoconite bacterial communities on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  6. A priori assumptions about characters as a cause of incongruence between molecular and morphological hypotheses of primate interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Matthew A; Skelton, Randall R

    2012-01-01

    When molecules and morphology produce incongruent hypotheses of primate interrelationships, the data are typically viewed as incompatible, and molecular hypotheses are often considered to be better indicators of phylogenetic history. However, it has been demonstrated that the choice of which taxa to include in cladistic analysis as well as assumptions about character weighting, character state transformation order, and outgroup choice all influence hypotheses of relationships and may positively influence tree topology, so that relationships between extant taxa are consistent with those found using molecular data. Thus, the source of incongruence between morphological and molecular trees may lie not in the morphological data themselves but in assumptions surrounding the ways characters evolve and their impact on cladistic analysis. In this study, we investigate the role that assumptions about character polarity and transformation order play in creating incongruence between primate phylogenies based on morphological data and those supported by multiple lines of molecular data. By releasing constraints imposed on published morphological analyses of primates from disparate clades and subjecting those data to parsimony analysis, we test the hypothesis that incongruence between morphology and molecules results from inherent flaws in morphological data. To quantify the difference between incongruent trees, we introduce a new method called branch slide distance (BSD). BSD mitigates many of the limitations attributed to other tree comparison methods, thus allowing for a more accurate measure of topological similarity. We find that releasing a priori constraints on character behavior often produces trees that are consistent with molecular trees. Case studies are presented that illustrate how congruence between molecules and unconstrained morphological data may provide insight into issues of polarity, transformation order, homology, and homoplasy.

  7. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells.

  8. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  9. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  10. Best practices for effective working relationships between industry, First Nations and Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibley, B. [Travers Food Service Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, Travers Food Service Ltd. was presented with the Aboriginal Relations Best Practice Award of Distinction by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The company has formal partnerships, joint ventures and working relationships with over 20 First Nations and aboriginal communities throughout northern Canada. The Travers workforce is approximately 40 per cent aboriginal, and nearly 60 per cent of the company's gross revenue is attributed to their partnerships with aboriginal communities. Partners within the company are encouraged to approach other aboriginal communities to form partnerships with the company. Partnership agreements place an emphasis on respecting land usage and environmental stewardship, and include employment obligations; training and scholarship obligations; equity options and financing; and marketing and profit sharing options. The company also gives financial support to community events, and has provided support for day care facilities, truck stops, open camps and contracts for support services. It was suggested that in order to develop successful partnerships, oil and gas industry leaders should consider that communities are fearful of the environmental and social impacts of resource development. Time must be spent in communities to take part in community activities, ask questions and understand perspectives. It was concluded that partnerships have been beneficial to Travers, and provide opportunities to aboriginal communities through employment, training, education and economic opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. A Study of the Vaginal Microbiome in Healthy Canadian Women Utilizing cpn60-Based Molecular Profiling Reveals Distinct Gardnerella Subgroup Community State Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Emily C.; Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Hill, Janet E.; Money, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiota is important in women’s reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an “intermediate” CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts. PMID:26266808

  13. Impact of Regionally Distinct Agroecosystem Communities on the Potential for Autonomous Control of the Coffee Leaf Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary; Rivera Salinas, Iris Saraeny; Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2016-12-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that two ineffective control agents can provide effective biological control when coupled together. We explore the implications of this work with the system of coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by the fungal agent Hemileiae vastatrix, and two of its natural enemies, a fungal pathogen (Lecanicillium lecanii) and a spore predator (Mycodiplosis hemileiae). Here we report on comparative surveys of the CLR and its two natural enemies in Mexico, where the CLR has been at epidemic status since 2012, and Puerto Rico, where the CLR is present but has not reached epidemic densities. We found that the densities of the two control agents per CLR lesion is higher in Puerto Rico than in Mexico, and we hypothesize that their joint presence at higher densities is contributing to the suppression of the CLR in Puerto Rico but not in Mexico. Furthermore, we found that the presence of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone ant species that occurs in Mexico but not Puerto Rico, significantly reduces the prevalence of M. hemileiae on coffee plants. Our work provides data that allows us to hypothesize that the joint presence of these two control agents may potentially provide control of the CLR and also highlights the importance of regionally specific communities within agroecosystems, and how variation in community composition may lead to varying outcomes for biological control. Additionally, this is the first report of the presence of a potentially important biological control agent, M. hemileiae, in Latin America and the Caribbean. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cross-biome metagenomic analyses of soil microbial communities and their functional attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierer, Noah; Leff, Jonathan W; Adams, Byron J; Nielsen, Uffe N; Bates, Scott Thomas; Lauber, Christian L; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack A; Wall, Diana H; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2012-12-26

    For centuries ecologists have studied how the diversity and functional traits of plant and animal communities vary across biomes. In contrast, we have only just begun exploring similar questions for soil microbial communities despite soil microbes being the dominant engines of biogeochemical cycles and a major pool of living biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. We used metagenomic sequencing to compare the composition and functional attributes of 16 soil microbial communities collected from cold deserts, hot deserts, forests, grasslands, and tundra. Those communities found in plant-free cold desert soils typically had the lowest levels of functional diversity (diversity of protein-coding gene categories) and the lowest levels of phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity. Across all soils, functional beta diversity was strongly correlated with taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; the desert microbial communities were clearly distinct from the nondesert communities regardless of the metric used. The desert communities had higher relative abundances of genes associated with osmoregulation and dormancy, but lower relative abundances of genes associated with nutrient cycling and the catabolism of plant-derived organic compounds. Antibiotic resistance genes were consistently threefold less abundant in the desert soils than in the nondesert soils, suggesting that abiotic conditions, not competitive interactions, are more important in shaping the desert microbial communities. As the most comprehensive survey of soil taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity to date, this study demonstrates that metagenomic approaches can be used to build a predictive understanding of how microbial diversity and function vary across terrestrial biomes.

  15. Watershed Urbanization Linked to Differences in Stream Bacterial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Hosen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization strongly influences headwater stream chemistry and hydrology, but little is known about how these conditions impact bacterial community composition. We predicted that urbanization would impact bacterial community composition, but that stream water column bacterial communities would be most strongly linked to urbanization at a watershed-scale, as measured by impervious cover, while sediment bacterial communities would correlate with environmental conditions at the scale of stream reaches. To test this hypothesis, we determined bacterial community composition in the water column and sediment of headwater streams located across a gradient of watershed impervious cover using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Alpha diversity metrics did not show a strong response to catchment urbanization, but beta diversity was significantly related to watershed impervious cover with significant differences also found between water column and sediment samples. Samples grouped primarily according to habitat—water column vs. sediment—with a significant response to watershed impervious cover nested within each habitat type. Compositional shifts for communities in urbanized streams indicated an increase in taxa associated with human activity including bacteria from the genus Polynucleobacter, which is widespread, but has been associated with eutrophic conditions in larger water bodies. Another indicator of communities in urbanized streams was an OTU from the genus Gallionella, which is linked to corrosion of water distribution systems. To identify changes in bacterial community interactions, bacterial co-occurrence networks were generated from urban and forested samples. The urbanized co-occurrence network was much smaller and had fewer co-occurrence events per taxon than forested equivalents, indicating a loss of keystone taxa with urbanization. Our results suggest that urbanization has significant impacts on the community composition

  16. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.; Sharp, J. O.; Saikaly, Pascal; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, M.; Alarawi, M. S.; Keller, S.; Hoppe-Jones, C.; Drewes, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  17. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  18. Dissolved organic carbon influences microbial community composition and diversity in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal E; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, Mazahirali; Alarawi, Mohammed S; Keller, Stephanie; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  19. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  20. Revitalizing the “civic” and “ethnic” distinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi-classification-analysis, to establ......This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi...

  1. The Role of The Ecomuseo Dei Terrazzamenti E Della Vite, (Cortemilia, Italy in Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Murtas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One important reaction to globalization in the twenty-first century has been the democratization of culture and heritage. Local communities have increasingly attempted to recognise and conserve their heritage resources and use them to create sustainable economic development through ecotourism and cultural tourism. Ecomuseum philosophy and practical processes, although they originated in France, have been used in many countries to enable local residents to define, validate and celebrate local distinctiveness and local identity. This article introduces and critiques these philosophies and processes and then describes how one community in the north of Italy (Cortemilia used them to harness the natural and cultural resources of its locality to enable local people to re-identify their own ‘sense of place’ and rekindle pride in their community. The conclusion compares the processes and outcomes in Cortemilia with two other ecomuseums created to aid community development.

  2. Marine fish community structure and habitat associations on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Andrew R.; Atchison, Sheila; MacPhee, Shannon; Eert, Jane; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine; Reist, James D.

    2017-03-01

    Marine fishes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea have complex interactions with habitats and prey, and occupy a pivotal position in the food web by transferring energy between lower- and upper-trophic levels, and also within and among habitats (e.g., benthic-pelagic coupling). The distributions, habitat associations, and community structure of most Beaufort Sea marine fishes, however, are unknown thus precluding effective regulatory management of emerging offshore industries in the region (e.g., hydrocarbon development, shipping, and fisheries). Between 2012 and 2014, Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted the first baseline survey of offshore marine fishes, their habitats, and ecological relationships in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Benthic trawling was conducted at 45 stations spanning 18-1001 m depths across shelf and slope habitats. Physical oceanographic variables (depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen), biological variables (benthic chlorophyll and integrated water-column chlorophyll) and sediment composition (grain size) were assessed as potential explanatory variables for fish community structure using a non-parametric statistical approach. Selected stations were re-sampled in 2013 and 2014 for a preliminary assessment of inter-annual variability in the fish community. Four distinct fish assemblages were delineated on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf and slope: 1) Nearshore-shelf: 50 and ≤200 m depths, 3) Upper-slope: ≥200 and ≤500 m depths, and 4) Lower-slope: ≥500 m depths. Depth was the environmental variable that best explained fish community structure, and each species assemblage was spatially associated with distinct aspects of the vertical water mass profile. Significant differences in the fish community from east to west were not detected, and the species composition of the assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf have not changed substantially over the past decade. This community analysis provides a framework for testing hypotheses regarding the trophic

  3. A Preliminary Study on Connectivity and Perceived Values of Community Green Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyun Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces in residential communities are important yet understudied features of the urban ecological system. While large urban parks and remnant wildlands in urban areas tend to receive public attention from conservation and management perspectives, less is known about the importance of spatial and ecological characteristics of the community-scale green space. This study investigates natural elements in four planned communities in the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona; two of which represent conventional types of neighborhoods and two which exemplify community development type with a proclaimed vision of sustainability. These distinct types of communities, which illustrate variations in age, location, open space type, and a cross-section of housing density, are compared with regard to landscape connectivity as a means of gauging the ecological condition for community sustainability. Using Geographical Information Systems and landscape connectivity indices, a community’s green space features were examined including size, physical connectedness, and ecological potential. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was designed and implemented to examine the perceptional differences between the two types of community residents. The findings demonstrate that the green spaces in conventional communities are more physically connected than their counterparts, but the naturalness and ecological qualities manifested in the amount of the land that may serve as potential urban desert habitats were higher in the sustainable communities. The results of the survey indicated that the respondents inhabiting sustainable communities possess a higher level of satisfaction than the people in conventional types of communities. This is due mainly to the amount of easy access to, and the perceived ecological values of the green spaces in their neighborhoods and surrounding areas. The study concludes that careful community design with ecological consideration can help

  4. Ephemeral wetland communities of Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea class – new data from south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data (70 relevés of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group. Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.

  5. Lesion bacterial communities in American lobsters with diet-induced shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Metzler, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Leberg, Paul; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2012-04-26

    In southern New England, USA, shell disease affects the profitability of the American lobster Homarus americanus fishery. In laboratory trials using juvenile lobsters, exclusive feeding of herring Clupea harengus induces shell disease typified initially by small melanized spots that progress into distinct lesions. Amongst a cohabitated, but segregated, cohort of 11 juvenile lobsters fed exclusively herring, bacterial communities colonizing spots and lesions were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified using 1 group-specific and 2 universal primer sets. The Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in both spots and lesions and included members of the orders Flavobacteriales (Bacteriodetes), Rhodobacterales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), Xanthomonadales (Gammaproteobacteria) and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial communities in spot lesions displayed more diversity than communities with larger (older) lesions, indicating that the lesion communities stabilize over time. At least 8 bacterial types persisted as lesions developed from spots. Aquimarina 'homaria', a species commonly cultured from lesions present on wild lobsters with epizootic shell disease, was found ubiquitously in spots and lesions, as was the 'Candidatus Kopriimonas aquarianus', implicating putative roles of these species in diet-induced shell disease of captive lobsters.

  6. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  7. A taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic perspective on the community assembly of passerine birds along an elevational gradient in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelian; Luo, Kang; Brown, Calum; Lin, Luxiang

    2018-03-01

    Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our research confirms that the highest taxonomic diversity, and distinct community composition, was found in the moist evergreen broadleaf forest at high elevation in both seasons. Environmental filtering was the dominant force at high elevations with relatively cold and wet climatic conditions, while the observed value of mean pairwise functional and phylogenetic distances of low elevation was constantly higher than expectation in two seasons, suggested interspecific competition could play the key role at low elevations, perhaps because of relative rich resource result from complex vegetation structure and human-induced disturbance. Across all elevations, there was a trend of decreasing intensity of environmental filtering whereas increasing interspecific competition from wintering season to breeding season. This was likely due to the increased resource availability but reproduction-associated competition in the summer months. In general, there is a clear justification for conservation efforts to protect entire elevational gradients in the Ailao Mountains, given the distinct taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic compositions and also elevational migration pattern in passerine bird communities.

  8. Soil biochar amendment shapes the composition of N_2O-reducing microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, Johannes; Weigold, Pascal; El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Huson, Daniel H.; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochar amendment has been described as a promising tool to improve soil quality, sequester carbon, and mitigate nitrous oxide (N_2O) emissions. N_2O is a potent greenhouse gas. The main sources of N_2O in soils are microbially-mediated nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. While previous studies have focused on the link between N_2O emission mitigation and the abundance and activity of N_2O-reducing microorganisms in biochar-amended soils, the impact of biochar on the taxonomic composition of the nosZ gene carrying soil microbial community has not been subject of systematic study to date. We used 454 pyrosequencing in order to study the microbial diversity in biochar-amended and biochar-free soil microcosms. We sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well as fragments of common (typical) nosZ genes and the recently described ‘atypical’ nosZ genes. The aim was to describe biochar-induced shifts in general bacterial community diversity and taxonomic variations among the nosZ gene containing N_2O-reducing microbial communities. While soil biochar amendment significantly altered the 16S rRNA gene-based community composition and structure, it also led to the development of distinct functional traits capable of N_2O reduction containing typical and atypical nosZ genes related to nosZ genes found in Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pedobacter saltans, respectively. Our results showed that biochar amendment can affect the relative abundance and taxonomic composition of N_2O-reducing functional microbial traits in soil. Thus these findings broaden our knowledge on the impact of biochar on soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling. - Highlights: • Biochar promoted anaerobic, alkalinity-adapted, and polymer-degrading microbial taxa. • Biochar fostered the development of distinct N_2O-reducing microbial taxa. • Taxonomic shifts among N_2O-reducing microbes might explain lower N_2O emissions.

  9. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used in this part: (a) Profit-sharing plan...

  10. Darwin Core: An Evolving Community-Developed Biodiversity Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, John; Bloom, David; Guralnick, Robert; Blum, Stan; Döring, Markus; Giovanni, Renato; Robertson, Tim; Vieglais, David

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations. PMID:22238640

  11. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of triclosan on bacterial community composition and 'Vibrio' populations in natural seawater microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Ann Lydon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including antimicrobials, can be found at trace levels in treated wastewater effluent. Impacts of chemical contaminants on coastal aquatic microbial community structure and pathogen abundance are unknown despite the potential for selection through antimicrobial resistance. In particular, 'Vibrio', a marine bacterial genus that includes several human pathogens, displays resistance to the ubiquitous antimicrobial compound triclosan. Here we demonstrated through use of natural seawater microcosms that triclosan (at a concentration of ~5 ppm can induce a significant 'Vibrio' growth response (68–1,700 fold increases in comparison with no treatment controls for three distinct coastal ecosystems: Looe Key Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Doctors Arm Canal (Big Pine Key, FL, and Clam Bank Landing (North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC. Additionally, microbial community analysis by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing for Looe Key Reef showed distinct changes in microbial community structure with exposure to 5 ppm triclosan, with increases observed in the relative abundance of 'Vibrio'naceae (17-fold, Pseudoalteromonadaceae (65-fold, Alteromonadaceae (108-fold, Colwelliaceae (430-fold, and Oceanospirillaceae (1,494-fold. While the triclosan doses tested were above concentrations typically observed in coastal surface waters, results identify bacterial families that are potentially resistant to triclosan and/or adapted to use triclosan as a carbon source. The results further suggest the potential for selection of 'Vibrio' in coastal environments, especially sediments, where triclosan may accumulate at high levels.

  13. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  14. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  15. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  16. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  17. Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with the Coral Model Aiptasia in Aposymbiotic and Symbiotic States with Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2016-11-18

    Coral reefs are in decline. The basic functional unit of coral reefs is the coral metaorganism or holobiont consisting of the cnidarian host animal, symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and a specific consortium of bacteria (among others), but research is slow due to the difficulty of working with corals. Aiptasia has proven to be a tractable model system to elucidate the intricacies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, but characterization of the associated bacterial microbiome is required to provide a complete and integrated understanding of holobiont function. In this work, we characterize and analyze the microbiome of aposymbiotic and symbiotic Aiptasia and show that bacterial associates are distinct in both conditions. We further show that key microbial associates can be cultured without their cnidarian host. Our results suggest that bacteria play an important role in the symbiosis of Aiptasia with Symbiodinium, a finding that underlines the power of the Aiptasia model system where cnidarian hosts can be analyzed in aposymbiotic and symbiotic states. The characterization of the native microbiome and the ability to retrieve culturable isolates contributes to the resources available for the Aiptasia model system. This provides an opportunity to comparatively analyze cnidarian metaorganisms as collective functional holobionts and as separated member species. We hope that this will accelerate research into understanding the intricacies of coral biology, which is urgently needed to develop strategies to mitigate the effects of environmental change.

  18. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in Distinct Arctic Water Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Müller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most abundant archaeal groups on Earth is the Thaumarchaeota. They are recognized as major contributors to marine ammonia oxidation, a crucial step in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. Their universal success is attributed to a high genomic flexibility and niche adaptability. Based on differences in the gene coding for ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA, two different ecotypes with distinct distribution patterns in the water column have been identified. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes combined with archaeal amoA functional gene clone libraries to investigate which environmental factors are driving the distribution of Thaumarchaeota ecotypes in the Atlantic gateway to the Arctic Ocean through an annual cycle in 2014. We observed the characteristic vertical pattern of Thaumarchaeota abundance with high values in the mesopelagic (>200 m water throughout the entire year, but also in the epipelagic (<200 m water during the dark winter months (January, March and November. The Thaumarchaeota community was dominated by three OTUs which on average comprised 76% ± 11 and varied in relative abundance according to water mass characteristics and not to depth or ammonium concentration, as suggested in previous studies. The ratios of the abundance of the different OTU types were similar to that of the functional amoA water cluster types. Together, this suggests a strong selection of ecotypes within different water masses, supporting the general idea of water mass characteristics as an important factor in defining microbial community structure. If indeed, as suggested in this study, Thaumarchaeota population dynamics are controlled by a set of factors, described here as water mass characteristics and not just depth alone, then changes in water mass flow will inevitably affect the distribution of the different ecotypes.

  19. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  1. Quantifying the Importance of the Rare Biosphere for Microbial Community Response to Organic Pollutants in a Freshwater Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Weigand, Michael R; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-04-15

    A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (biosphere." How often, and via what mechanisms, e.g., clonal amplification versus horizontal gene transfer, the rare taxa and genes contribute to microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20-liter planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA) and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below the detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) or metagenomic sequencing methods, but they increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic data sets revealed distinct cooccurring alleles of degradation genes, frequently carried on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlies distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and they provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species. IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal species, the so called rare biosphere. The

  2. Mobilising culture against domestic violence in migrant and ethnic communities: practitioner perspectives from Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel; Kurian, Priya A; Young-Silcock, Faith; Narasimhan, Nirmala

    2017-07-01

    Studies on domestic violence in ethnic minority communities highlight that social norms, family structures and cultural practices are among the key triggers of violence against women. Not surprisingly, most anti-violence interventions in these communities aim to redeem women from the oppressive features of these cultures. More recently, however, emergent scholarship advocates mobilising, rather than erasing, culture within existing anti-violence strategies. This paper explores the nature of culturally informed interventions used by front-line workers. It presents the findings of a small-scale qualitative study in Aotearoa/New Zealand, where around 13% of the population are currently deemed to be from minority ethnic communities. Interviews and one focus group were conducted with nine practitioners - including social workers, counsellors and the police - in Hamilton, Aotearoa in 2013-2014. Based on thematic analysis, the paper identifies two core strands: (a) the distinctive profile of ethnic violence and (b) the strategies that mobilise culture in anti-violence interventions. Specifically within the former strand, it was found that violence in the ethnic community was distinctive for the following reasons: the heightened sense of stigma surrounding disclosure and the consequent silence by women who suffer from it; the lack of trust in authority; and the fear of conventional safety plans necessitating longer time periods for rapport-building. Among the strategies that mobilise culture, the study found that practitioners used a family approach; engaged men in their interventions, at times reinforcing gendered roles; utilised micro-interventions; and deployed cultural tropes, especially around spirituality, as a strategy. The conclusion points to the gap between interventions that challenge and mobilise cultures. While anecdotally, the latter are perceived to be relevant and effective in anti-violence interventions, there is need for a fuller assessment and better

  3. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Steele, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples.

  4. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Nazeer, Zahid B.; Cali, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Resilience of the prokaryotic microbial community of Acropora digitifera to elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajigan, Andrian P; Diaz, Leomir A; Conaco, Cecilia

    2017-08-01

    The coral is a holobiont formed by the close interaction between the coral animal and a diverse community of microorganisms, including dinoflagellates, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. The prokaryotic symbionts of corals are important for host fitness but are also highly sensitive to changes in the environment. In this study, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing to examine the response of the microbial community associated with the coral, Acropora digitifera, to elevated temperature. The A. digitifera microbial community is dominated by operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) affiliated with classes Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The prokaryotic community in the coral tissue is distinct from that of the mucus and the surrounding seawater. Remarkably, the overall microbial community structure of A. digitifera remained stable for 10 days of continuous exptosure at 32°C compared to corals maintained at 27°C. However, the elevated temperature regime resulted in a decrease in the abundance of OTUs affiliated with certain groups of bacteria, such as order Rhodobacterales. On the other hand, some OTUs affiliated with the orders Alteromonadales, Vibrionales, and Flavobacteriales, which are often associated with diseased and stressed corals, increased in abundance. Thus, while the A. digitifera bacterial community structure appears resilient to higher temperature, prolonged exposure and intensified stress results in changes in the abundance of specific microbial community members that may affect the overall metabolic state and health of the coral holobiont. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diazotrophic potential among bacterial communities associated with wild and cultivated Agave species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgarennes, Damaris; Garrido, Etzel; Torres-Gomez, Miryam J; Peña-Cabriales, Juan J; Partida-Martinez, Laila P

    2014-12-01

    Agaves are major biotic resources in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Despite their ecological, economical and cultural relevance, many aspects of the microbial communities associated with agaves are still unknown. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities associated with two Agave species by 16S rRNA- Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors in the structure of the bacterial communities. In parallel, we isolated and characterized diazotrophic bacteria associated with agaves, as Agave soils are characterized by their low nitrogen content. Our results demonstrate that in Agave, the structure of prokaryotic assemblages was mostly influenced by the community group, where the soil, episphere, and endosphere were clearly distinct. Proteobacteria (γ and α), Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. Bacterial communities in the episphere of agaves were mainly influenced by the host species, whereas in the endosphere were affected by the season. Fifteen bacterial taxa were common and abundant in the endosphere of both Agave species during the dry season. Notably, some of the confirmed diazotrophic strains belonged to this group, suggesting a possible beneficial role in planta. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  9. Network communities as a new form of social organization in conditions of postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Burmaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the approach to interpretation of essence of the network community concept in which we propose to consider it as a new form of social organization that is substantiated by the specificity of how our society is functioning in conditions of Postmodern. There were explored two main approaches to network communities studying: the first approach considers social networks in a classic, traditional interpretation of modernity as a special kind of social structure, and the second one represents social networks as a specific virtual formation, a social structure of virtual Internet reality. There were revealed some common features of a social organization and a network community: presence of permanent communication between members of the group, united by certain common interests and goals, as well as presence of the certain hierarchy among all members of the community, and the rules of conduct, implementation of communication. Distinctive features: network community is more informal, offers its members considerable leeway in the implementation of their own goals and satisfying the needs, full virtualization of communication absence of direct interaction during communication, under conditions where the main resource for the interchange in network communities is information. It was shown that in the process of emergence, development and distribution of network communities, the fundamental role is played by modern communications - namely, unification them in a stable set of interconnected networks and, in particular network communities.

  10. Contesting the science/ethics distinction in the review of clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus J; Yentis, Steve M

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy in relation to clinical research proposals in the UK has distinguished between two types of review: scientific and ethical. This distinction has been formally enshrined in the recent changes to research ethics committee (REC) structure and operating procedures, introduced as the UK response to the EU Directive on clinical trials. Recent reviews and recommendations have confirmed the place of the distinction and the separate review processes. However, serious reservations can be mounted about the science/ethics distinction and the policy of separate review that has been built upon it. We argue here that, first, the science/ethics distinction is incoherent, and, second, that RECs should not only be permitted to consider a study's science, but that they have anobligation do so. PMID:17329389

  11. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  12. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. On the Implications of A Priori Constraints in Transdimensional Bayesian Inversion for Continental Lithospheric Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Monte Carlo methods are powerful approaches to solve nonlinear problems and are becoming very popular in Earth sciences. One reason being that, at first glance, no constraints or explicit regularization of model parameters are required. At second glance, one might realize that regularization is done through a prior. The choice of this prior, however, is subjective, and with its choice, unintended or undesired extra information can be injected into the problem. The principal criticism of Bayesian methods is that the prior can be "tuned" in order to get the expected solution. Consequently, detractors of the Bayesian method could easily argue that the solution is influenced by the form of the prior distribution, which choice is subjective. Hence, models obtained with Monte Carlo methods are still highly debated. Here we investigate the influence of a priori constraints (i.e., fixed crustal discontinuities) on the posterior probability distributions of estimated parameters, that is, vertical polarized shear velocity VSV and radial anisotropy ξ, in a transdimensional Bayesian inversion for continental lithospheric structure. We follow upon the work of Calò et al. (2016), who jointly inverted converted phases (P to S) without deconvolution and surface wave dispersion data, to obtain 1-D radial anisotropic shear wave velocity profiles in the North American craton. We aim at verifying whether the strong lithospheric layering found in the stable part of the craton is robust with respect to artifacts that might be caused by the methodology used. We test the hypothesis that the observed midlithospheric discontinuities result from (1) fixed crustal discontinuities in the reference model and (2) a fixed Vp/Vs ratio. The synthetic tests on two Earth models show that a fixed Vp/Vs ratio does not introduce artificial layering, even if the assumed value is slightly wrong. This is an important finding for real data inversion where the true value is not always available or accurate

  14. Agent-specific learning signals for self-other distinction during mentalising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent. Combining computational modelling with magnetoencephalography (MEG enabled us to track neural representations of prediction errors (PEs and beliefs attributed to self, and of simulated PEs and beliefs attributed to another agent. We found that the representational pattern of a PE reliably predicts the identity of the agent to whom the signal is attributed, consistent with a neural self-other distinction implemented via agent-specific learning signals. Strikingly, subjects exhibiting a weaker neural self-other distinction also had a reduced behavioural capacity for self-other distinction and displayed more marked subclinical psychopathological traits. The neural self-other distinction was also modulated by social context, evidenced in a significantly reduced decoding of agent identity in a nonsocial control task. Thus, we show that self-other distinction is realised through an encoding of agent identity intrinsic to fundamental learning signals. The observation that the fidelity of this encoding predicts psychopathological traits is of interest as a potential neurocomputational psychiatric biomarker.

  15. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  16. Culture and the distinctiveness motive: constructing identity in individualistic and collectivistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matt; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, M Cristina; Koller, Silvia H; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Wang, Qian; Bond, Michael Harris; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Valk, Aune; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Nizharadze, George; Fülöp, Marta; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Harb, Charles; Aldhafri, Said; Martin, Mariana; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Chybicka, Aneta; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Ozgen, Emre; Güner, Ulkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil

    2012-04-01

    The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achieve feelings of distinctiveness, rather than influence the strength of their motivation to do so. We measured the distinctiveness motive using an indirect technique to avoid cultural response biases. Analyses showed that the distinctiveness motive was not weaker-and, if anything, was stronger-in more collectivistic nations. However, individualism-collectivism was found to moderate the ways in which feelings of distinctiveness were constructed: Distinctiveness was associated more closely with difference and separateness in more individualistic cultures and was associated more closely with social position in more collectivistic cultures. Multilevel analysis confirmed that it is the prevailing beliefs and values in an individual's context, rather than the individual's own beliefs and values, that account for these differences. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Applying ecological models to communities of genetic elements: the case of neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquist, Stefan; Cottenie, Karl; Elliott, Tyler A; Saylor, Brent; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan

    2015-07-01

    A promising recent development in molecular biology involves viewing the genome as a mini-ecosystem, where genetic elements are compared to organisms and the surrounding cellular and genomic structures are regarded as the local environment. Here, we critically evaluate the prospects of ecological neutral theory (ENT), a popular model in ecology, as it applies at the genomic level. This assessment requires an overview of the controversy surrounding neutral models in community ecology. In particular, we discuss the limitations of using ENT both as an explanation of community dynamics and as a null hypothesis. We then analyse a case study in which ENT has been applied to genomic data. Our central finding is that genetic elements do not conform to the requirements of ENT once its assumptions and limitations are made explicit. We further compare this genome-level application of ENT to two other, more familiar approaches in genomics that rely on neutral mechanisms: Kimura's molecular neutral theory and Lynch's mutational-hazard model. Interestingly, this comparison reveals that there are two distinct concepts of neutrality associated with these models, which we dub 'fitness neutrality' and 'competitive neutrality'. This distinction helps to clarify the various roles for neutral models in genomics, for example in explaining the evolution of genome size. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  19. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanding; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-09-14

    It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxonomy. We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct) enzymes in the organism's metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability). Further, our results call for exploring new measures of modularity and network

  20. Genetic and ontogenetic variation in an endangered tree structures dependent arthropod and fungal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Gosney

    Full Text Available Plant genetic and ontogenetic variation can significantly impact dependent fungal and arthropod communities. However, little is known of the relative importance of these extended genetic and ontogenetic effects within a species. Using a common garden trial, we compared the dependent arthropod and fungal community on 222 progeny from two highly differentiated populations of the endangered heteroblastic tree species, Eucalyptus morrisbyi. We assessed arthropod and fungal communities on both juvenile and adult foliage. The community variation was related to previous levels of marsupial browsing, as well as the variation in the physicochemical properties of leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy. We found highly significant differences in community composition, abundance and diversity parameters between eucalypt source populations in the common garden, and these were comparable to differences between the distinctive juvenile and adult foliage. The physicochemical properties assessed accounted for a significant percentage of the community variation but did not explain fully the community differences between populations and foliage types. Similarly, while differences in population susceptibility to a major marsupial herbivore may result in diffuse genetic effects on the dependent community, this still did not account for the large genetic-based differences in dependent communities between populations. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining the populations of this rare species as separate management units, as not only are the populations highly genetically structured, this variation may alter the trajectory of biotic colonization of conservation plantings.

  1. Soil biochar amendment shapes the composition of N{sub 2}O-reducing microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, Johannes; Weigold, Pascal [Geomicrobiology & Microbial Ecology, Center for Applied Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstr. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Huson, Daniel H. [Algorithms in Bioinformatics, Center for Bioinformatics, University of Tuebingen, Sand 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kappler, Andreas [Geomicrobiology & Microbial Ecology, Center for Applied Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstr. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Behrens, Sebastian, E-mail: sbehrens@umn.edu [Geomicrobiology & Microbial Ecology, Center for Applied Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstr. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, 500 Pillsbury Drive S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455-0116 (United States); BioTechnology Institute, 140 Gortner Labs, 1479 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108-6106 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Soil biochar amendment has been described as a promising tool to improve soil quality, sequester carbon, and mitigate nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. N{sub 2}O is a potent greenhouse gas. The main sources of N{sub 2}O in soils are microbially-mediated nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. While previous studies have focused on the link between N{sub 2}O emission mitigation and the abundance and activity of N{sub 2}O-reducing microorganisms in biochar-amended soils, the impact of biochar on the taxonomic composition of the nosZ gene carrying soil microbial community has not been subject of sy