WorldWideScience

Sample records for printed cu nanoinks

  1. Dispersion stability of 1-octanethiol coated Cu nanoparticles in a 1-octanol solvent for the application of nanoink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Danee [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Jong-Hwan [Lean on Tech., Guri 471-854 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Da-hyun [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Conductive ink with Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) has various advantages compared with conventional ink, such as good electrical conductivity and low cost. However, it suffers through easily oxidization problem, leading to an unstable electrical conductivity, which decreases over time. Therefore, it is important to prevent (or least minimize) oxidation of the Cu NPs. In this study, Cu NPs with diameter of 50 nm were coated with 1-octanethiol (CH₃(CH₂)₇SH) in a high-vacuum condition (5.33 × 10⁻⁴ Pa). The coating conditions were systematically varied to investigate the effect on the coating thicknesses. Coated Cu NPs were dispersed in 1-octanol to form the conductive ink, and the dispersion behavior was studied as a function of the thickness of the 1-octanethiol coating. The thickness of the coating layer was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and was found to be 3 nm, 6 nm, and 10 nm. The dispersion stability of the inks was characterized by Turbiscan dispersion stability and viscosity measurements, and it was found that the copper nanoink formed using Cu NPs with a 6-nm-thick coating exhibited the most stable dispersion properties.

  2. Dispersion stability of 1-octanethiol coated Cu nanoparticles in a 1-octanol solvent for the application of nanoink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Danee; Baik, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Da-hyun; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2014-01-01

    Conductive ink with Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) has various advantages compared with conventional ink, such as good electrical conductivity and low cost. However, it suffers through easily oxidization problem, leading to an unstable electrical conductivity, which decreases over time. Therefore, it is important to prevent (or least minimize) oxidation of the Cu NPs. In this study, Cu NPs with diameter of 50 nm were coated with 1-octanethiol (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 SH) in a high-vacuum condition (5.33 × 10 −4 Pa). The coating conditions were systematically varied to investigate the effect on the coating thicknesses. Coated Cu NPs were dispersed in 1-octanol to form the conductive ink, and the dispersion behavior was studied as a function of the thickness of the 1-octanethiol coating. The thickness of the coating layer was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and was found to be 3 nm, 6 nm, and 10 nm. The dispersion stability of the inks was characterized by Turbiscan dispersion stability and viscosity measurements, and it was found that the copper nanoink formed using Cu NPs with a 6-nm-thick coating exhibited the most stable dispersion properties.

  3. Thermodynamics and kinetics insight into reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} nanoink based on binary metal-amine complexes in polyetheramine-synthesized process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jie [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shei, Shih-Chang, E-mail: scshei@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, 700, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) nanoink via a solvent-thermal reflux method using copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and selenium (Se) powders as precursors and polyetheramine as a reaction solvent. The formation of CZTSe nanoparticles in polyetheramine began with the formation of binary phase CuSe and CuSe{sub 2} due to the strong catalysis provided by polyetheramine. Finally, ternary crystals of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} transformed into well-dispersed nanocrystals of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}. The size of the crystals was shown to decrease with reaction time due to the emulsification effect of the polyetheramine epoxy group. The PH value-reaction time curves for single Cu, Zn elements and CZTSe from all participants elements reacted together have a relationship just reversed each other and both multistage feature were observed, which indicates that the CZTSe reaction was dominated by copper and zinc elements. The PH-temperature mechanism demonstrates that the reaction was controlled by the formation of metal-amine complexes, especially, after heating the PH-time variation manner is the same for pure element and all four elements reacted together. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the mechanism underlying CZTSe formation based on the reactivity and stability of reaction species. - Highlights: • Reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) nanoink via a solvent-thermal reflux method using polyetheramine was developed. • PH effect on thermal dynamics and characteristics of reagents and solvents in the CZTSe nanoink has been realized. • PH-temperature mechanism demonstrates that the reaction controlled by the formation of metal-amine complexes.

  4. Non-vacuum mechanochemical route to the synthesis of Cu2SnS3 nano-ink for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanalakar, S.A.; Agawane, G.L.; Shin, S.W.; Yang, H.S.; Patil, P.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Cu-based ternary chalcogenides such as Cu 2 SnS 3 (CTS) are attracting increasing interest due to their outstanding opto-electronic properties. Herein, a simple, cost-effective non-vacuum mechanochemical synthetic route for preparing CTS nanocrystals with controlled size and composition is presented. CTS nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by ball milling and subsequent annealing in an H 2 S atmosphere. These nanocrystal samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible optical spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Texture structures with cubic crystallinity were observed from the P-XRD of (1 1 2), (2 0 0) planes of CTS nanopowders. The EDS results confirmed that the synthesized powders had an appropriate chemical purity. According to TEM/FE-SEM observations, a nanostructure CTS was obtained after 36 h of mechanochemical processing followed by annealing. The average particle size of single phase CTS after 48 h of milling was ∼45 nm. Based on obtained data using characterization methods, reaction mechanism steps were proposed to clarify the reactions that occurred during the mechanochemical process. In order to prepare nanocrystal ink, ethanol was used as a solvent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, which acts as an organic stabilizing agent, was added to the CTS powder to prepare a printable paste

  5. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  6. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy; Eid, Jessica; Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael; Agrawal, Rakesh; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning

  7. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbé, Jérémy, E-mail: jeremy.barbe@kaust.edu.sa; Eid, Jessica [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) (Germany); Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University, School of Chemical Engineering (United States); Del Gobbo, Silvano, E-mail: silvano.delgobbo@gmail.com [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-15

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  8. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy

    2016-12-13

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  9. CuFeO2 formation using fused deposition modeling 3D printing and sintering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salea, A.; Dasaesamoh, A.; Prathumwan, R.; Kongkaew, T.; Subannajui, K.

    2017-09-01

    CuFeO2 is a metal oxide mineral material which is called delafossite. It can potentially be used as a chemical catalyst, and gas sensing material. There are methods to fabricate CuFeO2 such as chemical synthesis, sintering, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition. In our work, CuFeO2 is prepared by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printing. The composite filament which composed of Cu and Fe elements is printed in three dimensions, and then sintered and annealed at high temperature to obtain CuFeO2. Suitable polymer blend and maximum percent volume of metal powder are studied. When percent volume of metal powder is increased, melt flow rate of polymer blend is also increased. The most suitable printing condition is reported and the properties of CuFeO2 are observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Dynamic Scanning Calorimeter, X-ray diffraction. As a new method to produce semiconductor, this technique has a potential to allow any scientist or students to design and print a catalyst or sensing material by the most conventional 3D printing machine which is commonly used around the world.

  10. Inkjet?Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux?Steiner, Martha Ch.; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4?based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm2) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu?Zn?Sn?S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  11. Inkjet-Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 -based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm 2 ) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  12. Influence of sintering temperature on screen printed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Huang Yanhua; Lee, Alex Y.S.; Wang Chiou Fu; Gong Hao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The influences of sintering temperature on structure and properties of screen printed Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) were investigated. ► It was found that the direct optical band gap increased with increasing the sintering temperature. ► The screen printed CZTS film after sintering at 450 °C had a high photosensitivity (G i − G d )/G d of 14%. ► The hexagonal CuS phase aggregated after sintering at 500 °C and higher temperature. - Abstract: Screen printing is a useful and simple method for coating layers of several solar materials, but care must be taken in preparing stoichiometric CZTS film due to its instability at a high processing temperature and a small chemical potential domain. This paper reports screen printing prepared CZTS films and the influence of sintering temperature on CZTS properties. The thermostability, structural, electronic and optical properties are studied. The direct optical band gap energies of the films vary from 1.39 to 1.60 eV, while the resistivities change from 830 to 6 Ω cm after sintering at different temperatures up to 550 °C. A high photosensitivity of 14% is achieved for the sample sintered at 450 °C. The phenomena observed are also discussed.

  13. Rheological characterisation and printing performance of Sn/Ag/Cu solder pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durairaj, R.; Ramesh, S.; Mallik, S.; Seman, A.; Ekere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-free solder paste printing process accounts for majority of the assembly defects in the electronic manufacturing industry. The study investigates rheological behaviour and stencil printing performance of the lead-free solder pastes (Sn/Ag/Cu). Oscillatory stress sweep test was carried out to study the visco-elastic behaviour of the lead-free solder pastes. The visco-elastic behaviour of the paste encompasses solid and liquid characteristic of the paste, which could be used to study the flow behaviour experienced by the pastes during the stencil printing process. From this study, it was found that the solid characteristics (G') is higher than the liquid characteristic (G'') for the pastes material. In addition, the results from the study showed that the solder paste with a large G' = G'' has a higher cohesiveness resulting in poor withdrawal of the paste during the stencil printing process. The phase angles (δ) was used to correlate the quality of the dense suspensions to the formulation of solder paste materials. This study has revealed the value of having a rheological measurement for explaining and characterising solder pastes for stencil printing. As the demand for lead free pastes increases rheological measurements can assist with the formulation or development of new pastes.

  14. Printed Nano Cu and NiSi Contacts and Metallization for Solar Cell Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, Michael John [Intrinsiq Materials Inc., Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-10-11

    There has long been a desire to replace the front-side silver contacts in silicon solar cells. There are two driving forces to do this. First, silver is an expensive precious metal. Secondly, the process to use silver requires that it be formulated into screen print pastes that need a lead-containing glass frit, and the use of lead is forbidden in many parts of the world. Because of the difficulty in replacing these pastes and the attendant processes, lead exemptions have granted to solar cells. Copper has been the replacement metal of choice because it is significantly cheaper than silver and is very close to silver in electrical conductivity. Using processes which do not use lead, obviates it as an environmental contaminant. However, copper cannot be in contact with the silicon of the cell since it migrates through the silicon and causes defects which severely damage the efficiency of the cell. Hence, a conductive barrier must be placed between the copper and silicon and nickel, and especially nickel silicide, have been shown to be materials of choice. However, nickel must be sputtered and annealed to create the nickel silicide barrier, and copper has either been sputtered or plated. All of these processes require expensive, specialized equipment and plating uses environmentally unfriendly chemicals. Therefore, Intrinsiq proposed using printed nano nickel silicide ink (which we had previously invented) and printed nano copper ink to create these electrodes and barriers. We found that nano copper ink could be readily printed and sintered under a reducing atmosphere to give highly conductive grids. We further showed that nano nickel silicide ink could be readily jetted into grids on top of the silicon cell. It could then be annealed to create a barrier. However, it was found that the combination of printed NiSi and printed Cu did not give contact resistivity good enough to produce efficient cells. Only plated copper on top of the printed NiSi gave useful contact

  15. Evaluating print performance of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder pastes used in electronics assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Bauer, R.; Hübner, F.; Ekere, N. N.

    2011-01-01

    Solder paste is the most widely used interconnection material in the electronic assembly process for attaching electronic components/devices directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards, using stencil printing process. This paper evaluates the performance of three different commercially available Sn-Ag-Cu solder pastes formulated with different particle size distributions (PSD), metal content and alloy composition. A series of stencil printing tests were carried out using a specially designed stencil of 75 μm thickness and apertures of 300×300 μm2 dimension and 500 μm pitch sizes. Solder paste printing behaviors were found related to attributes such as slumping and surface tension and printing performance was correlated with metal content and PSD. The results of the study should benefit paste manufacturers and SMT assemblers to improve their products and practices.

  16. Cu ion ink for a flexible substrate and highly conductive patterning by intensive pulsed light sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Song, Yong-Won; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Young-Jei

    2013-05-22

    Direct printing techniques that utilize nanoparticles to mitigate environmental pollution and reduce the processing time of the routing and formation of electrodes have received much attention lately. In particular, copper (Cu) nanoink using Cu nanoparticles offers high conductivity and can be prepared at low cost. However, it is difficult to produce homogeneous nanoparticles and ensure good dispersion within the ink. Moreover, Cu particles require a sintering process over an extended time at a high temperature due to high melting temperature of Cu. During this process, the nanoparticles oxidize quickly in air. To address these problems, the authors developed a Cu ion ink that is free of Cu particles or any other impurities. It consequently does not require separate dispersion stability. In addition, the developed ink is environmentally friendly and can be sintered even at low temperatures. The Cu ion ink was sintered on a flexible substrate using intense pulsed light (IPL), which facilitates large-area, high-speed calcination at room temperature and at atmospheric pressures. As the applied light energy increases, the Cu2O phase diminishes, leaving only the Cu phase. This is attributed to the influence of formic acid (HCOOH) on the Cu ion ink. Only the Cu phase was observed above 40 J cm(-2). The Cu-patterned film after sintering showed outstanding electrical resistivity in a range of 3.21-5.27 μΩ·cm at an IPL energy of 40-60 J cm(-2). A spiral-type micropattern with a line width of 160 μm on a PI substrate was formed without line bulges or coffee ring effects. The electrical resistivity was 5.27 μΩ·cm at an energy level of 40.6 J cm(-2).

  17. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  18. Straightforward grafting approach for cyclam-functionalized screen-printed electrodes for selective Cu(II) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Ouhenia-Ouadahi, Karima; Miserque, Frédéric; Dumas, Eddy; Cannizzo, Caroline; Chaussé, Annie

    2016-01-01

    We report in this paper an original way to covalently bind the macrocyclic ligand, 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam), through diazonium salt chemistry, on the surface of carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). The in situ synthesis of the diazonium salt obtained from the amine precursor derived from the cyclam and its electrografting are described. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to characterize this functionalized surface. Owing to the strong cyclam–Cu(II) affinity, the so called SPE-cyclam can be used as electrochemical sensors for Cu(II) determination at trace levels. The influence of electroanalysis parameters such as the accumulation time and the pH of the medium were investigated. An interference study was carried out with numerous metallic cations and few interference was found for Cu(II) quantification. The described method provided a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.3 × 10"−"8 M and 4.0 × 10"−"8 M, respectively. Interference study and performances show that SPE-cyclam could be considered as efficient sensors for environmental analysis.

  19. A New Sensor Based on Graphite Screen Printed Electrode Modified With Cu-Nanocomplex for Determination of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Beitollai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of paracetamol can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of paracetamol receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the paracetamol based on screen-printed modified electrode (SPE with Cu nanocomplex (Cu in pH=7.0. The paracetamol is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, and is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of paracetamol. The kinetics of the paracetamol oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the characterization of Cu nanocomplex was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Moreover, the voltammetry determined the paracetamol with the linear concentration ranging from 10.0 to 1000.0 μM and the lower detection limit of 1.0 μM. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

  20. Fabrication of friction-reducing texture surface by selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjian; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Yang; Fu, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a process of selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs) for the fabrication of full dense Cu friction-reducing texture on the metallic surface in ambient condition. This technique synthesizes pure Cu by chemical reduction route using an organic solvent during laser melting in the atmosphere environment, and provides a flexible additive manufacture approach to form complex friction-reduction texture on the metallic surface. Microtextures of ring and disc arrays have been fabricated on the stainless steel surface by SLM-IP Cu NPs. The friction coefficient has been measured under the lubricating condition of the oil. Disc texture surface (DTS) has a relatively low friction coefficient compared with ring texture surface (RTS), Cu film surface (Cu-FS) and the untreated substrate. The study suggests a further research on SLM-IP approach for complex microstructure or texture manufacturing, possibly realizing its advantage of flexibility.

  1. Metal nanoinks as chemically stable surface enhanced scattering (SERS) probes for the analysis of blue BIC ballpoint pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, A; Saviello, D; McAuliffe, M A P; Mirabile, A; Lewis, L; Iacopino, D

    2017-06-07

    Metal nanoinks constituted by Ag nanoparticles and Au nanorods were employed as probes for the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) analysis of a blue BIC ballpoint pen. The dye components of the pen ink were first separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and subsequently analysed by SERS at illumination wavelengths of 514 nm and 785 nm. Compared to normal Raman conditions, enhanced spectra were obtained for all separated spots, allowing easy identification of phthalocyanine Blue 38 and triarylene crystal violet in the ink mixture. A combination of effects such as molecular resonance, electromagnetic and chemical effects were the contributing factors to the generation of spectra enhanced compared to normal Raman conditions. Enhancement factors (EFs) between 5 × 10 3 and 3 × 10 6 were obtained, depending on the combination of SERS probes and laser illumination used. In contrast to previous conflicting reports, the metal nanoinks were chemically stable, allowing the collection of reproducible spectra for days after deposition on TLC plates. In addition and in advance to previously reported SERS probes, no need for additional aggregating agents or correction of electrostatic charge was necessary to induce the generation of enhanced SERS spectra.

  2. Fabrication and sulfurization of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films with tuning the concentration of Cu-Sn-S precursor ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jie [Institute of Microelectronics & Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shei, Shih-Chang, E-mail: scshei@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nation University of Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Chang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nation University of Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics & Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Tuning the relative reaction rate of component phases proved to be beneficial in controlling the reaction process. • Low-concentration samples display closely packed Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} grains with a flat morphology. • Optical band-gap energy measured at 1.346 eV suitable for thin-film solar cell applications. - Abstract: In this study, Cu-Sn-S nanoinks were synthesized by combining chelating polyetheramine to Cu, Sn, S powders of various concentrations. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that nanoinks synthesized at low concentrations are composed almost entirely of binary phases SnS and Cu{sub 2}S. Synthesizing nanoinks at higher concentrations decreased the quantity of binary phase and led to the appearance of ternary phase Cu{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}. Following sulfurization, single phase Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin film was obtained from nanoinks of low concentration; however, impurities, such as Cu{sub 2}S were detected in the thin film obtained from nanoinks of high concentration. This can be attributed to the fact that lower concentrations reduce the reactivity of all the elements. As a result, the SnS phase reacted more readily and more rapidly, resulting in the early formation of a stoichiometric CTS thin film during sulfurization. Under these reaction conditions, Cu{sub 2}S and SnS transform into CTS and thereby prevent the formation of unwanted phases of Cu{sub 2}S and Cu{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}. Raman spectra revealed that second phase Cu{sub 2}S phase remained in the high-concentration samples, due to an increase in reactivity due to the participation of a greater proportion of the copper in the reaction. The surface microstructure of low-concentration samples display closely packed Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} grains with a flat morphology and an atomic composition ratio of Cu:Sn:S = 34.69:15.90:49.41, which is close to stoichiometric. Hall measurement revealed that low-concentration sample has superior electrical properties; i.e., a hole

  3. Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles with enhanced oxidation stability for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Na Rae; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yung Jong; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we synthesized uniform Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles using a facile two-step process that consists of thermal decomposition and galvanic displacement methods. The core–shell structure of these nanoparticles was confirmed through characterization using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we investigated the oxidation stability of the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles in detail. Both qualitative and quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm that the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles have considerably higher oxidation stability than Cu nanoparticles. Finally, we formulated a conductive ink using the synthesized nanoparticles and coated it onto glass substrates. Following the sintering process, we compared the resistivity of the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles with that of the Cu nanoparticles. The results of this study clearly show that the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles can potentially be used as an alternative to Ag nanoparticles because of their superior oxidation stability and electrical properties. (paper)

  4. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-jun

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption. PMID:25089616

  5. A normative study of the Italian printed word version of the free and cued selective reminding test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girtler, N; De Carli, F; Amore, M; Arnaldi, D; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Picco, A; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Brugnolo, A

    2015-07-01

    According to the new research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory impairment, not significantly improved by cueing, is the core neuropsychological marker, even at a pre-dementia stage. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory using semantic cues and is widely used in Europe. Standardization values for the Italian population are available for the colored picture version, but not for the 16-item printed word version. In this study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCSRT-16 obtained using linear regression techniques and generalized linear model, and critical values for classifying sub-test performance into equivalent scores. Six scores were derived from the performance of 194 normal subjects (MMSE score, range 27-30, mean 29.5 ± 0.5) divided per decade (from 20 to 90), per gender and per level of education (4 levels: 3-5, 6-8, 9-13, >13 years): immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), recognition phase (RP), delayed free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. This study confirms the effect of age and education, but not of gender on immediate and delayed free and cued recall. The Italian version of the FCSRT-16 can be useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  6. High Tc screen-printed YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films - Effect of the substrate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Simons, Rainee N.; Farrell, D. E.

    1988-08-01

    Thick films of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) have been deposited on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, nickel aluminum titanate (Ni-Al-Ti), and barium tetratitanate (Ba-Ti) substrates by the screen printing technique. Properties of the films were found to be highly sensitive to the choice of the substrate material. The film on Ba-Ti turned green after firing, due to a reaction with the substrate and were insulating. A film on Ni-Al-Ti had a Tc (onset) of about 95 K and lost 90 percent of its resistance by about 75 K. However, even at 4 K it was not fully superconducting, possibly due to a reaction between the film and the substrate and interdiffusion of the reaction products. The film on alumina had Tc (onset) of about 96 K, Tc (zero) of about 66 K, and Delta Tc of about 10 K. The best film was obtained on spinel and had Tc (onset) of about 94 K, zero resistance at 81 K, and a transition width of about 7 K.

  7. Fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by a combination of mechanochemical and screen-printing/sintering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Nomura, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miyamura, A.; Chiba, Y.; Konagai, M.; Yamada, A.

    2006-01-01

    We prepared fine Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) powder suitable for screen printing using a mechanochemical process. Particulate precursors were deposited in a thin layer by a screen-printing technique, the remaining organic solvent was removed from the screen-printed CIGS film and finally the porous precursor layer was sintered into a dense polycrystalline film by atmospheric-pressure firing. The crystal structure of the film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the microstructure was observed in a SEM. The thickness of the film was 5-10 μm with a grain size of about 2 μm. The films were also observed in a TEM. The grain size of the as-prepared powder was less than 1 μm; however, it enlarged to 2-3 μm after firing at 575 C under a Se ambient. Preliminary CIGS solar cells with our standard Al grid/B-doped ZnO/i-ZnO/ CdS/CIGS/Mo/soda-lime glass structure were fabricated. An efficiency of 2.7%, a V oc of 0.325 V, a J sc of 28.3 mA/cm 2 and a FF of 0.295 was obtained. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Sung

    performances. Also, the active materials did not decompose at 80°C, and the battery was performing well under low temperature of -27°C. Lastly, the batteries were embedded inside a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate to characterize their performance under fatigue loading. Finally, an intense pulsed light (IPL) was used to sinter printed silver nanoink patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find grain size of printed silver nanoink patterns. From these analyses it was confirmed that IPL is able to adequately sinter silver nanoink patterns for printed electronics without degradation of the substrates in less than 30 ms.

  9. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue, E-mail: yue.cui@usu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications.

  10. Preparation of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8-x} tracks and thick films by jet printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom). E-mail: bag10 at cus.cam.ac.uk

    2000-05-01

    The formation of the 2212 phase material on both silver and magnesium oxide (100) substrates was successfully achieved by the dropwise deposition of solutions of 2212 dissolved in nitric acid or organic acids such as acetic acid or propionic acid using commercial ink-jet printing head using so-called technique 'droplet-on-request'. Precursor solutions were prepared by dissolving either a mixture of metal nitrates (Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O) or 2212 superconducting powder in acid solutions. From this initial study using simple solutions on conventional substrates such as polycrystalline silver and large MgO single crystals, the preparation of the textured thick 2212 film for superconducting circuits and interconnections by the ink-jet printing process appears quite promising. The critical temperatures of the selected superconducting coatings were in range of 82-92 K. (author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanoparticles for application in printed solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutz, Folker; Chory, Christine; Ohland, Joerg; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [University of Oldenburg (Germany). Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is a novel compound semiconductor based on abundant and non-toxic precursor elements. The material has a high potential for photovoltaic application and exhibits a direct optical band gap of 1.5 eV and an absorption coefficient >10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. CZTS nanoparticles (NP) are derived from colloidal synthesis presenting high yields of the CZTS nanopowder. The material is intended for development of solar cells with printed light absorber which stochiometry is already established in the nanoparticles prior to thin film formation. We report on the structural and photoelectrical characterization of printed CZTS thin films and CZTS nanopowders. The crystal structure of CZTS NPs was investigated by XRD analysis of dried powders while the internal structure of the thin films was studied by AFM, SEM in combination with EDX spectroscopy. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were applied for analysis of the general optical properties while time-resolved PL was used for estimation of the minority carrier lifetime in thin films. Photoconductance of the thin films was studied for derivation of the threshold absorption and activation energy of charge transport.

  12. Highly sensitive and wide-range nonenzymatic disposable glucose sensor based on a screen printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide and Pd-CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Keerthy; Thiagarajan, Ramachandran; Thekkedath, Gopalakrishnan Satheesh Babu; Nair, Bipin G.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide decorated with palladium-copper oxide nanoparticles (Pd-CuO/rGO) was synthesized by single-step chemical reduction. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanocomposite were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. A 3-electrode system was fabricated by screen printing technology and the Pd-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was drop cast on the carbon working electrode. The catalytic activity towards glucose in 0.2 M NaOH solutions was analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry and amperometry. The steady state current obtained at a constant potential of +0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the modified electrode to possess a wide analytical range (6 μM to 22 mM), a rather low limit of detection (30 nM), excellent sensitivity (3355 μA∙mM −1 ∙cm −2 ) and good selectivity over commonly interfering species and other sugars including fructose, sucrose and lactose. The sensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in blood serum. (author)

  13. Low temperature formation of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers by all printed multiple species nanoparticulate Se + Cu-In + Cu-Ga precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möckel, Stefan A., E-mail: Stefan.A.Moeckel@FAU.de [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wernicke, Tobias; Arzig, Matthias; Köder, Philipp [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Brandl, Marco [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Ahmad, Rameez; Distaso, Monica; Peukert, Wolfgang [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstr. 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hock, Rainer [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wellmann, Peter J. [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    In this work an all nanoparticulate precursor for application in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers is presented. Binary Cu-In nanoparticles, Cu-Ga powder and elemental Se nanoparticles were mixed in dispersion and deposited on Mo-coated substrates. Research was focused on Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layer formation kinetics, phase composition characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore phase composition and morphology were studied by ex-situ XRD, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed a fast consumption of the precursor and the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} below 340 °C. Binary secondary phases were not observed at any temperature. - Highlights: • All printable precursor for CIGSe • Formation of Ga droplets • Complete consumption below 340 °C.

  14. High T/sub c/ screen-printed YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub x/ films: Effect of the substrate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, N.P.; Simons, R.N.; Farrell, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Thick films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/ have been deposited on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, nickel aluminum titanate (Ni-Al-Ti), and barium tetratitanate (Ba-Ti) substrates by the screen printing technique. They were baked at 1000 0 C for 15 min, oxygen annealed at a lower temperature, and characterized by electrical resistivity measurements, x-ray diffraction, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Properties of the films were found to be highly sensitive to the choice of the substrate material. The film on Ba-Ti turned green after firing, due to a reaction with the substrate and were insulating. A film on Ni-Al-Ti had a T/sub c/ (onset) ∼95 K and lost 90% of its resistance by ∼75 K. However, even at 4 K it was not fully superconducting, possibly due to a reaction between the film and the substrate and interdiffusion of the reaction products. The film on alumina had T/sub c/ (onset) ∼96 K, T/sub c/ (zero) ∼66 K, and ΔT/sub c/ (10--90%) ∼10 K. Our best film was obtained on spinel and had T/sub c/ (onset) ∼94 K, zero resistance at 81 K, and a transition width (10--90%) of ∼7 K

  15. Roll-offset printed transparent conducting electrode for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inyoung; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Park, Gun-Young; Lee, Taik-Min; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Kang, Dongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were developed through the roll-offset printing of Ag grid mesh patterns for the application of all-solution processed organic solar cells (OSCs). Due to the remarkable printability of roll-offset printing, the printed TCEs did not show the step coverage problem of subsequent thin layers, which was a chronic problem in other printing techniques. The control of ink cohesion was verified as a critical factor for the high printing quality, which was optimized by adding a polyurethane diol of 2 wt.%. The tensile strength of optimized Ag ink was 322 mN, which led to the clear patterning of Ag nanoparticles. The printed TCEs with different mesh densities of the Ag grid were designed to have a similar property of indium tin oxide (ITO). The measured sheet resistance was 13 Ω/□, and optical transmittance was 86%, including the glass substrate, which was found to be independent of wavelength in the visible spectrum, in contrast with the optical transmittance of ITO. To evaluate the TCE performance as bottom electrodes, all-solution processed OSCs were fabricated on top of the TCEs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs increased with the increments of the mesh density due to the distinctive increase of the short circuit current density (J sc ), notwithstanding the similar transmittance and sheet resistance of the TCEs. In comparison with ITO, a higher PCE of OSCs was obtained because the printed TCEs with a high mesh density were able to facilitate effective current collection, leading to a significant increase of J sc . - Highlights: • Roll-offset printing provided a remarkable printability of Ag nano-ink. • Control of ink cohesion played a critical role on the patterning of Ag nano-ink. • Printed Ag mesh was used as a transparent conducting electrode. • Transparency and sheet resistance of printed Ag mesh can be designed simply. • Printed Ag mesh was effective for the current collection of organic solar

  16. Roll-offset printed transparent conducting electrode for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inyoung, E-mail: ikim@kimm.re.kr; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Park, Gun-Young; Lee, Taik-Min; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Kang, Dongwoo

    2015-04-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were developed through the roll-offset printing of Ag grid mesh patterns for the application of all-solution processed organic solar cells (OSCs). Due to the remarkable printability of roll-offset printing, the printed TCEs did not show the step coverage problem of subsequent thin layers, which was a chronic problem in other printing techniques. The control of ink cohesion was verified as a critical factor for the high printing quality, which was optimized by adding a polyurethane diol of 2 wt.%. The tensile strength of optimized Ag ink was 322 mN, which led to the clear patterning of Ag nanoparticles. The printed TCEs with different mesh densities of the Ag grid were designed to have a similar property of indium tin oxide (ITO). The measured sheet resistance was 13 Ω/□, and optical transmittance was 86%, including the glass substrate, which was found to be independent of wavelength in the visible spectrum, in contrast with the optical transmittance of ITO. To evaluate the TCE performance as bottom electrodes, all-solution processed OSCs were fabricated on top of the TCEs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs increased with the increments of the mesh density due to the distinctive increase of the short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), notwithstanding the similar transmittance and sheet resistance of the TCEs. In comparison with ITO, a higher PCE of OSCs was obtained because the printed TCEs with a high mesh density were able to facilitate effective current collection, leading to a significant increase of J{sub sc}. - Highlights: • Roll-offset printing provided a remarkable printability of Ag nano-ink. • Control of ink cohesion played a critical role on the patterning of Ag nano-ink. • Printed Ag mesh was used as a transparent conducting electrode. • Transparency and sheet resistance of printed Ag mesh can be designed simply. • Printed Ag mesh was effective for the current collection of organic

  17. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Nathan J.; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-08-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  18. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  19. Evaluation of contact resistance between carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate and printed silver electrode for damage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eun Beom; Kim, Hak Sung; Takahashi, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    An addressable conducting network (ACN) makes it possible to monitor the condition of a structure using the electrical resistance between electrodes on the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure. To improve the damage detection reliability of the ACN, the contact resistances between the electrodes and CFRP laminates needs to be minimized. In this study, silver nanoparticle electrodes were fabricated via printed electronics techniques on a CFRP composite. The contact resistance between the silver electrodes and CFRP were measured with respect to various fabrication conditions such as the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and the surface roughness of the CFRP laminates. The interfaces between the silver electrode and carbon fibers were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on this study, it was found that the lowest contact resistance of 0.3664Ω could be achieved when the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and surface roughness were 120 degree C and 0.230 a, respectively.

  20. Synthesis of stable ultra-small Cu nanoparticles for direct writing flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Chen, Minfang, E-mail: mfchentj@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-01-30

    In this study, pure Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized and the Cu nano-ink was prepared for direct writing on photo paper using a roller pen. The tri-sodium citrate was used as initial reducing-cum-surfactant agent followed by hydrazine as a second massive reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as extra surfactant agent. From the XRD, TEM, and HR-TEM analyses, the synthesized particles are confirmed to be Cu in spherical shape with sizes range of 2.5 ± 1.0 nm. By analyzing the FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA curves, it was found that the obtained particles capped with tri-sodium citrate and CTAB layers are stable to oxidation up to the temperature 228 °C. The reduced size and enhanced air-stability of the Cu NPs result in an improved particle density upon sintering, which is mainly responsible for the increased conductivity of the Cu patterns. The resistivity of Cu patterns sintered in Ar at 160 °C for 2 h is 7.2 ± 0.6 μΩ cm, which is 4.40 times the bulk Cu resistivity. The drawn Cu lines exhibited excellent integrity and good conductivity, which were experimentally tested. Moreover, a Cu electrode and a sample RFID antenna were successfully made.

  1. Realization of superconductive films by screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, H.

    1988-01-01

    Screen printing is a promising method to manufacture superconductive lines making use of superconductive ceramics. An ink has been realized with YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7-x' and the process conditions defined by thermal analysis. A superconductive transition is observed after screen printing on MgO. The firing of the layer is made at 920 0 C followed by a reoxidation step at 420 0 C. The silver electrical contacts are also screen printed [fr

  2. Internet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahgozar, M. Armon; Hastings, Tom; McCue, Daniel L.

    1997-04-01

    The Internet is rapidly changing the traditional means of creation, distribution and retrieval of information. Today, information publishers leverage the capabilities provided by Internet technologies to rapidly communicate information to a much wider audience in unique customized ways. As a result, the volume of published content has been astronomically increasing. This, in addition to the ease of distribution afforded by the Internet has resulted in more and more documents being printed. This paper introduces several axes along which Internet printing may be examined and addresses some of the technological challenges that lay ahead. Some of these axes include: (1) submission--the use of the Internet protocols for selecting printers and submitting documents for print, (2) administration--the management and monitoring of printing engines and other print resources via Web pages, and (3) formats--printing document formats whose spectrum now includes HTML documents with simple text, layout-enhanced documents with Style Sheets, documents that contain audio, graphics and other active objects as well as the existing desktop and PDL formats. The format axis of the Internet Printing becomes even more exciting when one considers that the Web documents are inherently compound and the traversal into the various pieces may uncover various formats. The paper also examines some imaging specific issues that are paramount to Internet Printing. These include formats and structures for representing raster documents and images, compression, fonts rendering and color spaces.

  3. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  4. Digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Werner K.

    1997-02-01

    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  5. 11.3% efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells via drop-on-demand inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xianzhong; Klenk, Reiner; Wang, Lan; Köhler, Tristan; Albert, Jürgen; Fiechter, Sebastian; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Lux-Steiner, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Although Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSe) based thin film solar cells have reached efficiencies exceeding 22% based on vacuum processed CIGSSe absorbers, the supply of indium and gallium might become an issue if CIGSSe thin-film solar cells are produced in very large volumes. It is therefore mandatory to reduce the wastage of indium and gallium during the fabrication process. In this work, we report on a highly efficient precursor utilization, and a vacuum-free, and scalable route to the deposition o...

  6. Photonic sintering of thin film prepared by dodecylamine capped CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} nanoparticles for printed photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-08-28

    In this paper, we report solution phase large scale synthesis of monodisperse phase pure CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles by using dodecylamine as solvent and dispersant. Various compositions of CIGS nanoparticles with different Ga content are synthesized by simply adding different amounts of Ga precursors. The band gap of CIGS nanoparticles can be tuned by changing Ga content. Effort is given to understand the formation pathway of CIGS phase so as to make the synthesis easier for the desired product. High intensity pulsed light technique, which provides extreme local heating, is used to sinter the thin film prepared using these nanoparticles on a Mo–glass surface. A uniformly conductive and dense CIGS film can be prepared by adjusting the energy of light and exposure time. The high intensity light irradiation of the CIGS film leads to diffusion of smaller CIGS nanoparticles to form a particle with larger grain size and thus enables sintering of particles without using high temperature processing. - Highlights: • Large scale synthesis of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) is reported. • Dodecylamine is used as surfactant and solvent. • CIGS phase formation mechanism is described. • High intensity pulsed light technique is used to sinter the CIGS film.

  7. Printed photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems. (paper)

  8. Printed photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems.

  9. Milligram-per-second femtosecond laser production of Se nanoparticle inks and ink-jet printing of nanophotonic 2D-patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrey; Ivanova, Anastasia; Khmel'nitskii, Roman; Klevkov, Yury; Kudryashov, Sergey; Mel'nik, Nikolay; Nastulyavichus, Alena; Rudenko, Andrey; Saraeva, Irina; Smirnov, Nikita; Zayarny, Dmitry; Baranov, Anatoly; Kirilenko, Demid; Brunkov, Pavel; Shakhmin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Milligram-per-second production of selenium nanoparticles in water sols was realized through 7-W, 2 MHz-rate femtosecond laser ablation of a crystalline trigonal selenium pellet. High-yield particle formation mechanism and ultimate mass-removal yield were elucidated by optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy characterization of the corresponding crater depths and topographies. Deposited selenium particles were inspected by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while their hydrosols (nanoinks) were characterized by optical transmission, Raman and dynamic light scattering spectroscopy. 2D patterns and coatings were ink-jet printed on thin supported silver films and their bare silica glass substrates, as well as on IR-transparent CaF2 substrates, and characterized by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and broadband (vis-mid IR) transmission spectroscopy, exhibiting crystalline selenium nanoparticles with high refractive index as promising all-dielectric sensing building nanoblocks in nanophotonics.

  10. Influence of cooling and annealing procedure on the intergranular coupling of Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tape. [BiSrCaCuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noji, H; Zhou, W [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Oota, A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech. (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    A study of the influence of the processing conditions of screen-printed ''Bi-2212'' tapes on their intergranular coupling properties, measured by AC susceptibility and DC transport critical current density, has been conducted. Samples have been prepared by melt-solidification and sintering on silver substrates under the same conditions but with different cooling procedures, such as slow cooling, slow cooling and reannealing, rapid cooling and quenching. The cooling rate and the annealing procedure strongly affect not only the superconducting critical temperature, Tc, but also the intergranular coupling properties of the samples. It was found that the Tc value decreases with a decrease in cooling rate. The reannealing in N[sub 2] can improve the Tc value of the slow-cooled samples. The different cooling procedures lead to the crossover of the field dependence of the AC loss-peak temperature of [chi]'' characteristics for all investigated samples. The crossover phenomena do not alter the correlation between the transport critical current density, J[sub c], versus temperature and the AC loss-peak temperature versus AC applied field for the samples in the range of the LN[sub 2] temperature (90-65 K), except for the slow-cooled one. The lack of correlation for the slow-cooled sample in this temperature range can be explained by a very significant difference of flux creep between the slow-cooled sample and the rest of the fast-cooled or reannealed samples. (orig.).

  11. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  12. Digital Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Moltchanova, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

  13. Digital Inkjet Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meichun

    2017-01-01

    Digital inkjet textile printing is an emerging technology developed with the rise of the digital world. It offers a possibility to print high-resolution images with unlimited color selection on fabrics. Digital inkjet printing brings a revolutionary chance for the textile printing industry. The history of textile printing shows the law how new technology replaces the traditional way of printing. This indicates the future of digital inkjet textile printing is relatively positive. Differen...

  14. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  15. High-speed imaging and evolution dynamics of laser induced deposition of conductive inks (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Marina; Papazoglou, Symeon; Zacharatos, Filimonas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade there is an ever-increasing interest for the study of laser processes dynamics and specifically of the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique, since the evolution of the phenomena under investigation may provide real time metrology in terms of jet velocity, adjacent jet interaction and impact pressure. The study of such effects leads to a more thorough understanding of the deposition process, hence to an improved printing outcome and in these frames, this work presents a study on the dynamics of LIFT for conductive nanoparticles inks using high-speed imaging approaches. Moreover, in this study, we investigated the printing regimes and the printing quality during the transfer of copper (Cu) nanoink, which is a metallic nanoink usually employed in interconnect formation as well as the printing of silver nanowires, which provide transparency and may be used in applications where transparent electrodes are needed as in photovoltaics, batteries, etc. Furthermore, we demonstrate the fabrication of an all laser printed resistive chemical sensor device that combines Ag nanoparticles ink and graphene oxide, for the detection of humidity fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate. The sensor device architecture was able to host multiple pairs of electrodes, where Ag nanoink or nanopaste were laser printed, to form the electrodes as well as the electrical interconnections between the operating device and the printed circuit board. Performance evaluation was conducted upon flow of different concentrations of humidity vapors to the sensor, and good response (500 ppm limit of detection) with reproducible operation was observed.

  16. The relation between crossover of the intergrain loss-peak temperature-field characteristics of the Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes and their J[sub C] values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noji, H [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Oota, A [Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., (Japan)

    1993-05-10

    A study of the influence of the processing conditions of Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes on the temperature, field and frequency dependence of their a.c. susceptibility has been conducted. Samples have been prepared by melt-solidification and subsequent sintering on silver substrates under the same conditions but with different cooling procedures and reannealing. These procedures lead to different Tc values and field dependency of the loss peak temperature T[sub M], which cause the crossover in the T[sub M] versus applied field characteristics. It was established that the above crossover phenomenon is correlated to the crossover in the J[sub C] versus temperature characteristics. (orig.)

  17. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  18. An Inkjet Printed Piezoresistive Back to Back Tactile Sensor for Endosurgical Palpation Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    biological tissues. Chuang et al. [4] further employed the two- spring model to design a piezoelectric tactile sensor with a hard copper ball embedded in a...technique [12]. Because the printed graphene flakes must be sintered above 200 °C for good adhesion and better property on a silicon substrate with...electroplating a Cu mold, (c) stripping the photoresist followed by the removal of the seed layer using Cu etchant and BOE, (d) inkjet printing graphene flakes

  19. Printing quality control automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeznikova, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    One of the most important problems in the concept of standardizing the process of offset printing is the control the quality rating of printing and its automation. To solve the problem, a software has been developed taking into account the specifics of printing system components and the behavior in printing process. In order to characterize the distribution of ink layer on the printed substrate the so-called deviation of the ink layer thickness on the sheet from nominal surface is suggested. The geometric data construction the surface projections of the color gamut bodies allows to visualize the color reproduction gamut of printing systems in brightness ranges and specific color sectors, that provides a qualitative comparison of the system by the reproduction of individual colors in a varying ranges of brightness.

  20. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  1. Making PMT halftone prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    In the printing process for technical reports presently used at Bendix Kansas City Division, photographs are reproduced by pasting up PMT halftone prints on the artwork originals. These originals are used to make positive-working plastic plates for offset lithography. Instructions for making good-quality halftone prints using Eastman Kodak's PMT materials and processes are given in this report. 14 figures.

  2. Print and Manuscript

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Lukas Christian

    2007-01-01

    Positioning Shakespeare at the "crossroads of manuscript and print" and exploring what the choice of print or manuscript reveals about the poet's intended audience and the social persona the poet wanted to assume and fashion, argues that "Shakespeare's authorial self-presentation begins as a poet and, more specifically, as a print-published poet" with the publication of Venus and Adonis in 1593 and the allusion to the publication of Rape of Lucrece in the next year. Yet also considers the imp...

  3. Engraving Print Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelck, Daniel; Barbe, Joaquim

    2008-01-01

    A print is a mark, or drawing, made in or upon a plate, stone, woodblock or other material which is cover with ink and then is press usually into a paper reproducing the image on the paper. Engraving prints usually are image composed of a group of binary lines, specially those are made with relief and intaglio techniques. Varying the number and the orientation of lines, the drawing of the engraving print is conformed. For this reason we propose an application based on image processing methods to classify engraving prints

  4. Printing Has a Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Georg Wenke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing will also be done in the future. Printed items meet basic needs and are deeply anchored in people’s habits. Being able to handle and collect printed matter is highly attractive. And paper is now more alive than ever. It is therefore too shortsighted to disclaim the importance of one of the still large economic sectors just because of a few looming-recession instigated market shifts.The exciting aspect of drupa 2004 is: printing will be reinvented, so to speak. Much more printing will be done in the future than at present. On the one hand, people are concentrating on process optimization and automation to ensure this. Measuring and testing, process control and optimization, and linking up "office software" with printing technology will be very central topics at drupa 2004. Electronics and print are not rivals; a symbiosis exists. And printing is high-tech: hardly any other multifaceted sector which has been so successful for centuries is as computerized as the printing industry.A series of "new chapters" in the variety of printing possibilities will be opened at drupa. Talk will be generated by further technical developments, often the connection between paper/cardboard and electronics, the link between the office world and graphics industry, text databases and their link-up to graphic page production tools, and "on the fly" dynamic printing over networks.All of this and more belongs to future potentialities, which are so substantial overall, the outlook is by no means black for the "black art". Like its predecessors, drupa 2004 is also a product trade fair. However, more than ever before in its history, it is also an "information village". The exhibits are useful, because they occasionally make what this means visible.

  5. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  6. Print like an Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a relief printmaking unit for sixth graders with the objective of decorating the inside of a pyramid. Ancient Egyptian imagery was used to help students become familiar with the style. Students designed and printed linoleum prints in different colors. They then critiqued their work and made their selection for the pyramid. (KM)

  7. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  8. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  9. Screen printed Y and Bi-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertling, Gene H.; Hsi, Chi-Shiung

    1992-01-01

    High T(sub c) superconducting thick film was prepared by screen printing process. Y-based (YBa2Cu3O(7 - x)) superconducting thick films were printed on 211/Al2O3, SNT/Al2O3, and YSZ substrates. Because of poor adhesion of the superconducting thick films to 211/Al2O3 and SNT/Al2O3 substrates, relatively low T(sub c) and J(sub c) values were obtained from the films printed on these substrates. Critical temperatures of YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) thick films deposited on 211/Al2O3 and SNT/Al2O3 substrates were about 80 K. The critical current densities of these films were less than 2 A/cm(exp 2). Higher T(sub c) and J(sub c) films were printed on the YSZ substrates; T(sub c) = 86.4 K and J(sub c) = 50.4 A/cm(exp 2). Multiple lead samples were also prepared on the YSZ substrates. These showed lower T(sub c) and J(sub c) values than plain samples. The heat treatment conditions of the multiple lead samples are still under investigation. Bi-based superconductor thick films have been obtained so far. Improving the superconducting properties of the BSCCO screen printed thick films will be emphasized in future work.

  10. Print Quality of Ink Jet Printed PVC Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kašiković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital printing technique is used for a wide variety of substrates, one of which are PVC foils. Samples used in this research were printed by digital ink jet printing technique using Mimaki JV22 printing machine and J-Eco Subly Nano inks. As printing substrates, two different types of materials were used (ORACAL 640 - Print Vinyl and LG Hausys LP2712. A test card consisting of fields of CMYK colours was created and printed, varying the number of ink layers applied. Samples were exposed to light after the printing process. Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after the light treatment. Based on spectrophotometricaly obtained data, colour differences ΔE2000 were calculated. Results showed that increasing number of layers, as well as the right choice of substrates, can improve the behaviour of printed product during exploitation.

  11. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  12. Printing at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today’s situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer regis...

  13. CERN printing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  14. Application to printed resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiyanagi, Yoshimi; Uraki, Hisatsugu; Sawamura, Masashi

    1989-01-01

    Most of printed circuit boards are made at present by etching copper foils which are laminated on insulating composite boards of paper/phenol resin or glass nonwoven fabric/epoxy rein. This is called subtractive process, and since this is a wet process, the problem of coping with the pollution due to etching solution, plating solution and others is involved. As the method of solving this problem, attention has been paid to the dry process which forms conductor patterns by screen printing using electro-conductive paste. For such resin substrates, generally polymer thick films (PTF) using thermosetting resin as the binder are used. Also the research on the formation of resistors, condensers and other parts by printing using the technology of cermet thick films (CTF) and PTF is active, and it is partially put in practical use. The problems are the deformation and deterioration of substrates, therefore, as the countermeasures, electron beam hardening type PTF has been studied, and various pastes have been developed. In this paper, electron beam hardening type printed resistors are reported. The features, resistance paste, and a number of the experiments on printed resistors are described. (K.I.)

  15. CERN printing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Rafal.Otto@cern.ch, E-mail: Juraj.Sucik@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all ({approx}1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration.

  16. Computer Security: Printing confidentially

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever hesitated to print a confidential document using CERN printers? Or perhaps you have rushed quickly to the printer after hitting the “print” button in order to avoid someone else getting hold of and reading your document? These times are over now with the new printing infrastructure!   Indeed, many of us regularly print out confidential documents like our salary slips, MARS forms, tendering documents and drafts of preliminary papers. The upcoming CERN data protection policy will require all of us to respect the confidentiality of such documents and, as the word “confidential” implies, access to “confidential” or sensitive documents will be tightly controlled. What can we do about the public printers located in many buildings, floors and shared spaces - accessible not only to CERN staff and users but also to visitors and guests? Some printers are located in the vicinity of restaurants, cafeterias or close to paths taken b...

  17. Zirconia nano-colloids transfer from continuous hydrothermal synthesis to inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Massimo; Gooden, P. N.; Butterworth, S.

    2017-01-01

    Water dispersions of nanometric yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles synthesized by Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis are transferred into nano-inks for thin film deposition. YSZ nanoparticles are synthesized in supercritical conditions resulting in highly dispersed crystals of 10 nm in size...

  18. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  19. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  20. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  1. Advances in Home Photo Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lin; Brian Atkins; Huitao Luo

    2004-01-01

    With digital camera adoptions going main stream, consumers capture a record number of photos.Currently, the majority of the digital photos are printed at home. One of the key enablers of this transformation is the advancement of home photo printing technologies. In the past few years, inkjet printing technologies have continued to deliver smaller drop size, larger number of inks, and longer-lasting prints. In the mean time, advanced image processing automatically enhances captured digital photos while being printed. The combination of the above two forces has closed the gap between the home photo prints and AgX prints. It will give an overview of the home photo printing market and technology trends, and discuss major advancements in automatic image processing.

  2. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  3. A laser printing based approach for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, W.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Liu, Y.; Lau, W. [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R& D Center, 355 Tengfei Road, 620107 Chengdu (China); Wang, X. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Here we report a study of printing of electronics using an office use laser printer. The proposed method eliminates those critical disadvantages of solvent-based printing techniques by taking the advantages of electroless deposition and laser printing. The synthesized toner acts as a catalyst for the electroless copper deposition as well as an adhesion-promoting buffer layer between the substrate and deposited copper. The easy metallization of printed patterns and strong metal-substrate adhesion make it an especially effective method for massive production of flexible printed circuits. The proposed process is a high throughput, low cost, efficient, and environmentally benign method for flexible electronics manufacturing.

  4. A laser printing based approach for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, W.; Yang, J.; Liu, Y.; Lau, W.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a study of printing of electronics using an office use laser printer. The proposed method eliminates those critical disadvantages of solvent-based printing techniques by taking the advantages of electroless deposition and laser printing. The synthesized toner acts as a catalyst for the electroless copper deposition as well as an adhesion-promoting buffer layer between the substrate and deposited copper. The easy metallization of printed patterns and strong metal-substrate adhesion make it an especially effective method for massive production of flexible printed circuits. The proposed process is a high throughput, low cost, efficient, and environmentally benign method for flexible electronics manufacturing.

  5. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  6. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  7. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  8. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  9. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  10. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  11. Biomimetic 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydney Gladman, A.; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mahadevan, L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  12. Recent trends in print portals and Web2Print applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For quite some time now, the printing business has been under heavy pressure because of overcapacity, dropping prices and the delocalization of the production to low income countries. To survive in this competitive world, printers have to invest in tools that, on one hand, reduce the production costs and, on the other hand, create additional value for their customers (print buyers). The creation of customer portals on top of prepress production systems allowing print buyers to upload their content, approve the uploaded pages based on soft proofs (rendered by the underlying production system) and further follow-up the generation of the printed material, has been illustrative in this respect. These developments resulted in both automation for the printer and added value for the print buyer. Many traditional customer portals assume that the printed products have been identified before they are presented to the print buyer in the portal environment. The products are, in this case, typically entered by the printing organization in a so-called MISi system after the official purchase order has been received from the print buyer. Afterwards, the MIS system then submits the product to the customer portal. Some portals, however, also support the initiation of printed products by the print buyer directly. This workflow creates additional flexibility but also makes things much more complex. We here have to distinguish between special products that are defined ad-hoc by the print buyer and standardized products that are typically selected out of catalogs. Special products are most of the time defined once and the level of detail required in terms of production parameters is quite high. Systems that support such products typically have a built-in estimation module, or, at least, a direct connection to an MIS system that calculates the prices and adds a specific mark-up to calculate a quote. Often, the markup is added by an account manager on a customer by customer basis; in this

  13. Durability of ink jet prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobric, E; Mirkovic, I Bolanca; Bolanca, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the result presentation of some optical properties research for ink jet prints after: exposing the prints to the mixed daylight and artificial light, exposing of prints to the sun-light through the glass window, and exposing of prints to outdoor conditions during the summer months. The prints obtained by piezoelectric and thermal ink jet technologies were used in the researches. The dye-based inks and the pigmented inks based on water and the low solvent inks were used. The results of these researches, except the scientific contribution in the domain of understanding and explaining the environmental conditions on the gamut size, i.e. the range of color tonality, colorimetric stability and print quality, can be used by the ink and paper manufacturers in new formulations, offer data for the printer producers for further production and evaluation of the position of their products.

  14. Synthesis of TiCuAg thick film inks for glass frit free metallization of aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Smetana, W.; Reicher, R.

    1997-01-01

    A glas frit free screen printing ink for metallization of AIN was developed. Bonding to the substrate is achieved by active metal additives. The metallic component consists of Cu and Ag powder synthesized from inorganic salts by the polyol process, and Cu-Ti powder synthesized by arc melting, milling and ultracentrifugation. This ternary powder mixture was introduced to a specifically developed organic vehicle and screen printed onto AIN. The detailed development process and the results will be presented. (author)

  15. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  16. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  17. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yousif

    2011-12-01

    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  18. Sub-50 nm patterning of functional oxides by soft lithographic edge printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fast, versatile and reproducible method to make arbitrary nanoscale patterns of functional metal oxides by edge transfer printing of aqueous metal-loaded water-soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA) solutions on silicon. Patterns of ZnO, CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 with lateral dimensions below 50 nm

  19. Children's Recall of Television and Print News: A Media Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma; van der Voort, Tom H. A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a cued-recall test taken by 152 Dutch fourth and sixth graders indicate that children who watch a children's news show on television recall more than those who read the same news in print regardless of reading proficiency or expectation of a memory test. (SLD)

  20. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous...... oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping...

  1. Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ching-Yuan; Fu Dongliang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Liu, Keng-Ku; Xu Yanping; Juang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Lain-Jong

    2011-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective and lithography-free fabrication of graphene strips for device applications is demonstrated. The graphene thin layers were directly grown on Cu wires, followed by Cu etching and transfer printing to arbitrary substrates by a PDMS stamp. The Cu wires can be arranged on the PDMS stamp in a desired pattern; hence, the substrates can receive graphene strips with the same pattern. Moreover, the preparation of graphene strips does not involve conventional lithography; therefore, the surface of the graphene strip is free of residual photoresists, which may be useful for studies requiring clean graphene surfaces.

  2. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION Cody M. Reese, PE CAD MODEL PRINT MODEL PRINT PREVIEW PRINTED PART AERIAL VIRTUAL This...REMOTE COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Cody M. Reese...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Remote Collaborative 3D Printing project is a collaboration between

  3. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200 °C of low temperature in N2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thickness. In order to control the thickness of the printed electrode, number of printing was varied. Resistivity of printed electrode was calculated from the cross-sectional area measure...

  4. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    -folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...

  5. Some Thoughts on Contemporary Graphic Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Skiba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The production requirements of original graphic works of art have changed since 1980. The development of digital printing using lightfast colors now rivals traditional techniques such as wood cut, screen print, lithography, etching etc. Today, with respect to artistic legitimacy, original graphics using traditional printing techniques compete with original graphics produced by digital printing techniques on the art market. What criteria distinguish traditional printing techniques from those of digital printing in the production and acquisition of original graphics? What consequences is the serious artist faced with when deciding to implement digital print production? How does digital print change original graphic acquisition decisions?

  6. Formation of high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films on Y2BaCuO5 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. N.; Lu, H. B.; Lin, W. J.; Yao, P. C.; Hsu, H. E.

    1988-07-01

    High-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films have been successfully prepared on green Y2BaCuO5 (2115) ceramic substrate. The films have been formed by RF sputtering and screen printing with post annealing at 925 C. Regarding superconducting features, the sharp resistivity drop with Tc onset around 95 K (midpoint 84 K) and 99 K (midpoint 89 K) has been observed for RF sputtered and printed films respectively. Both films show the excellent adhesion towards the 2115 substrate. Powder X-ray diffraction profiles indicate a majority of 1237 phase with preferred orientation for RF sputtered thin film.

  7. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Yousif; R.Sh. Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Printing systems operate in general as a system of color its color scale is limited as compared with the system color satellite images. Satellite image is building from very small cell named pixel, which represents the picture element and the unity of color when the image is displayed on the screen, this unit becomes lesser in size and called screen point. This unit posseses different size and shape from the method of printing to another, depending on the output resolution, tools and material...

  8. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Linda Anne [Andersonville, TN; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene [Knoxville, TN; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  9. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-01-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to 5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size 5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards

  10. Keeping the Classics in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of science fiction titles in print and discusses the value of science fiction as a literary form. Specific titles are included, and the need for formats designed for permanent preservation in libraries is discussed. (EAM)

  11. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. Disposal of old printed journals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-21

    Feb 21, 2018 ... Notice inviting Tender for Disposal of Old Printed Journals & Old News Papers. Indian Academy of ... The competent authority also reserves the right to reject any or all the tenders without assigning any reason thereof. 19.

  15. The Printing Industry Presses on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    The printing and graphic arts industry has been transformed, not replaced, by new technologies. The coming decades hold challenging opportunities for those entering the field of graphic communications and for those educating this new work force. (JOW)

  16. Semiotic Analysis Of Mcdonald's Printed Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    URAIDA, SITI

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Semiotic, printed advertisement, sign, icon, symbol, index, connotation, myth Printed advertisement has a promotional function as medium to advertise aproduct. It implicitly persuades people to create demand of product which is being advertised. In this study, the writer uses printed advertisement of McDonald's fast food company as the object. The printed advertisement was analyzed by usingSemiotics study. There are seven printed advertisements that were analyzes in this study. All ...

  17. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  18. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  19. Inkjet and screen printing for electronic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Rodríguez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics (PE) is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates. Printing typically uses common printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet. Electrically functional, electronic or optical inks are deposited on the substrate, creating active or passive devices. PE offers a great advantage when compared to traditional processes or microelectronics du...

  20. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  1. Fabrication of conductive copper patterns using reactive inkjet printing followed by two-step electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jin-Ju; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Sowade, Enrico; Baumann, Reinhard R. [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, 09126 (Germany); Feng, Zhe-Sheng, E-mail: fzs@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Copper patterns were fabricated by reactive inkjet printing and two-step electroless plating. • Cu particles produced via reactive inkjet printing act as catalyst for copper electroless plating. • High conductivity can be obtained without many printing passes and high temperature sintering. • This approach can largely avoid nozzle-clogging problems. • This approach presents a potential way in the flexible printed electronics with simple process. - Abstract: A simple and low-cost process for fabricating conductive copper patterns on flexible polyimide substrates was demonstrated. Copper catalyst patterns were first produced on polyimide substrates using reactive inkjet printing of Cu (II)-bearing ink and reducing ink, and then the conductive copper patterns were generated after a two-step electroless plating procedure. The copper layers were characterized by optical microscope, SEM, XRD and EDS. Homogeneously distributed copper nanoclusters were found in the catalyst patterns. A thin copper layer with uniform particle size was formed after first-step electroless plating, and a thick copper layer of about 14.3 μm with closely packed structure and fine crystallinity was produced after second-step electroless plating. This resulting copper layer had good solderability, reliable adhesion strength and a low resistivity of 5.68 μΩ cm without any sintering process.

  2. Fabrication of conductive copper patterns using reactive inkjet printing followed by two-step electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Ju; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yan; Sowade, Enrico; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper patterns were fabricated by reactive inkjet printing and two-step electroless plating. • Cu particles produced via reactive inkjet printing act as catalyst for copper electroless plating. • High conductivity can be obtained without many printing passes and high temperature sintering. • This approach can largely avoid nozzle-clogging problems. • This approach presents a potential way in the flexible printed electronics with simple process. - Abstract: A simple and low-cost process for fabricating conductive copper patterns on flexible polyimide substrates was demonstrated. Copper catalyst patterns were first produced on polyimide substrates using reactive inkjet printing of Cu (II)-bearing ink and reducing ink, and then the conductive copper patterns were generated after a two-step electroless plating procedure. The copper layers were characterized by optical microscope, SEM, XRD and EDS. Homogeneously distributed copper nanoclusters were found in the catalyst patterns. A thin copper layer with uniform particle size was formed after first-step electroless plating, and a thick copper layer of about 14.3 μm with closely packed structure and fine crystallinity was produced after second-step electroless plating. This resulting copper layer had good solderability, reliable adhesion strength and a low resistivity of 5.68 μΩ cm without any sintering process.

  3. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  5. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  6. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  8. Automaticity Revisited: When Print Doesn't Activate Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Magdalena Labuschagne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the presentation of a printed word automatically triggers processing that ends with full semantic activation. This processing, among other characteristics, is held to occur without intention, and cannot be stopped. The results of the present experiment show that this account is problematic in the context of a variant of the Stroop paradigm. Subjects named the print color of words that were either neutral or semantically related to color. When the letters were all colored, all spatially cued, and the spaces between letters were filled with characters from the top of the keyboard (i.e., 4, #, 5, %, 6, and *, color naming yielded a semantically based Stroop effect and a semantically based negative priming effect. In contrast, the same items yielded neither a semantic Stroop effect nor a negative priming effect when a single target letter was uniquely colored and spatially cued. These findings undermine the widespread view that lexical-semantic activation in word reading is automatic in the sense that it occurs without intention and cannot be derailed.

  9. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Tae [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-In [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seil [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen thermally- and plasma- treatments are applied to reduce and sinter the inkjet-printed copper patterns at low temperature. • Plasma sintered Cu patterns have fully densified microstructure with the resistivity of 3.23 μW cm. • Cu conductive track with dense microstructure remains its electrical resistivity after 1 month. • Thermal sintered Cu patterns show a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. - Abstract: Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  10. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Männl, U; Van den Berg, C; Magunje, B; Härting, M; Britton, D T; Jones, S; Van Staden, M J; Scriba, M R

    2014-01-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used. (paper)

  11. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-08-11

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.

  12. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles

  13. Printing of the year book, carton boxes and printed envelopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-01-18

    Jan 18, 2018 ... Technology, Government of India needs the following book to be printed ... of the documents are not enclosed, the quotation will not be considered. ... The EMD of selected bidder will be kept as security deposit till ... via E-Mail.

  14. Cultural stereotypes in Nigerian print media advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural stereotypes in Nigerian print media advertisements. ... Abstract. This study set out to examine the extent to which cultural stereotype roles are depicted in print advertisements in Nigeria. It specifically ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  16. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  17. Strategies in the digital printing value system

    OpenAIRE

    Mejtoft, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The research objective of this thesis is to identify corporate strategies and strategic decisions in the digital printing business and to analyze how these have evolved due to the introduction of digital printing. This thesis comprises three separate studies, all based on qualitative case methodology. The first study is focused on digital printing houses and how their business strategies have changed due to their investment in digital printing production equipment. The second study concentrat...

  18. Experiments on Printed Intelligence and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Barbonelova, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Printed intelligence technology refers to products and systems that are produced using traditional printing methods and that are able to communicate or react with the user, environment or other products and systems. The technology provides the foundations of innovative products such as printed OLEDs (organic light emitting device), electroluminescent displays, organic photovoltaics, thin film batteries and disposable sensors. This study presents research on different printing techniques i...

  19. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  20. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal-insulator-metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Catalytic microcontact printing without ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Péter, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    A novel microcontact printing technique is described that does not require ink. Patterns were created by direct contact of oxidized PDMS stamps with silyl ether-derivatized, acid-labile SAMs on gold. The surface of the stamps was oxidized by oxygen plasma to give a layer of silicon oxide. These

  2. Microcontact printing: limitations and achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perl, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Microcontact printing (µCP) offers a simple and low-cost surface patterning methodology with high versatility and sub-micrometer accuracy. The process has undergone a spectacular evolution since its invention, improving its capability to form sub-100 nm SAM patterns of various polar and apolar

  3. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho; Lien, Der-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode

  4. Tender for printing annual report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology, Govt. of India, needs book “Annual Report” to be printed as per below mentioned specification .Eligible vendors (as ... any one of the documents asked is not enclosed, the quotation will not be considered. ... The EMD of selected bidder(s) will be kept as security deposit till ... contract by telephonically or E-Mail.

  5. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  6. Printing in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapantelakis, Athanasios; Delvic, Alisa; Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Khamit, Saltanat

    Document printing has long been considered an indispensable part of the workspace. While this process is considered trivial and simple for environments where resources are ample (e.g. desktop computers connected to printers within a corporate network), it becomes complicated when applied in a mobile

  7. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2018-01-01

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid: glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements. PMID:28244880

  8. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2017-04-12

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid:glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements.

  9. Enhanced osteogenic activity of poly(ester urea) scaffolds using facile post-3D printing peptide functionalization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Xu, Yanyi; Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew L

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine, but the harsh thermal or photochemical conditions during the 3D printing process limit the inclusion of drugs, growth factors and other biologics within the resulting scaffolds. Functionalization strategies that enable specific placement of bioactive species on the surface of 3D printed structures following the printing process afford a promising approach to sidestep the harsh conditions and incorporate these valuable bioactive molecules with precise control over concentration. Herein, resorbable polymer scaffolds were prepared from propargyl functionalized L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEUs). Osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) or bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptides were immobilized on PEU scaffolds through surface available propargyl groups via copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) post 3D printing. The presence of either OGP or BMP-2 significantly enhanced hMSCs osteogenic differentiation compared to unfunctionalized scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimaterial 3D Printing of Graphene-Based Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy Storage Using Thermoresponsive Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Victoria G; García-Tuñón, Esther; Botas, Cristina; Markoulidis, Foivos; Feilden, Ezra; D'Elia, Eleonora; Ni, Na; Shaffer, Milo; Saiz, Eduardo

    2017-10-25

    The current lifestyles, increasing population, and limited resources result in energy research being at the forefront of worldwide grand challenges, increasing the demand for sustainable and more efficient energy devices. In this context, additive manufacturing brings the possibility of making electrodes and electrical energy storage devices in any desired three-dimensional (3D) shape and dimensions, while preserving the multifunctional properties of the active materials in terms of surface area and conductivity. This paves the way to optimized and more efficient designs for energy devices. Here, we describe how three-dimensional (3D) printing will allow the fabrication of bespoke devices, with complex geometries, tailored to fit specific requirements and applications, by designing water-based thermoresponsive inks to 3D-print different materials in one step, for example, printing the active material precursor (reduced chemically modified graphene (rCMG)) and the current collector (copper) for supercapacitors or anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The formulation of thermoresponsive inks using Pluronic F127 provides an aqueous-based, robust, flexible, and easily upscalable approach. The devices are designed to provide low resistance interface, enhanced electrical properties, mechanical performance, packing of rCMG, and low active material density while facilitating the postprocessing of the multicomponent 3D-printed structures. The electrode materials are selected to match postprocessing conditions. The reduction of the active material (rCMG) and sintering of the current collector (Cu) take place simultaneously. The electrochemical performance of the rCMG-based self-standing binder-free electrode and the two materials coupled rCMG/Cu printed electrode prove the potential of multimaterial printing in energy applications.

  11. Printed hydrogen sulfide gas sensor on paper substrate based on polyaniline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, J.; Ihalainen, P.; Määttänen, A.; Peltonen, J.; Lindén, M.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of a hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) sensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-metal salt (CuCl 2 ) composite is demonstrated. The sensing film was produced by screen printing and spray coating of the sensing material on interdigitated silver electrodes inkjet-printed on a paper substrate. The H 2 S sensing functionality with respect to pH and metal salt concentration was optimized. In addition, the long term stability and humidity effects on the sensor performance were investigated. The printed chemiresistors showed more than five orders of magnitude change in resistance within 20 min of exposure of 15 ppm H 2 S at room temperature. The relatively fast kinetics and large response of the sensor can be explained by the formation of Cu 2 S and subsequent protonation of PANI. In addition, the relatively large roughness and porosity of the paper substrate offers an increased surface sensing area. - Highlights: • pH, salt concentration, film thickness, cross sensitivity • Printed sensor on paper substrate • Commercial polyaniline against special morphologies

  12. A Novel Designed Bioreactor for Recovering Precious Metals from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujun, Ruan; Jie, Zheng; Jian, Hu; Zhang, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    For recovering precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), a novel hybrid technology including physical and biological methods was developed. It consisted of crushing, corona-electrostatic separation, and bioleaching. Bioleaching process is the focus of this paper. A novel bioreactor for bioleaching was designed. Bioleaching was carried out using Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Bioleaching experiments using mixed particles of Au and Cu were performed and leachate contained 0.006 mg/L, 2823 mg/L Au+ and Cu2+ respectively. It showed when Cu existed, the concentrations of Au were extremely small. This provided the feasibility to separate Cu from Au. The method of orthogonal experimental design was employed in the simulation bioleaching experiments. Experimental results showed the optimized parameters for separating Cu from Au particles were pH 7.0, temperature 22.5 °C, and rotation speed 80 r/min. Based on the optimized parameters obtained, the bioreactor was operated for recovering mixed Au and Cu particles. 88.1 wt.% of Cu and 76.6 wt.% of Au were recovered. The paper contributed important information to recover precious metals from waste PCBs. PMID:26316021

  13. Electrical wire explosion process of copper/silver hybrid nano-particle ink and its sintering via flash white light to achieve high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-05-20

    In this work, combined silver/copper nanoparticles were fabricated by the electrical explosion of a metal wire. In this method, a high electrical current passes through the metal wire with a high voltage. Consequently, the metal wire evaporates and metal nanoparticles are formed. The diameters of the silver and copper nanoparticles were controlled by changing the voltage conditions. The fabricated silver and copper nano-inks were printed on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate and sintered at room temperature via a flash light process, using a xenon lamp and varying the light energy. The microstructures of the sintered silver and copper films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To investigate the crystal phases of the flash-light-sintered silver and copper films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed. The absorption wavelengths of the silver and copper nano-inks were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Furthermore, the resistivity of the sintered silver and copper films was measured using the four-point probe method and an alpha step. As a result, the fabricated Cu/Ag film shows a high electrical conductivity (4.06 μΩcm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩcm). In addition, the fabricated Cu/Ag nanoparticle film shows superior oxidation stability compared to the Cu nanoparticle film.

  14. Cost-estimating for commercial digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keif, Malcolm G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current cost-estimating practices used in commercial digital printing. A research study was conducted to determine the use of cost-estimating in commercial digital printing companies. This study answers the questions: 1) What methods are currently being used to estimate digital printing? 2) What is the relationship between estimating and pricing digital printing? 3) To what extent, if at all, do digital printers use full-absorption, all-inclusive hourly rates for estimating? Three different digital printing models were identified: 1) Traditional print providers, who supplement their offset presswork with digital printing for short-run color and versioned commercial print; 2) "Low-touch" print providers, who leverage the power of the Internet to streamline business transactions with digital storefronts; 3) Marketing solutions providers, who see printing less as a discrete manufacturing process and more as a component of a complete marketing campaign. Each model approaches estimating differently. Understanding and predicting costs can be extremely beneficial. Establishing a reliable system to estimate those costs can be somewhat challenging though. Unquestionably, cost-estimating digital printing will increase in relevance in the years ahead, as margins tighten and cost knowledge becomes increasingly more critical.

  15. Selecting suitable enclosures for digitally printed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Rima, L

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that storage enclosures considered safe for traditionally printed images and documents are suitable for modern, digitally printed materials. In this project, a large variety of digital print types were tested using a modified version of the ISO 18916 Imaging materials-Processed imaging materials-Photographic activity test for enclosure materials standard to assess the risk to digital prints by paper enclosures known to be inert or reactive with traditional photographic prints. The types of enclosures tested included buffered and non-buffered cotton papers, and groundwood paper. In addition, qualitative filter paper that had been wetted and dried with either an acidic or basic solution was also tested to determine the effects of enclosure pH on digitally printed materials. It was determined that, in general, digital prints tended to be less reactive with various enclosure types than traditional prints. Digital prints were most sensitive to paper that contained groundwood. The enclosure reactivity test results were then integrated with previous published work on the tendencies of various enclosure types to abrade, ferrotype, or block to digital prints in order to create a comprehensive set of recommendations for digital print storage enclosures.

  16. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  17. PRINTING TECHNIQUES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Witold; Kurek, Mateusz; Lyszczarz, Ewelina; Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years there has been a huge progress in a development of printing techniques and their application in pharmaceutical sciences and particularly in the pharmaceutical technology. The variety of printing methods makes it necessary to systemize them, explain the principles of operation, and specify the possibilities of their use in pharmaceutical technology. This paper aims to review the printing techniques used in a drug development process. The growing interest in 2D and 3D printing methods results in continuously increasing number of scientific papers. Introduction of the first printed drug Spritam@ to the market seems to be a milestone of the 3D printing development. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to show the latest achievements of the researchers in the field of the printing medicines.

  18. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  19. Recycled hierarchical tripod-like CuCl from Cu-PCB waste etchant for lithium ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Song [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Hou, Hongying, E-mail: hongyinghou@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Liu, Xianxi [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Duan, Jixiang; Yao, Yuan; Liao, Qishu; Li, Jing; Yang, Yunzhen [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • High EVA CuCl was recycled with 85% recovery from Cu-PCB waste etchant. • The recycled CuCl displayed a hierarchical tripod-like morphology. • The evolution mechanism of the recycled hierarchical CuCl crystal was proposed. • The corresponding discharge capacity in LIB was 201.4 mAh/g after 100 cycles. • The results shed a new light on resource recovery and environmental protection. - Abstract: Hierarchical CuCl with high economic value added (EVA) was successfully recycled with 85% recovery from the acid Cu printed circuit board (Cu-PCB) waste etchant via facile liquid chemical reduction. The micro-structure and morphology of the recycled hierarchical CuCl were systematically characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Furthermore, the corresponding electrochemical performances as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode were also investigated in terms of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance. As expected, the recycled CuCl displayed a hierarchical tripod-like structure and large specific surface area of 21.2 m{sup 2}/g. As the anode in LIB, the reversible discharge capacity was about 201.4 mAh/g even after 100 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle performance. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the sustainable industry, which is very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection.

  20. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  1. Preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 particles via the hydrothermal route for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Fu-Shan; Lin, Shin-Hom; Lu, Chung-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new hydrothermal process for preparing copper indium diselenide (CuInSe 2 ). → Well-crystallized CuInSe 2 particles are obtained at 180 deg. C for 1 h. → Densified CuInSe 2 thin films are prepared from ink printing. → Increasing temperatures result in an improvement of properties of CuInSe 2 films. - Abstract: CuInSe 2 powders with a chalcopyrite structure used in thin-film solar cells were successfully prepared via a hydrothermal method at low temperatures within short durations. Well-crystallized CuInSe 2 particles were formed via the hydrothermal reaction at 180 deg. C for 1 h. The concentrations of stabilizer, triethanolamine (TEA), significantly affected the purity, morphology and particle sizes of the prepared powders. Increasing the reaction duration and temperatures led to decrease the amount of second phase In(OH) 3 and resulted in the formation of pure CuInSe 2 . Densified CuInSe 2 thin films were prepared from ink printing with the addition of the flux. Increasing the selenization temperatures increased the grain size and improved the crystallinity of CuInSe 2 films.

  2. Inkjet printed wireless smart bandage

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and requires a major portion of health care budget for treatment. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage strip, which can send early warnings as well as record long term wound progression data. The smart bandage can communicate upto a distance of 60 m when worn on the body.

  3. Inkjet printed wireless smart bandage

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-12-19

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and requires a major portion of health care budget for treatment. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage strip, which can send early warnings as well as record long term wound progression data. The smart bandage can communicate upto a distance of 60 m when worn on the body.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  6. Superconducting films of YBaCuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Thick films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - x have been prepared on alumina and YSZ (Yttria-stabilized zirconia) substrates by the screen printing technique. Several experimental conditions have been studied, for instance: sintering time, temperature, thickness and atmosphere annealed. The resulting films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, AC electrical resistance, AC susceptibility and scanning electron microscopy. The surface and cross-section have been observed with an optical microscope. The X-ray diffraction patterns have been compared with a typical pattern and that has indicated the good quality of the samples. AC resistance and its temperature dependence have been measured in the standard four-probe configuration. Films thickness has been estimated in the scanning electron microscope. This technique has been suitable for production of high T c superconducting films being a simple and inexpensive method. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  8. Study of lip prints: A forensic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have been done on lip prints for human identification in forensic science, there is a doubt about their use in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed to study the lip groove patterns in all the quadrants of both male and female subjects to identify the sex, based on the patterns of the grooves of the lip prints. Study Design: 300 lip prints were collected from volunteers of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar (UP. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with lip stick and transferred on to a glass slide. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi-square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability value (P value was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. According to Suzuki′s classification, Type I, II, III and IV patterns were significant in gender determination.

  9. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M. [Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.

  10. Active materials by four-dimension printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2013-09-01

    We advance a paradigm of printed active composite materials realized by directly printing glassy shape memory polymer fibers in an elastomeric matrix. We imbue the active composites with intelligence via a programmed lamina and laminate architecture and a subsequent thermomechanical training process. The initial configuration is created by three-dimension (3D) printing, and then the programmed action of the shape memory fibers creates time dependence of the configuration—the four-dimension (4D) aspect. We design and print laminates in thin plate form that can be thermomechanically programmed to assume complex three-dimensional configurations including bent, coiled, and twisted strips, folded shapes, and complex contoured shapes with nonuniform, spatially varying curvature. The original flat plate shape can be recovered by heating the material again. We also show how the printed active composites can be directly integrated with other printed functionalities to create devices; here we demonstrate this by creating a structure that can assemble itself.

  11. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  12. Screen-printed carbon-containing electrode modified with formazan for determining copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhko, N.Yu.; Aleshina, L.V.; Brajnina, Kh.Z.; Lipunova, G.N.; Maslakova, T.I.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of some hetarylated formazans introduced into the bulk of carbon-containing inks of screen-printed electrodes was studied. The compositions of complexes formed at the electrode surface were found, and their stability constants were estimated. It was shown that the modification of carbon-containing screen-printed electrode with 1-(o-chlorophenyl-3-phenyl-5-(6-methyl-4-oxo-pyrimidinyl-2)formazan improves its sensitivity, lowers detection limits for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II), and ensures high precision of the results of voltammetric analysis [ru

  13. Prints Charles ja prints Michael külastasid Tallinna kirikuid / Allan Tammiku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammiku, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Prints Charles külastas 6. novembril Eesti-visiidi ajal Tallinna toomkirikut ja Pühavaimu kirikut, prints Michael viibis Tallinnas 11. novembril eravisiidil, ta külastas toomkirikut, Niguliste ja Pühavaimu kirikut

  14. Your Next Airplane: Just Hit Print

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    significantly impact the market, but if properly managed, 3-D printing can revolutionize the military through three principal benefits : cost...applications arise, many of which can be tailored to either commercial benefit or military utility. For the military to steer the dialogue over the...from custom chocolate sculptures, to firearms printed in your basement, to light-weight, fuel-efficient printed cars. University research grants

  15. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Cristian; Gabor Alin-Gabriel; Gavrilovici Andrei; Stan Adrian Tudor; Idorasi Laura; Sinescu Cosmin; Negruțiu Meda-Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition mo...

  16. Application of autoradiography in finger print analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Simek, J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to broaden the possibilities of developing latent finger prints a tracer technique has been developed using sup(110m)Ag and autoradiographic imaging. This method has been tested on glass, paper and certain plastics. On paper it is possible to visualize finger prints even after previous development using Ninhydrin. It is shown that usable finger prints may be obtained also from materials from which they cannot be obtained using classical methods, e.g., polyethylene and simulated leather. (author)

  17. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  18. Functional electronic screen printing – electroluminescent smart fabric watch

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

    2013-01-01

    Motivation for screen printed smart fabrics.Introduce functional electronic screen printing on fabrics.Printed smart fabric watch design.Printing process for electroluminescent watch.Demonstration video.Conclusions and further work.Examples of other screen printed smart fabrics.

  19. A STUDY OF RELATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PATTERN OF FINGER PRINTS AND LIP PRINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan; Karikalan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of conventional methods such as dactylography (study of finger prints) & cheiloscopy (study of lip prints) is of paramount importance, since personal identification by other means such as DNA analysis is sophisticated and not available in rural and developing countries. Fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of human fingers. The second prints of interest are lip prints. Studies of association between ...

  20. Photooxidation stability of microcapsules in thermochromic prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rozic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, photochemical stability of two thermochromic prints was investigated: vegetable oil based offset and UV curing screen printing ink. The obtained preliminary results can be used for further detailed examination of prints stability. It is well known that thermochromic printing inks are very unstabile when exsposed to UV irradiance and this is why they are mainly used for applications that are not directly exposed to sunlight. The results of the study show the heterogeneous nature of photooxidative degradation of thermochromic prints, and the opposite behaviour of photooxidation can be noticed comparing examined prints. Microcapsules in the UV curable screen print by fixation with polar polymer binder can create a new products stable to photoxidation. For this reason, the areas where the microcapsules and binder are bonded together are stable. Degraded only areas where binder is not related to microcapsules. Microcapsules in offset print do not have the ability to create new stabile forms due to smaller polarity and different chemical composition of the offset oxidized binder. In the offset print, the microcapsules are the least photooxidative stable and also cause lower photooxidative stability of the binder in contact with them. Cavities are formed in the areas where microcapsules are in contact with the binder, while the areas in which the binder is not in contact with microcapsules are not degraded.

  1. Active origami by 4D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Qi; Qi, H Jerry; Dunn, Martin L; Dunn, Conner K

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand. (paper)

  2. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  3. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  4. Active origami by 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi; Dunn, Conner K.; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand.

  5. Banner Pages on the New Printing Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Changes to the printing service were announced in CERN Bulletin No. 37-38/2006. In the new infrastructure, the printing of the banner page has been disabled in order to reduce paper consumption. Statistics show that the average print job size is small and the paper savings by not printing the banner page could be up to 20 %. When each printer is moved onto the new infrastructure banner page printing will be disabled. In the case of corridor printers which are shared by several users, the Helpdesk can re-enable banner page printing upon request. We hope ultimately to arrive at a situation where banner page printing is enabled on fewer than 10% of printers registered on the network. You can still print banner pages on printers where it has been centrally disabled by using Linux. Simply add it to your print job on the client side by adding the -o job-sheets option to your lpr command. Detailed documentation is available on each SLC3/4 under the following link: http://localhost:631/sum.html#4_2 Please bea...

  6. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of pastes containing submicron Ag-coated Cu filler with palmitic acid surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication and applied use of submicron Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles as a filler material for epoxy-based conductive pastes having the advantages of a lower material cost and antioxidation behavior were studied. Submicron Cu@Ag particles were successfully prepared and surface-modified using palmitic acid. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the formation of an organic layer by the chemical interaction between the Cu@Ag surface and palmitic acid and the survival of the organic layer after treatment at 160 °C for 3 h in air. The printed pastes containing both commercial micron Cu@Ag flakes and the fabricated submicron Cu@Ag particles showed a greatly reduced electrical resistivity (4.68 × 10-4 Ω cm) after surface modification compared to an initial value of 1.85 × 10-3 Ω cm when cured.

  7. Adult rat retinal ganglion cells and glia can be printed by piezoelectric inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, Barbara; Martin, Keith R; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Hutchings, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated whether inkjet printing technology can be extended to print cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia, and the effects on survival and growth of these cells in culture, which is an important step in the development of tissue grafts for regenerative medicine, and may aid in the cure of blindness. We observed that RGC and glia can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric printer. Whilst inkjet printing reduced the cell population due to sedimentation within the printing system, imaging of the printhead nozzle, which is the area where the cells experience the greatest shear stress and rate, confirmed that there was no evidence of destruction or even significant distortion of the cells during jet ejection and drop formation. Importantly, the viability of the cells was not affected by the printing process. When we cultured the same number of printed and non-printed RGC/glial cells, there was no significant difference in cell survival and RGC neurite outgrowth. In addition, use of a glial substrate significantly increased RGC neurite outgrowth, and this effect was retained when the cells had been printed. In conclusion, printing of RGC and glia using a piezoelectric printhead does not adversely affect viability and survival/growth of the cells in culture. Importantly, printed glial cells retain their growth-promoting properties when used as a substrate, opening new avenues for printed CNS grafts in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  8. MolPrint3D: Enhanced 3D Printing of Ball-and-Stick Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukstelis, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of noncommercial 3D printers has provided instructors and students improved access to printing technology. However, printing complex ball-and-stick molecular structures faces distinct challenges, including the need for support structures that increase with molecular complexity. MolPrint3D is a software add-on for the…

  9. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  10. Mail2Print online tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mail2print is a feature which allows you to send documents to a printer by mail. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to use this service. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  11. Dramatic Advance in Quality in Flexographic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Richter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The enormous changes in flexography printing in recent years concerning the printing quality achievable cannot generally be ascribed to a single revolutionary invention, but are the result of continuous developments to the complete system. Thus the direct drive technology in all machine types and its associated advantages in terms of printing length corrections has become established since drupa 2000. The race for ever finer raster rolls has also been completed to the benefit of improvements in bowl geometry and in ceramic surfaces. Clearly improved colour transfer behaviour has become feasible as a result. In a closely intermeshed system such as flexography printing this naturally has to have an effect on the printing colours used. Further improvements in bonding agents and pigment concentrations now allow users to print ever thinner colour layers while maintaining all of the required authenticities.Furthermore, it has become possible to reduce additional disturbing characteristics in the UV colour area, such as the unpleasant odour. While the digital imaging of printing plates has primarily been improved in terms of economic efficiency by the use of up to eight parallel laser beams, extreme improvements in the system are noticeable especially in the area of directly engraved printing moulds. Whereas many still dismissed directly engraved polymer plates at the last drupa as a laboratory system, the first installation was recently placed on the market a mere three years later. A further noteworthy innovation of recent years that has reached market maturity is thin sleeve technology, which combines the advantages of a photopolymer plate with a round imaged printing mould. There are no high sleeve costs for each printing mould, except for one-off cost for an adapter sleeve. To conclude, it can be said that although flexography printing has experienced many new features in the time between drupa 2000 and today, it still has enormous potential for

  12. Software for Quantitative Estimation of Coefficients of Ink Transfer on the Printed Substrate in Offset Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varepo, L. G.; Trapeznikova, O. V.; Panichkin, A. V.; Roev, B. A.; Kulikov, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of standardizing the process of offset printing, one of the most important tasks is the correct selection of the printing system components, taking into account the features of their interaction and behavior in the printing process. The program allows to calculate the transfer of ink on the printed material between the contacting cylindrical surfaces of the sheet-fed offset printing apparatus with the boundaries deformation. A distinctive feature of this software product is the modeling of the liquid flow having free boundaries and causing deformation of solid boundaries when flowing between the walls of two cylinders.

  13. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  14. Changes in the Printing Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The print servers at CERN are being replaced and all CERN printers will be gradually migrated to a new infrastructure. This will involve a few small changes for the users, which are highlighted in the following sections. Windows computers in the CERN domain (NICE XP/2000) The printer migration in the NICE environment is transparent and will be done automatically. The only significant change is that the 'CERN Printer Wizard'will be removed. To install a new printer and to monitor or manage its printing queue you should use the native windows interface, as explained at http://cern.ch/WinServices/Help/?kbid=070103 Linux SLC3, SLC4 The migration was transparent and has already been completed for Linux computers. If necessary, you can reconfigure your system again at any time by running the following command: /usr/bin/cern-config-printers -u The only significant change for Linux is the disappearance of the xprint command. Use the lpr command instead. Documentation for SLC3 is available at: h...

  15. Changes in the Printing Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The print servers at CERN are being replaced and all CERN printers will be gradually migrated to a new infrastructure. This will involve a few small changes for the users, which are highlighted in the following sections. Windows computers in the CERN domain (NICE XP/2000) The printer migration in the NICE environment is transparent and will be done automatically. The only significant change is that the 'CERN Printer Wizard' will be removed. To install a new printer and to monitor or manage its printing queue you should use the native windows interface, as explained at http://cern.ch/WinServices/Help/?kbid=070103 Linux SLC3, SLC4 The migration was transparent and has already been completed for Linux computers. If necessary, you can reconfigure your system again at any time by running the following command: /usr/bin/cern-config-printers -u The only significant change for Linux is the disappearance of the xprint command. Use the lpr command instead. Documentation for SLC3 is available at http://cern...

  16. 78 FR 22795 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... printing/duplication. ``Desktop Publishing'' is a method of composition using computers with the final... considered ``printing.'' However, if the output from desktop publishing is being sent to a typesetting device... preparing related illustrative material to a final document (camera-ready copy) using desktop publishing. (2...

  17. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  18. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  19. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  20. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  1. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-01-01

    -resonant frequencies around 1GHz. These fully printed devices have quality factors less than 10. Finally, 3D inkjet-printed UV-cured material is utilized with a novel silver organo-complex ink at 80oC providing conductivity of 1x107 S/m. A lumped element filter

  2. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  3. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  5. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  6. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  7. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  8. Luminous lip-prints as criminal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Alvarez-Seguí, Mercedes; Verdú, Fernando

    2005-12-20

    Luminescence is specially a useful property for the search of invisible evidences at the scene of a crime. In the latent fingerprints particular case, there are at one's disposal fluorescent reagents for their localization. The study of latent lip prints (that is lip prints from protective lipstick, or permanent or long-lasting lipstick that do not leave any visible marks) is more recent than fingerprints study. Because of the different composition of both types of prints, different reagents have been tried out on their developing. Although, lysochromes are particularly useful reagents to obtain latent lip prints, it may occur on coloured or multicoloured surfaces, the developing is not perceived due to contrast problems between the reagent and the surface where the print is searched. Again, luminescence offers the possibility to solve this problem. Nile Red is being studied as a potential developer for latent lip prints. The results on very old prints (over 1year) indicate that this reagent is highly efficient to get latent lip prints.

  9. Can lip prints provide biologic evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Sharma, Neeraj; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Lip prints are unique and can be used in personal identification. Very few studies are available which establish them as biological evidence in the court of law. Thus, the objective of this study was to attempt to isolate DNA and obtain full short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the individual from the lip prints on different surfaces. Twelve lip prints were procured on different surfaces such as tissue paper, cotton cloth, ceramic tile, and glass surface. Latent lip prints were developed using fingerprint black powder. Lipstick-coated lip prints were also collected on the same supporting items. DNA was isolated, quantified, and amplified using Identifiler™ kit to type 15 STR loci. Ample quantity of DNA was extracted from all the lip print impressions and 15 loci were successfully located in seven samples. Fourteen loci were successfully typed in 3 lip impressions while 13 loci were typed in 2 samples. This study emphasizes the relevance of lip prints at the scene of crime. Extraction of DNA followed by typing of STR loci establishes the lip prints as biological evidence too. Tissue papers, napkins, cups, and glasses may have imprints of the suspect's lips. Thus, the full genetic profile is extremely useful for the forensic team.

  10. Case Study on Printed Matter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals such as the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development, the Danish printing industry started up a substitution project....../impurities in globally recycled paper....

  11. Patterned electrodeposition of interconnects using microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Maijenburg, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Microcontact printing combined with electroless deposition is a potential low cost technique to make electrical interconnects for opto-electronic devices. Microcontact printed inhibitors locally prevent electroless deposition resulting in a pre-defined pattern of metal tracks. The inhibition of

  12. Digital Printing Quality Detection and Analysis Technology Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Zheng, Liping

    2017-12-01

    With the help of CCD digital printing quality detection and analysis technology, it can carry out rapid evaluation and objective detection of printing quality, and can play a certain control effect on printing quality. It can be said CDD digital printing quality testing and analysis of the rational application of technology, its digital printing and printing materials for a variety of printing equipments to improve the quality of a very positive role. In this paper, we do an in-depth study and discussion based on the CCD digital print quality testing and analysis technology.

  13. Printing Electronic Components from Copper-Infused Ink and Thermoplastic Mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Patrick F.

    The demand for printable electronics has sharply increased in recent years and is projected to continue to rise. Unfortunately, electronic materials which are suitable for desired applications while being compatible with available printing techniques are still often lacking. This thesis addresses two such challenging areas. In the realm of two-dimensional ink-based printing of electronics, a major barrier to the realization of printable computers that can run programs is the lack of a solution-coatable non-volatile memory with performance metrics comparable to silicon-based devices. To address this deficiency, I developed a nonvolatile memory based on Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanowires that can be printed from solution and exhibits on-off ratios of 106, switching speeds of 50 ns, a low operating voltage of 2 V, and operates for at least 104 cycles without failure. Each of these metrics is similar to or better than Flash memory (the write speed is 20 times faster than Flash). Memory architectures based on the individual memory cells demonstrated here could enable the printing of the more complex, embedded computing devices that are expected to make up an internet of things. Recently, the exploration of three-dimensional printing techniques to fabricate electronic materials began. A suitable general-purpose conductive thermoplastic filament was not available, however. In this work I examine the current state of conductive thermoplastic filaments, including a newly-released highly conductive filament that my lab has produced which we call Electrifi. I focus on the use of dual-material fused filament fabrication (FFF) to 3D print electronic components (conductive traces, resistors, capacitors, inductors) and circuits (a fully-printed high-pass filter). The resistivity of traces printed from conductive thermoplastic filaments made with carbon-black, graphene, and copper as conductive fillers was found to be 12, 0.78, and 0.014 ohm cm, respectively, enabling the creation of

  14. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  15. 3D-printing porosity: A new approach to creating elevated porosity materials and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, A E; Geisendorfer, N R; Lewis, P L; Shah, R N

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new process that enables the ability to 3D-print high porosity materials and structures by combining the newly introduced 3D-Painting process with traditional salt-leaching. The synthesis and resulting properties of three 3D-printable inks comprised of varying volume ratios (25:75, 50:50, 70:30) of CuSO 4 salt and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), as well as their as-printed and salt-leached counterparts, are discussed. The resulting materials are comprised entirely of PLGA (F-PLGA), but exhibit porosities proportional to the original CuSO 4 content. The three distinct F-PLGA materials exhibit average porosities of 66.6-94.4%, elastic moduli of 112.6-2.7 MPa, and absorbency of 195.7-742.2%. Studies with adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) demonstrated that elevated porosity substantially promotes cell adhesion, viability, and proliferation. F-PLGA can also act as carriers for weak, naturally or synthetically-derived hydrogels. Finally, we show that this process can be extended to other materials including graphene, metals, and ceramics. Porosity plays an essential role in the performance and function of biomaterials, tissue engineering, and clinical medicine. For the same material chemistry, the level of porosity can dictate if it is cell, tissue, or organ friendly; with low porosity materials being far less favorable than high porosity materials. Despite its importance, it has been difficult to create three-dimensionally printed structures that are comprised of materials that have extremely high levels of internal porosity yet are surgically friendly (able to handle and utilize during surgical operations). In this work, we extend a new materials-centric approach to 3D-printing, 3D-Painting, to 3D-printing structures made almost entirely out of water-soluble salt. The structures are then washed in a specific way that not only extracts the salt but causes the structures to increase in size. With the salt removed, the resulting medical polymer

  16. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  17. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 3D printed replicas for endodontic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymus, M; Fotiadou, C; Kessler, A; Heck, K; Hickel, R; Diegritz, C

    2018-06-14

    To assess the feasibility of producing artificial teeth for endodontic training using 3D printing technology, to analyse the accuracy of the printing process, and to evaluate the teeth by students when used during training. Sound extracted human teeth were selected, digitalized by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and appropriate software and finally reproduced by a stereolithographic printer. The printed teeth were scanned and compared with the original ones (trueness) and to one another (precision). Undergraduate dental students in the third and fourth years performed root canal treatment on printed molars and were subsequently asked to evaluate their experience with these compared to real teeth. The workflow was feasible for manufacturing 3D printed tooth replicas. The absolute deviation after printing (trueness) ranged from 50.9μm to 104.3μm. The values for precision ranged from 43.5μm to 68.2μm. Students reported great benefits in the use of the replicated teeth for training purposes. The presented workflow is feasible for any dental educational institution who has access to a CBCT unit and a stereolithographic printer. The accuracy of the printing process is suitable for the production of tooth replicas for endodontic training. Undergraduate students favoured the availability of these replicas and the fairness they ensured in training due to standardization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Printing of Wearable Antenna on Textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khirotdin Rd. Khairilhijra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wearable antenna which is meant to be a part of the clothing used for communication purposes includes tracking, navigation and mobile computing has been seen in demand due to the recent miniaturization of wireless devices. Printing of conductive ink provides flexibility properties on electronics thus allowing it to be used on conformal surfaces. However, the current printing techniques mostly suffer from ink incompatibility and limited of substrates to be printed with. Hence, this paper intend to discloses the printing of wearable antenna using alternative technique via syringe-based deposition system with conductive ink on textile. A validation between simulation and measurement of return loss, (S11 and radiation pattern of the antenna printed is also performed. It was found that a functional antenna is successfully printed on textile since the performances obtained are as expected. The antenna resonated at a minimum resonant frequency of 1.82 GHz which the S11 gathered at-18.90 dB. The radiation pattern for both simulation and measurement is as predicted since both have a larger magnitude of the main lobe than the side lobe. The magnitude of the main lobe from measurement was observed to be 8.83 dB higher than the magnitude of the main lobe of the simulation which is only 3.77 dB. It is proven that the syringe-based deposition system is capable of printing functional antenna on textile.

  20. 3D Printing of Ball Grid Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Hines, Daniel; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Das, Siddhartha

    Ball grid arrays (BGA) are interconnects between an integrated circuit (IC) and a printed circuit board (PCB), that are used for surface mounting electronic components. Typically, lead free alloys are used to make solder balls which, after a reflow process, establish a mechanical and electrical connection between the IC and the PCB. High temperature processing is required for most of these alloys leading to thermal shock causing damage to ICs. For producing flexible circuits on a polymer substrate, there is a requirement for low temperature processing capabilities (around 150 C) and for reducing strain from mechanical stresses. Additive manufacturing techniques can provide an alternative methodology for fabricating BGAs as a direct replacement for standard solder bumped BGAs. We have developed aerosol jet (AJ) printing methods to fabricate a polymer bumped BGA. As a demonstration of the process developed, a daisy chain test chip was polymer bumped using an AJ printed ultra violet (UV) curable polymer ink that was then coated with an AJ printed silver nanoparticle laden ink as a conducting layer printed over the polymer bump. The structure for the balls were achieved by printing the polymer ink using a specific toolpath coupled with in-situ UV curing of the polymer which provided good control over the shape, resulting in well-formed spherical bumps on the order of 200 um wide by 200 um tall for this initial demonstration. A detailed discussion of the AJ printing method and results from accelerated life-time testing will be presented

  1. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  3. Printing and civilization; Insatsu to bunmei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Dainippon Ink and Chemicals Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    It can be said that the printing has not been only a barometer of culture, but also has formed a foundation of culture as the facilities of civilization, and has shouldered a role to drag the culture. In modern nation, that the freedom of speech and press has been clearly pointed out as the fundamental human right, shows straightforwardly an important significance of such a printing. Though it is also statistically clear that there is an exact relation between GNP and printed materials per capita, in this paper centering around the examples in Japan, a relation between the printing and civilization/culture is introduced like the episodes. It does not yet become definite that what kind of influence a proposition so called `printing is a barometer of culture` is affected by the information/communication revolution which is regarded to be advanced very rapidly. However, speaking conclusively it can not be thought that a demand for the printing which can produce the information in a great deal of quantity with a low cost, and for the printing which does not need special output terminal and is excellent in portability and glance ability, may largely be reduced. 1 fig.

  4. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  5. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents.

  6. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey M.; Hilpisch, Peter J.; Mowry, Greg S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of 3D printing a transformer core using fused deposition modeling methods is explored. With the use of additive manufacturing, ideal transformer core geometries can be achieved in order to produce a more efficient transformer. In this work, different 3D printed settings and toroidal geometries are tested using a custom integrated magnetic circuit capable of measuring the hysteresis loop of a transformer. These different properties are then characterized, and it was determined the most effective 3D printed transformer core requires a high fill factor along with a high concentration of magnetic particulate.

  7. Print vs digital the future of coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are currently confronted by the challenges of managing increasing amounts of electronic information. Print vs. Digital: The Future of Coexistence presents the expert perspectives of eight of America's leading library administrators on ways to effectively manage digital flow and offers strategies to provide a level of coexistence between digital and print information. This excellent overview explores how to best balance print and electronic resources, and explores important issues such as the selection of electronic resources, improving access to digital information for a larger user

  8. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  9. Topography printing to locally control wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zijian; Azzaroni, Omar; Zhou, Feng; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2006-06-21

    This paper reports a new patterning method, which utilizes NaOH to facilitate the irreversible binding between the PDMS stamp and substrates and subsequent cohesive mechanical failure to transfer the PDMS patterns. Our method shows high substrate tolerance and can be used to "print" various PDMS geometries on a wide range of surfaces, including Si100, glass, gold, polymers, and patterned SU8 photoresist. Using this technique, we are able to locally change the wettability of substrate surfaces by printing well-defined PDMS architectures on the patterned SU8 photoresist. It is possible to generate differential wetting and dewetting properties in microchannels and in the PDMS printed area, respectively.

  10. Electroless Cu Plating on Anodized Al Substrate for High Power LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2015-03-01

    Area-selective copper deposition on screen printed Ag pattern/anodized Al/Al substrate was attempted using a neutral electroless plating processes for printed circuit boards (PCBs), according to a range of variation of pH 6.5-pH 8 at 70 °C. The utilized basic electroless solution consisted of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, sodium phosphinate monohydrate, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate, ammonium chloride, and nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate. The pH of the copper plating solutions was adjusted from pH 6.5 to pH 8 using NH4OH. Using electroless plating in pH 6.5 and pH 7 baths, surface damage to the anodized Al layer hardly occurred; the structure of the plated Cu-rich films was a typical fcc-Cu, but a small Ni component was co-deposited. In electroless plating at pH 8, the surface of the anodized Al layer was damaged and the Cu film was composed of a lot of Ni and P which were co-deposited with Cu. Finally, in a pH 7 bath, we can make a selectively electroless plated Cu film on a PCB without any lithography and without surface damage to the anodized Al layer.

  11. Printing Insecurity? The Security Implications of 3D-Printing of Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the first gun printed out of plastic by a 3D-printer was successfully fired in the U.S. This event caused a major media hype about the dangers of being able to print a gun. Law enforcement agencies worldwide were concerned about this development and the potentially huge security implications of these functional plastic guns. As a result, politicians called for a ban of these weapons and a control of 3D-printing technology. This paper reviews the security implications of 3D-printing technology and 3D guns. It argues that current arms control and transfer policies are adequate to cover 3D-printed guns as well. However, while this analysis may hold up currently, progress in printing technology needs to be monitored to deal with future dangers pre-emptively.

  12. A high speed electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing method for line printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thanh Huy; Kim, Seora; Kwon, Kye-Si

    2017-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing has drawn attention due to its capability to produce smaller dots and patterns with finer lines when compared to those obtained from using conventional inkjet printing. Previous studies have suggested that drop-on-demand EHD-patterning applications should be limited to very slow printing cases with speeds far less than 10 mm s −1 due to the small dot size and limited jetting frequency. In this study, a new EHD printing method is proposed to significantly increase the line-patterning printing speed by modifying the ink and thereby changing the relic shape. The proposed method has the additional advantage of reducing the line-pattern width. The results of the experiment show that the pattern width could be reduced from 20 µ m to 4 µ m by increasing the printing speed from 10 mm s −1 to 50 mm s −1 , respectively. (paper)

  13. 48 CFR 1631.205-78 - FEHBP printed material costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP printed material... carrier orders printed material that is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) under the... COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-78 FEHBP printed...

  14. Ultrafast Digital Printing toward 4D Shape Changing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limei; Jiang, Ruiqi; Wu, Jingjun; Song, Jizhou; Bai, Hao; Li, Bogeng; Zhao, Qian; Xie, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafast 4D printing (printing converts the structure into 3D. An additional dimension can be incorporated by choosing the printing precursors. The process overcomes the speed limiting steps of typical 3D (4D) printing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Virtual printer : an environment for digital print modeling and inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Océ-Technologies B.V., a member of the Canon Group, specializes in providing solutions for enterprise printing, large format printing, and production printing. Software is an important part of a modern printer. One of the tasks for inkjet-printer software is to transform input print data into timed

  16. 40 CFR 63.824 - Standards: Publication rotogravure printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry § 63.824 Standards: Publication rotogravure printing. (a) Each owner or operator of any publication rotogravure printing affected... printing. 63.824 Section 63.824 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  18. Uniformity of fully gravure printed organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, M.; Reuter, K.; Stanel, M.; Schmidt, G.; Kempa, H.; Fuegmann, U.; Hahn, U.; Huebler, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fully mass-printed organic field-effect transistors were made completely by means of gravure printing. Therefore a special printing layout was developed in order to avoid register problems in print direction. Upon using this layout, contact pads for source-drain electrodes of the transistors are printed together with the gate electrodes in one and the same printing run. More than 50,000 transistors have been produced and by random tests a yield of approximately 75% has been determined. The principle suitability of the gravure printed transistors for integrated circuits has been shown by the realization of ring oscillators.

  19. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-01-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps. (paper)

  20. 3D Printing of Biosamples: A Concise Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Victoria Xin Ting; Wong, Ten It; Zhou, Xiaodong

    This paper reviews the recent development of 3D printing of biosamples, in terms of the 3D structure design, suitable printing technology, and available materials. Successfully printed 3D biosamples should possess the properties of high cell viability, vascularization and good biocompatibility. These goals are attained by printing the materials of hydrogels, polymers and cells, with a carefully selected 3D printer from the categories of inkjet printing, extrusion printing and laser printing, based on the uniqueness, advantages and disadvantages of these technologies. For recent developments, we introduce the 3D applications of creating scaffolds, printing cells for self-assembly and testing platforms. We foresee more bio-applications of 3D printing will be developed, with the advancements on materials and 3D printing machines.

  1. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print ...

  2. Printing Insecurity? The Security Implications of 3D-Printing of Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first gun printed out of plastic by a 3D-printer was successfully fired in the US. This event caused a major media hype about the dangers of being able to print a gun. Law enforcement agencies worldwide were concerned about this development and the potentially huge security implications of these functional plastic guns. As a result, politicians called for a ban of these weapons and a control of 3D-printing technology. This paper reviews the security implications of 3D-printing te...

  3. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  4. Influence of printing speed on production of embossing tools using FDM 3D printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Žarko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of the embossing tools customary implies use of metals such as zinc, magnesium, copper, and brass. In the case of short run lengths, a conventional manufacturing process and the material itself represent a significant cost, not only in the terms of material costs and the need for using complex technological systems which are necessary for their production, but also in the terms of the production time. Alternatively, 3D printing can be used for manufacturing similar embossing tools with major savings in production time and costs. However, due to properties of materials used in the 3D printing technology, expected results of embossing by 3D printed tools cannot be identical to metal ones. This problem is emphasized in the case of long run lengths and high accuracy requirement for embossed elements. The objective of this paper is primarily focused on investigating the influence of the printing speed on reproduction quality of the embossing tools printed with FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling technology. The obtained results confirmed that printing speed as a process parameter affects the reproduction quality of the embossing tools printed with FDM technology: in the case of deposition rate of 90 mm/s was noted the poorest dimensional accuracy in relation to the 3D model, which is more emphasised in case of circular and square elements. Elements printed with the highest printing speed have a greater dimensional accuracy, but with evident cracks on the surface.

  5. Substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study......The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... total 15 substances) were found in the Danish printing industry. This paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results on preparing for actual substitutions....

  6. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  7. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  8. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  9. Cibachrome testing. [photographic processing and printing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Cibachrome products as a solution to problems encountered when contact printing Kodak film type SO-397 onto Kodak Ektrachrome color reversal paper type 1993 is investigated. A roll of aerial imagery consisting of Kodak film types SO-397 and 2443 was contact printed onto Cibachrome and Kodak materials and compared in terms of color quality, resolution, cost, and compatibility with existing equipment and techniques. Objective measurements are given in terms of resolution and sensitometric response. Comparison prints and transparencies were viewed and ranked according to overall quality and aesthetic appeal. It is recommended that Cibachrome Print material be used in place of Kodak Ektachrome paper because it is more easily processed, the cost is equivalent, and it provides improved resolution, color quality, and image fade resistance.

  10. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  11. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.208-70 Printing. As prescribed... reproduction in excess of the limits set forth above, the Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer in...

  12. Print-Assisted Photovoltaic Assembly (PAPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of an innovative method for the fabrication of thin-film photovoltaic panels. Print-Assisted Photovoltaic Assembly, or PAPA,...

  13. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics.

  14. 3D-printed Bioanalytical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  15. Monitoring Information By Industry - Printing and Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions in the printing and publishing industry.

  16. Recent development in 3D food printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-09-22

    Robots and software have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three-dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.

  17. Network printing in a heterogenous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, C.; Schroth, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mail and printing are often said to be the most visible services for the user in the network. Though many people talked about the paperless bureau a few years ago it seems that the more digital data is accessible, the more it gets printed. Print management in a heterogenous network environments is typically crossing all operating systems. Each of those brings its own requirements and different printing system implementations with individual user interfaces. The scope is to give the user the advantage and features of the native interface of their operating system while making administration tasks as easy as possible by following the general ideas of a centralised network service on the server side

  18. Printing and Publishing Industry Training Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training International, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Accounted is the supervisory training program currently in operation in the printing and publishing industry. The purpose of the training program is to increase managerial efficiency and to better prepare new supervisors. (DS)

  19. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  20. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  1. Three-Dimensional Printing in Zero Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The 3D printing in zero-g (3D Print) technology demonstration project is a proof-of-concept test designed to assess the properties of melt deposition modeling additive manufacturing in the microgravity environment experienced on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration is the first step towards realizing a 'machine shop' in space, a critical enabling component of any deep space mission.

  2. 3D freeform printing of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria J; Dixon, Thomas A; Cohen, Eliad; Huang, Wenwen; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2018-04-15

    Freeform fabrication has emerged as a key direction in printing biologically-relevant materials and structures. With this emerging technology, complex structures with microscale resolution can be created in arbitrary geometries and without the limitations found in traditional bottom-up or top-down additive manufacturing methods. Recent advances in freeform printing have used the physical properties of microparticle-based granular gels as a medium for the submerged extrusion of bioinks. However, most of these techniques require post-processing or crosslinking for the removal of the printed structures (Miller et al., 2015; Jin et al., 2016) [1,2]. In this communication, we introduce a novel method for the one-step gelation of silk fibroin within a suspension of synthetic nanoclay (Laponite) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Silk fibroin has been used as a biopolymer for bioprinting in several contexts, but chemical or enzymatic additives or bulking agents are needed to stabilize 3D structures. Our method requires no post-processing of printed structures and allows for in situ physical crosslinking of pure aqueous silk fibroin into arbitrary geometries produced through freeform 3D printing. 3D bioprinting has emerged as a technology that can produce biologically relevant structures in defined geometries with microscale resolution. Techniques for fabrication of free-standing structures by printing into granular gel media has been demonstrated previously, however, these methods require crosslinking agents and post-processing steps on printed structures. Our method utilizes one-step gelation of silk fibroin within a suspension of synthetic nanoclay (Laponite), with no need for additional crosslinking compounds or post processing of the material. This new method allows for in situ physical crosslinking of pure aqueous silk fibroin into defined geometries produced through freeform 3D printing. Copyright © 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Dodziuk, Helena

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed.

  4. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodziuk, Helena

    2016-09-01

    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed.

  5. CORROSION ANALYSIS OF METALLIZED FILMS AFTER PRINTING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Dhirender*1, Mr. Rajeev2 & Mr.Manoj3

    2017-01-01

    Print quality has always been a point of strong concern among printers and consumers. Metalized films have gain a wide spread popularity among printers because of its low cost and high usages in food packaging applications. But sometimes corrosion spoils the printed products causing huge financial loss to the printers or customers.This paper throws light on major causes of corrosion on metallized films and possible remedies for the same. The metallized films with polyester base were base coat...

  6. The micro-droplet behavior of a molten lead-free solder in an inkjet printing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M H; Chou, H H; Hwang, W S

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the droplet formation of molten Sn3.0 wt%Ag0.5 wt%Cu alloy by an inkjet printing process was conducted. The printing process used a piezoelectric print head with a nozzle orifice diameter of 50 µm. Micro-droplets of a molten lead-free solder were ejected at 230 °C. The print head was driven by a bipolar pulse 40 V in amplitude. The major variables for this study were two pulse times; t rise /t finalrise and t fall , as well as N 2 back-pressure in the molten solder reservoir. Under various printing conditions, extrusion of the liquid column, contraction of liquid thread and pinch-off of liquid thread at nozzle exit were observed by monitoring the dynamics of the molten solder droplet ejection process. The droplet formation was found to be insensitive to t rise and t finalrise in the range of 250–1000 µs. The behavior of droplet formation was, however, significantly affected by the transfer rate, t fall , in the range of 30–60 µs and t fall of 50 µs yielded the most desirable condition of single droplet formation. The N 2 back-pressure was also found to be critical, where a back pressure between 10 and 21 kPa could give the desirable single-droplet formation condition

  7. Influence Of Used Bacterial Culture On Zinc And Aluminium Bioleaching From Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrazikova Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching processes were used to solubilize metals (Cu, Ni, Zn and Al from printed circuit boards (PCBs. In this study, a PCBs-adapted pure culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and PCBs-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans were used for recovery of the metals. The study showed that the mixed bacterial culture has the greatest potential to dissolve metals. The maximum metal bioleaching efficiencies were found to be 100, 92, 89 and 20% of Cu, Ni, Zn and Al, respectively. The mixed culture revealed higher bacterial stability. The main factor responsible for high metal recovery was the ability of the mixed culture to maintain the low pH during the whole process. The pure culture of A. thiooxidans had no significant effect on metal bioleaching from PCBs.

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  9. Endodontic applications of 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Wealleans, J; Ray, J

    2018-02-27

    Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies can leverage cone beam computed tomography data for production of objects used in surgical and nonsurgical endodontics and in educational settings. The aim of this article was to review all current applications of 3D printing in endodontics and to speculate upon future directions for research and clinical use within the specialty. A literature search of PubMed, Ovid and Scopus was conducted using the following terms: stereolithography, 3D printing, computer aided rapid prototyping, surgical guide, guided endodontic surgery, guided endodontic access, additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, autotransplantation rapid prototyping, CAD, CAM. Inclusion criteria were articles in the English language documenting endodontic applications of 3D printing. Fifty-one articles met inclusion criteria and were utilized. The endodontic literature on 3D printing is generally limited to case reports and pre-clinical studies. Documented solutions to endodontic challenges include: guided access with pulp canal obliteration, applications in autotransplantation, pre-surgical planning and educational modelling and accurate location of osteotomy perforation sites. Acquisition of technical expertise and equipment within endodontic practices present formidable obstacles to widespread deployment within the endodontic specialty. As knowledge advances, endodontic postgraduate programmes should consider implementing 3D printing into their curriculums. Future research directions should include clinical outcomes assessments of treatments employing 3D printed objects. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Printing in heterogeneous computer environment at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The number of registered hosts DESY reaches 3500 while the number of print queues approaches 150. The spectrum of used computing environment is very wide: from MAC's and PC's, through SUN, DEC and SGI machines to the IBM mainframe. In 1994 we used 18 tons of paper. We present a solution for providing print services in such an environment for more than 3500 registered users. The availability of the print service is a serious issue. Using centralized printing has a lot of advantages for software administration but creates single point of failure. We solved this problem partially without using expensive software and hardware. The talk provides information about the DESY central central print spooler concept. None of the systems available on the market provides ready to use reliable solution for all platforms used for DESY. We discuss concepts for installation, administration and monitoring large number of printers. We found a solution for printing both on central computing facilities likewise for support of stand-alone workstations. (author)

  11. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  12. Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Crystalline Cu and Pb0.5-Cu0.5- ferrites by Mechanochemical Method and Their Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. GAIKWAD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, we have reported the synthesis of nanocrystalline ferrites of the type CuFe2O4 and Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 by mechanochemical alloying at 960 0C. The samples prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, VSM, FT-IR, UV-DRS, and SEM. The average particle size was determined by XRD pattern using Scherrer equation and it is 7.295 nm, 4.484 nm for CuFe2O4, and Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4. The surface morphology of the samples is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Magnetic studies were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and shows very high coercive field for the mixed ferrite. UV-DRS studies were performed to investigate the band gap of synthesized nanocrystalline material. Electrical properties show semiconducting nature of synthesized ferrites. The thick films of the material were prepared by screen printing method. The gas sensing properties were studied towards reducing gases like CO, NH3 and H2S and it was revealed that CuFe2O4 is the most sensitive and selective to H2S gas at relatively lower operating temperature 200 0C. Furthermore Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 also shows the response to H2S at operating temperature 300 0C.

  14. Photovoltaic properties of sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells doped with Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.W.; Ahn, B.T.; Im, H.B.; Kim, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, all polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells doped with Cu are prepared by a screen printing and sintering method. Cell parameters of the sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells have been investigated in an attempt to find out the optimum doping conditions and concentrations of Cu by adding various amounts of CuCl 2 either into CdTe layer or into back contact carbon layer. Cell parameters of the sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells which contained various amounts of CuCl 2 in the CdTe layers before sintering stay at about the same values as the amount of CuCl 2 increases up to 25 ppm, and then decreases sharply as the amount of CuCl 2 further increases. The Cu added in the CdTe layer diffuses into the CdS layer during the sintering of the CdS-CdTe composite at 625 degrees C to densify the CdTe layer and causes the decrease in the optical transmission of CdS resulting in the degradation of the cell performance. In case the Cu dopant was dispersed in the back carbon paint and was followed by annealing, all cell parameters are improved significantly compared with those fabricated by adding CuCl 2 in the CdTe layer before sintering. A sintered CdS/CdTe solar cell which contained 25 ppm CuCl 2 in the carbon paste and was annealed at 350 degrees C for 10 min shows the highest efficiency. The efficiency of this cell is 12.4% under solar irradiation with an intensity of 80.4 mW/cm 2

  15. Visual Attention to Print-Salient and Picture-Salient Environmental Print in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Summerfield, Katelyn; Neumann, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental print is composed of words and contextual cues such as logos and pictures. The salience of the contextual cues may influence attention to words and thus the potential of environmental print in promoting early reading development. The present study explored this by presenting pre-readers (n = 20) and beginning readers (n = 16) with…

  16. The Decline of Print: Ten Years of Print Serial Use in a Small Academic Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Karen Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Tracking use of print journals over a ten-year period has allowed The University of South Carolina (USC) School of Medicine Library an essential tool for more accurate collection development, for both print and electronic selection. This lengthy study has provided usage statistics for purchasing decisions regarding electronic subscriptions still…

  17. µPlasma printing of hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterns to improve wetting behaviour for printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Niewenhuis; ir Renee Verkuijlen; Dr Jan Bernards; ir Martijn van Dongen; Lise Verbraeken

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a rapidly growing technology for depositing functional materials in the production of organic electronics. Challenges lie among others in the printing of high resolution patterns with high aspect ratio of functional materials to obtain the needed functionality like e.g.

  18. Print2Screen Mobile App: Embedding Multimedia in Printed ODL Course Materials Using QR Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Ishan Sudeera

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of OER and multimedia such as YouTube videos, many academic institutions are becoming mindful of the richness they bring into the teaching and learning process. Given that multimedia resources cannot be directly integrated into printed material, the only available alternative is to print hyperlinks, which teachers and learners can…

  19. Fast copper extraction from printed circuit boards using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, C O; Schlemmer, D F; da Silva, M D C R; Maziero, E V; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Technological development and intensive marketing support the growth in demand for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), for which printed circuit boards (PCBs) are vital components. As these devices become obsolete after short periods, waste PCBs present a problem and require recycling. PCBs are composed of ceramics, polymers, and metals, particularly Cu, which is present in highest percentages. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative method to recover Cu from the PCBs of old mobile phones, obtaining faster reaction kinetics by means of leaching with supercritical CO2 and co-solvents. The PCBs from waste mobile phones were characterized, and evaluation was made of the reaction kinetics during leaching at atmospheric pressure and using supercritical CO2 with H2O2 and H2SO4 as co-solvents. The results showed that the PCBs contained 34.83 wt% of Cu. It was found that the supercritical extraction was 9 times faster, compared to atmospheric pressure extraction. After 20 min of supercritical leaching, approximately 90% of the Cu contained in the PCB was extracted using a 1:20 solid:liquid ratio and 20% of H2O2 and H2SO4 (2.5 M). These results demonstrate the efficiency of the process. Therefore the supercritical CO2 employment in the PCBs recycling is a promising alternative and the CO2 is environmentally acceptable and reusable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D printed soft parallel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Ali; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Khoo, Sui Yang; Noshadi, Amin; Kaynak, Akif

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-dimensional (3D) printed soft parallel contactless actuator for the first time. The actuator involves an electro-responsive parallel mechanism made of two segments namely active chain and passive chain both 3D printed. The active chain is attached to the ground from one end and constitutes two actuator links made of responsive hydrogel. The passive chain, on the other hand, is attached to the active chain from one end and consists of two rigid links made of polymer. The actuator links are printed using an extrusion-based 3D-Bioplotter with polyelectrolyte hydrogel as printer ink. The rigid links are also printed by a 3D fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as print material. The kinematics model of the soft parallel actuator is derived via transformation matrices notations to simulate and determine the workspace of the actuator. The printed soft parallel actuator is then immersed into NaOH solution with specific voltage applied to it via two contactless electrodes. The experimental data is then collected and used to develop a parametric model to estimate the end-effector position and regulate kinematics model in response to specific input voltage over time. It is observed that the electroactive actuator demonstrates expected behaviour according to the simulation of its kinematics model. The use of 3D printing for the fabrication of parallel soft actuators opens a new chapter in manufacturing sophisticated soft actuators with high dexterity and mechanical robustness for biomedical applications such as cell manipulation and drug release.

  1. Effect of hydrophobic microstructured surfaces on conductive ink printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Kyung Heon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive ink was printed on various microstructured substrates to measure the printing quality. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were used to test the printability of the hydrophobic surface material. Microstructured arrays of 10 µm regular PDMS cubes were prepared using the MEMS fabrication technique. The gap distance between the cubes was varied from 10 to 40 µm. The printing wettability of the microstructured surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angle of a droplet of silver conductive ink. Screen-printing methods were used in the conductive line printing experiment. Test line patterns with finely varying widths (30–250 µm) were printed repeatedly, and the conductivity of the printed lines was measured. The printability, which was defined as the ratio of the successfully printed patterns to the total number of printed patterns, was analyzed as a function of the linewidth and the gap distance of the microstructured surfaces

  2. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.

  3. Print quality challenges for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The decade of the eighties has seen a remarkable transformation in the performance and capabilities of shared and personal printers. Dramatic gains have been made in four key areas: cost, throughput, reliability and most significantly, print quality. The improvements in text print quality due to algorithmic fonts and increased resolution have been pivotal in the creation of the desktop publishing market. Electronic pre-press systems now include hardware to receive Postscript files accompanied by color originals for scanning and separation. These systems have application in the commercial printing of a wide variety of material e.g. books, magazines, brochures, newspapers. The vision of the future of hardcopy now embraces the full spectrum from typeset text to full color reproduction of natural images due to the advent of grayscale and color capability in printer technology. This will place increased demands for improvements in print quality, particularly in the use of grayscale and color. This paper gives an overview of the challenges which must be met and discusses data communication standards and print quality measurement techniques as a means of meeting these challenges for both color and black and white output.

  4. THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DEVELOPEMENT IN PRINT MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Iordache

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the characteristics of the distribution networks in print media and the features ofmarketing in mass media, emphasising the attempts initiated by the press in the context of the financial crisis. Theresearch was conducted through a case study on regional newspaper,, Gazeta de Sud'' The main problems analyzedwere decreasing newspaper circulation and advertising. The research taken into account trends and developmentsworldwide print media as well as print media particularities of Romania, with a focus on identifying factors thatcontributed to the closure of a significant number of newspapers, or their transition from printed version online format.The paper is mainly focused on some practical issues related to the way of organizing the print media sales networks,the authors elaborating proposals for the implementation of certain measures to increase the circulation, on the onehand, and on the hand, to increase the sale of ad space in the newspaper. Compared with other products, thenewspaper has unique characteristics caused by daily changing content, and therefore the product itself. Having ahighly perishable, the content of media products should always seen in relation to time, which requires more rapiddistribution and continuous production.

  5. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  6. Magnetic Moment of $^{59}$Cu

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.

  7. Screen-printed electro grafted electrode for trace uranium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betelu, St.; Vautrin-Ui, Ch.; Chausse, A. [Univ Evry Val Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS CEA, UMR 8587, F-91025 Evry, (France); Ly, J. [CEA, L3MR, Ctr Etud Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the interest of the novel 4-carboxyphenyl-grafted screen-printed electrodes (4-CP-SPEs) for sub-nano-molar analysis of uranium in water samples. Electrodes were easily prepared via electrochemically reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The stability of the grafted layer has been clearly demonstrated. Uranium detection was then achieved by immersing the grafted electrode into the sample solution, followed by the electrochemical measurement of adsorbed U(VI) by square wave voltammetry. Adsorption time was investigated so as to find the best compromise between analysis time, repeatability and reproducibility. Limit of detection and quantitation reached 7 * 10{sup -10} and 2 * 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} respectively. Moreover, interference study was conducted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II); no major interference was established. 4-CP-SPEs were finally applied for uranium determination in estuarine water demonstrating the convenience of these electrodes for environmental analysis. (authors)

  8. Hybrid 3D Printing of Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Alexander D; Busbee, Travis A; Boley, John William; Raney, Jordan R; Chortos, Alex; Kotikian, Arda; Berrigan, John Daniel; Durstock, Michael F; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid 3D printing is a new method for producing soft electronics that combines direct ink writing of conductive and dielectric elastomeric materials with automated pick-and-place of surface mount electronic components within an integrated additive manufacturing platform. Using this approach, insulating matrix and conductive electrode inks are directly printed in specific layouts. Passive and active electrical components are then integrated to produce the desired electronic circuitry by using an empty nozzle (in vacuum-on mode) to pick up individual components, place them onto the substrate, and then deposit them (in vacuum-off mode) in the desired location. The components are then interconnected via printed conductive traces to yield soft electronic devices that may find potential application in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 1D Printing of Recyclable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellucci, Daniel; MacCurdy, Robert; Lipson, Hod

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in 3D printing are revolutionizing manufacturing, enabling the fabrication of structures with unprecedented complexity and functionality. Yet biological systems are able to fabricate systems with far greater complexity using a process that involves assembling and folding a linear...... string. Here, we demonstrate a 1D printing system that uses an approach inspired by the ribosome to fabricate a variety of specialized robotic automata from a single string of source material. This proof-ofconcept system involves both a novel manufacturing platform that configures the source material...... using folding and a computational optimization tool that allows designs to be produced from the specification of high-level goals. We show that our 1D printing system is able to produce three distinct robots from the same source material, each of which is capable of accomplishing a specialized...

  10. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-12-01

    Inkjet printing is a mature technique for colourful graphic arts. It excels at customized, large area, high resolution, and small volume production. With the developments in conductive, and dielectric inks, there is potential for large area inkjet electronics fabrication. Passive radio frequency devices can benefit greatly from a printing process, since the size of these devices is defined by the frequency of operation. The large size of radio frequency passives means that they either take up expensive space “on chip” or that they are fabricated on a separate lower cost substrate and somehow bonded to the chips. This has hindered cost-sensitive high volume applications such as radio frequency identification tags. Substantial work has been undertaken on inkjet-printed conductors for passive antennas on microwave substrates and even paper, yet there has been little work on the printing of the dielectric materials aimed at radio frequency passives. Both the conductor and dielectric need to be integrated to create a multilayer inkjet printing process that is capable of making quality passives such as capacitors and inductors. Three inkjet printed dielectrics are investigated in this thesis: a ceramic (alumina), a thermal-cured polymer (poly 4 vinyl phenol), and a UV-cured polymer (acrylic based). For the conductor, both a silver nanoparticle ink as well as a custom in-house formulated particle-free silver ink are explored. The focus is on passives, mainly capacitors and inductors. Compared to low frequency electronics, radio frequency components have additional sensitivity regarding skin depth of the conductor and surface roughness, as well as dielectric constant and loss tangent of the dielectric. These concerns are investigated with the aim of making the highest quality components possible and to understand the current limitations of inkjet-fabricated radio frequency devices. An inkjet-printed alumina dielectric that provides quality factors of 200 and high

  11. A screen-printed flexible flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschos, A; Kaltsas, G; Syrovy, T; Syrova, L

    2017-01-01

    A thermal flow sensor was printed on a flexible plastic substrate using exclusively screen-printing techniques. The presented device was implemented with custom made screen-printed thermistors, which allows simple, cost-efficient production on a variety of flexible substrates while maintaining the typical advantages of thermal flow sensors. Evaluation was performed for both static (zero flow) and dynamic conditions using a combination of electrical measurements and IR imaging techniques in order to determine important characteristics, such as temperature response, output repeatability, etc. The flow sensor was characterized utilizing the hot-wire and calorimetric principles of operation, while the preliminary results appear to be very promising, since the sensor was successfully evaluated and displayed adequate sensitivity in a relatively wide flow range. (paper)

  12. Lip prints: Role in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Ganapathi, Nalliappan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Kumar, Muniapillai Siva; Aravindhan, Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Identification plays a major role in any crime investigation. The pattern of wrinkles on the lips has individual characteristics like fingerprints. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. In the past decades, lip-print studies attracted the attention of many scientists as a new tool for human identification in both civil and criminal issues. The lip crease pattern is on the vermilion border of the lip, which is quite mobile and lip prints may vary in appearance according to the pressure, direction and method used in making the print. It concludes by enlightening the readers with the fact that the possibilities to use the red part of lips to identify a human being are wider than it is commonly thought.

  13. Electron beam hardening type copper plate printing ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Eiji; Inoue, Mitsuo; Kusaki, Satoichiro

    1989-01-01

    Copper plate printing is the printing method of filling ink in the parts of concave printing elements on a type area, and transferring the ink to a base, and it is the feature that the ink in the printing element parts of a print rises. Copper plate prints show profound feeling, in addition, its effect of preventing forgery is high. This method is generally called engraving printing, and is used frequently for printing various bills and artistic prints. The electron beam irradiation apparatus installed in the laboratory of the Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, is an experimental machine of area beam type, and is so constructed as to do batch conveyance and web conveyance. As the ink in printing element parts rises, the offset at the delivery part of a printing machine becomes a problem. Electron beam is superior in its transparency, and can dry instantaneously to the inside of opaque ink. At 200 kV of acceleration voltage, the ink of copper plate prints can be hardened by electron beam irradiation. The dilution monomers as the vehicle for ink were tested for their dilution capability and the effect of electron beam hardening. The problem in the utilization of electron beam is the deterioration of papers, and the counter-measures were tested. (K.I.)

  14. Influence of Parameters of a Printing Plate on Photoluminescence of Nanophotonic Printed Elements of Novel Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sarapulova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce nanophotonic elements for smart packaging, we investigated the influence of the parameters of screen and offset gravure printing plates on features of printed application of coatings with nanophotonic components and on parameters of their photoluminescence. To determine the dependence of luminescence intensity on the thickness of solid coating, we carried out the formation of nanophotonic solid surfaces by means of screen printing with different layer thickness on polypropylene film. The obtained analytical dependencies were used to confirm the explanation of the processes that occur during the fabrication of nanophotonic coverings with offset gravure printing plates. As a result of experimental studies, it was determined that the different character of the dependency of total luminescence intensity of nanophotonic elements from the percentage of a pad is explained by the use of different types of offset gravure printing plates, where the size of raster points remains constant in one case and changes in the other case, while the depth of the printing elements accordingly changes or remains constant. To obtain nanophotonic areas with predetermined photoluminescent properties, the influence of investigated factors on changes of photoluminescent properties of nanophotonic printed surfaces should be taken into consideration.

  15. 3D-copper oxide and copper oxide/few-layer graphene with screen printed nanosheet assembly for ultrasensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhimei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Pan, Peng, E-mail: panpeny@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Liu, Xuewen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Yang, Zhengchun; Wei, Jun [Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Wei, Zhen, E-mail: weizhenxinxi@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Screen-printed copper oxide (CuO) and CuO/few-layer graphene on graphite electrodes were used to fabricate the ultrasensitive nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. Flower-like CuO and flower-like CuO/few-layer graphene composites were prepared by screen-printing method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HETEM). On the basis of their cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry results, it was concluded that the addition of graphene to CuO significantly improved the performance of the fabricated glucose sensors, exhibiting high and reproducible sensitivity of 3120 μAmM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} with three linear ranges from 4 μM to 13.5 mM and the detection limit of 4 μM (S/N = 3) in a fast response time of 2 s. In addition, the fabricated sensors could effectively avoid the disturbance by interferents, such as Ascorbic Acid (AA), Uric Acid (UA), and Dopamine (DA). Most importantly, the testing results of real blood serum samples demonstrated that the electrodes were applicable and acceptable for the determination of glucose concentrations in human serum. The efficiencies of two non-enzymatic glucose biosensors for glucose determination were comparable with that of a commercial enzymatic sensor. - Highlights: • The method 2D nanosheet turns to 3D microflower by using screen printing was proposed. • Few-layer graphene added improved the sensor’s performance on base of CuO functional material. • Two ultrasensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensors were successfully fabricated. • The proposed sensor shows a high sensitivity of 3120 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}.

  16. Print mass media: territory of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Akhmadulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the survival of the print media in the information market in the conditions of intense competition with online journalism and the whole information flow on the Internet. Despite the predictions of the impending death of print periodicals, more than half of the world adult population read a daily newspaper. At the same time, the trends taking place in the media market, confirm the reduction of print media segment in favor of the Internet. According to TNS-Russia data, only in 2013 the Internet audience has grown by 6 %. At the same time the circulation of print media in the US fell by 15 % in 2008- 2014, in Western Europe – by a quarter. In Russia, subscription circulation periodicals in the second half of 2014 fell by 20.2 %, and on the basis of subscription for the first half of 2015, the national average – 22 % (data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Post”. Finding ways to stabilize the fall of the print media, many US publishing houses see the transition from advertcentric business model to consumcentric model. It is necessary to use the specifics and advantages of newspapers and magazines (comfort, media planning logic, analytic, continuity and consistency of the content of individual and hypertext editions, and others to maintain the intellectual elite. Print media targeting to an elite audience (willing to pay for exclusiveness allows publishers to offset the rising cost of issuing paperbased, and consumers (subscribers will give a sense of communion to a certain social community, receiving verified and thorough information. In this case, the subscription to a newspaper or magazine (no retail outlet and online will be fashionable factor of association of elite communities and acquire new qualitative features in the development of civil society.

  17. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  18. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  19. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Steigner, Michael L.; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medical 3D printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, echocardiography and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced pre-operative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases, valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing peri-operative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  20. Applications of laser printing for organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Ainsebaa, A.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Benetti, M.; Boutopoulos, C.; Cannata, D.; Di Pietrantonio, F.; Dinca, V.; Dinescu, M.; Dutroncy, J.; Eason, R.; Feinaugle, M.; Fernández-Pradas, J.-M.; Grisel, A.; Kaur, K.; Lehmann, U.; Lippert, T.; Loussert, C.; Makrygianni, M.; Manfredonia, I.; Mattle, T.; Morenza, J.-L.; Nagel, M.; Nüesch, F.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Rapp, L.; Rizvi, N.; Rodio, G.; Sanaur, S.; Serra, P.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Sones, C. L.; Verona, E.; Zergioti, I.

    2013-03-01

    The development of organic electronic requires a non contact digital printing process. The European funded e-LIFT project investigated the possibility of using the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique to address this field of applications. This process has been optimized for the deposition of functional organic and inorganic materials in liquid and solid phase, and a set of polymer dynamic release layer (DRL) has been developed to allow a safe transfer of a large range of thin films. Then, some specific applications related to the development of heterogeneous integration in organic electronics have been addressed. We demonstrated the ability of LIFT process to print thin film of organic semiconductor and to realize Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) with mobilities as high as 4 10-2 cm2.V-1.s-1 and Ion/Ioff ratio of 2.8 105. Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (PLED) have been laser printed by transferring in a single step process a stack of thin films, leading to the fabrication of red, blue green PLEDs with luminance ranging from 145 cd.m-2 to 540 cd.m-2. Then, chemical sensors and biosensors have been fabricated by printing polymers and proteins on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices. The ability of LIFT to transfer several sensing elements on a same device with high resolution allows improving the selectivity of these sensors and biosensors. Gas sensors based on the deposition of semiconducting oxide (SnO2) and biosensors for the detection of herbicides relying on the printing of proteins have also been realized and their performances overcome those of commercial devices. At last, we successfully laser-printed thermoelectric materials and realized microgenerators for energy harvesting applications.

  1. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  2. Bioleaching of metals from printed circuit boards supported with surfactant-producing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Andrzejewska-Morzuch, Dorota; Łebkowska, Maria; Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Telepko, Alicja; Konarzewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioleaching of metals from printed circuit boards by BSAC-producing bacteria was estimated. • Aeration increased the release of all metals in medium with sulphur and biosurfactant. • Increase in Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr removal rate was observed at 37 °C in acidic medium. -- Abstract: This study has evaluated the possibility of bioleaching zinc, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium from printed circuit boards by applying a culture of sulphur-oxidising bacteria and a mixed culture of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and sulphur-oxidising bacteria. It was revealed that zinc was removed effectively both in a traditional solution acidified by a way of microbial oxidation of sulphur and when using a microbial culture containing sulphur-oxidising and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. The average process efficiency was 48% for Zn dissolution. Cadmium removal was similar in both media, with a highest metal release of 93%. For nickel and copper, a better effect was obtained in the acidic medium, with a process effectiveness of 48.5% and 53%, respectively. Chromium was the only metal that was removed more effectively in the bioleaching medium containing both sulphur-oxidising and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Lead was removed from the printed circuit boards with very low effectiveness (below 0.5%). Aerating the culture medium with compressed air increased the release of all metals in the medium with sulphur and biosurfactant, and of Ni, Cu, Zn and Cr in the acidic medium. Increasing the temperature of the medium (to 37 °C) had a more significant impact in the acidic environment than in the neutral environment

  3. Bioleaching of metals from printed circuit boards supported with surfactant-producing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwowska, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.karwowska@is.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Biology Division, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzejewska-Morzuch, Dorota; Łebkowska, Maria [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Biology Division, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw (Poland); Tabernacka, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.tabernacka@is.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Biology Division, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw (Poland); Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Telepko, Alicja; Konarzewska, Agnieszka [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Bioleaching of metals from printed circuit boards by BSAC-producing bacteria was estimated. • Aeration increased the release of all metals in medium with sulphur and biosurfactant. • Increase in Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr removal rate was observed at 37 °C in acidic medium. -- Abstract: This study has evaluated the possibility of bioleaching zinc, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium from printed circuit boards by applying a culture of sulphur-oxidising bacteria and a mixed culture of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and sulphur-oxidising bacteria. It was revealed that zinc was removed effectively both in a traditional solution acidified by a way of microbial oxidation of sulphur and when using a microbial culture containing sulphur-oxidising and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. The average process efficiency was 48% for Zn dissolution. Cadmium removal was similar in both media, with a highest metal release of 93%. For nickel and copper, a better effect was obtained in the acidic medium, with a process effectiveness of 48.5% and 53%, respectively. Chromium was the only metal that was removed more effectively in the bioleaching medium containing both sulphur-oxidising and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Lead was removed from the printed circuit boards with very low effectiveness (below 0.5%). Aerating the culture medium with compressed air increased the release of all metals in the medium with sulphur and biosurfactant, and of Ni, Cu, Zn and Cr in the acidic medium. Increasing the temperature of the medium (to 37 °C) had a more significant impact in the acidic environment than in the neutral environment.

  4. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong, E-mail: xiu_chem@hotmail.com [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • We report a novel electronic waste-based flame retardant for PVC. • The SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improves the flame retardancy of PVC. • The flame retardant mechanism of SCWO-treated PCBs was studied. • Appropriate amount flame retardant does not degrade the mechanical property of PVC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu{sub 2}O, CuO, and SnO{sub 2} were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu{sup 0} → Cu{sup +} → Cu{sup 2+}) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+}. After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs.

  5. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a novel electronic waste-based flame retardant for PVC. • The SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improves the flame retardancy of PVC. • The flame retardant mechanism of SCWO-treated PCBs was studied. • Appropriate amount flame retardant does not degrade the mechanical property of PVC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu_2O, CuO, and SnO_2 were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu"0 → Cu"+ → Cu"2"+) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu"+ and Cu"2"+. After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs.

  6. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  7. Nozzle geometry for organic vapor jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; McGraw, Gregory

    2017-10-25

    A first device is provided. The device includes a print head. The print head further includes a first nozzle hermetically sealed to a first source of gas. The first nozzle has an aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns in a direction perpendicular to a flow direction of the first nozzle. At a distance from the aperture into the first nozzle that is 5 times the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle, the smallest dimension perpendicular to the flow direction is at least twice the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle.

  8. Preliminary researches regarding edible jet printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, M. R.; Brasoveanu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The automatic reproduction of images with edible materials is a new method used lately to decorate cakes. An important component of this technology is the ink. The paper presents the results obtained by using different physical methods for analysis of some jet printing inks types. The analysed inks were the Canon inks and edible inks from Thailand. The main considered methods were the spectrocolourymetrical, rheological, electrochemical. Choosing as a chromatic standard the Canon inks and for the physicochemical properties the edible inks from Thailand, it was prepared a yellow edible printing ink which was characterized by same methods

  9. Antenna Fabrication using 3D printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elibiary, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses to explore the use of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to fabricate various radio frequency (RF) devices. 3D printing, a term used for AM has evolved to the point where it is being introduced into various industries, one of these, discussed in this thesis is the fabrication of antennas for the aim to reduce manufacturing costs and time.\\ud The aim is to investigate the performance and reliability of a modified low-cost 3D printer to print plastic and metal simultaneo...

  10. A guide to printed circuit board design

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Charles

    1984-01-01

    A Guide to Printed Circuit Board Design discusses the basic design principles of printed circuit board (PCB). The book consists of nine chapters; each chapter provides both text discussion and illustration relevant to the topic being discussed. Chapter 1 talks about understanding the circuit diagram, and Chapter 2 covers how to compile component information file. Chapter 3 deals with the design layout, while Chapter 4 talks about preparing the master artworks. The book also covers generating computer aided design (CAD) master patterns, and then discusses how to prepare the production drawing a

  11. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  12. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  13. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank [KROENERT GmbH and Co KG, Schuetzenstrasse 105, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  14. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, K; Ozolinsh, M; Fomins, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  15. Teenagers' perceptions of SMS Afrikaans in print advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenagers' perceptions of SMS Afrikaans in print advertisements. ... whether SMS Afrikaans could be employed as language of advertising in the print media. ... With regard to the perception of the writer, statistical effects were only found in the ...

  16. Technical limitations of African prints and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the study revealed that due to lack of collaboration between the textile and fashion industries, most African prints on the .... Clothing manufacturers must respond with speed, quality ... business of both companies is the production of wax prints ...

  17. Review of Recent Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Tactile Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is an advanced printing technology that has been used to develop conducting layers, interconnects and other features on a variety of substrates. It is an additive manufacturing process that offers cost-effective, lightweight designs and simplifies the fabrication process with little effort. There is hardly sufficient research on tactile sensors and inkjet printing. Advancements in materials science and inkjet printing greatly facilitate the realization of sophisticated tactile sensors. Starting from the concept of capacitive sensing, a brief comparison of printing techniques, the essential requirements of inkjet-printing and the attractive features of state-of-the art inkjet-printed tactile sensors developed on diverse substrates (paper, polymer, glass and textile are presented in this comprehensive review. Recent trends in inkjet-printed wearable/flexible and foldable tactile sensors are evaluated, paving the way for future research.

  18. Printing microstructures in a polymer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2016-01-01

    We print complex curvilinear microstructures in an elastomer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet as the print head. A magnetic field moves the droplet along a prescribed path in liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The droplet sheds magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) clusters in its wake, forming printed features. The PDMS is subsequently heated so that it crosslinks, which preserves the printed features in the elastomer matrix. The competition between magnetic and drag forces experienced by the ferrofluid droplet and its trailing MNPs highlight design criteria for successful printing, which are experimentally confirmed. The method promises new applications, such as flexible 3D circuitry. - Highlights: • Magnetically guided miscible ferrofluid droplets print 3D patterns in a polymer. • Printing mechanism depends on the dynamics between the fluid and magnetic forces. • Droplet size influences the width of the printed trail. • The Colloidal distribution of the ferrofluid is important for pattern integrity. • Particle trajectories and trails are simulated and validated through experiments.

  19. A 3D printed helical antenna with integrated lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    A novel antenna configuration comprising a helical antenna with an integrated lens is demonstrated in this work. The antenna is manufactured by a unique combination of 3D printing of plastic material (ABS) and inkjet printing of silver nano

  20. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed

  1. Metallurgy: No more tears for metal 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Iain

    2017-09-01

    3D printing could revolutionize manufacturing processes involving metals, but few industrially useful alloys are compatible with the technique. A method has been developed that might open up the 3D printing of all metals. See Letter p.365

  2. Communicating with the Public: Getting It into Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages for libraries of utilizing print media for public information and public relations. News releases, interest stories, and feature stories are described, and hints on writing style for each format and on getting items printed are offered. (MES)

  3. Printing microstructures in a polymer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Ghosh, Suvojit [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Puri, Ishwar K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    We print complex curvilinear microstructures in an elastomer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet as the print head. A magnetic field moves the droplet along a prescribed path in liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The droplet sheds magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) clusters in its wake, forming printed features. The PDMS is subsequently heated so that it crosslinks, which preserves the printed features in the elastomer matrix. The competition between magnetic and drag forces experienced by the ferrofluid droplet and its trailing MNPs highlight design criteria for successful printing, which are experimentally confirmed. The method promises new applications, such as flexible 3D circuitry. - Highlights: • Magnetically guided miscible ferrofluid droplets print 3D patterns in a polymer. • Printing mechanism depends on the dynamics between the fluid and magnetic forces. • Droplet size influences the width of the printed trail. • The Colloidal distribution of the ferrofluid is important for pattern integrity. • Particle trajectories and trails are simulated and validated through experiments.

  4. Stability of Cu-Precipitates in Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten E. M. Staab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present first principle calculations on formation and binding energies for Cu and Zn as solute atoms forming small clusters up to nine atoms in Al-Cu and Al-Zn alloys. We employ a density-functional approach implemented using projector-augmented waves and plane wave expansions. We find that some structures, in which Cu atoms are closely packed on {100}-planes, turn out to be extraordinary stable. We compare the results with existing numerical or experimental data when possible. We find that Cu atoms precipitating in the form of two-dimensional platelets on {100}-planes in the fcc aluminum are more stable than three-dimensional structures consisting of the same number of Cu-atoms. The preference turns out to be opposite for Zn in Al. Both observations are in agreement with experimental observations.

  5. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  6. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  7. The future of 3D printing technology in biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-01-01

    3D printing, one of the hottest cutting-edge interdisciplinary technologies, is projected to have revenue of $8.4 billion in 2020. #D printing technology will implement the concept of personalized medicine in medical healthcare industry and pharmaceutical fabrication. Organ printing, which it is defined as computer-aided, jet based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, is an interesting and challengeable field for 3D printing. Customized implants and prostheses can be produced in any ...

  8. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates ...

  9. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  10. Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petter, P.M.H.; Veit, H.M.; Bernardes, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Printed circuit boards (PCB) of mobile phones have large amounts of metals with high economic value such as gold and silver. • Dissolution of gold was done with a cyanide-based reagent and silver with nitric acid. • Leaching of PCB with Na 2 S 2 O 3 and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 to examine the feasibility of using these reagents was done. - Abstract: Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining “reference” values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2 h at 60 °C and 80 °C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO 3 were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na 2 S 2 O 3, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 in 0.1 M concentration with the addition of CuSO 4 , NH 4 OH, and H 2 O 2 , was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO 4 was added

  11. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products...

  12. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Printing and packaging. 58.340 Section 58.340... Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of butter... packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk butter in a room...

  13. Improving Heat Transfer Performance of Printed Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzel, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore the ability of printed circuit boards laminated with a Carbon Core Laminate to transfer heat vs. standard printed circuit boards that use only thick layers of copper. The paper will compare the differences in heat transfer performance of printed circuit boards with and without CCL.

  14. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  15. 3D inkjet printed flexible and wearable antenna systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    extremely low cost, to the extent that they become disposable. The flexible and low cost aspects can be addressed by adapting additive manufacturing technologies such as inkjet printing and 3D printing. This paper presents inkjet printing as an emerging new

  16. 3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P.; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Velev, Orlin D.

    2017-01-01

    3D printing of polymers is accomplished easily with thermoplastics as the extruded hot melt solidifies rapidly during the printing process. Printing with liquid polymer precursors is more challenging due to their longer curing times. One curable liquid polymer of specific interest is

  17. Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E.; Swennen, Ives; Girones, Jordi; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Schacht, Etienne; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the

  18. Inkjet Printing of 3D Metallic Silver Complex Microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Sridhar, Ashok; Dimitrov, D.

    2010-01-01

    To broaden the scope of inkjet printing, this paper focuses on printing of an organic silver complex ink on glass substrates towards the fabrication of metallic 3D microstructures. The droplet formation sequence of the inkjet printer is optimised to print continuous layers of metal. A brief

  19. 14 CFR 221.195 - Requirement for filing printed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for filing printed material... filing printed material. (a) Any tariff, or revision thereto, filed in paper format which accompanies... supporting paper tariff, except as authorized by the Department. (b) Any printed justifications, or other...

  20. 3D-printing soft sEMG sensing structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Gerjan; Sanders, Remco; Muijzer, Frodo; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan; Krijnen, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of soft and flexible 3D-printed sEMG electrodes. The electrodes are printed in one go on a low cost consumer multi-material FDM printer. The printed structures do not need any further production steps to give them conductive properties.

  1. Numerical simulation of evaporation and absorption of inkjet printed droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing is an important field of research for many industrial applications. In particular, the inkjet-printing technology is widely used in the production of a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form by printing ink on papers and the manufacturing of microarray slides by

  2. Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia

    2017-02-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research.

  3. Effects of providing word sounds during printed word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P.; Dongen, van A.J.N.; Custers, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the availability of the spoken sound of words along with the printed forms during reading practice. Firstgrade children from two normal elementary schools practised reading several unfamiliar words in print. For half of the printed words the

  4. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  5. Bubbles in piezo-acoustic inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, D.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; de Jong, J.; Versluis, M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.; van den Berg, M.; Reinten, H.

    2008-01-01

    Ink-jet printing is considered as the hitherto most successful application of microfluidics. A notorious problem in piezo-acoustic ink-jet systems is the formation of air bubbles during operation. They seriously disturb the acoustics and can cause the droplet formation to stop. We could show by a

  6. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  7. EDMS based workflow for Printing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Nayak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information is indispensable factor of any enterprise. It can be a record or a document generated for every transaction that is made, which is either a paper based or in electronic format for future reference. A Printing Industry is one such industry in which managing information of various formats, with latest workflows and technologies, could be a nightmare and a challenge for any operator or an user when each process from the least bit of information to a printed product are always dependendent on each other. Hence the information has to be harmonized artistically in order to avoid production downtime or employees pointing fingers at each other. This paper analyses how the implementation of Electronic Document Management System (EDMS could contribute to the Printing Industry for immediate access to stored documents within and across departments irrespective of geographical boundaries. The paper outlines initially with a brief history, contemporary EDMS system and some illustrated examples with a study done by choosing Library as a pilot area for evaluating EDMS. The paper ends with an imitative proposal that maps several document management based activities for implementation of EDMS for a Printing Industry.

  8. Inkjet printing of polyurethane colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.M.J.; Smith, P.J.; Perelaer, J.; Schrof, W.; Koltzenburg, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous 40 wt% dispersion of polyurethane has been successfully printed at room temperature using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Simple layered structures, as well as dots, were made and subsequently analyzed using white-light interferometry. A single layer was found to have a structure height

  9. Structuring the competitive advantage of printing company

    OpenAIRE

    Kukharuk A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the concept of "competitive advantage of the company" if analyzed. The concept of "structuring a competitive advantage" is suggested. The model of structuring of printing company’s competitive advantage based on fundamentals of stakeholder theory is developed.

  10. Imidazolide monolayers for versatile reactive microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, S.H.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Velders, Aldrik

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolide monolayers prepared from the reaction of amino SAMs with N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) are used as a versatile platform for surface patterning with amino-, carboxyl- and alcohol-containing compounds through reactive microcontact printing (µCP). To demonstrate the surface reactivity of

  11. 48 CFR 1552.208-70 - Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” (or “camera-ready copy”) is a final document suitable for printing/duplication. “Desktop Publishing... from desktop publishing is being sent to a typesetting device (i.e., Linotronic) with camera copy being... preparing related illustrative material to a final document (camera-ready copy) using desktop publishing. (2...

  12. 77 FR 60667 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ...'' (or ``camera-ready copy'') is a final document suitable for printing/duplication. ``Desktop Publishing... from desktop publishing is being sent to a typesetting device (i.e., Linotronic) with camera copy being...) using desktop publishing. (2) The contractor may perform a requirement involving the duplication of less...

  13. A Bridge between Pictures and Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, Dorothy

    1981-01-01

    The experiment investigated the feasibility of bridging the gap between the recognition of pictures and the recognition of words in four mentally handicapped adolescents by adapting a modified version of symbol accentuation (in which a printed word looks like the object it represents). (SB)

  14. Reviewing Printed Subject Bibliographies: A Worksheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the importance of reviews of bibliographies to librarians, identifies common problems with the review process, and proposes a worksheet that will enable reviewers of printed subject bibliographies to address the needs of librarians. The theoretical foundation for the concepts used in the worksheet are discussed. (14 references) (CLB)

  15. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  16. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  17. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  18. 3D Printing and Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehnberg, Märtha; Ponte, Stefano

    From the birth of industrialization, access to new technology has been a decisive factor in how value added is created and distributed across networks of global production. This article provides a balanced assessment of the potential impact that one of these technologies (3D printing, or 3DP) may...

  19. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a

  20. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  1. 3D Printed Shock Mitigating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda; Elston, Edwin; Dennis, Mitzi; Metroke, Tammy; Chen, Chenggang; Patton, Steven; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit

    Here we explore the durability, and shock mitigating potential, of solid and cellular 3D printed polymers and conductive inks under high strain rate, compressive shock wave and high g acceleration conditions. Our initial designs include a simple circuit with 4 resistors embedded into circular discs and a complex cylindrical gyroid shape. A novel ink consisting of silver-coated carbon black nanoparticles in a thermoplastic polyurethane was used as the trace material. One version of the disc structural design has the advantage of allowing disassembly after testing for direct failure analysis. After increasing impacts, printed and traditionally potted circuits were examined for functionality. Additionally, in the open disc design, trace cracking and delamination of resistors were able to be observed. In a parallel study, we examined the shock mitigating behavior of 3D printed cellular gyroid structures on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). We explored alterations to the classic SHPB setup for testing the low impedance, cellular samples to most accurately reflect the stress state inside the sample (strain rates from 700 to 1750 s-1). We discovered that the gyroid can effectively absorb the impact of the test resulting in crushing the structure. Future studies aim to tailor the unit cell dimensions for certain frequencies, increase print accuracy and optimize material compositions for conductivity and adhesion to manufacture more durable devices.

  2. Printing--Graphic Arts--Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, A. Dean

    1975-01-01

    Recently, "graphic arts" has shifted from printing skills to a conceptual approach of production processes. "Graphic communications" must embrace the total system of communication through graphic media, to serve broad career education purposes; students taught concepts and principles can be flexible and adaptive. The author…

  3. Printed microfluidic filter for heparinized blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilatto, Stanley E R; Adly, Nouran Y; Correa, Daniel S; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Yakushenko, Alexey

    2017-05-01

    A simple lab-on-a-chip method for blood plasma separation was developed by combining stereolithographic 3D printing with inkjet printing, creating a completely sealed microfluidic device. In some approaches, one dilutes the blood sample before separation, reducing the concentration of a target analyte and increasing a contamination risk. In this work, a single drop (8  μ l) of heparinized whole blood could be efficiently filtered using a capillary effect without any external driving forces and without dilution. The blood storage in heparin tubes during 24 h at 4 °C initiated the formation of small crystals that formed auto-filtration structures in the sample upon entering the 3D-printed device, with pores smaller than the red blood cells, separating plasma from the cellular content. The total filtration process took less than 10 s. The presented printed plasma filtration microfluidics fabricated with a rapid prototyping approach is a miniaturized, fast and easy-to-operate device that can be integrated into healthcare/portable systems for point-of-care diagnostics.

  4. All-printed paper-based memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho; Lien, Der-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described which can be prepared by a process that includes coating, using a screen printer, one or more areas of a paper substrate (102) with a conductor material (104), such as a carbon paste

  5. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Patrick

    Full Text Available The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology.

  6. No-infill 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  7. Out-of-Print Digital Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Describes the in-house operational procedures developed at the Penn State University libraries to produce facsimiles of hard-to-locate, out-of-print titles using digital scanning technologies. Highlights include identification and selection, costs, copyright issues, interlibrary loan, materials preparation, and future trends. (Author/LRW)

  8. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  9. Inkjet printing technology for OPV applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Sweelssen, J.; Grossiord, N.; Gorter, H.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) at low cost is, still, a future concept thought to promote the market share of solar energy. Working towards the roll-to-roll production of OPVs, different compatible deposition techniques are investigated. Inkjet printing is a promising

  10. Numerical models for printing and coating flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gethin, DT

    2002-01-01

    This issue brings together a number of papers under the theme of thin filmflows that are generic to printing and a wide range of coating applications.These processes require the deposition of a thin layer of fluid (or polymer) ontoa substrate. The simulation of these processes presents a number of numericalchallenges.

  11. Adhesion characterization of inkjet printed tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, Ashok; Akkerman, Remko; van Dijk, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The robustness and service life of inkjet printed electronic circuit structures are highly influenced by the state of the interface between these structures and the substrate. In the case of polymeric substrate materials, surface modification is necessary to realise a favourable interface, as these

  12. Prints Charles toetab talunike innovatsiooni / Merit Mikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikk, Merit, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Mahe- ja tavatootjatele suunatud uuenduslike tehnoloogiate arendamise ja jätkusuutlike lahenduste leidmise programmist Duchy Future Farming. Programmi veavad prints Charlesi fond, maheorganisatsioon Soil Association, Waitrose kaubandusketi juhtiv mahebränd Duchy Organics ja mahepõllumajanduse uurimiskeskus (Organic Research Centre)

  13. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  14. Fully Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming

    Through this thesis proposal, the author has demonstrated series of flexible or stretchable sensors including strain gauge, pressure sensors, display arrays, thin film transistors and photodetectors fabricated by a direct printing process. By adopting the novel serpentine configuration with conventional non-stretchable materials silver nanoparticles, the fully printed stretchable devices are successfully fabricated on elastomeric substrate with the demonstration of stretchable conductors that can maintain the electrical properties under strain and the strain gauge, which could be used to measure the strain in desired locations and also to monitor individual person's finger motion. And by investigating the intrinsic stretchable materials silver nanowires (AgNWs) with the conventional configuration, the fully printed stretchable conductors are achieved on various substrates including Si, glass, Polyimide, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Very High Bond (VHB) tape with the illustration of the capacitive pressure sensor and stretchable electroluminescent displays. In addition, intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits are directly printed on elastomeric PDMS substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance. Finally, by applying the SWNTs as the channel layer of the thin film transistor, we successfully fabricate the fully printed flexible photodetector which exhibits good electrical characteristics and the transistors exhibit

  15. AirPrint Forensics: Recovering the Contents and Metadata of Printed Documents from iOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez-Miralles

    2015-01-01

    data they may store, opens new opportunities in the field of computer forensics. In 2010, version 4 of the iOS operating system introduced AirPrint, a simple and driverless wireless printing functionality supported by hundreds of printer models from all major vendors. This paper describes the traces left in the iOS device when AirPrint is used and presents a method for recovering content and metadata of documents that have been printed.

  16. Colour changes in prints during long-term dark storage of prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2010-01-01

    The most significant impact on colour fading in prints is exposure to light and air. However what happens to coloured prints during long-term storage in boxes, drawers and on shelves? Measurements of samples, printed in July 2005, stored in a range of light and darkened storage conditions have shown some interesting initial results. As more emphasis is placed on the effects of light, the dark stability of inkjet prints is relatively overlooked when considering how to preserve or store coloured prints. This study and presentation builds on previous research [1] and has concentrated on the changes to colour during storage. With reference to ASTM F2035 - 00(2006) Standard Practice for Measuring the Dark Stability of Ink Jet Prints, the Standards outline points out that whilst natural aging is the most reliable method of assessing image stability, materials and inks any data that is produced quickly becomes redundant; therefore accelerated aging is more preferred. However, the fine art materials in this study are still very much in circulation. The leading fine art papers, and pigmented ink-sets used in these trials are still being used by artists. We can therefore demonstrate the characteristics of colour changes and the impact of ink on paper that utilises natural aging methods.

  17. Drug-printing by flexographic printing technology--a new manufacturing process for orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva Maria; Schliephacke, Ralf; Breitenbach, Armin; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-01-30

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are intended to disintegrate within seconds when placed onto the tongue. The common way of manufacturing is the solvent casting method. Flexographic printing on drug-free ODFs is introduced as a highly flexible and cost-effective alternative manufacturing method in this study. Rasagiline mesylate and tadalafil were used as model drugs. Printing of rasagiline solutions and tadalafil suspensions was feasible. Up to four printing cycles were performed. The possibility to employ several printing cycles enables a continuous, highly flexible manufacturing process, for example for individualised medicine. The obtained ODFs were characterised regarding their mechanical properties, their disintegration time, API crystallinity and homogeneity. Rasagiline mesylate did not recrystallise after the printing process. Relevant film properties were not affected by printing. Results were comparable to the results of ODFs manufactured with the common solvent casting technique, but the APIs are less stressed through mixing, solvent evaporation and heat. Further, loss of material due to cutting jumbo and daughter rolls can be reduced. Therefore, a versatile new manufacturing technology particularly for processing high-potent low-dose or heat sensitive drugs is introduced in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D printing and two-dimensional (2D printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  19. Deuterium transport in Cu, CuCrZr, and Cu/Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Hankins, M. R.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.

    This paper presents the results of deuterium implantation/permeation experiments and TMAP4 simulations for a CuCrZr alloy, for OFHC-Cu and for a Cu/Be bi-layered structure at temperatures from 700 to 800 K. Experiments used a mass-analyzed, 3-keV D 3+ ion beam with particle flux densities of 5 × 10 19 to 7 × 10 19 D/m 2 s. Effective diffusivities and surface molecular recombination coefficients were derived giving Arrhenius pre-exponentials and activation energies for each material: CuCrZr alloy, (2.0 × 10 -2 m 2/s, 1.2 eV) for diffusivity and (2.9 × x10 -14 m 4/s, 1.92 eV) for surface molecular recombination coefficients; OFHC Cu, (2.1 × 10 -6 m 2/s, 0.52 eV) for diffusivity and (9.1 × 10 -18 m 4/s, 0.99 eV) for surface molecular recombination coefficients. TMAP4 simulation of permeation data measured for a Cu/Be bi-layer sample was achieved using a four-layer structure (Cu/BeO interface/Be/BeO back surface) and recommended values for diffusivity and solubility in Be, BeO and Cu.

  20. Cu-Cr Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Need, Ryan F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Cu-Cr alloys are part of a class of face-centered cubic (FCC)-body-centered cubic (BCC) composites that includes similar alloys, such as Cu-Nb and Cu-Ta. When heavily deformed, these FCC-BCC materials create 'in situ' composites with a characteristic structure-nanoscale BCC filaments in a ductile FCC matrix. The strength of these composites is vastly greater than predicted by the rule of mixtures, and has been shown to be inversely proportional to the filament spacing. Lower raw materials costs suggest that Cu-Cr alloys may offer more economical solution to high-strength, high-conductivity wire than either their Nb or Ta counterparts. However, Cr is also more brittle and soluble in Cu than Nb or Ta. These qualities necessitate thermal treatments to remove solute atoms from the Cu matrix, improve conductivity, and maintain the ductility of the Cr filaments. Through the use of different thermomechanical processing routes or the addition of select dopants, alloys with strength in excess of 1 GPa at 70% IACS have been achieved. To date, previous research on Cu-Cr alloys has focused on a relatively small number of alloy compositions and processing methods while the effects of dopants and ageing treatments have only been studied independently. Consequently, there remains considerable opportunity for the development and optimization of these alloys as a leading high-strength, high-conductivity material.

  1. FUTURE SCOPE OF WOMEN CARRIER IN THE PRINTING INDUSTRY: THE CHALLENGES OF WOMEN IN PRINTING OGANIZATIONS (A SURVEY OF TWENTY FIVE COMPANIES "SMALL, MEDIUM AND LARGE PRINTING ORGANIZATION" IN AREA "NCR DELHI AND HISAR, HR".)

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Azad Singh*

    2017-01-01

    Women carrier in printing organization today, printing industry is growing with an expositional rate & required skills manpower. In this survey based paper to getting recruit of women 10%small, 30%medium and 60% large scale print industry. Objective of this paper is too filled out manpower skills printing industries are seaking in B.Tech women printing students to bridge the gap between skills and required in printing organization. A survey 25 companies was carried out. the result indicated t...

  2. Forensic print extraction using 3D technology and its processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos S.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric evidence plays a crucial role in criminal scene analysis. Forensic prints can be extracted from any solid surface such as firearms, doorknobs, carpets and mugs. Prints such as fingerprints, palm prints, footprints and lip-prints can be classified into patent, latent, and three-dimensional plastic prints. Traditionally, law enforcement officers capture these forensic traits using an electronic device or extract them manually, and save the data electronically using special scanners. The reliability and accuracy of the method depends on the ability of the officer or the electronic device to extract and analyze the data. Furthermore, the 2-D acquisition and processing system is laborious and cumbersome. This can lead to the increase in false positive and true negative rates in print matching. In this paper, a method and system to extract forensic prints from any surface, irrespective of its shape, is presented. First, a suitable 3-D camera is used to capture images of the forensic print, and then the 3-D image is processed and unwrapped to obtain 2-D equivalent biometric prints. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of using 3-D technology for biometric matching of fingerprints, palm prints, and lip-prints. This system can be further extended to other biometric and non-biometric modalities.

  3. REAL TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF THE HEATSET OFFSET PRINTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-George RĂCHERU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Because of the high speed and the high volume of the printing press, we have to rely on automation for press control and not just to the printer’s eye. When printing an image that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the finished image will look fuzzy, blurred or "out of register". To help line the colors up correctly, a system of registration is necessary. Therefore, the use of an automated real time quality control system will result in a more consistent color for the customer and less waste for the printer.

  4. Reprocessable thermosets for sustainable three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Kowsari, Kavin; Serjouei, Ahmad; Dunn, Martin L; Ge, Qi

    2018-05-08

    Among all three-dimensional (3D) printing materials, thermosetting photopolymers claim almost half of the market, and have been widely used in various fields owing to their superior mechanical stability at high temperatures, excellent chemical resistance as well as good compatibility with high-resolution 3D printing technologies. However, once these thermosetting photopolymers form 3D parts through photopolymerization, the covalent networks are permanent and cannot be reprocessed, i.e., reshaped, repaired, or recycled. Here, we report a two-step polymerization strategy to develop 3D printing reprocessable thermosets (3DPRTs) that allow users to reform a printed 3D structure into a new arbitrary shape, repair a broken part by simply 3D printing new material on the damaged site, and recycle unwanted printed parts so the material can be reused for other applications. These 3DPRTs provide a practical solution to address environmental challenges associated with the rapid increase in consumption of 3D printing materials.

  5. Batch fabrication of disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lu-Lu; Li, Da-Wei; Xue, Jin-Qun; Zhai, Wen-Lei; Fossey, John S; Long, Yi-Tao

    2012-03-07

    A novel facile method of fabricating disposable and highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) arrays using screen printing was explored. The screen printing ink containing silver nanoparticles was prepared and printed on supporting materials by a screen printing process to fabricate SERS arrays (6 × 10 printed spots) in large batches. The fabrication conditions, SERS performance and application of these arrays were systematically investigated, and a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(-13) M for rhodamine 6G could be achieved. Moreover, the screen printed SERS arrays exhibited high reproducibility and stability, the spot-to-spot SERS signals showed that the intensity variation was less than 10% and SERS performance could be maintained over 12 weeks. Portable high-throughput analysis of biological samples was accomplished using these disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

  6. 3D printing applications for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economidou, Sophia N; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Douroumis, Dennis

    2018-06-15

    The role of two and three-dimensional printing as a fabrication technology for sophisticated transdermal drug delivery systems is explored in literature. 3D printing encompasses a family of distinct technologies that employ a virtual model to produce a physical object through numerically controlled apparatuses. The applicability of several printing technologies has been researched for the direct or indirect printing of microneedle arrays or for the modification of their surface through drug-containing coatings. The findings of the respective studies are presented. The range of printable materials that are currently used or potentially can be employed for 3D printing of transdermal drug delivery (TDD) systems is also reviewed. Moreover, the expected impact and challenges of the adoption of 3D printing as a manufacturing technique for transdermal drug delivery systems, are assessed. Finally, this paper outlines the current regulatory framework associated with 3D printed transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The future of 3D printing technology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing, one of the hottest cutting-edge interdisciplinary technologies, is projected to have revenue of $8.4 billion in 2020. #D printing technology will implement the concept of personalized medicine in medical healthcare industry and pharmaceutical fabrication. Organ printing, which it is defined as computer-aided, jet based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, is an interesting and challengeable field for 3D printing. Customized implants and prostheses can be produced in any imaginable geometry through the translation of radiological images of patients into digital.stl 3D print files. The creation of anatomical models based on the patient’s pathological conditions using 3D printing technologies would provide good models for training and to design surgical approaches. Hence, 3D printing not only will transform medical healthcare industry but also promises new converging technologies in the field of regenerative medicine.

  8. Future enhancements to 3D printing and real time production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Joseph; Jenkins, Jeffery; Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    The cost and scope of additive printing machines range from several hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the extra money, one can get improvements in build size, selection of material properties, resolution, and consistency. However, temperature control during build and fusing predicts outcome and protects the IP by large high cost machines. Support material options determine geometries that can be accomplished which drives cost and complexity of printing heads. Historically, 3D printers have been used for design and prototyping efforts. Recent advances and cost reduction sparked new interest in developing printed products and consumables such as NASA who is printing food, printing consumer parts (e.g. cell phone cases, novelty toys), making tools and fixtures in manufacturing, and recursively print a self-similar printer (c.f. makerbot). There is a near term promise of the capability to print on demand products at the home or office... directly from the printer to use.

  9. Viscoplastic Matrix Materials for Embedded 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, Abigail K; Truby, Ryan L; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Perazzo, Antonio; Lewis, Jennifer A; Stone, Howard A

    2018-03-16

    Embedded three-dimensional (EMB3D) printing is an emerging technique that enables free-form fabrication of complex architectures. In this approach, a nozzle is translated omnidirectionally within a soft matrix that surrounds and supports the patterned material. To optimize print fidelity, we have investigated the effects of matrix viscoplasticity on the EMB3D printing process. Specifically, we determine how matrix composition, print path and speed, and nozzle diameter affect the yielded region within the matrix. By characterizing the velocity and strain fields and analyzing the dimensions of the yielded regions, we determine that scaling relationships based on the Oldroyd number, Od, exist between these dimensions and the rheological properties of the matrix materials and printing parameters. Finally, we use EMB3D printing to create complex architectures within an elastomeric silicone matrix. Our methods and findings will both facilitate future characterization of viscoplastic matrices and motivate the development of new materials for EMB3D printing.

  10. 3D Printing of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Microsupercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Zhou, Han; Li, Ben Q; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-02-08

    A novel 3D printing procedure is presented for fabricating carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)-based microsupercapacitors. The 3D printer uses a CNTs ink slurry with a moderate solid content and prints a stream of continuous droplets. Appropriate control of a heated base is applied to facilitate the solvent removal and adhesion between printed layers and to improve the structure integrity without structure delamination or distortion upon drying. The 3D-printed electrodes for microsupercapacitors are characterized by SEM, laser scanning confocal microscope, and step profiler. Effect of process parameters on 3D printing is also studied. The final solid-state microsupercapacitors are assembled with the printed multilayer CNTs structures and poly(vinyl alcohol)-H 3 PO 4 gel as the interdigitated microelectrodes and electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of 3D printed microsupercapacitors is also tested, showing a significant areal capacitance and excellent cycle stability.

  11. Direct Desktop Printed-Circuits-on-Paper Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhizhu; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There currently lacks of a way to directly write out electronics, just like printing pictures on paper by an office printer. Here we show a desktop printing of flexible circuits on paper via developing liquid metal ink and related working mechanisms. Through modifying adhesion of the ink, overcoming its high surface tension by dispensing machine and designing a brush like porous pinhead for printing alloy and identifying matched substrate materials among different papers, the slightly oxidized alloy ink was demonstrated to be flexibly printed on coated paper, which could compose various functional electronics and the concept of Printed-Circuits-on-Paper was thus presented. Further, RTV silicone rubber was adopted as isolating inks and packaging material to guarantee the functional stability of the circuit, which suggests an approach for printing 3D hybrid electro-mechanical device. The present work paved the way for a low cost and easygoing method in directly printing paper electronics.

  12. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates controllable chromotropic capability, that is, the ability of reversible colour transformations. This chromotropic capability affords enormous potentials in building functionalized prints for anticounterfeiting, special label, and high-density data encryption storage. With such excellent performances in functional colour applications, this colour-printing approach could pave the way for plasmonic colour printing in real-world commercial utilization. PMID:26567803

  13. Cu-ZSM-5, Cu-ZSM-11, and Cu-ZSM-12 Catalysts for Direct NO Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christiansen, Sofie E.

    2006-01-01

    Cu-ZSM-5 has for many years been recognized as a unique catalyst for direct NO decomposition. Here, it is discovered that both Cu-ZSM-11 and Cu-ZSM-12 are about twice as active as Cu-ZSM-5. This difference is attributed to the active sites located almost exclusively in the straight zeolite pores...

  14. Physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern manufacturing processes of complex integrated semiconductor devices are based on wafer-level manufacturing of components which are subsequently interconnected. When compared with classical monolithic bi-dimensional integrated circuits (2D ICs), the new approach of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) exhibits significant benefits in terms of signal propagation delay and power consumption due to the reduced metal interconnection length and allows high integration levels with reduced form factor. Metal thermo-compression bonding is a process suitable for 3D interconnects applications at wafer level, which facilitates the electrical and mechanical connection of two wafers even processed in different technologies, such as complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Due to its high electrical conductivity, copper is a very attractive material for electrical interconnects. For Cu-Cu wafer bonding the process requires typically bonding for around 1 h at 400°C and high contact pressure applied during bonding. Temperature reduction below such values is required in order to solve issues regarding (i) throughput in the wafer bonder, (ii) wafer-to-wafer misalignment after bonding and (iii) to minimise thermo-mechanical stresses or device degradation. The aim of this work was to study the physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu bonding and based on this study to further optimise the bonding process for low temperatures. The critical sample parameters (roughness, oxide, crystallinity) were identified using selected analytical techniques and correlated with the characteristics of the bonded Cu-Cu interfaces. Based on the results of this study the impact of several materials and process specifications on the bonding result were theoretically defined and experimentally proven. These fundamental findings subsequently facilitated low temperature (LT) metal thermo-compression Cu-Cu wafer bonding and even room temperature direct

  15. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue 67Cu retention kinetics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 μCi 67 Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on 67 Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained 67 Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted

  16. Renal Cu and Na excretion and hepatic Cu metabolism in both Cu acclimated and non acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Wood, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    protein depending on whether the Cu is derived from recent branchial uptake or is already present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure. The plasma Cu pool derived from recent branchial uptake and the Cu pool present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure is accessible to renal excretion to different...... Na+ efflux decreased by 40%, which was largely due to increased tubular Na+ reabsorption. Renal compensation for the impaired branchial Na+ uptake, seen during Cu exposure, thus seems to be involved in Cu acclimation in rainbow trout. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  17. Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Mario; Morales, J.R.; Riquelme, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, β + ) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 ± 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 ± 0,011 μCl/μAh medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 ± 0,015 μCl/μAh for 64 Cu

  18. Tailoring Graphene Morphology and Orientation on Cu(100), Cu(110), and Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, Robert; Arnold, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Graphene CVD on Cu is phenomenologically complex, yielding diverse crystal morphologies, such as lobes, dendrites, stars, and hexagons, of various orientations. We present a comprehensive study of the evolution of these morphologies as a function of Cu surface orientation, pressure, H2:CH4, and nucleation density. Growth was studied on ultra-smooth, epitaxial Cu films inside Cu enclosures to minimize factors that normally complicate growth. With low H2:CH4, Mullins-Sekerka instabilities propagate to form dendrites, indicating transport limited growth. In LPCVD, the dendrites extend hundreds of microns in the 100, 111, and 110 directions on Cu(100), (110), and (111) and are perturbed by twin boundaries. In APCVD, multiple preferred dendrite orientations exist. With increasing H2:CH4, the dendritic nature of growth is suppressed. In LPCVD, square, rectangle, and hexagon crystals form on Cu(100), (110) and (111), reflecting the Cu crystallography. In APCVD, the morphology becomes hexagonal on each surface. If given ample time, every growth regime yields high-quality monolayers with D:G Raman ratio rationally tailor the graphene crystal morphology and orientation.

  19. Morphology and chemical composition of Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(5 at-%Ni)/Sn/Cu(5 at-%Ni) interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.; Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.; Kodentsov, A.; Zieba, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy investigations were performed to describe the morphology and chemical composition of the intermetallic phases growing in Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(Ni)/Sn/Cu(Ni) interconnections during the

  20. Everlasting Dark Printing on Alumina by Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Arias-González, F.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    Marks or prints are needed in almost every material, mainly for decorative or identification purposes. Despite alumina is widely employed in many different industries, the need of printing directly on its surface is still a complex problem. In this sense, lasers have largely demonstrated their high capacities to mark almost every material including ceramics, but performing dark permanent marks on alumina is still an open challenge. In this work we present the results of a comprehensive experimental analysis on the process of marking alumina by laser. Four different laser sources were used in this study: a fiber laser (1075 nm) and three diode pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers emitting at near-infrared (1064 nm), visible (532 nm) and ultraviolet (355 nm) wavelengths, respectively. The results obtained with the four lasers were compared and physical processes involved were explained in detail. Colorimetric analyses allowed to identify the optimal parameters and conditions to produce everlasting and high contrast marks on alumina.

  1. 3D Printing Openable Imaging Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Keun; Won, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Seung Wook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an openable phantom that can replace the internal measurement bar used for contrast comparison in order to increase the efficiency of manufacturing imaging phantom used in the medical industry and to improve convenience using 3D printer. Phantom concept design, 3D printing, and Image reconstruction were defined as the scope of the thesis. Also, we study metal artifact reduction with openable phantom. We have designed a Openable phantom using 3D printing, and have investigated metal artifact reduction after inserting a metallic material inside the phantom. The openable phantom can be adjusted at any time to suit the user's experiment and can be easily replaced and useful.

  2. Building a print on demand web service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prakash; Rozario, Benedict; Dudekula, Shariff; V, Anil Dev

    2011-03-01

    There is considerable effort underway to digitize all books that have ever been printed. There is need for a service that can take raw book scans and convert them into Print on Demand (POD) books. Such a service definitely augments the digitization effort and enables broader access to a wider audience. To make this service practical we have identified three key challenges that needed to be addressed. These are: a) produce high quality image images by eliminating artifacts that exist due to the age of the document or those that are introduced during the scanning process b) develop an efficient automated system to process book scans with minimum human intervention; and c) build an eco system which allows us the target audience to discover these books.

  3. Dynamics of wetting explored with inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völkel Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An inkjet printer head, which is capable of depositing liquid droplets with a resolution of 22 picoliters and high repeatability, is employed to investigate the wetting dynamics of drops printed on a horizontal plane as well as on a granular monolayer. For a sessile drop on a horizontal plane, we characterize the contact angle hysteresis, drop volume and contact line dynamics from side view images. We show that the evaporation rate scales with the dimension of the contact line instead of the surface area of the drop. We demonstrate that the system evolves into a closed cycle upon repeating the depositing-evaporating process, owing to the high repeatability of the printing facility. Finally, we extend the investigation to a granular monolayer in order to explore the interplay between liquid deposition and granular particles.

  4. Printed electronic on flexible and glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2010-09-01

    Organic electronics is a platform technology that enables multiple applications based on organic electronics but varied in specifications. Organic electronics is based on the combination of new materials and cost-effective, large area production processes that provide new fields of application. Organic electronic by its size, weight, flexibility and environmental friendliness electronics enables low cost production of numerous electrical components and provides for such promising fields of application as: intelligent packaging, low cost RFID, flexible solar cells, disposable diagnostic devices or games, and printed batteries [1]. The paper presents results of inkjetted electronics elements on flexible and glass substrates. The investigations was target on characterizing shape, surface and geometry of printed structures. Variety of substrates were investigated, within some, low cost, non specialized substrate, design for other purposes than organic electronic.

  5. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  6. Rapid Assessment of the Ce-Co-Fe-Cu System for Permanent Magnetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Gandha, K.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Palasyuk, A.; Simsek, E.; Kramer, M. J.; Ott, R. T.

    2018-04-01

    This work focuses on the rapid synthesis and characterization of quaternary Ce(CoFeCu)5 alloy libraries to assess their potential viability as permanent magnets. Arrays of bulk specimens with controlled compositions were synthesized via laser engineered net shaping (LENS) by feeding different ratios of alloy powders into a melt pool created by a laser. Based on the assessment of the magnetic properties of the LENS printed samples, arc-melted and cast ingots were prepared with varying Fe (5-20 at.%) and Co (60-45 at.%) compositions while maintaining constant Ce (16 at.%) and Cu (19 at.%) content. The evolution of the microstructure and phases with varying chemical compositions and their dependence on magnetic properties are analyzed in as-cast and heat-treated samples. In both the LENS printed and cast samples, we find the best magnetic properties correspond to a predominantly single-phase Ce(CoFeCu)5 microstructure in which high coercivity (H c > 10 kOe) can be achieved without any microstructural refinement.

  7. Rapid Assessment of the Ce-Co-Fe-Cu System for Permanent Magnetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Gandha, K.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Palasyuk, A.; Simsek, E.; Kramer, M. J.; Ott, R. T.

    2018-06-01

    This work focuses on the rapid synthesis and characterization of quaternary Ce(CoFeCu)5 alloy libraries to assess their potential viability as permanent magnets. Arrays of bulk specimens with controlled compositions were synthesized via laser engineered net shaping (LENS) by feeding different ratios of alloy powders into a melt pool created by a laser. Based on the assessment of the magnetic properties of the LENS printed samples, arc-melted and cast ingots were prepared with varying Fe (5-20 at.%) and Co (60-45 at.%) compositions while maintaining constant Ce (16 at.%) and Cu (19 at.%) content. The evolution of the microstructure and phases with varying chemical compositions and their dependence on magnetic properties are analyzed in as-cast and heat-treated samples. In both the LENS printed and cast samples, we find the best magnetic properties correspond to a predominantly single-phase Ce(CoFeCu)5 microstructure in which high coercivity ( H c > 10 kOe) can be achieved without any microstructural refinement.

  8. Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Anshuman [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Goswami, Navendu, E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Kaushik, S.D. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research Mumbai Centre, R5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Shilpa [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore, M.P. (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: The salient features of this research article are following: • Mixed phase synthesis of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles prepared by Exploding Wire Technique (EWT). • Predominant Cu/Cu{sub 2}O phases along with minor CuO phase revealed through XRD, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV–Visible and PL analyses. • XPS analysis provided direct evidences of Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} along with O deficiency for prepared nanoparticles. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetic behaviour was demonstrated for Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu{sub 2}O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu{sub 2}-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu{sub 2}O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes

  9. Characterization and identification of printed objects

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Lénia Janete Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    A study about the physical appearance of pre-photographic, photomechanical, photographic and digital positive reflective prints was made, relating the obtained images with the history, materials and technology used to create them. The studied samples are from the Image Permanence Institute (IPI) study collection. The digital images were obtained using a digital SLR on a copystand and a compound light microscope, with different lighting angles (0º, 45ºand 90º) and magnifications from overall v...

  10. What is happening with our printed newspapers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have occurred in the first decade of this century have dramatically shook the media, especially printed newspapers. Based on the comparative studies on media system in wealthy, developing countries and southern European countries, we came to conclusion that the internet is not the main cause of the newspaper industry collapse, at the time of the increased use of the internet and the decline of newspaper circulation. Internet is and will always be the important factor, but this is the crisis that has hit the media the most, especially the advertising the newspapers depended on. Although internet did not kill printed newspapers, some sites destroyed profitable category of advertising in newspapers, which evolved along with them. In such circumstances, printed newspapers, if tailored to measure the audience, can still play an important role in society. Journalism remains the basis of the media, as the largest source of information, and newspapers content, in new circumstances, is not used for news, but for reflection and background. All this indicates that we now have the domination of mixed media use, the coexistence of old and new, because wherever they are, new media always complement the old media, rather than change them. Most of the news that is shared on-line is manufactured in traditional media organizations, and newspapers and television produce more news and reach larger audience than any other media organization. That is how the new time has imposed the new modified business model that combines print and digital edition, sales and advertising and is based on loyal audience.

  11. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  12. Promising Products for Printing and Publishing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Činčikaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Intelligent keyframe extraction for video printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    2004-10-01

    Nowadays most digital cameras have the functionality of taking short video clips, with the length of video ranging from several seconds to a couple of minutes. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm which extracts an optimal set of keyframes from each short video clip so that the user could obtain proper video frames to print out. In current video printing systems, keyframes are normally obtained by evenly sampling the video clip over time. Such an approach, however, may not reflect highlights or regions of interest in the video. Keyframes derived in this way may also be improper for video printing in terms of either content or image quality. In this paper, we present an intelligent keyframe extraction approach to derive an improved keyframe set by performing semantic analysis of the video content. For a video clip, a number of video and audio features are analyzed to first generate a candidate keyframe set. These features include accumulative color histogram and color layout differences, camera motion estimation, moving object tracking, face detection and audio event detection. Then, the candidate keyframes are clustered and evaluated to obtain a final keyframe set. The objective is to automatically generate a limited number of keyframes to show different views of the scene; to show different people and their actions in the scene; and to tell the story in the video shot. Moreover, frame extraction for video printing, which is a rather subjective problem, is considered in this work for the first time, and a semi-automatic approach is proposed.

  14. Print-to-print: printer-enabled out-of-cleanroom multiobject microprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Siyuan; Zhao, Siwei; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning techniques have gained growing interests from a broad range of engineering and biology researches as it realizes the high-throughput and highly quantitative investigations on miniature biological objects (e.g., cells and bacteria) by spatially defined micropatterns. However, most of the existing techniques rely on expensive instruments or intensive cleanroom access which may not be easy to be utilized in a regular biological laboratory. Here, we present the detailed procedures of a simple versatile microprinting process, referred to as Print-to-Print (P2P), to form multiobject micropatterns for potential biological applications. Only a solid-phase printer and custom-made superhydrophobic (SH) films are utilized for the printing and no thermal or chemical treatment is involved during the entire printing process. Moreover, the noncontact nature of droplet transferring and printing steps can be highly advantageous for sensitive biological uses. By the P2P process, a minimal feature resolution of 229 ± 17 μm has been successfully achieved. What's more, this approach has been applied to form micropatterning on various commonly used substrates in biology as well as multiobject co-patterns. In addition, the SH substrates have also been demonstrated to be reusable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical 3D printing: Design and qualification of a single step print and fill capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick M; Kapoor, Yash; Klinzing, Gerard R; Procopio, Adam T

    2018-06-10

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) has a potential to change how we envision manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. A more common utilization for FDM 3DP is to build upon existing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology where the drug is dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, reliable manufacturing of drug-containing filaments remains a challenge along with the limitation of active ingredients which can sustain the processing risks involved in the HME process. To circumvent this obstacle, a single step FDM 3DP process was developed to manufacture thin-walled drug-free capsules which can be filled with dry or liquid drug product formulations. Drug release from these systems is governed by the combined dissolution of the FDM capsule 'shell' and the dosage form encapsulated in these shells. To prepare the shells, the 3D printer files (extension '.gcode') were modified by creating discrete zones, so-called 'zoning process', with individual print parameters. Capsules printed without the zoning process resulted in macroscopic print defects and holes. X-ray computed tomography, finite element analysis and mechanical testing were used to guide the zoning process and printing parameters in order to manufacture consistent and robust capsule shell geometries. Additionally, dose consistencies of drug containing liquid formulations were investigated in this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo

    2017-01-01

    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µ m and 300 µ m thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed. (technical note)

  17. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-30

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  18. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-01-30

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  19. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Perez, Jose E.; Ivanov, Yurii; Bertoncini, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  20. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  1. Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V

    2006-01-01

    The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  3. Laser printed interconnects for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Alberto; Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott; Charipar, Nicholas

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) can be used to generate microscale 3D structures for interconnect applications non-lithographically. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or dispersed metallic nanoparticles. However, the resulting 3D structures do not achieve the bulk conductivity of metal interconnects of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. It is possible, however, to laser transfer entire structures using a LIFT technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place allows whole components and parts to be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This talk will present the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding solid metal interconnects to connect individual devices into functional circuits. Furthermore, the same laser can bend or fold the thin metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief due to flexing or thermal mismatch. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation flexible electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.

  4. Variable-data Printing Serves - Niches Here, There & Everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ynostroza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A milestone focus on high-end digital color presses capable of variable-data imaging - a technology that was introduced ten years ago and is just now at the beginning of wider, more successful implementation in commercial printing-tends to overshadow some real achievements on other variable-data fronts. Those activities involve ink-jet and electrophotographic imaging for high-volume transactional printing, print-on-demand books and catalogs, wide-format proofing and imaging, label production, and printing of text and coding of printed packaging.The capabilities of digital production color presses intrigue commercial printers the most, especially new units referred to by manufacturers as "Series II" or "third-generation" systems. Besides having more press-like characteristics, from offset-caliber quality, image consistency, and high output rates to sturdy construction, reliability, and stock choice, the units seem to represent a way to produce printing that’s beyond the norm.Some users are producing hybrid printed products (offset printing a quantity of "shells" that are later personalized by digital presses, while others are utilizing clients’ "dynamic" databases to personalize marketing materials that drive response rates up to 15%, even 35%. Finally, digital color systems prompt the creation of high-margin Internet-based print providers offering easy-to-design and easy-toorder print materials. Printers may do well to adopt the high-value communications capability that digital imaging offers.

  5. All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Plötner, Matthias; Berndt, Andreas; Kumar, Amit; Voit, Brigitte; Pospiech, Doris; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates. The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument. Among all printing technologies, this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology: high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers. Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate) containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current. The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results.

  6. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2016-12-08

    Inkjet printing has emerged as an ideal method for the fabrication of low cost and efficient electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs at present utilize 2D inkjet printing of metallic inks on conventional substrates. In order to have fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles based metallic inks. In this work, an all-inkjet printed process is demonstrated that utilizes 3D inkjet printing of a UV-cured dielectric material in combination with the printing of a particle free conductive silver organo-complex (SOC) ink for realization of inductors and capacitors. The processing temperature does not exceed 80 0C and still state of the art conductivity of 1×107 S/m is achieved. Both the conductive ink and dielectric have roughness values under 500 nm. The inductor and capacitor exhibit quality factors of 8 and 20 respectively in the high MHz and GHz regime.

  7. Determination of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) in Waste-Water and Soil Extracts on Mercury Film Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh; Tothill, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    A sensor incorporating a three electrodes configuration have been fabricated using low cost screen-printing technology. These electrodes couples with Square Wave Stripping Voltammetry (SWSV) has provided a convenient screening tool for on-site detection of trace levels of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). Modification of the graphite carbon surface based on in situ deposition of mercury film has been carried out. By appropriate choice of supporting medium and optimized parameters setting such as amount of mercury used the deposition potential, deposition time, frequency and scan rate, well resolved and reproducible response for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) were obtained. The performance characteristics of the developed mercury film screen printed carbon electrode (MFSPCE) for 120 s deposition time showed that the linear range for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 10 to 200 μg L -1 . The detection limit recorded for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 2, 1 and 5 μg L -1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.5 %, 6.9 % and 7.5 %, respectively. Successful applications of the sensing device to waste-water and extracted soil samples were demonstrated. (author)

  8. 3D printing technologies for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Wei, Min; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Swart, Benjamin; Shao, Yuyan; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes play an important role in promoting the performance of electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. Traditional fabrication techniques have limited capability in controlling the geometry and architecture of the electrode and solid-state electrolytes, which would otherwise compromise the performance. 3D printing, a disruptive manufacturing technology, has emerged as an innovative approach to fabricating EES devices from nanoscale to macroscale and from nanowatt to megawatt, providing great opportunities to accurately control device geometry (e.g., dimension, porosity, morphology) and structure with enhanced specific energy and power densities. Moreover, the additive manufacturing nature of 3D printing provides excellent controllability of the electrode thickness with much simplified process in a cost effective manner. With the unique spatial and temporal material manipulation capability, 3D printing can integrate multiple nanomaterials in the same print, and multi-functional EES devices (including functional gradient devices) can be fabricated. Herein, we review recent advances in 3D printing of EES devices. We focused on two major 3D printing technologies including direct writing and inkjet printing. The direct material deposition characteristics of these two processes enable them to print on a variety of flat substrates, even a conformal one, well suiting them to applications such as wearable devices and on-chip integrations. Other potential 3D printing techniques such as freeze nano-printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, binder jetting, laminated object manufacturing, and metal 3D printing are also introduced. The advantages and limitations of each 3D printing technology are extensively discussed. More importantly, we provide a perspective on how to integrate the emerging 3D printing with existing technologies to create structures over multiple length scale from

  9. Inkjet printing and adhesion characterisation of conductive tracks on a commercial printed circuit board material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, A.; Dijk, D.J. van; Akkerman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-based conductive tracks were inkjet printed using a piezoelectric drop-on-demand inkjet printer on a commercially available electronics grade fibre glass (E-glass) reinforced substrate material, and the experimental results have been summarised. Ink jetting was done on two variants of this substrate material, viz. etched and unetched, to determine the influence of substrate surface topography on adhesion and accuracy of the printed tracks. The pull-off adhesion test method was used to quantify adhesive strength. The dependence of the pull-off test results on local geometry of the test area are illustrated with the aid of scanning electron microscope images and interferometer studies. Based on the outcomes of the experiments, conclusions concerning the suitable surface topography for inkjet printing have been arrived at.

  10. Materials Properties of Printable Edible Inks and Printing Parameters Optimization during 3D Printing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2018-06-01

    Interest in additive manufacture has grown significantly in recent years, driving a need for printable materials that can sustain high strains and still fulfill their function in applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine field, food engineering and field of aerospace, etc. As an emerging and promising technology, 3Dprinting has attracted more and more attention with fast manipulation, reduce production cost, customize geometry, increase competitiveness and advantages in many hot research areas. Many researchers have done a lot of investigations on printable materials, ranging from a single material to composite material. Main content: This review focuses on the contents of printable edible inks. It also gathers and analyzes information on the effects of printable edible ink material properties on 3D print accuracy. In addition, it discusses the impact of printing parameters on accurate printing, and puts forward current challenges and recommendations for future research and development.

  11. Thermochemical properties of oxides in Y-Ba-Cu-O, Sr-Bi-O, Cu-Nb-O, Sr-Cu-O, Ca-Cu-O, Cu-O and Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, G.K.; Vatolin, N.A.; Il'inykh, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    Thermochemical properties (ΔH 0 298 , S 0 298 , H 0 298 -H 0 0 , C p (T), C p at T>T melt ) of complex oxides in Y-Ba-Cu-O, Sr-Bi-O, Cu-Nb-O, Sr-Cu-O, Ca-Cu-O, Cu-O and Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems obtained with application of calculation methods are presented. Nonexperimental methods of estimation, revision and correction of standard formation enthalpies of inorganic compounds are described [ru

  12. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds. (paper)

  13. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2014-12-17

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds.

  14. A Vector Printing Method for High-Speed Electrohydrodynamic (EHD Jet Printing Based on Encoder Position Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Huy Phung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrohyrodynamic (EHD jet printing has been widely used in the field of direct micro-nano patterning applications, due to its high resolution printing capability. So far, vector line printing using a single nozzle has been widely used for most EHD printing applications. However, the application has been limited to low-speed printing, to avoid non-uniform line width near the end points where line printing starts and ends. At end points of line vector printing, the deposited drop amount is likely to be significantly large compared to the rest of the printed lines, due to unavoidable acceleration and deceleration. In this study, we proposed a method to solve the printing quality problems by producing droplets at an equally spaced distance, irrespective of the printing speed. For this purpose, an encoder processing unit (EPU was developed, so that the jetting trigger could be generated according to user-defined spacing by using encoder position signals, which are used for the positioning control of the two linear stages.

  15. Comparative study of Cu-Zr and Cu-Ru alloy films for barrier-free Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Cao Fei; Zhang Milin; Liu Yuntao

    2011-01-01

    The properties of Cu-Zr and Cu-Ru alloy films were comparatively studied to evaluate their potential use as alloying elements. Cu alloy films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Samples were subsequently annealed and analyzed by four-point probe measurement, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction data suggest that Cu film has preferential (111) crystal orientation and no extra peak corresponding to any compound of Cu, Zr, Ru, and Si. According to transmission electron microscopy results, Cu grains grow in size for both systems but the grain sizes of the Cu alloy films are smaller than that of pure Cu films. These results indicate that Cu-Zr film is suitable for advanced barrier-free metallization in terms of interfacial stability and lower resistivity.

  16. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  17. Preparation of Powdery Carbon Nanotwist and Application to Printed Field Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hosokawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an automatic production system with sequencer control for the synthesis of carbon nanofibriform based on catalytic CVD using a substrate was developed. The carbon nanotwist (CNTw, which is one of the helical carbon nanofibers, was then synthesized in powdery form with an Ni–SnO2-composed catalyst. The production rate was 5 400 times that of the conventional CVD system and Ni–Cu–In2O3 catalyst. The powdery CNTw was easily scraped off the substrate, then pasted with organic binder, and printed by a squeegee method on ITO glass substrate for an electron field emitter. The field emission performance was found to be better than that of the directly grown CNTw film in conventional CVD with Ni–Cu catalyst.

  18. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,' ' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  19. A multimaterial electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, E; Shigeta, K; Kim, Y K; Graf, P G; Hoelzle, D J; Barton, K L; Alleyne, A G; Ferreira, P M; Rogers, J A

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing has emerged as a high-resolution alternative to other forms of direct solution-based fabrication approaches, such as ink-jet printing. This paper discusses the design, integration and operation of a unique E-jet printing platform. The uniqueness lies in the ability to utilize multiple materials in the same overall print-head, thereby enabling increased degrees of heterogeneous integration of different functionalities on a single substrate. By utilizing multiple individual print-heads, with a carrousel indexing among them, increased material flexibility is achieved. The hardware design and system operation for a relatively inexpensive system are developed and presented. Crossover interconnects and multiple fluorescent tagged proteins, demonstrating printed electronics and biological sensing applications, respectively. (paper)

  20. The Various Applications of 3D Printing in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sabbagh, Abdallah; Eleid, Mackram F; Al-Hijji, Mohammed; Anavekar, Nandan S; Holmes, David R; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Oderich, Gustavo S; Cassivi, Stephen D; Said, Sameh M; Rihal, Charanjit S; Matsumoto, Jane M; Foley, Thomas A

    2018-05-10

    To highlight the various applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular disease and discuss its limitations and future direction. Use of handheld 3D printed models of cardiovascular structures has emerged as a facile modality in procedural and surgical planning as well as education and communication. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a novel imaging modality which involves creating patient-specific models of cardiovascular structures. As percutaneous and surgical therapies evolve, spatial recognition of complex cardiovascular anatomic relationships by cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons is imperative. Handheld 3D printed models of cardiovascular structures provide a facile and intuitive road map for procedural and surgical planning, complementing conventional imaging modalities. Moreover, 3D printed models are efficacious educational and communication tools. This review highlights the various applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular diseases and discusses its limitations and future directions.

  1. Grey Balance Colorimetry of the Automatically Guided Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Zjakic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from visual control, it is possible to controll the ink on a print by means of auxilliary instruments - densitometer, colorimeter and spectral photometer.One of the problems in offset printing reproduction is the inconstancy of theink flow and ink consumption during the run printing. This problem appears because of the change of ink viscosity, the change of ink temperature, the change of fountain solution quantity in ink, the change of printing speed etc.This article shows the measurements of the chromatic values performed by spectral photometer on the control - signal strip from the very beginning of the run printing till 20000th print. Gray balance (CMY by means of CIE L*a*b* system has been investigated. Densitometric values of the solid area, the growth of the screen values and doubling-shear have been determined. The results of the spectrophotometric measurements of gray balance and the densitometric measurements of the solid tint have been analyzed.

  2. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  3. Logistics of Three-dimensional Printing: Primer for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgdon, Taryn; Danrad, Raman; Patel, Midhir J; Smith, Stacy E; Richardson, Michael L; Ballard, David H; Ali, Sayed; Trace, Anthony Paul; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Zygmont, Matthew E; Lenchik, Leon; Decker, Summer J

    2018-01-01

    The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a review of the logistic considerations for establishing a clinical service using this new technology, specifically focused on implications for radiology. Specific topics include printer selection for 3D printing, software selection, creating a 3D model for printing, providing a 3D printing service, research directions, and opportunities for radiologists to be involved in 3D printing. A thorough understanding of the technology and its capabilities is necessary as the field of 3D printing continues to grow. Radiologists are in the unique position to guide this emerging technology and its use in the clinical arena. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative analysis and optimization of gravure printed metal ink, dielectric, and organic semiconductor films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stuart G; Boughey, Francesca L; Hills, Russell; Steinke, Joachim H G; Muir, Beinn V O; Campbell, Alasdair J

    2015-03-11

    Here we demonstrate the optimization of gravure printed metal ink, dielectric, and semiconductor formulations. We present a technique for nondestructively imaging printed films using a commercially available flatbed scanner, combined with image analysis to quantify print behavior. Print speed, cliché screen density, nip pressure, the orientation of print structures, and doctor blade extension were found to have a significant impact on the quality of printed films, as characterized by the spreading of printed structures and variation in print homogeneity. Organic semiconductor prints were observed to exhibit multiple periodic modulations, which are correlated to the underlying cell structure.

  5. Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Furong; Zhang Fushen

    2009-01-01

    An effective and benign process for copper and lead recovery from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed. In the process, the PCBs was pre-treated in supercritical water, then subjected to electrokinetic (EK) process. Experimental results showed that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was strong enough to decompose the organic compounds of PCBs, and XRD spectra indicated that copper and lead were oxidized into CuO, Cu 2 O and β-PbO 2 in the process. The optimum SCWO treatment conditions were 60 min, 713 K, 30 MPa, and EK treatment time, constant current density were 11 h, 20 mA cm -2 , respectively. The recovery percentages of copper and lead under optimum SCWO + EK treatment conditions were around 84.2% and 89.4%, respectively. In the optimized EK treatment, 74% of Cu was recovered as a deposit on the cathode with a purity of 97.6%, while Pb was recovered as concentrated solutions in either anode (23.1%) or cathode (66.3%) compartments but little was deposited on the electrodes. It is believed that the process is effective and practical for Cu and Pb recovery from waste electric and electronic equipments.

  6. Direct Observation of Reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Terminal Alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanghui; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Guoting; Deng, Yi; Bai, Ruopeng; Zhang, Heng; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kropf, Arthur J.; Bunel, Emilio E.; Lei, Aiwen

    2014-01-06

    ABSTRACT: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ electron paramagnetic resonance evidence were provided for the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) species by alkynes in the presence of tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), in which TMEDA plays dual roles as both ligand and base. The structures of the starting Cu(II) species and the obtained Cu(I) species were determined as (TMEDA)- CuCl2 and [(TMEDA)CuCl]2 dimer, respectively.

  7. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  8. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-09

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research.

  10. 3D-printed upper limb prostheses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Kate, Jelle; Smit, Gerwin; Breedveld, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview with quantitative information of existing 3D-printed upper limb prostheses. We will identify the benefits and drawbacks of 3D-printed devices to enable improvement of current devices based on the demands of prostheses users. A review was performed using Scopus, Web of Science and websites related to 3D-printing. Quantitative information on the mechanical and kinematic specifications and 3D-printing technology used was extracted from the papers and websites. The overview (58 devices) provides the general specifications, the mechanical and kinematic specifications of the devices and information regarding the 3D-printing technology used for hands. The overview shows prostheses for all different upper limb amputation levels with different types of control and a maximum material cost of $500. A large range of various prostheses have been 3D-printed, of which the majority are used by children. Evidence with respect to the user acceptance, functionality and durability of the 3D-printed hands is lacking. Contrary to what is often claimed, 3D-printing is not necessarily cheap, e.g., injection moulding can be cheaper. Conversely, 3D-printing provides a promising possibility for individualization, e.g., personalized socket, colour, shape and size, without the need for adjusting the production machine. Implications for rehabilitation Upper limb deficiency is a condition in which a part of the upper limb is missing as a result of a congenital limb deficiency of as a result of an amputation. A prosthetic hand can restore some of the functions of a missing limb and help the user in performing activities of daily living. Using 3D-printing technology is one of the solutions to manufacture hand prostheses. This overview provides information about the general, mechanical and kinematic specifications of all the devices and it provides the information about the 3D-printing technology used to print the hands.

  11. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-01-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted. (paper)

  12. Personalized Development of Human Organs using 3D Printing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of o...

  13. Growth of high Tc Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Sangeeta; Khare, Neeraj; Gupta, A.K.; Nagpal, K.C.; Ojha, V.N.; Reddy, G.S.N.; Tomar, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    Thick films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O were deposited on (100) MgO substrates by screen-printing technique with the starting composition 1112. To attain the superconducting state, the films were subjected to two-step heat-treatment. R-T and XRD have been studied for films annealed at different durations of the second step. Initially T c (R=O) increased from 77 to 103 K as the annealing duration was increased after which T c decreased. Kinetics of the growth of high T c phase is discussed in the light of results. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Measurement of casting parameters in ZnAlCu3 molds created by additive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the parameters of casting ZnAl4Cu3 alloy (volume, castability, density and occupancy of the mold in mold made additive technology. Molds made by additive technology are: cheaper in production of a small number of castings, geometrically more accurate and faster made. From obtained results of this paper it is clearly seen that printed mold must be protected with thermal coating because liquid adhesive of powder otherwise evaporates during casting and creates additional moisture in the mold, as it was noted.

  15. The analysis of ink jet printed eco-font efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Milošević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eco-font for office printing is one of sustainable, “green” printing concepts, which besides obvious economic benefits, as a result has a certain effect on environmental sustainability as well. The fundamental problem that this practice faces is decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts comparing to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of ink jet printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its „non-eco“ equivalent. Combining instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization enables substantial toner usage reduction for an ink jet printing system, while visual test showed that visual experience of text printed using eco-font is sufficient. In addition, awareness of benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality.

  16. A plastic surgery application in evolution: three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Theodore L; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Kim, Peter S; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing represents an evolving technology still in its infancy. Currently, individuals and small business entities have the ability to manufacture physical objects from digital renderings, computer-aided design, and open source files. Design modifications and improvements in extrusion methods have made this technology much more affordable. This article explores the potential uses of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery. A review was performed detailing the known uses of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The potential applications of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery are discussed. Various applications for three-dimensional printing technology have emerged in medicine, including printing organs, printing body parts, bio-printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering. In plastic surgery, these tools offer various prospective applications for surgical planning, resident education, and the development of custom prosthetics. Numerous applications exist in medicine, including the printing of devices, implants, tissue replacements, and even whole organs. Plastic surgeons may likely find this technology indispensable in surgical planning, education, and prosthetic device design and development in the near future.

  17. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  18. A combined system for 3D printing cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Previous work has discussed the impact of cybersecurity breaches on 3D printed objects. Multiple attack types that could weaken objects, make them unsuitable for certain applications and even create safety hazards have been presented. This paper considers a visible light sensing-based verification system's efficacy as a means of thwarting cybersecurity threats to 3D printing. This system detects discrepancies between expected and actual printed objects (based on an independent pristine CAD model). Whether reliance on an independent CAD model is appropriate is also considered. The future of 3D printing is projected and the importance of cybersecurity in this future is discussed.

  19. Screen-printing ink transfer in a sexual assault case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Janeice F; Beheim, Chris W

    2002-05-01

    Yellow plastic-like particles were discovered on the clothing and body of a sexual assault victim. These particles were later associated to an athletic jersey with flaking yellow screen-printed numbers and letters, worn by the suspect. Depending on its intended substrate, screen-print ink can vary in color and composition. Particles dislodged from screen-printed garments may exhibit fabric impressions. Screen-printed clothing, commonly encountered in forensic casework, should be viewed as a potential source of trace evidence.

  20. Ultrasonic properties of all-printed piezoelectric polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Sanat; Decharat, Adit; Bodö, Peter; Melandsø, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The ability of producing ultrasonic transducers from screen-printing has been explored experimentally, through printing and characterization of a large number of transducers. In an all-printed test design, 124 transducers with four different electrode sizes ranging from 1 to 4.9 mm2, were printed layer-by-layer on a high performance polyethyleneimine polymer. Inks from ferroelectric and conductive polymers were applied to the active part of a transducer, to provide a good acoustical match between the individual layers. Ultrasonic characterizations of the transducers done by two independent methods provided a broad-banded frequency response with a maximum response around 100 MHz.

  1. Digital multicolor printing: state of the art and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1995-04-01

    During the last 5 years, digital techniques have become extremely important in the graphic arts industry. All sections in the production flow for producing multicolor printed products - prepress, printing and postpress - are influenced by digitalization, in an evolutionary and revolutionary way. New equipment and network techniques bring all the sections closer together. The focus is put on high-quality multicolor printing, together with high productivity. Conventional offset printing technology is compared with the leading nonimpact printing technologies. Computer to press is contrasted with computer to print techniques. The newest available digital multicolor presses are described - the direct imaging offset printing press from HEIDELBERG with new laser imaging technique as well as the INDIGO and XEIKON presses based on electrophotography. Regarding technical specifications, economic calculations and print quality, it is worked out that each technique has its own market segments. An outlook is given for future computer to press techniques and the potential of nonimpact printing technologies for advanced high-speed multicolor computer to print equipment. Synergy effects from the NIP-technologies to the conventional printing technologies and vice versa are possible for building up innovative new products, for example hybrid printing systems. It is also shown that there is potential for improving the print quality, based on special screening algorithms, and a higher number of grey levels per pixel by using NIP-technologies. As an intermediate step in digitalization of the production flow, but also as an economical solution computer to plate equipment is described. By producing printed products totally in a digital way, digital color proofing as well as color management systems are needed. The newest high-tech equipment using NIP-technologies for producing proofs is explained. All in all it is shown that the state of the art in digital multicolor printing has reached

  2. 3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velev, Orlin D

    2017-08-01

    3D printing of polymers is accomplished easily with thermoplastics as the extruded hot melt solidifies rapidly during the printing process. Printing with liquid polymer precursors is more challenging due to their longer curing times. One curable liquid polymer of specific interest is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study demonstrates a new efficient technique for 3D printing with PDMS by using a capillary suspension ink containing PDMS in the form of both precured microbeads and uncured liquid precursor, dispersed in water as continuous medium. The PDMS microbeads are held together in thixotropic granular paste by capillary attraction induced by the liquid precursor. These capillary suspensions possess high storage moduli and yield stresses that are needed for direct ink writing. They could be 3D printed and cured both in air and under water. The resulting PDMS structures are remarkably elastic, flexible, and extensible. As the ink is made of porous, biocompatible silicone that can be printed directly inside aqueous medium, it can be used in 3D printed biomedical products, or in applications such as direct printing of bioscaffolds on live tissue. This study demonstrates a number of examples using the high softness, elasticity, and resilience of these 3D printed structures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Characterizing Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printed Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyge, Emil; Pallisgaard, Jens J.; Lillethorup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The resolution and repeatability of 3D printing processes depends on a number of factors including the software, hardware, and material used. When printing parts with features that are near or below the nominal printing resolution, it is important to understand how the printer works. For example......, what is the smallest unit shape that can be produced? And what is the reproducibility of that process? This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing the height, width, and length of micro scale geometric primitives produced via a digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing...

  4. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  5. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.

  6. Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

  7. Exposure assessment of workers in printed electronics workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Jin Soo; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Taik Min; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    Printed electronics uses converging technologies, such as printing, fine mechanics, nanotechnology, electronics and other new technologies. Consequently, printed electronics raises additional health and safety concerns to those experienced in the traditional printing industry. This study investigated two printed electronics workplaces based on a walk-through survey and personal and area sampling. All the printed electronics operations were conducted in a cleanroom. No indication of exposure to excess silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was found. While the organic solvents were lower than current occupational exposure limits, there was a lack of engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, correct enclosure and duct connections. There was also an insufficient quantity of personal protective equipment, and some organic solvents not described in the safety data sheets (SDSs) were detected in the air samples. Plus, the cleaning work, a major emissions operation, was not conducted within a hood, and the cleaning waste was not properly disposed of. Therefore, the present exposure assessment results from two printed electronics workplaces suggest that the printed electronics industry needs to take note of the occupational safety and health risks and hazards already established by the traditional printing industry, along with new risks and hazards originating from converging technologies such as nanotechnology.

  8. Printing of polymer microcapsules for enzyme immobilization on paper substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Anne; Zhang, Yufen; Rochefort, Dominic; Holopainen, Ulla; Erho, Tomi; Virtanen, Jouko; Smolander, Maria

    2011-06-13

    Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) microcapsules containing laccase from Trametes hirsuta (ThL) and Trametes versicolor (TvL) were printed onto paper substrate by three different methods: screen printing, rod coating, and flexo printing. Microcapsules were fabricated via interfacial polycondensation of PEI with the cross-linker sebacoyl chloride, incorporated into an ink, and printed or coated on the paper substrate. The same ink components were used for three printing methods, and it was found that laccase microcapsules were compatible with the ink. Enzymatic activity of microencapsulated TvL was maintained constant in polymer-based ink for at least eight weeks. Thick layers with high enzymatic activity were obtained when laccase-containing microcapsules were screen printed on paper substrate. Flexo printed bioactive paper showed very low activity, since by using this printing method the paper surface was not fully covered by enzyme microcapsules. Finally, screen printing provided a bioactive paper with high water-resistance and the highest enzyme lifetime.

  9. Printed products for digital cameras and mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schmidt-Sacht, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    Digital photography is no longer simply a successor to film. The digital market is now driven by additional devices such as mobile phones with camera and video functions (camphones) as well as innovative products derived from digital files. A large number of consumers do not print their images and non-printing has become the major enemy of wholesale printers, home printing suppliers and retailers. This paper addresses the challenge facing our industry, namely how to encourage the consumer to print images easily and conveniently from all types of digital media.

  10. Preliminary study of post mortem identification using lip prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kanoh, Takashi; Tadokoro, Osamu; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2005-05-10

    Identification using lip prints was first performed in the 1950s and was the subject of much research in the 1960s and 70s, leading to the acceptance of this technique as evidence in the criminal justice system. Previous research has focused on identifying lip print types or on methods of obtaining hidden lip prints left at the crime scene. The present study aimed to clarify characteristics of lip prints from cadavers with various causes of death (including drowning and hanging) and to determine the effects of fixation on post mortem changes in lip impressions.

  11. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurements of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Jeunnette, Timothy T.; Anzic, Judith M.

    1989-01-01

    High-reflectance accurate-contour mirrors are needed for solar dynamic space power systems. Graphite fiber epoxy composites are attractive candidates for such applications owing to their high modulus, near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, and low mass. However, mirrors prepared from graphite fiber epoxy composite substrates often exhibit print-through, a distortion of the surface, which causes a loss in solar specular reflectance. Efforts to develop mirror substrates without print-through distortion require a means of quantifying print-through. Methods have been developed to quantify the degree of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens using surface profilometry.

  13. FY 1997 Financial Reporting by The Defense Automated Printing Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The accuracy of information in the financial systems and reported on financial statements is the joint responsibility of the Defense Automated Printing Service and the Defense Logistics Agency...

  14. Use of nanocellulose in printed electronics: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeng, Fanny; Denneulin, Aurore; Bras, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Since the last decade, interest in cellulose nanomaterials known as nanocellulose has been growing. Nanocellulose has various applications ranging from composite reinforcement to rheological modifiers. Recently, nanocellulose has been shown to have great potential in flexible printed electronics applications. The property of nanocellulose to form self-standing thermally stable films has been exploited for producing transparent and smooth substrates for printed electronics. However, other than substrates, the field of printed electronics involves the use of inks, various processing methods and the production of flexible electronic devices. This review aims at providing an overview of the use and potential of nanocellulose throughout the printed electronics field.

  15. Printed circuits and their applications: Which way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, E.

    2015-09-01

    The continuous advancements in printed electronics make nowadays feasible the design of printed circuits which enable meaningful applications. Examples include ultra-low cost sensors embedded in food packaging, large-area sensing surfaces and biomedical assays. This paper offers an overview of state-of-the-art digital and analog circuit blocks, manufactured with a printed complementary organic TFT technology. An analog to digital converter and an RFID tag implemented exploiting these building blocks are also described. The main remaining drawbacks of the printed technology described are identified, and new approaches to further improve the state of the art, enabling more innovative applications are discussed.

  16. Controllable synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic properties of Cu2O/Cu31S16 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Facile sonochemical route. ► The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled. ► Structure and optical properties of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 were discussed. ► Enhanced photocatalytic property of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 . ► Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles. -- Abstract: The controlled synthesis of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites with hierarchical structures had been prepared via a convenient sonochemical route. Ultrasonic irradiation of a mixture of Cu 2 O and (NH 2 ) 2 CS in an aqueous medium yielded Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 composites. The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled by adjusting the synthesis time. The Cu 31 S 16 layer not only protected and stabilized Cu 2 O particles, but also prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons–holes pair between Cu 31 S 16 and Cu 2 O. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. Photocatalytic performance of the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 hierarchical structures was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methyl orange solution under natural light. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposite. Additionally, the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles during photocatalytic process since the photocatalytic activity of the second reused architecture sample was much higher than that of pure Cu 2 O. The Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites may be a good promising candidate for wastewater treatment.

  17. Microwave assisted leaching and electrochemical recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of computer waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivǎnuş, R. C.; ǎnuş, D., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the rapid technological progress, the replacement of electronic equipment is very often necessary, leading to huge amounts that end up as waste. In addition, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains metals of high commercial value and others that are supposed to be hazardous for the environment. Consequently, WEEE could be considered as a significant source for recovery of nonferrous metals. Among these wastes, computers appear to be distinctive, as far as further exploitation is concerned. The most ″useful″ parts of the computers are the printed circuit boards that contain many metals of interest. A study on microwave assisted electronic scrap (printed circuit boards of computer waste - PCBs) leaching was carried out with a microwave hydrothermal reactor. The leaching was conducted with thick slurries (50-100 g/L). The leaching media is a mixed solution of CuCl2 and NaCl. Preliminary electrolysis from leaching solution has investigated the feasibility of electrodeposition of copper. The results were discussed and compared with the conventional leaching method and demonstrated the potential for selective extraction of copper from PCBs.

  18. Microwave assisted leaching and electrochemical recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of computer waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivănuş R.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid technological progress, the replacement of electronic equipment is very often necessary, leading to huge amounts that end up as waste. In addition, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains metals of high commercial value and others that are supposed to be hazardous for the environment. Consequently, WEEE could be considered as a significant source for recovery of nonferrous metals. Among these wastes, computers appear to be distinctive, as far as further exploitation is concerned. The most ″useful″ parts of the computers are the printed circuit boards that contain many metals of interest. A study on microwave assisted electronic scrap (printed circuit boards of computer waste – PCBs leaching was carried out with a microwave hydrothermal reactor. The leaching was conducted with thick slurries (50-100 g/L. The leaching media is a mixed solution of CuCl2 and NaCl. Preliminary electrolysis from leaching solution has investigated the feasibility of electrodeposition of copper. The results were discussed and compared with the conventional leaching method and demonstrated the potential for selective extraction of copper from PCBs.

  19. The influence of printing substrate on macro non-uniformity and line reproduction quality of imprints printed with electrophotographic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Vujčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.

  20. 3D-printed optical active components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Nair, S.; Nuding, J.; Heinrich, A.

    2018-02-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to become a powerful tool in the realization of complex optical components. The primary advantage that meets the eye, is that fabrication of geometrically complicated optical structures is made easier in AM as compared to the conventional fabrication methods (using molds for instance). But this is not the only degree of freedom that AM has to offer. With the multitude of materials suitable for AM in the market, it is possible to introduce functionality into the components one step before fabrication: by altering the raw material. A passive example would be to use materials with varying properties together, in a single manufacturing step, constructing samples with localized refractive indices for instance. An active approach is to blend in materials with distinct properties into the photopolymer resin and manufacturing with this composite material. Our research is currently focused in this direction, with the desired optical property to be introduced being Photoluminescence. Formation of nanocomposite mixtures to produce samples is the current approach. With this endeavor, new sensor systems can be realized, which may be used to measure the absorption spectra of biological samples. Thereby the sample compartment, the optics and the spectral light source (different quantum dots) are 3D-printed in one run. This component can be individually adapted to the biological sample with respect to wavelength, optical and mechanical properties. Here we would like to present our work on the additive manufacturing of an active optical component. Based on the stereolithography method, a monolithic optical component was 3D-printed, showing light emission at different defined wavelengths due to UV excited quantum dots inside the 3D-printed optics.

  1. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  2. Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Bård M N; Romundstad, Pål Rikard; Boffetta, Paolo; Andersen, Aage

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10 549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and nearby areas. Rates from the region, were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR) separately for the skilled and unskilled workers. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were utilized for evaluating the risk estimates of smoking-related cancers. Specific exposure data were not available. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-1.79], liver (SIR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-2.99), pancreas (SIR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and colon (SIR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. The study showed that workers in the printing industry were at increased risk of several types of cancer. In particular the increased risk of bladder cancer among the skilled workers is suggestive of an occupational cause. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by nonoccupational factors.

  3. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiksha Desai

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  4. Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Yilin Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of additive manufacturing and advances in shape memory materials have fueled the progress of four-dimensional (4D printing. With the right external stimulus, the need for human interaction, sensors, and batteries will be eliminated, and by using additive manufacturing, more complex devices and parts can be produced. With the current understanding of shape memory mechanisms and with improved design for additive manufacturing, reversibility in 4D printing has recently been proven to be feasible. Conventional one-way 4D printing requires human interaction in the programming (or shape-setting phase, but reversible 4D printing, or two-way 4D printing, will fully eliminate the need for human interference, as the programming stage is replaced with another stimulus. This allows reversible 4D printed parts to be fully dependent on external stimuli; parts can also be potentially reused after every recovery, or even used in continuous cycles—an aspect that carries industrial appeal. This paper presents a review on the mechanisms of shape memory materials that have led to 4D printing, current findings regarding 4D printing in alloys and polymers, and their respective limitations. The reversibility of shape memory materials and their feasibility to be fabricated using three-dimensional (3D printing are summarized and critically analyzed. For reversible 4D printing, the methods of 3D printing, mechanisms used for actuation, and strategies to achieve reversibility are also highlighted. Finally, prospective future research directions in reversible 4D printing are suggested.

  5. Jaak Prints: näitleja hirmud on üldinimlikud / Jaak Prints ; intervjueerinud Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Jaak, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Teatri NO99 näitleja Jaak Prints endast, näitlejaks olemisest, mõistest "mõtlev teater", koduteatrist, NO99 aktsioonist "Ühtne Eesti suurkogu", lavastamise soovist jm. Loetletud Jaak Printsi rollid ja tööd lavastajana

  6. Printing Our Way to Safety: Applications of 3-D Printing in Lockout/Tagout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Phil; Bender, Guido

    2016-12-01

    This article describes how a team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory used 3-D printing to manufacture custom lockout/tagout devices to isolate valves that were clustered too tightly to allow for generic lockout/tagout devices to be used.

  7. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  8. Printing soft matter in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Ryan L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-12-01

    Light- and ink-based three-dimensional (3D) printing methods allow the rapid design and fabrication of materials without the need for expensive tooling, dies or lithographic masks. They have led to an era of manufacturing in which computers can control the fabrication of soft matter that has tunable mechanical, electrical and other functional properties. The expanding range of printable materials, coupled with the ability to programmably control their composition and architecture across various length scales, is driving innovation in myriad applications. This is illustrated by examples of biologically inspired composites, shape-morphing systems, soft sensors and robotics that only additive manufacturing can produce.

  9. Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Brian

    2012-11-01

    New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three dimensions of all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) to generate structures analogous to tissues; this has been termed bioprinting. Such techniques have opened new areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Plasmonic laser printing for functional metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, M. S.; Vannahme, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we show a method of color printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures [1]. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface...... morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances can be created. This technology creates a laser printer capable of producing color images with a resolution up to 127,000 DPI. With tailored trains of laser pulses, multiple optical states are flatiron onto the metasurface film with a nanoscale...

  11. All-printed paper-based memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-06-16

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described which can be prepared by a process that includes coating, using a screen printer, one or more areas of a paper substrate (102) with a conductor material (104), such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode, depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of resistance switching insulator material (106), such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of metal (108), such as silver, over one or more areas of the titanium dioxide to form a second electrode.

  12. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  13. [Precision of three-dimensional printed brackets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y H; Liu, X M; Li, J

    2017-08-18

    This study was based on digital orthodontic diagnosis work flow for indirect bonding transfer tray model design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the aim of this paper was to inspect the dimensional accuracyof 3D printed brackets, which is the foundation of the follow up work and hoped that will illuminate the clinical application of the digital orthodontics work flow. The samples which consisted of 14 cases of patients with malocclusion from Department of Orthodontics Peking University were selected, including 8 cases with tooth extraction and 6 cases without tooth extraction. All the 14 patients were taken intra-oral scan (Trios 3Shape, Denmark) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, NewTom 3G volumetric scanner, Aperio Service,Italy)shooting after periodontal treatment. STL data and DICOM data were obtained from intraoral scans and CBCT images.Data segmentation, registration, fusion, automatic tooth arrangement, virtual positioning of orthodontic appliance and conversion the coordinates of malocclusion model were all done with self-programming software. The data of 3D printing model with brackets on it were output finally and printed out with EDEN260V (Objet Geometries, Israel) to make indirect bonding transfer tray. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the length and width of upper and lower left brackets and buccal tubes on those 3D models after removal of surrounding supporting material by ultrasonic vibration and water-spray. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and one-sample T test was used to compare the measurements with the standard dimensional data of the brackets. There were significant differences which range in 0.04-0.17 mm between the 13 items out of the 19 measurement items. Except for the length of the lower left premolars'brackets, mean values of the other items were greater than the test value. Although the measurement results in the width of brackets and the width and

  14. An inkjet-printed chemical fuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrook, M F; Pearson, C; Petty, M C

    2005-01-01

    Inkjet printing of the conductive polymer poly(3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonated acid (PEDOT-PSS) has been used as the basis for a sensor for organic vapours. The electrical resistance of the film was monitored as it was exposed to atmospheres containing alcohol. Ultrathin films exhibited a sharp and nonreversible increase in their resistance. This resulted from a change in the morphology of the organic layer, thereby disrupting the current flow through the polymer. An intended application for these inkjetprinted devices is in disposable handheld instruments to monitor the presence of organic vapours above a threshold level

  15. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  16. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  17. Photonuclear spallation reactions in Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Imamura, M.; Miyachi, T.

    1986-06-01

    Formation yields of 24 radioactive nuclides by the interaction of bremsstrahlung in the maximum end-point energies of 100 MeV - 1 GeV with Cu have been measured by direct γ-ray counting of irradiated targets. The yields in the mass range of 42 to 60 except for 60 Cu were analysed by non-linear least-squares fit to construct the mass yield and charge dispersion curves in spallation reactions. From the parameter values obtained, the energy dependence of the slope of the mass yield curve and the relationship between target N/Z and the most probable product N/Z were investigated in comparison with the results of proton, α and heavy ion-induced spallations of Cu. The characteristics of photon-induced spallations are discussed. (author)

  18. Study of Room Temperature H2S Gas Sensing Behavior of CuO-modified BSST Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Baviskar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of (Ba0.1Sr0.9(Sn0.5Ti0.5O3 referred as BSST, were prepared by screen-printing technique. The preparation, characterization and gas sensing properties of pure and CuO-BSST mixed oxide semiconductors have been investigated. The mixed oxides were obtained by dipping the pure BSST thick films into 0.01 M aqueous solution of CuCl2, for different intervals of time. Pure BSST was observed to be less sensitive to H2S gas. However, mixed oxides of CuO and BSST were observed to be highly sensitive to H2S gas. Upon exposure to H2S gas, the barrier height of CuO-BSST intergranular regions decreases markedly due to the chemical transformation of CuO into well conducting CuS leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The crucial gas response was found to H2S gas at room temperature and no cross sensitivity was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The effects of microstructure and doping concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery of the sensor in the presence of H2S gas were studied and discussed.

  19. Photon induced facile synthesis and growth of CuInS{sub 2} absorber thin film for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, 12-1, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki [Department of Advanced Interconnection Materials, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: The thin film containing CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be converted into CuInS{sub 2} by irradiation of intense pulses of light. - Highlights: • Photonic sintering technique is demonstrated for CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin film preparation. • The binary sulfides CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} are converted into CIS using intense light pulses. • The light energy of 706 mJ/cm{sup 2} is found best for phase pure CIS film formation. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the use of high intensity pulsed light technique for the synthesis of phase pure CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin film at room temperature. The intense pulse of light is used to induce sintering of binary sulfides CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} to produce CIS phase without any direct thermal treatment. Light energy equivalent to the 706 mJ/cm{sup 2} is found to be the best energy to convert the CIS precursor film deposited at room temperature into CIS pure phase and well crystalline film. The CIS absorber film thus prepared is useful in making printed solar cell at room temperature on substrate with large area.

  20. Recent Progress in the Development of Printed Thin-Film Transistors and Circuits with High-Resolution Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Someya, Takao

    2017-07-01

    Printed electronics enable the fabrication of large-scale, low-cost electronic devices and systems, and thus offer significant possibilities in terms of developing new electronics/optics applications in various fields. Almost all electronic applications require information processing using logic circuits. Hence, realizing the high-speed operation of logic circuits is also important for printed devices. This report summarizes recent progress in the development of printed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits in terms of materials, printing technologies, and applications. The first part of this report gives an overview of the development of functional inks such as semiconductors, electrodes, and dielectrics. The second part discusses high-resolution printing technologies and strategies to enable high-resolution patterning. The main focus of this report is on obtaining printed electrodes with high-resolution patterning and the electrical performance of printed TFTs using such printed electrodes. In the final part, some applications of printed electronics are introduced to exemplify their potential. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.