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Sample records for principally plutonium pu

  1. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  2. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured

  3. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-isotopic determination of plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) in marine sediments using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, O F X; Bruneau, F; Moldovan, M; Garraud, H; Epov, V N; Boust, D

    2007-03-28

    Among the transuranic elements present in the environment, plutonium isotopes are mainly attached to particles, and therefore they present a great interest for the study and modelling of particle transport in the marine environment. Except in the close vicinity of industrial sources, plutonium concentration in marine sediments is very low (from 10(-4) ng kg(-1) for (241)Pu to 10 ng kg(-1) for (239)Pu), and therefore the measurement of (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu in sediments at such concentration level requires the use of very sensitive techniques. Moreover, sediment matrix contains huge amounts of mineral species, uranium and organic substances that must be removed before the determination of plutonium isotopes. Hence, an efficient sample preparation step is necessary prior to analysis. Within this work, a chemical procedure for the extraction, purification and pre-concentration of plutonium from marine sediments prior to sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) analysis has been optimized. The analytical method developed yields a pre-concentrated solution of plutonium from which (238)U and (241)Am have been removed, and which is suitable for the direct and simultaneous measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu by SF-ICP-MS.

  5. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy

  6. Migration of plutonium from freshwater ecosystem at Hanford. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R. M.; Klopfer, D. C.; McShane, M. C.

    1977-09-01

    A reprocessing waste pond at Hanford has been inventoried to determine quantities of plutonium (Pu) that have been accumulated since its formation in 1944. Expressions of export were developed from these inventory data and from informed assumptions about the vectors which act to mobilize material containing Pu. This 14-acre pond provides a realistic illustration of the mobility of Pu in a lentic ecosystem. The ecological behavior of Pu in this pond is similar to that in other contaminated aquatic systems having widely differing limnological characteristics. Since its creation, this pond has received about one Ci of /sup 239/,/sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu, most of which has been retained by its sediments. Submerged plants, mainly diatoms and Potamogeton, accumulate >95% of the Pu contained in biota. Emergent insects are the only direct biological route of export, mobilizing about 5 x 10/sup 3/ nCi of Pu annually, which is also the estimated maximum quantity of the Pu exported by waterfowl, birds and mammals collectively. There is no apparent significant export by wind, and it is not likely that Pu has migrated to the ground water below U-Pond via percolation. Although this pond has a rapid flushing rate, a eutrophic nutrient supply with a diverse biotic profile, and interacts with an active terrestrial environment, it appears to effectively bind Pu and prevent it from entering pathways to man and other life.

  7. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0 2 plant design is discussed here

  8. Determination of isotope fractionation effect using a double spike (242Pu+240Pu) during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Jain, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope fractionation effect during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium has been investigated using a double spike ( 242 Pu+ 240 Pu) and the determination of concentration of plutonium in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is reported. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  9. Pu(V) as the stable form of oxidized plutonium in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandini, K.A.; Penrose, W.R.; Nelson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work presents analytical evidence supporting the proposition that Pu(V) is the sole or predominant form of oxidized plutonium in natural waters. Two independent methods, the selective adsorption of Pu(VI) by silica gel, and the somewhat less selective coprecipitation of Pu(V) with calcium carbonate, were developed to separate Pu(V) from Pu(VI). Measurements of ambient plutonium in several natural waters by these methods found only Pu(V). In laboratory tracer studies, Pu(VI) was shown to be highly unstable in dilute bicarbonate solution and in Lake Michigan water, reducing in first-order fashion to Pu(V). (orig.)

  10. Oxidation behaviour of plutonium rich (U, Pu)C and (U, Pu)O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, S.K., E-mail: sksali@barc.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Division (India); Kulkarni, N.K.; Phatak, Rohan [Fuel Chemistry Division (India); Agarwal, Renu [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Oxidation behaviour of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})C{sub 1.06} was investigated in air by heating samples up to 1073 K and 1273 K. Thermogravimetry (TG) of the samples and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of the intermediate products were used to understand the phenomenon taking place during this process. Theoretical calculations were carried out to understand the multiple phase changes taking place during oxidation of carbide. Theoretical results were validated by XRD analysis of the products obtained at different stages of oxidation. The final oxidized products were found to be a single FCC phase with O/M = 2.15 (M = U + Pu). Oxidation kinetic studies of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})O{sub 2} and (U{sub 0.47}Pu{sub 0.53})O{sub 2} were carried out in dry air, using thermogravimetry, under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of oxidation was found to be 49 and 70 kJ/mol, respectively. Lattice parameter dependence on Pu/M and O/M of plutonium rich mixed oxide (MOX) was established using combined results of XRD and TG analysis of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})O{sub 2+x} and (U{sub 0.47}Pu{sub 0.53})O{sub 2+x}.

  11. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  12. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Peruchena, J.I.; Cereceda, F.; Vidal, V.; Pinilla, E.; Miró, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239 Pu and 240 Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240 Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  13. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An isotopic analysis system for plutonium samples enriched in 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1991-08-01

    We have designed and built a gamma-ray spectrometer system that measures the relative plutonium isotopic abundances of plutonium oxide enriched in 238 Pu. The first system installed at Westinghouse Savannah River Company was tested and evaluated on plutonium oxide in stainless steel EP60/61 containers. 238 Pu enrichments ranged from 20% to 85%. Results show that 200 grams of plutonium oxide in an EP60.61 container can be measured with ±0.3% precision and better than ±1.0% accuracy in the specific power using a counting time of 50 minutes. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. The controlled-potential coulometric determination of plutonium based upon cerium oxidation and the Pu022+/Pu4+ valency change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.; Crossley, D.; Venkataramana, P.

    1977-09-01

    Conditions have been established enabling plutonium to be oxidised quantitatively to the hexavalent state in the working compartment of a controlled-potential coulometric cell using electrogenerated ceric ion or excess ceric nitrate. The excess ceric ion is reduced in situ electrochemically without reduction of the hexavalent plutonium. The plutonium is then determined controlled-potential coulometrically by reduction to Pu 3+ followed by oxidation to Pu 4+ . The first oxidation step is conducted in molar nitric acid solution containing sulphamic acid but the coulometric determination step is conducted in molar sulphuric acid solution. The results obtained in the coulometric determination step were less satisfactory following oxidation with electrogenerated ceric ion rather than with chemically added ceric nitrate. Using the recommended conditions, 6 mg quantities of plutonium can be determined with an accuracy of 100.06% and a precision of 0.12% (coefficient of variation). The behaviour of chromium, manganese and vanadium impurity is reported. (author)

  16. Reaction of plutonium with water kinetic and equilibrium behavior of binary and ternary phases in the Pu + O + H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Hodges, A.E. III; Bixby, G.E.; Lucas, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic and equilibrium behavior of the Pu + O + H system has been studied by measuring the production of hydrogen gas formed by a sequence of hydrolysis reactions. The kinetic dependence of the Pu + H 2 O reaction on salt concentration and temperature has been defined. The metal is quantitatively converted to a fine black powder which has been identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride, PuOH. Other hydrolysis products formed in aqueous media include a second oxide hydride, Pu 7 O 9 H 3 , and the oxides Pu 2 O 3 , Pu 7 O 12 , Pu 9 O 16 , Pu 10 O 18 , Pu 12 O 22 , and PuO 2 . Thermal decomposition products of PuOH include Pu 2 O 2 H and PuO. A tentative phase diagram for Pu + O + H is presented and structural relationships of the oxide hydrides and oxides are discussed. 10 figures, 5 tables

  17. Plutonium(IV) peroxide formation in nitric medium and kinetics Pu(VI) reduction by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, C.; Adnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of plutonium (VI) to Pu(IV) with hydrogen peroxide is a step in industrial processes used to purify plutonium nitrate solutions. This operation must be carefully controlled, in order to avoid any formation of the Pu(IV) peroxide green precipitate and to obtain exclusively Pu(IV). This led us to study the acidity and Pu and H 2 O 2 concentrations influences on the precipitate appearance and to perform a Pu(VI) reduction kinetic study on a wide range of acidities ([HNO 3 ]: 0.5 to 8 M), plutonium concentrations ([Pu(VI)]: 0.1 to 0.8 M) and [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] ratio (from 1 to 8). Thus, the domain of Pu(IV) peroxide formation and the reactional paths were established. With the exception of 0.5 M nitric acid medium, the kinetic curves show two distinct regims: the first one corresponds to an induction period where the Pu(VI) concentration doesn't change, the second corresponds to a linear decrease of Pu(VI). An increase of the temperature greatly accelerates the Pu(VI) reduction rate while [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] has almost no influence. The Pu(VI) total reduction time decreases when initial concentration of plutonium increases. By increasing nitric acid concentration from 0.5 M to 6 M, the total Pu(VI) reduction time decreases. This time increases when [HNO 3 ] varies from 6 M to 8 M. (orig.)

  18. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  19. Integral data evaluation of stainless steel, 239Pu, 240Pu, and H2O for homogeneous plutonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenquin, U.P.; Thompson, J.K.; Trapp, T.J.; Kottwitz, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    Theory-experiment correlations of plutonium-fueled systems using ENDF/B cross-section data have discrepancies which could be due to cross-section data, theoretical methods, and/or interpretation of the experiment. Analyses of homogeneous plutonium critical experiments were performed to determine where cross section deficiencies may exist. New thermal cross-section data (0.3 eV) were generated for 239 Pu and 240 Pu capture, fission, and neutrons per fission. Two scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in water were also generated. Calculated values of k/sub eff/ using these new data were compared with corresponding values using ENDF/B-IV data. The results indicate that the 240 Pu resonance data are sufficiently well known for hydrogen-moderated plutonium systems. In systems using stainless steel as structural and/or neutron control, a large fraction of the neutron absorptions occur in the stainless steel. Analyses of several systems containing stainless steel indicate that the uncertainty in calculated values of k/sub eff/ is small using current estimates of the uncertainties in the cross sections. 20 figures, 30 tables

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of plutonium isotopes (238Pu and 239,240Pu) in sediments off the Rhone River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.; Charmasson, S.; Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.; Grenz, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion and fate of the Rhone River inputs to the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) have been studied through the spatial and temporal distributions of plutonium isotopes in continental shelf sediments. Plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu) are appropriate tracers to follow the dispersion of particulate matter due both to their high affinity for particles and their long half-lives. In the Rhone River valley, plutonium isotopes originate from both the weathering of the catchment basin contaminated by global atmospheric fallout, and the liquid effluents released from the Marcoule reprocessing plant since 1961. This work presents a first detailed study on 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu distributions in sediments from the Rhone prodelta to the adjacent continental shelf, since the decommissioning of Marcoule in 1997. The vertical distribution of Pu isotopes has been analysed in a 4.75 m long core sampled in 2001 at the Rhone mouth. Despite this length, plutonium is found at the last 10 cm, manifesting the high sedimentation rate of the prodeltaic area and its ability for trapping fine-grained sediments and associated contaminants. The highest 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu concentrations reached 1.26 and 5.97 Bq kg -1 respectively and were found within the layer 280-290 cm. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios (AR) demonstrated an efficient and huge trapping of the Pu isotopes derived from Marcoule. The fresh sediments, located on the top of the core, show lower plutonium activity concentrations and lower 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios. This decrease is in close relation with the shut down of the Marcoule reprocessing plant in 1997. In 2001, plutonium isotopes were also analysed in 21 surface sediments located offshore and concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.17 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and from 0.33 to 1.72 Bq kg -1 for 239,240 Pu. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu AR ranged from 0.24 close to the river mouth to 0.06 southwards, indicating the decreasing influence of the

  1. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  2. Uncertainty propagation for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in MOX-PU4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-07

    This GUM WorkbenchTM propagation of uncertainty is for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in a Pu standard material (C126) supplied as individual aliquots that were prepared by mass. The C126 solution had been prepared and as aliquoted as standard material. Samples are aliquoted into glass vials and heated to dryness for distribution as dried nitrate. The individual plutonium aliquots were not separated chemically or otherwise purified prior to measurement by coulometry in the F/H Laboratory. Hydrogen peroxide was used for valence adjustment. The Pu assay measurement results were corrected for the interference from trace iron in the solution measured for assay. Aliquot mass measurements were corrected for air buoyancy. The relative atomic mass (atomic weight) of the plutonium from X126 certoficate was used. The isotopic composition was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for comparison but not used in calculations.

  3. Plutonium diffusion in advanced fuels (U,Pu)(C,O) and (U,Pu)(C,N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Matzke, H.

    1983-01-01

    The self-diffusion of 238 Pu was measured in an oxicarbide (U,Pu)(C,O) and a carbonitride (U,Pu) (C,N). The activation enthalpies were 447 and 347 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The carbonitrides were confirmed to fall into three classes: carbide-like compositions with less than 30% nitrogen in the metalloid lattice, nitride-like composition with more than 70% nitrogen and with reduced atomic mobilities, and carbonitrides with about 50% nitrogen showing an intermediate behavior. The oxicarbide showed diffusion coefficients slightly larger than those of pure carbides

  4. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  5. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference......Pu. However, it is impossible to measure 238Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 106 for uranium was obtained by chemical separation....

  6. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  7. Results of the international Pu-2000 exercise for plutonium isotopic composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Bickel, M.; Hill, C.; Verbruggen, A.

    2004-01-01

    An international comparison for plutonium isotopic composition measurement, known as the Pu-2000 exercise, was organized by the ESARDA NDA-WG (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Non-Destructive Assay). The aim of this comparison was to test X- and γ-ray spectrometry methods over a large range of isotopic ratios. These methods are based on the complex analysis of several X- and γ-rays in the KX region of the plutonium spectrum and also in the 120-700 keV energy range. The results obtained by the participants with their corresponding uncertainties are presented in this document and compared to the declared values. The main conclusions of the work are also given. No important bias due to an inadequate knowledge of the nuclear data for plutonium isotopes was observed

  8. Thorium utilization as a Pu-burner: proposal of Plutonium-Thorium Mixed Oxide (PT-MOX) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Pu-Th mixed oxide (PT-MOX) project is proposed for a thorium utilization and a plutonium burning. None of plutonium can be newly produced from PT-MOX fuel, and the plutonium mass of about 1 ton can be consumed with one reactor (total heavy metal assumed: 100 tons) for 1 year. In order to consume plutonium produced from usual Light Water Reactor, it should be better to operate one PT-MOX reactor for three to five Light Water Reactors. (author)

  9. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  10. Plutonium separation by reduction stripping. Application to processing of mixed oxide (U,Pu)O2 fuel fabrication wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, Thierry; Cousinou, Gerard; Ganivet, Michel.

    1978-11-01

    A procedure is described for separating plutonium from a uranium VI and plutonium IV mixture contained in an organic phase (tributyl phosphate diluted in dodecane). This separation is obtained by extracting the plutonium III using two organic reducers: hydrazine and paraminophenol. Paraminophenol has excellent reducing qualities, similar to those of ferrous sulphamate, but has the added advantage of not contaminating extracted plutonium. This procedure is currently used in processing production wastes from mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 fuels; the installation using this procedure is described in detail in this paper. Operating results show the remarkable efficiency of this procedure: the separated plutonium and uranium mass flows have been increased to 185 and 350 g.h -1 respectively; the uranium contains less than 0.1 ppm of plutonium on completion of the purification cycle [fr

  11. Absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats and guinea pigs after ingestion of alfalfa containing 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Drucker, H.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of inorganic compounds of plutonium from the GI tract is so low that ingestion of this radionuclide does not appear to present a major health hazard. However, combining this actinide with organic compounds, such as chelating agents, can markedly increase absorption. Similarly, when Pu or other long-lived nuclides are released into the environment and incorporated into plants they may be complexed with naturally occurring organic ligands. It might then be possible for these nuclides to more effectively enter into the food chain. To test for this possibility, alfalfa was grown in the presence of inorganic plutonium, the plant tissue was fed to animals, and a comparison was made of the absorption from the gut of this plant-incorporated Pu relative to inorganic Pu. The results of these experiments, while not conclusive, do support the view that information is needed on food chain behavior of the actinide nuclear fuels as a precaution against exceeding dose limits. (author)

  12. DFT and two-dimensional correlation analysis methods for evaluating the Pu3+–Pu4+ electronic transition of plutonium-doped zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Liang; Dong, Fa-qin; Song, Mian-xin; Dong, Hai-liang; Li, Wei-Min; Duan, Tao; Xu, Jin-bao; Zhang, Xiao-yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of Pu f-shell electron on the electronic property of zircon is calculated via DFT and 2D-CA techniques. • Reasons of Pu f-shell electron influencing on electronic properties are systematically discussed. • Phase transitions are found at two point 2.8 mol% and 7.5 mol%. - Abstract: Understanding how plutonium (Pu) doping affects the crystalline zircon structure is very important for risk management. However, so far, there have been only a very limited number of reports of the quantitative simulation of the effects of the Pu charge and concentration on the phase transition. In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT), virtual crystal approximation (VCA), and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-CA) techniques to calculate the origins of the structural and electronic transitions of Zr 1−c Pu c SiO 4 over a wide range of Pu doping concentrations (c = 0–10 mol%). The calculations indicated that the low-angular-momentum Pu-f xy -shell electron excites an inner-shell O-2s 2 orbital to create an oxygen defect (V O-s ) below c = 2.8 mol%. This oxygen defect then captures a low-angular-momentum Zr-5p 6 5s 2 electron to form an sp hybrid orbital, which exhibits a stable phase structure. When c > 2.8 mol%, each accumulated V O-p defect captures a high-angular-momentum Zr-4d z electron and two Si-p z electrons to create delocalized Si 4+ → Si 2+ charge disproportionation. Therefore, we suggest that the optimal amount of Pu cannot exceed 7.5 mol% because of the formation of a mixture of ZrO 8 polyhedral and SiO 4 tetrahedral phases with the orientation (10-1). This study offers new perspective on the development of highly stable zircon-based solid solution materials

  13. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963); Etude d'alliages U-Pu-Nb a 20 pour cent en poids de plutonium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, J; Barthelemy, P; Boucher, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL{sub 3} reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [French] Les alliages a 20 pour cent de plutonium, 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 pour cent de niobium et le complement en uranium ont ete etudies du point de vue de leur possibilite d'emploi comme combustible. Les problemes d'elaboration, de mise en forme et d'homogeneisation sont presentes. Ils sont relativement delicats. On a determine par analyse thermique, dilatometrie, micrographie et diffraction des rayons X les temperatures de transformation a l'etat solide, les coefficients de dilatation et la nature des phases. Pour des teneurs analogues, on retrouve de nombreux points communs avec les alliages U-Pu-Mo: presence de la phase zeta des U-Pu a temperature moyenne, coefficients de dilatation analogues, bonne tenue en cyclage thermique et bonne resistance a l'oxydation dans l'air malgre la presence de la phase zeta. Des essais d'irradiation dans EL{sub 3} vont etre entrepris. (auteurs)

  14. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963); Etude d'alliages U-Pu-Nb a 20 pour cent en poids de plutonium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, J.; Barthelemy, P.; Boucher, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL{sub 3} reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [French] Les alliages a 20 pour cent de plutonium, 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 pour cent de niobium et le complement en uranium ont ete etudies du point de vue de leur possibilite d'emploi comme combustible. Les problemes d'elaboration, de mise en forme et d'homogeneisation sont presentes. Ils sont relativement delicats. On a determine par analyse thermique, dilatometrie, micrographie et diffraction des rayons X les temperatures de transformation a l'etat solide, les coefficients de dilatation et la nature des phases. Pour des teneurs analogues, on retrouve de nombreux points communs avec les alliages U-Pu-Mo: presence de la phase zeta des U-Pu a temperature moyenne, coefficients de dilatation analogues, bonne tenue en cyclage thermique et bonne resistance a l'oxydation dans l'air malgre la presence de la phase zeta. Des essais d'irradiation dans EL{sub 3} vont etre entrepris. (auteurs)

  15. EPR study of sodium plutonyl acetate NaPuO2(CH3COO)3 and plutonium thenoyl trifluoroacetonate Pu(TTA)4: self-irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    High energy radiations are emitted in the radioactive disintegration of plutonium isotopes. These radiations mainly consisting of α-particles interact with the surrounding ligands in the case of plutonium compounds. The ligand molecules undergo electronic excitation, ionization and fragmentation resulting in extensive radiation damage. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique is utilised to indentify and estimate these molecular products formed as a result of self-irradiation in the case of sodium plutonyl acetate, NaPuO 2 (CH 3 COO) 3 , and plutonium thenoyl trifluoroacetonate, Pu(TTA) 4 . The observed EPR spectra are interpreted to be due to acetate and thenoyl trifluoroacetonate radicals with the unpaired electron localized on oxygens of carboxyl group and carbonyl group, respectively. The efficiency parameter, eta, defined as the ratio of the number of paramagnetic species/defects to the total number of radioactive disintegrations has been determined to be 0.83 and 16.9 for the case of the acetate and thenoyl trifluoroacetonate, respectivly. (author)

  16. Determination of thorium and plutonium in AHWR experimental (Th, 1%Pu)O2 MOX fuel after microwave dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulzele, Ajit K.; Malav, R.K.; Pandey, Ashish; Kapoor, Y.S.; Kumar, Manish; Singh, Mamta; Das, D.K.; Prakash, Amrit; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes determination of thorium and plutonium in experimental (Th, 1%Pu)O 2 AHWR (Advanced Heavy Water Reactor) MOX fuel samples after dissolution by microwave. Time taken to dissolve ∼ 2g of MOX sample by conventional IR heating technique in conc. HNO 3 + 0.05 M HF mixture is about 35-40 hours while using microwave dissolution technique it is ∼ 2 hours. Hence, with the help of microwave dissolution technique analysis time for each sample has been reduced from week to a day. The PuO 2 content (wt%) in the MOX pellets was within specification limit, (1.0±0.1)%. (author)

  17. An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces; Etude ab initio des surfaces d'oxydes de Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B

    2007-07-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO{sub 2} and {beta}-Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO{sub 2} in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p{sub O{sub 2}}). We conclude that at room temperature and for p{sub O{sub 2}}{approx}10 atm., the polar O{sub 2}-(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)

  18. 239, 240, 241Pu fingerprinting of plutonium in western US soils using ICPMS: solution and laser ablation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizdziel, James V.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Farmer, Dennis; Faller, Scott H.; Hodge, Vernon F.

    2008-01-01

    Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) has been used with analysis of solution samples and laser ablation (LA) of electrodeposited alpha sources to characterize plutonium activities and atom ratios prevalent in the western USA. A large set of surface soils and attic dusts were previously collected from many locations in the states of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado; specific samples were analyzed herein to characterize the relative contributions of stratospheric fallout vs. Nevada Test Site (NTS) plutonium. This study illustrates two different ICPMS-based analytical strategies that are successful in fingerprinting Pu in environmental soils and dusts. Two specific datasets have been generated: (1) soils are leached with HNO 3 -HCl, converted into electrodeposited alpha sources, counted by alpha spectrometry, then re-analyzed using laser ablation SF-ICPMS; (2) samples are completely dissolved by treatment with HNO 3 -HF-H 3 BO 3 , Pu fractions are prepared by extraction chromatography, and analyzed by SF-ICPMS. Optimal laser ablation and ICPMS conditions were determined for the re-analysis of archived alpha spectrometry ''planchette'' sources. The best ablation results were obtained using a large spot size (200 μm), a defocused beam, full repetition rate (20 Hz) and scan rate (200 μm s -1 ); LA-ICPMS data were collected with a rapid electrostatic sector scanning experiment. Less than 10% of the electroplated surface area is consumed in the LA-ICPMS analysis, which would allow for multiple re-analyses. Excellent agreement was found between 239+240 Pu activities determined by LA-ICPMS vs. activity results obtained by alpha spectrometry for the same samples ten years earlier. LA-ICPMS atom ratios for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu range from 0.038-0.132 and 0.00034-0.00168, respectively, and plot along a two-component mixing line ( 241 Pu/ 239 Pu = 0.013 [ 240 Pu/ 239 Pu] - 0.0001; r 2 = 0.971) with NTS and global fallout end

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of unfired PuO2 pellets as an alternative plutonium shipping form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Libby, R.A.; Soldat, K.L.; White, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    A limited cost-benefit evaluation was performed concerning use of unfired plutonium dioxide pellets as a shipping form. Two specific processing operations are required for this use, one to form the pellet (pelletizing) and a second to reconstitute an acceptable powder upon receipt (reconstitution). The direct costs for the pelletizing operation are approximately $208,000 for equipment and its installation and $122 per kg of plutonium processed (based upon a 20-kg plutonium/day facility). The direct costs for reconstitution are approximately $90,000 for equipment and its installation and $81 per kg of plutonium processed. The indirect cost considered was personnel exposure from these operations. Whole body exposures ranged from 0.04 man-rem per 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 0.9 man-rem per 100 kg of average-exposure plutonium pelletized. Hand exposures were much higher - 17 man-rem power 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 67 man-rem per 100 kg of average plutonium pelletized. The principal benefit is a potential twentyfold reduction of airborne release in the event of an accident. An experimental plan is outlined to fill the data gaps uncovered during this study in the areas of pelletizing and reconstitution process parameters and pellet response behavior to accident-generated stresses. A study to enhance the containment potential of the inner packaging used during shipment is also outlined

  20. Reactivity of the uranium (U(IV)/U(VI)) and the plutonium (Pu(III)/Pu(IV)) in nitric aqueous solution under ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venault, L.

    1998-01-01

    To minimize the volumes of solid waste and industrial effluents generated at the end of cycle, particularly in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing industry, research is currently under way on so-called innovative processes, designed to induce chemical reactions without adding reagent to the media. Among these processes, the use of ultrasound can prove advantageous, and the purpose of this study is to assess accurately the potential for its application. In the present context, this work shows that the transmission of an ultrasonic wave in aqueous nitric acid solution leads to: the accumulation of nitrous acid in solution, until a steady-sate concentration is reached; the removal of nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in the gas stream. The initial kinetics of the formation of HNO 2 in solution was quantified as a function of the nitric acid concentration and the ultrasound intensity. It was also shown than an excess of nitrous acid in nitric solution decomposes under the effect of ultrasound. It is also possible to accumulate hydrogen peroxide in solution during the ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous nitric acid solutions in the presence of a chemical species N 2 H 5 + , NH 2 SO 3 H...) which reacts rapidly with HNO 2 , preventing the reduction of H 2 O 2 by HNO 2 . The mechanisms of HNO 2 formation and decomposition, and the mechanism of H 2 O 2 formation during the ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous nitric acid solutions, are presented. Control of H 2 O 2 or HNO 2 in a nitric acid medium under the effect of an ultrasonic wave can be exploited to control redox reactions of uranium and plutonium ions, particularly with respect to the oxidation of U and Pu (U(IV)→ U(IV) or Pu(III) → Pu(IV)) and the reduction of Pu (Pu(IV)→ Pu(III). The redox behavior of uranium and plutonium ions in aqueous nitric solution subject to an ultrasonic flux is interpreted in term of effects induced on the reaction medium, and reveals the potential for using ultrasound to cause

  1. DFT and two-dimensional correlation analysis methods for evaluating the Pu{sup 3+}–Pu{sup 4+} electronic transition of plutonium-doped zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Liang, E-mail: bianliang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Fa-qin; Song, Mian-xin [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Hai-liang [Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Li, Wei-Min [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Duan, Tao; Xu, Jin-bao [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Xiao-yan [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Effect of Pu f-shell electron on the electronic property of zircon is calculated via DFT and 2D-CA techniques. • Reasons of Pu f-shell electron influencing on electronic properties are systematically discussed. • Phase transitions are found at two point 2.8 mol% and 7.5 mol%. - Abstract: Understanding how plutonium (Pu) doping affects the crystalline zircon structure is very important for risk management. However, so far, there have been only a very limited number of reports of the quantitative simulation of the effects of the Pu charge and concentration on the phase transition. In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT), virtual crystal approximation (VCA), and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-CA) techniques to calculate the origins of the structural and electronic transitions of Zr{sub 1−c}Pu{sub c}SiO{sub 4} over a wide range of Pu doping concentrations (c = 0–10 mol%). The calculations indicated that the low-angular-momentum Pu-f{sub xy}-shell electron excites an inner-shell O-2s{sup 2} orbital to create an oxygen defect (V{sub O-s}) below c = 2.8 mol%. This oxygen defect then captures a low-angular-momentum Zr-5p{sup 6}5s{sup 2} electron to form an sp hybrid orbital, which exhibits a stable phase structure. When c > 2.8 mol%, each accumulated V{sub O-p} defect captures a high-angular-momentum Zr-4d{sub z} electron and two Si-p{sub z} electrons to create delocalized Si{sup 4+} → Si{sup 2+} charge disproportionation. Therefore, we suggest that the optimal amount of Pu cannot exceed 7.5 mol% because of the formation of a mixture of ZrO{sub 8} polyhedral and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral phases with the orientation (10-1). This study offers new perspective on the development of highly stable zircon-based solid solution materials.

  2. Redox thermodynamic data of plutonium in acidic and carbonate media. Pu(V) stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, H.

    1992-01-01

    Pu redox equilibria are studied in acidic and carbonate media in this thesis, to build a thermodynamic data bank consistent with the TDB (NEA-OECD) one and in connection with radioactive waste disposal programs. Literature is discussed and reinterpreted. The experimental method is tested with Uranium preliminary measurements. The reversible redox potentials (PuO 2 + and Pu 4+ /Pu 3+ ) are measured using the cyclic voltametric technique in perchloric media at several ionic strengths (from 0.5 to 3M) and temperatures (from 0 to 70 deg C). The Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) is used to measured activity coefficients and to extrapolate data to the standard conditions. The potentials variations versus temperature are linear in first approximation: the entropy changes are found constant from 0 to 70 deg C and the heat capacity changes are within uncertainties. The standard constant of PuO 2 + disproportionation into PuO 2 2+ and Pu 3+ is deduced from spectrophotometric measurements performed in perchloric media around pH=1 where Pu 4+ hydrolysis is discussed. The Pu non-reversible standard potentials (PuO 2 2+ /Pu 4+ for instance) are then calculated and validated with a spectrophotometric study of Pu 4+ formation from PuO 2 2+ and Pu 3+ in a 1M perchloric acidic solution. The Pu(VI/V) redox potential, activity coefficients and entropies are measured using the same technique in concentrated carbonate media. The limiting complex standard formation constants and the redox potential shifts (between acidic and carbonate media) are then discussed among the U, Np, Pu and Am actinides. A spectrophotometric study of the equilibrium between the complexes with 5 and 4 carbonate ligands allowed to measure Pu(IV) limiting complex stability at several ionic strengths. (author). 26 tabs., 46 figs., 95 refs

  3. Finite element analysis of local overheating within plutonium enriched UO2 fuel rods caused by PuO2 islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Within natural UO 2 fuel elements enriched with plutonium, this last material should form PuO 2 solid solutions inside the UO 2 pellets, in a wide range of concentrations. If the solutions are obtained by mechanical mixing of the oxides, PuO 2 islands are formed in the UO 2 matrix. These islands may be the source of several problems in the fuel behaviour, the most important being the overheating of the matrix in the neighbourhood of the particles. It is caused by the large fission cross section of plutonium compared with that of uranium. A detailed study of the thermal effects produced by PuO 2 particles in the UO 2 matrix and the cladding is then important for the specification of their permissible size. A portion of the fuel rods with spherical particles in the most significant places was studied. In order to obtain the dimensionless overheating of the fuel and cladding produced by the presence of those particles, the spatial distribution of temperature was calculated, solving the stationary and linear bidimensional equation of heat conducting using a finite element code. Several geometrical variables and material properties have been taken as dimensionless parameters. A satisfactory convergence of the numerical results to an asymptotic limit with a well-known exact solution, has been obtained. (orig.)

  4. The U-Pu inspector, a new instrument to determine the isotopic compositions of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verplancke, J.; Van Dyck, R.; Tench, O.; Sielaff, B.

    1994-01-01

    The U/Pu-InSpector is a new integrated, portable instrument that can measure the isotopic composition of samples containing uranium and/or plutonium without prior calibration and without the need for skilled operators. It consists of a Low Energy Germanium detector in a Multi-attitude Cryostat (MAC). A shield and collimator are built-in, directly around the detector element, reducing the weight of this detector and shield to approximately 8 kg with a full dewar. The dewar can quickly and easily be filled with a self-pressurizing funnel. The detector is connected to a small portable battery operated analyzer and a Notebook computer. The spectra are automatically stored and analyzed with the help of the MGA codes for plutonium and/or for uranium. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Study of the Effect of (U0.8Pu0.2O2 Uranium–Plutonium Mixed Fuel Fission Products on a Living Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayagoz Baimukhanova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of experiments conducted on pigs to determine the effect of plutonium, which is the most radiotoxic and highly active element in the range of mixed fuel (U0.8Pu0.2O2 fission products, on living organisms. The results will allow empirical prediction of the emergency plutonium radiation dose for various organs and tissues of humans in case of an accident in a reactor running on mixed fuel (U0.8Pu0.2O2.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  7. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  8. Reactivity of the uranium (U(IV)/U(VI)) and the plutonium (Pu(III)/Pu(IV)) in nitric aqueous solution under ultrasound; De l'influence des ultrasons sur la reactivite de l'uranium (U(IV)/U(VI)) et du plutonium (PU(III)/PU(IV)) en solution aqueuse nitrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venault, L

    1998-07-01

    To minimize the volumes of solid waste and industrial effluents generated at the end of cycle, particularly in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing industry, research is currently under way on so-called innovative processes, designed to induce chemical reactions without adding reagent to the media. Among these processes, the use of ultrasound can prove advantageous, and the purpose of this study is to assess accurately the potential for its application. In the present context, this work shows that the transmission of an ultrasonic wave in aqueous nitric acid solution leads to: the accumulation of nitrous acid in solution, until a steady-sate concentration is reached; the removal of nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in the gas stream. The initial kinetics of the formation of HNO{sub 2} in solution was quantified as a function of the nitric acid concentration and the ultrasound intensity. It was also shown than an excess of nitrous acid in nitric solution decomposes under the effect of ultrasound. It is also possible to accumulate hydrogen peroxide in solution during the ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous nitric acid solutions in the presence of a chemical species (N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +}, NH{sub 2}SO{sub 3}H...) which reacts rapidly with HNO{sub 2}, preventing the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by HNO{sub 2}. The mechanisms of HNO{sub 2} formation and decomposition, and the mechanism of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during the ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous nitric acid solutions, are presented. Control of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or HNO{sub 2} in a nitric acid medium under the effect of an ultrasonic wave can be exploited to control redox reactions of uranium and plutonium ions, particularly with respect to the oxidation of U and Pu (U(IV){yields} U(IV) or Pu(III) {yields} Pu(IV)) and the reduction of Pu (Pu(IV){yields} Pu(III). The redox behavior of uranium and plutonium ions in aqueous nitric solution subject to an ultrasonic flux is interpreted in term of effects

  9. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: creation (fuel cycle, Pu formed in thermal reactors); properties; Pu in fast reactors; fast reactor experience; radioactivity; handling; Pu and weapons. (U.K.)

  10. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  11. Could weapon-grade plutonium be an asset for managing Pu inventories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Bemden, E. van den

    1997-01-01

    Due to the temporary shortage of MOX fuel fabrication facilities, the stockpile of separated civilian grade Pu (CPu) is predicted to increase up to the turn of the century. An additional quantity of weapon grade Pu (WPu) will be progressively isolated at the same period. Both CPu and WPu surpluses require disposition as soon as feasible. Although non-proliferation concerns, established national policies, public acceptance problems and other considerations largely complicate the aspect of the use of WPu, it is worth examining the advantages which could result from a synergetic management of: LWR grade Pu to which AGR grade Pu might be associated; WPu; GCR grade Pu which should be considered as a Pu variety situated between the two first ones as far as their physical and neutronic characteristics are concerned. Two scenarios of integrated managements of the CPu varieties and WPu are being considered. They indicate several technical and economical advantages but also important problems to be resolved, mainly from the non-proliferation point of view. In that respect, it is concluded that, although no reasonable perspective exists to resolve these problems easily (or at all), the advantages justify an effort of the international community to consider how it could be implemented. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  13. Comparison of U-Pu-Mo, U-Pu-Nb, U-Pu-Ti and U-Pu-Zr alloys; Comparaison des alliages U-Pu-Mo, U-Pu-Nb, U-Pu-Ti, U-Pu-Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, R; Barthelemy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The data concerning the U-Pu, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb are recalled. The results obtained with U-Pu-Ti and U-Pu-Zr alloys containing 15-20 per cent Pu and 10 wt. per cent ternary element are reported. The transformation temperatures, the expansion coefficients, the nature of phases, the thermal cycling behaviour have been determined. A list of the principal properties of these different alloys is presented and the possibilities of their use as fast reactor's fuel element are considered. The U-Pu-Ti alloys seem to be quite promising: easiness of fabrication, large thermal stability, excellent behaviour in air, small quantity of zeta phase, temperature of solidus superior to 1100 deg. C. (authors) [French] On rappelle brievement les connaissances acquises sur les alliages U-Pu, U-Pu-Mo et U-Pu-Nb. On presente les resultats obtenus avec les alliages U-Pu-Ti et U-Pu-Zr pour des teneurs de 15 a 20 pour cent de plutonium et 10 pour cent en poids d'element ternaire. On a determine les temperatures de transformation, les coefficients de dilatation, la nature des phases, la conductibilite thermique a 20 deg. C, la tenue au cyclage thermique et diverses autres proprietes. Un tableau resume les principales proprietes des divers alliages. On considere les possibilites d'emploi de ces alliages comme combustibles de reacteur rapide. Les alliages U-Pu-Ti paraissent particulierement interessants: facilite d'elaboration, stabilite thermique etendue, tenue dans l'air excellente, faible quantite de la phase U-Pu zeta, temperature de fusion commencante superieure a 1100 deg. C. (auteurs)

  14. Measurement of the {sup 240}Pu concentration of a plutonium sample by the spontaneous fission method (1960); Mesure de la teneur d'un plutonium en {sup 240}Pu par la methode des fissions spontanees (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R; Clouet d' Orval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It is very important to know the plutonium-240 content of the plutonium formed in piles. The method of measurement described here consists in counting the number of spontaneous fissions produced in a known quantity of plutonium. This measurement is carried out in a multiple-plate ionisation chamber, the plutonium being deposited on the plates. The disintegration constant of plutonium-240 by spontaneous fission being known the plutonium-240 content in the sample can be calculated. (author) [French] La connaissance de la teneur en plutonium-240 du plutonium forme dans les piles est une question importante. La methode de mesure presentee ici consiste a compter le nombre de fissions spontanees issues d'une quantite connue de plutonium. Cette mesure est effectuee dans une chambre d'ionisation a plateaux multiples sur lesquels est depose le plutonium. La connaissance de la constante de desintegration du plutonium-240 par fissions spontanees permet de calculer la teneur en plutonium-240. (auteur)

  15. Calorimetric measurements on plutonium rich (U,Pu)O2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandan, R.; Babu, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy increments of U (1-y) Pu y O 2 solid solutions with y = 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 were measured using a high-temperature differential calorimeter by employing the method of inverse drop calorimetry in the temperature range 956-1803 K. From the fit equations for the enthalpy increments, other thermodynamic functions such as heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy function have been computed in the temperature range 298-1800 K. The results are presented and compared with the data available in the literature. The results indicate that the enthalpies of U (1-y) Pu y O 2 solid solutions with y = 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 obey the Neumann-Kopp's molar additivity rule

  16. Comments on the note by L.S. Nelson: ''unusually high (oxidizer/Pu) ratios in the macro-residues from plutonium droplet combustion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Morgan, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative explanation for unusually high ratios of oxidizers/plutonium in the residues from plutonium droplet combustion is offered in response to a note by L.S. Nelson. Two additional experiments are suggested that would be helpful in clarifying the high oxidizer/Pu ratios. The first would be to measure the true surface area for a spherule after its explosion. The second is an experiment analogous to a gas analysis experiment. The conclusion is put forth that adsorbed gases are the most likely cause of the high O/M ratios described by Nelson

  17. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  18. Plutonium oxychalcogenides Pu2O2X (X=O, S, Se, Te) crystal chemistry, magnetic and electrical properties. 5f electrons delocalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc.

    1980-05-01

    We have studied the influence of the chalcogen X on the bonding and on the magnetic and electrical properties of the oxychalcogenides Pu 2 O 2 X. These compounds are isostructural with hexagonal La 2 O 3 for X=O, S, Se and with tetragonal La 2 O 2 Te for X=Te. Comparison of Nd 2 O 2 X and Pu 2 O 2 X cell volumes showed that plutonium crystal radius decreases from Pu 2 O 3 through Pu 2 O 2 Te with increasing 5f electrons delocalization and 5f-np overlap. Superexchange interactions through O 2- and X 2- were thought to be responsible for the observed antiferromagnetic ordering. Neel temperatures increase from Pu 2 O 3 through Pu 2 O 2 Te showing that these interactions and subsequent 5f-np covalency are strengthened as chalcogen electronegativity decreases. Hexagonal Pu 2 O 3 is an insulator while the other compounds are semi-conductors with energy gaps around 0.6 eV which were interpreted as the separation between the 6d-7s conduction band and the np valence band. The localized 5f states were located just below the np band, partially overlapping it [fr

  19. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  20. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.; Dodson, K.

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria (Reference 1, Section 6.a.3) about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched

  1. Study of phase equilibria in function of temperature in UO2-PuO2-Pu2O3 system for nuclear ceramics with high plutonium contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truphemus, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    In the UO 2 -PuO 2 -Pu 2 O 3 section, a monophasic (U 1-y ,Pu y )O 2-x domain is stable for y≤0,20 at 25 C and up to solid-liquid equilibrium. At higher Pu content, phase equilibria are more unclear with a phase separation process. The main objective of this work consisted in upgrading the representation of this system for 0,15≤y≤0,65 and 25≤T(C)≤1500. At 25 C, a miscibility gap composed by two different (U 1-y ,Pu y )O 2-x phases has been observed for y≤0,45, with one very closed to stoichiometric state (Oxygen/Metal=2) and one other very reduced. For the first time, a triphasic domain has been characterized at higher Pu contents, with two (U 1-y ,Pu y )O 2-x phases near y=0,45 and one (U 1-y ,Pu y ) 2 O 3 phase with a low U content inside. Concerning the study in function of temperature, we have demonstrated that phase separation temperature increase when Pu content grows. Several representations have been established. At 200 C, the representation is closed to that at 25 C. At 400 C, the phase separation have been specified at a lower Pu content than that of literature: y=0,35. At 600 C, our results have clarified the section, until then very unclear, with a phase separation appearing at y=0,60.The microstructural analysis has clearly demonstrated the significant impact of the phase separation on the material. Indeed many cracks have been observed in our samples, and quantity of these defects increases when Pu content grows. (author) [fr

  2. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  3. Influence of the allotropic beta to alpha transformation and of oxygen on the distribution of plutonium in Zr-Pu and Ti-Pu dilute alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Languille, A; Remy, C

    1972-01-01

    Ti-Pu, Zr-Pu and Ti-U alloys, annealed above the transformation point, can show major segregation after cooling. The segregations increase with oxygen content. Annealing at high temperatures followed by severe quenching can cause them to disappear. (7 refs).

  4. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  5. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  6. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  7. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Effect of TiO2 additive on the sintering of nuclear fuel (U,Pu)O2. Contribution of surface diffusion to plutonium distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, Stephane

    1997-01-01

    This thesis has as objective the study of the effect of TiO 2 additive on the development of MOX fuel microstructure during sintering in reducing atmosphere. To understand better the mechanisms governing the evolution of microstructure, the behavior of UO 2 in the presence of TiO 2 has been established and the influence of the PuO 2 distribution in the initial state of the material was taken into account. The chapter II is devoted to the bibliographic study of the transport mechanisms responsible of the sintering in the ceramics UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 . The results concerning the influence of TiO 2 upon density, grain size and homogenization are discussed. The following chapter describes the characteristics of initial powder, the procedures and installations of heat treatment, as well as the techniques of characterization used. Then the sintering features of UO 2 alone or in the presence of TiO 2 are presented. It appears that in the last case the surface diffusion becomes sufficient fast so that the distribution of the additive occurs naturally during a slow temperature increase. The fifth chapter treats the effect of UO 2 -PuO 2 preparation upon the initial microstructure of the materials and the role played by the PuO 2 grains in sintering. The potentiality of surface diffusion as a means of PuO 2 spreading in the UO 2 is evaluated and correlated with the reduced capacity of sintering the UO 2 ceramics containing PuO 2 . The last chapter deals with the influence of TiO 2 on the development of microstructure in UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramics. While at temperatures below 1500 deg.C the TiO 2 additive affects the surface diffusion and so the plutonium distribution, at values T≥ 1600 deg.C the additive gives rise to a dissolution-reprecipitation process taking place in a intergranular liquid phase appeared between UO 2 , PuO 2 and titanium oxide. Thus the objective is the optimizing the temperature conditions, the oxygen potential as sintering gas and the additive

  9. Stability constants important to the understanding of plutonium in environmental waters, hydroxy and carbonate complexation of PuO2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The formation constants for the reactions PuO 2 + + H 2 O = PuO 2 (OH) + H + and PuO 2 + + CO 3 2 = PuO 2 (CO 3 ) - were determined in aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The molar absorptivity of the PuO 2 + band at 569 nm decreased with increasing hydroxide concentration. Similarly, spectral changes occurred between 540 and 580 nm as the carbonate concentration was increased. The absorption data were analyzed by the non-linear least-squares program SQUAD to yield complexation constants. Using the specific ion interaction theory, both complexation constants were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. These thermodynamic complexation constants were combined with the oxidation-reduction potentials of Pu to obtain Eh versus pH diagrams. 120 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Plutonium concentrations and Pu/Am ratios in small vertebrates from NAEG Intensive Study Areas of NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated areas of NTS began in spring 1972 and have continued to date. Species conposition, relative abundance, and other pertinent ecological data have been presented in previous reports. In addition, data analysis of Pu and Am concentrations in selected rodent and lizard species has been presented for all NAEG Intensive Study Areas. This report provides further analysis of Pu concentration in small vertebrates of Areas 5 and 11, NTS

  11. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Minimization of the volume and Pu content of the waste generated at a plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, H.

    1992-01-01

    The amounts of waste generated during 1987, 1989 and a past reference period have been reported in great detail. The main conclusions which can be drawn from these figures are: (i) for all kinds of waste, the waste-to-product ratio has decreased very substantially during the past few years. This reduction results partly from a scale effect, i.e. the better load factor of the plant, and partly from Belgonucleare's continuous effort to minimize the radioactive waste arisings; (ii) the ratio of the Pu content of the waste to the total Pu throughput of the plant has also decreased substantially; (iii) the mean Pu content of the solid Pu contaminated waste equals 1.39 g Pu per unit volume of 25 l. Only for a small fraction of this waste (<5% by volume) does the Pu content exceed 5 g per unit volume of 25 l; (iv) even after the implementation of waste reducing measures, some 45% of the solid Pu contaminated waste is generated by operations which involve the handling and transfer of powders. Finally, some 63% of the total amount of Pu in the waste can be imputed to these operations

  13. The Raman fingerprint of plutonium dioxide: Some example applications for the detection of PuO2 in host matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manara, D; Naji, M.; Mastromarino, S.; Elorrieta, J. M.; Magnani, Nicola; Martel, L.; Colle, J-Y

    2018-01-01

    Some example applications are presented, in which the peculiar Raman fingerprint of PuO2 can be used for the detection of crystalline Pu4+ with cubic symmetry in an oxide environment in various host materials, like mixed oxide fuels, inert matrices and corium sub-systems.

  14. Final report on production of Pu-238 in commercial power reactors: target fabrication, postirradiation examination, and plutonium and neptunium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobereskin, M.; Langendorfer, W.; Lowry, L.; Farmelo, D.; Scotti, V.; Kruger, O.

    1975-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated in more extensive applications of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. This raises questions concerning the availability of 238 Pu to supply an expanding demand. The development of much of this demand will depend upon a considerable reduction in cost of 238 Pu. Two neptunia--zirconia--fuel target rods, containing four sections each of different NpO 2 concentrations, were irradiated in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor for approximately one year. Following irradiation both target rods were subjected to nondestructive examination. One rod was chosen for destructive testing and analysis. Post-irradiation chemical analyses included total Pu and Np, ppM 236 Pu/ 238 Pu, and Pu isotopic abundance. The results of these analyses and of electron microprobe analysis which provided the relative Pu concentration across the pellet diameters are tabulated. It was concluded that the feasibility of all operations involved in the production of 238 Pu by irradiation of 237 NpO 2 targets in commercial nuclear power reactors was demonstrated and that the demonstration should be extended to a pilot-scale leading to installation of a full production capacity. (U.S.)

  15. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  16. The Raman fingerprint of plutonium dioxide: Some example applications for the detection of PuO2 in host matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, D.; Naji, M.; Mastromarino, S.; Elorrieta, J. M.; Magnani, N.; Martel, L.; Colle, J.-Y.

    2018-02-01

    Some example applications are presented, in which the peculiar Raman fingerprint of PuO2 can be used for the detection of crystalline Pu4+ with cubic symmetry in an oxide environment in various host materials, like mixed oxide fuels, inert matrices and corium sub-systems. The PuO2 Raman fingerprint was previously observed to consist of one main T2g vibrational mode at 478 cm-1 and two crystal electric field transition lines at 2130 cm-1 and 2610 cm-1. This particular use of Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in nuclear waste management, safety and safeguard.

  17. Status of plutonium recycle from mixed oxide fuel fabrication wastes (U,Pu)O2 facility activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Calixto A.; Adelfang, Pablo; Greiner, G.; Orlando, Oscar S.; Mathot, Sergio R.

    1999-01-01

    Within the specific subject of mixed oxides corresponding to the Fuel Cycle activities performed at CNEA, the recovery of plutonium from wastes originated during tests and pre-fabrication stages is performed. (author)

  18. Effect of TiO{sub 2} additive on the sintering of nuclear fuel (U,Pu)O{sub 2}. Contribution of surface diffusion to plutonium distribution; Influence de l`ajout de TiO{sub 2} sur l`aptitude au frittage du combustible nucleaire (U,Pu)O{sub 2}. Contribution de la diffusion de surface a la repartition du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremier, Stephane [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1997-12-19

    This thesis has as objective the study of the effect of TiO{sub 2} additive on the development of MOX fuel microstructure during sintering in reducing atmosphere. To understand better the mechanisms governing the evolution of microstructure, the behavior of UO{sub 2} in the presence of TiO{sub 2} has been established and the influence of the PuO{sub 2} distribution in the initial state of the material was taken into account. The chapter II is devoted to the bibliographic study of the transport mechanisms responsible of the sintering in the ceramics UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}. The results concerning the influence of TiO{sub 2} upon density, grain size and homogenization are discussed. The following chapter describes the characteristics of initial powder, the procedures and installations of heat treatment, as well as the techniques of characterization used. Then the sintering features of UO{sub 2} alone or in the presence of TiO{sub 2} are presented. It appears that in the last case the surface diffusion becomes sufficient fast so that the distribution of the additive occurs naturally during a slow temperature increase. The fifth chapter treats the effect of UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} preparation upon the initial microstructure of the materials and the role played by the PuO{sub 2} grains in sintering. The potentiality of surface diffusion as a means of PuO{sub 2} spreading in the UO{sub 2} is evaluated and correlated with the reduced capacity of sintering the UO{sub 2} ceramics containing PuO{sub 2}. The last chapter deals with the influence of TiO{sub 2} on the development of microstructure in UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} ceramics. While at temperatures below 1500 deg.C the TiO{sub 2} additive affects the surface diffusion and so the plutonium distribution, at values T{>=} 1600 deg.C the additive gives rise to a dissolution-reprecipitation process taking place in a intergranular liquid phase appeared between UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and titanium oxide. Thus the objective is

  19. Study of High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Plutonium. Part I. Contribution to the Classification of the Arc Spectrum. Part II. Determination of the Magnetic Moment of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.

    1962-01-01

    The study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift enabled the positions of the first five levels of the multiplet 7 F 0-6 belonging to the fundamental configuration 5f 6 7s 2 to be determined. The classification of the arc spectrum begun in this way led to 25 odd levels, the number of classified lines (70) representing about 30 p. 100 of the light emitted by this hollow cathode in the visible. In addition, the isotope shifts of many lines and the data given by the King furnace show that the first levels of the configuration 5f 5 6d7s 2 are also low less than 8000 cm -1 above the fundamental level 7 F 0 . The proximity of the configuration f 6 s 2 and f 5 ds 2 shows that the bonding energies of the 5f and 6d electrons are of the same order of magnitude and this fact must be responsible for the multiple valences belonging to plutonium. From the hyperfine structure of spark lines (Pu II) the interval factor a 7 for the electron was deduced giving for the calculated nuclear moment of 239 Pu a value of +0.21 ±0.06 μ N . The position of the hyperfine components show that the nuclear moment is positive, although the theoretical value given by B. R. Mottelson and S. Nillson is negative and equal to -0.1 μ N . (author) [fr

  20. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  1. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  2. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  3. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  4. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  5. Aerosol Physics Considerations for Using Cerium Oxide CeO2 as a Surrogate for Plutonium Oxide PuO2 in Airborne Release Fraction Measurements for Storage Container Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tao, Yong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) dust is recommended as a surrogate for plutonium oxide (PuO2) in airborne release fraction experiments. The total range of applicable particle sizes for PuO2 extends from 0.0032 μm (the diameter of a single PuO2 molecule) to 10 μm (the defined upper boundary for respirable particles). For particulates with a physical particle diameter of 1.0 μm, the corresponding aerodynamic diameters for CeO2 and PuO2 are 2.7 μm and 3.4 μm, respectively. Cascade impactor air samplers are capable of measuring the size distributions of CeO2 or PuO2 particulates. In this document, the aerodynamic diameters for CeO2 and PuO2 were calculated for seven different physical diameters (0.0032, 0.02, 0.11, 0.27, 1.0, 3.2, and 10 μm). For cascade impactor measurements, CeO2 and PuO2 particulates with the same physical diameter would be collected onto the same or adjacent collection substrates. The difference between the aerodynamic diameter of CeO2 and PuO2 particles (that have the same physical diameter) is 39% of the resolution of a twelve-stage MSP Inc. 125 cascade impactor, and 34% for an eight-stage Andersen impactor. An approach is given to calculate the committed effective dose (CED) coefficient for PuO2 aerosol particles, compared to a corresponding aerodynamic diameter of CeO2 particles. With this approach, use of CeO2 as a surrogate for PuO2 material would follow a direct conversion based on a molar equivalent. In addition to the analytical information developed for this document, several US national labs have published articles about the use of CeO2 as a PuO2 surrogate. Different physical and chemical aspects were considered by these investigators, including thermal properties, ceramic formulations, cold pressing, sintering, molecular reactions, and mass loss in high temperature gas flows. All of those US national lab studies recommended the use of CeO2 as a surrogate material for PuO2.

  6. Study of High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Plutonium. Part I. Contribution to the Classification of the Arc Spectrum. Part II. Determination of the Magnetic Moment of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du plutonium par spectroscopie a haute resolution: contribution a la classification du spectre d'arc et determination du moment magnetique de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S

    1962-07-01

    The study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift enabled the positions of the first five levels of the multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} belonging to the fundamental configuration 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2} to be determined. The classification of the arc spectrum begun in this way led to 25 odd levels, the number of classified lines (70) representing about 30 p. 100 of the light emitted by this hollow cathode in the visible. In addition, the isotope shifts of many lines and the data given by the King furnace show that the first levels of the configuration 5f{sup 5}6d7s{sup 2} are also low less than 8000 cm{sup -1} above the fundamental level {sup 7}F{sub 0}. The proximity of the configuration f{sup 6}s{sup 2} and f{sup 5}ds{sup 2} shows that the bonding energies of the 5f and 6d electrons are of the same order of magnitude and this fact must be responsible for the multiple valences belonging to plutonium. From the hyperfine structure of spark lines (Pu II) the interval factor a{sub 7} for the electron was deduced giving for the calculated nuclear moment of {sup 239}Pu a value of +0.21 {+-}0.06 {mu}{sub N}. The position of the hyperfine components show that the nuclear moment is positive, although the theoretical value given by B. R. Mottelson and S. Nillson is negative and equal to -0.1 {mu}{sub N}. (author) [French] Partie 1 - L'etude des structures hyperfines et du deplacement isotopique des raies du spectre d'arc du plutonium a permis de determiner la position des cinq premiers niveaux du multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} correspondant a la configuration fondamentale 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2}. Des lors, la classification du spectre d'arc du plutonium pouvait etre amorcee: 25 niveaux impairs ont ete mis en evidence et le nombre de raies classees (70) represente environ 30 p. 100 de l'intensite totale du spectre d'arc emis par une cathode creuse dans le visible. D'autre part, le deplacement isotopique de certaines raies, joint aux renseignements donnes par le spectre emis par le four

  7. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  8. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2005-01-01

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and 60 Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH) 3 (s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu

  9. Isotopic composition and distribution of plutonium in northern South China Sea sediments revealed continuous release and transport of Pu from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junwen; Zheng, Jian; Dai, Minhan; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Weifang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-03-18

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in sediments of the northern South China Sea and its adjacent Pearl River Estuary were determined to examine the spatial and temporal variations of Pu inputs. We clarified that Pu in the study area is sourced from a combination of global fallout and close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands where above-ground nuclear weapons testing was carried out during the period of 1952-1958. The latter source dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as evidenced by elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) in a dated sediment core. Even after the 1950s, the Pacific Proving Grounds was still a dominant Pu source due to continuous transport of remobilized Pu from the Marshall Islands, about 4500 km away, along the North Equatorial Current followed by the transport of the Kuroshio current and its extension into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Using a simple two end-member mixing model, we have quantified the contributions of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds to the northern South China Sea shelf and the Pearl River Estuary are 68% ± 1% and 30% ± 5%, respectively. This study also confirmed that there were no clear signals of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident impacting the South China Sea.

  10. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  11. Pyrochemical processes for the recovery of weapons grade plutonium either as a metal or as PuO2 for use in mixed oxide reactor fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Bronson, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed two processes for the recovery of weapons grade Pu, as either Pu metal or PuO 2 , that are strictly pyrochemical and do not produce any liquid waste. Large amounts of Pu metal (up to 4 kg.), in various geometric shapes, have been recovered by a hydride/dehydride/casting process (HYDEC) to produce metal ingots of any desired shape. The three processing steps are carried out in a single compact apparatus. The experimental technique and results obtained will be described. The authors have prepared PuO 2 powders from weapons grade Pu by a process that hydrides the Pu metal followed by the oxidation of the hydride (HYDOX process). Experimental details of the best way to carry out this process will be presented, as well as the characterization of both hydride and oxide powders produced

  12. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  13. Relationships among plutonium contents of soil, vegetation and animals collected on and adjacent to an integrated nuclear complex in the humid southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLendon, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-three representative sampling locations on and adjacent to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site were selected to obtain information on plutonium movement in the food chain under southeastern US environmental conditions. Soil, a resuspendible fraction of the soil, honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and camphor weed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) were collected at each location. Grasshoppers and cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected at some locations. The plutonium concentrations in soil at the selected locations ranged from 1.5 to 171fCi/g and alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 2 to 66. The concentration of plutonium in the vegetation and on the leaves ranged from 0.17 to 76.1fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu from 3 to 61. The concentration of plutonium in cotton rats and grasshoppers ranged from 0.07 to 3.58fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 22 to 80. The average ratio of plutonium concentration of vegetation to that of the surrounding soil was 10 -1 ; the corresponding ratio for cotton rats and soil was 10 -2 . These ratios appear to be independent of the plutonium concentration in the soil. Deposition on the surfaces of leaves and stems was the principal mechanism of plutonium contamination of vegetation. Comparisons among the plutonium values of the vegetation, soil and resuspendible fraction suggest the use of a proposed resuspendible measurement technique as a monitoring method to indicate subtle changes in the plutonium concentration of the soil surface that are not detectable by routine soil sampling. Although the 238 Pu data in the various ecosystem components were not conclusive, they do support evidence presented in other studies that there is an apparent increase in the biological availability of 238 Pu relative to that of sup(239,240)Pu in the environment. The plutonium concentrations of all ecosystem components decreased as the distance from the reprocessing plants increased. (author)

  14. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  15. Synthesis of plutonium trifluoride by hydro-fluorination and novel thermodynamic data for the PuF3-LiF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosolin, A.; Souček, P.; Beneš, O.; Vigier, J.-F.; Luzzi, L.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2018-05-01

    PuF3 was synthetized by hydro-fluorination of PuO2 and subsequent reduction of the product by hydrogenation. The obtained PuF3 was analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and found phase-pure. High purity was also confirmed by the melting point analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). PuF3 was then used for thermodynamic assessment of the PuF3-LiF system. Phase equilibrium points and enthalpy of fusion of the eutectic composition were measured by DSC. XRD analyses of selected samples after DSC measurement confirm that after solidification from the liquid, the system returns to a mixture of LiF and PuF3.

  16. Localization of plutonium retention in the small intestine of the neonatal rat, guinea pig, baboon and macaca after Pu-citrate ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lataillade, G.; Beauvallet, M.; L'Hullier, I.; Lepage, M.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Moutairou, K.; avi, 526, Republique Populaire du Benin)

    1988-01-01

    The retention of Pu-citrate in the gastrointestinal wall was compared at similar post ingestion times after ingestion at 2 days of age by rats and guinea pigs and at 1 to 34 days by neonatal primates. The small intestine was the main site of the Pu retention in all species. In rats and primates, most of the Pu was retained in the distal ileum, whereas in guinea pigs it was more homogeneously distributed. In the rats, Pu was retained in the epithelial cells on villi, but in the guinea pigs and primates it was confined to the macrophages under the epithelial cells in the lacteal region. (author)

  17. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  18. Modifications to LLNL Plutonium Packaging Systems (PuPS) to achieve ASME VIII UW-13.2(d) Requirements for the DOE Standard 3013-00 Outer Can Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D; Dodson, K

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS) prepares packages to meet the DOE Standard 3013 (Reference 1). The PuPS equipment was supplied by the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). The DOE Standard 3013 requires that the welding of the Outer Can meets ASME Section VIII Division 1 (Reference 2). ASME Section VIII references to ASME Section IX (Reference 3) for most of the welding requirements, but UW-13.2 (d) of Section VIII requires a certain depth and width of the weld. In this document the UW-13.2(d) requirement is described as the (a+b)/2t s ratio. This ratio has to be greater than or equal to one to meet the requirements of UW-13.2(d). The Outer Can welds had not been meeting this requirement. Three methods are being followed to resolve this issue: (1) Modify the welding parameters to achieve the requirement, (2) Submit a weld case to ASME that changes the UW-13.2(d) requirement for their review and approval, and (3) Change the requirements in the DOE-STD-3013. Each of these methods are being pursued. This report addresses how the first method was addressed for the LLNL PuPS. The experimental work involved adjusting the Outer Can rotational speed and the power applied to the can. These adjustments resulted in being able to achieve the ASME VIII, UW-13.2(d) requirement

  19. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  20. Analysis of {sup 236}U and plutonium isotopes, {sup 239,240}Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Villa, María [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4A, 41012 Seville (Spain); Servicio de Radioisótopos, Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, 41012 Seville (Spain); Casacuberta, Núria [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); López-Gutiérrez, José María [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pham, Mai Khanh [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2015-10-15

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U and {sup 239,240}Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10{sup −11} has been recently achieved, and background figures for {sup 239}Pu of about 10{sup 6} atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First {sup 236}U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10{sup −10} level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  1. Determination of the stability constant for the Pu(IV)-dinitrato complex using UV-VIS spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Veirs, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Efficiency of the anion exchange process for the separation of plutonium is critically dependent upon the formation of the specific Pu(IV) nitrate complexes. Previous work is ambiguous as to the identification of the principal Pu(IV)-nitrate species present in nitric acid solutions. In this work, the authors study the nitrate complexes within the inner coordination sphere of Pu(IV) using absorption spectroscopy (nitrates in the outer coordination sphere probably do not affect the Pu(IV) absorption spectrum). The authors show that the Pu(IV)-aquo and -dinitrato species are associated with major peaks in the absorption spectrum at 469 and 476 nm, respectively. Absorption data from solutions where the nitrate concentration is varied at constant ionic strength are used to calculate stability constants for the dinitrato species, β 2 . Calculation of the stability constant at zero ionic strength and ion interaction coefficients are discussed

  2. 238Pu based energy micro-generation sources for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Rene

    1968-10-01

    Pace-makers are frequently implanted in the human body. The existing apparatus are, actually, equipped with chemical piles with a lifetime of about 15 months. The use of 238 Pu will provide a pace-maker with an autonomy of 10 years at least. Principal problems of security due to the use of plutonium are considered. It is advisable to improve the properties of pure plutonium by small additions of elements such as cerium, scandium, indium, gallium or americium. A number of the most important properties for a pace-maker source are presented. Finally, the fabrication and canning of the source are surveyed. (author) [fr

  3. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Reversed phase chromatographic behaviour of Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI) in presence of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, P.G.; Telmore, V.M.; Kumar, Pranaw

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium is important in process conditions as well as in environmental conditions. Since plutonium possesses multiple oxidation states which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is essential to understand its physical and chemical processes. The identification of plutonium oxidation states is conventionally determined through a series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using selective extractants. Spectroscopic and laser based techniques also have been used for the identification of its oxidation state in solutions. Liquid chromatographic behavior of different oxidation states of Pu and other actinide ions is reported to correlate their retention behaviour with stability constants. Objective of the present work is to study the reversed phase chromatography behavior of the three oxidation states of plutonium viz. Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in presence of á-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) as an eluent

  5. Base case Pu-nitrate to Pu-oxide conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    This paper explains that the plutonium recovered in the course of reprocessing spent fuel is obtained in the form of plutonium nitrate, whereas PuO 2 is required for the fabrication of fuel rods. The reference conversion plant described in the paper converts plutonium nitrate into plutonium dioxide powder by precipitation with oxalic acid followed by calcination. The paper also describes the main features of the safety, maintenance and safeguards philosophy used in its design

  6. Transuranic and tracer simulant resuspension. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1977-07-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same three to four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-239 and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-238. These are the entire experimental base for nonrespirable airborne plutonium transport. Airborne respirable plutonium-239 concentrations increased with wind speed for a southeast wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239 +240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium. Resuspension rates were summarized for controlled inert particle tracer simulant experiments. Wind resuspension rates for tracers increased with wind speed to about the fifth power.

  7. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  8. Computing and physical methods to calculate Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Ashraf Elsayed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Main limitations due to the enhancement of the plutonium content are related to the coolant void effect as the spectrum becomes faster, the neutron flux in the thermal region tends towards zero and is concentrated in the region from 10 Ke to 1 MeV. Thus, all captures by 240 Pu and 242 Pu in the thermal and epithermal resonance disappear and the 240 Pu and 242 Pu contributions to the void effect became positive. The higher the Pu content and the poorer the Pu quality, the larger the void effect. The core control in nominal or transient conditions Pu enrichment leads to a decrease in (B eff.), the efficiency of soluble boron and control rods. Also, the Doppler effect tends to decrease when Pu replaces U, so, that in case of transients the core could diverge again if the control is not effective enough. As for the voiding effect, the plutonium degradation and the 240 Pu and 242 Pu accumulation after multiple recycling lead to spectrum hardening and to a decrease in control. One solution would be to use enriched boron in soluble boron and shutdown rods. In this paper, I discuss and show the advanced computing and physical methods to calculate Pu inside the nuclear reactors and glovebox and the different solutions to be used to overcome the difficulties that effect, on safety parameters and on reactor performance, and analysis the consequences of plutonium management on the whole fuel cycle like Raw materials savings, fraction of nuclear electric power involved in the Pu management. All through two types of scenario, one involving a low fraction of the nuclear park dedicated to plutonium management, the other involving a dilution of the plutonium in all the nuclear park. (author)

  9. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  10. Radiolysis of aqueous solution of plutonium; Radiolyse des solutions aqueuses de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pages nee Flon, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    reduction of IV into III was measured with HClO{sub 4}. (author) [French] On a etudie l'action des rayons gamma sur les solutions aqueuses de plutonium a divers etats de valence, en milieu sulfurique, perchlorique, nitrique et chlorhydrique. Le phenomene principal est la reduction de Pu VI en Pu V suivie de la dismutation de la valence V en VI et IV. Pour les solutions d'acide sulfurique et perchlorique 0,2N on a donne le mecanisme des reactions: la radiolyse de l'eau conduit aux produits OH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, H et H{sub 2}. Pu VI est reduit par H and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} tandis que Pu V est reoxyde par OH. Cependant l'action de l'eau oxygenee est lente et provoque un effet prolonge. Une etude menee parallelement sur l'action de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a confirme ceci. Les mesures de disparition de Pu VI et d'apparition de Pu IV faites par spectrophotometrie ont conduit a determiner G{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O{sub 2}} = 0,8 et G{sub H} - G{sub OH} = 0,8. Par microanalyse de gaz on a mesure G{sub H{sub 2}} = 0,41. Ces donnees permettent de calculer le rendement de radiolyse de l'eau G{sub {sup -}}{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} = 4,35. Les ions sulfate ont une influence complexe sur la reoxydation de Pu V comme le montrent les resultats obtenus sur des solutions plus concentrees en H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. La reduction se poursuit jusqu'a la valence Ill en milieu perchlorique. Les ions Cl{sup -} et surtout NO{sub 3}{sup -} inhibent la reduction et peuvent la supprimer completement. L'action des particules {alpha} du plutonium et du polonium est tres analogue a celle de l'eau oxygenee. La reduction a lieu apres des periodes d'induction plus ou moins longues selon l'anion (surtout HSO{sub 4}{sup -} ). Elles sont liees a l'accumulation de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} et (ou) de peroxyde de plutonium. Aux faibles acidites le peroxyde de Pu IV a tendance a conduire a des formes polymerisees. Dans les cas les plus simples (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} et HClO{sub 4} 0,2N) les rendements suivants ont ete obtenus ou calcules: G

  11. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  12. Direct spectrophotometric analysis of low level Pu (III) in Pu(IV) nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswaran, P.; Suresh Kumar, K.; Kumar, T.; Gayen, J.K.; Shreekumar, B.; Dey, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Among the various methods demonstrated for the conversion of plutonium nitrate to its oxide, the oxalate precipitation process either as Pu (III) or Pu (IV) oxalate gained wide acceptance. Since uranous nitrate is the most successful partitioning agent used in the PUREX process for the separation of Pu from the bulk amount of U, the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation of the purified nitrate solution will not give required decontamination from U. Hence Pu IV oxalate precipitation process is a better option to achieve the end user's specified PuO 2 product. Prior to the precipitation process, ensuring of the Pu (IV) oxidation state is essential. Hence monitoring of the level of Pu oxidation state either Pu (III) or Pu (IV) in the feed solution plays a significant role to establish complete conversion of Pu (III). The method in vogue to estimate Pu(lV) content is extractive radiometry using Theonyl Trifluoro Acetone (TTA). As the the method warrants a sample preparation with respect to acidity, a precise measurement of Pu (IV) without affecting the Pu(III) level in the feed sample is difficult. Present study is focused on the exploration of direct spectrophotometry using an optic fiber probe of path length of 40mm to monitor the low level of Pu(III) after removing the bulk Pu(lV) which interfere in the Pu(III) absorption spectrum, using TTA-TBP synergistic mixture without changing the sample acidity

  13. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  14. Report of an investigation into deterioration of the Plutonium Fuel Form Fabrication Facility (PuFF) at the DOE Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This investigations of the Savannah River Site's Plutonium Fuel Form fabrication facility located in Building 235-F was initiated in April 1991. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, as has been alleged, operation of the facility's argon inert gas system was terminated with the knowledge that continued inoperability of the argon system would cause accelerated corrosion damage to the equipment in the plutonium 238 processing cells. The investigation quickly established that the decision to discontinue operation of the argon system, by not repairing it, was merely one of the measures, and not the most important one, which led to the current deteriorated state of the facility. As a result, the scope of the investigation was broadened to more identify and assess those factors which contributed to the facility's current condition. This document discusses the backgrounds, results, and recommendations of this investigation

  15. Report of an investigation into deterioration of the Plutonium Fuel Form Fabrication Facility (PuFF) at the DOE Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This investigations of the Savannah River Site's Plutonium Fuel Form fabrication facility located in Building 235-F was initiated in April 1991. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, as has been alleged, operation of the facility's argon inert gas system was terminated with the knowledge that continued inoperability of the argon system would cause accelerated corrosion damage to the equipment in the plutonium 238 processing cells. The investigation quickly established that the decision to discontinue operation of the argon system, by not repairing it, was merely one of the measures, and not the most important one, which led to the current deteriorated state of the facility. As a result, the scope of the investigation was broadened to more identify and assess those factors which contributed to the facility's current condition. This document discusses the backgrounds, results, and recommendations of this investigation.

  16. Benchmark Specification for an HTR Fuelled with Reactor-grade Plutonium (or Reactor-grade Pu/Th and U/Th). Proposal version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, J.G.; Newton, T.D.; Morris, P.

    2007-01-01

    This benchmark proposal builds upon that specified in NEA/NSC/DOC(2003)22 report. In addition to the three phases described in that report, another two phases have now been defined. Additional items for calculation have also been added to the existing phases. It is intended that further items may be added to the benchmark after consultation with its participants. Although the benchmark is specifically designed to provide inter-comparisons for plutonium- and thorium-containing fuels, it is proposed that phases considering simple calculations for a uranium fuel cell and uranium core be included. The purpose of these is to identify any increased uncertainties, relative to uranium fuel, associated with the lesser-known fuels to be investigated in different phases of this benchmark. The first phase considers an infinite array of fuel pebbles fuelled with uranium fuel. Phase 2 considers a similar array of pebbles but for plutonium fuel. Phase 3 continues the plutonium fuel inter-comparisons within the context of whole core calculations. Calculations for Phase 4 are for a uranium-fuelled core. Phase 5 considers an infinite array of pebbles containing thorium. In setting the benchmark the requirements in the definition of the LEUPRO-12 PROTEUS benchmark have been considered. Participants were invited to submit both deterministic results as well as, where appropriate, results from Monte Carlo calculations. Fundamental nuclear data, Avogadro's number, natural abundance data and atomic weights have been taken from the references indicated in the document

  17. Investigation of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, V.G.; Belov, V.A.; Galaktionov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, P.B.; Matyukha, V.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition processes of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates in the system Pu(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 -HCoOH-N6 4 OH-H 2 O have been studied in pH range 0.2-10.7 at total plutonium concentration in the system 100 g/l. It is shown that under the conditions plutonium (4) hydrolysis takes place with the formation of hydroxoformates. A local maximum of plutonium (4) hydroxoformate solubility in the range pH=3.8-4.8, which is evidently conditioned by the formation of soluble formate complex of plutonium in the region, is pointed out. The basic plutonium (4) formates of the composition PuOsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(COOH)sub(4-2x-y)xnHsub(2)O, where 1,3 >=x >= 0.7, 1.7 >= y >= 1.0 and n=1.5-7.0, are singled out, their thermal stability being studied. Density of the crystals and plutonium dioxide, formed during their thermal decomposition, is measured. It is established that for plutonium (4) hydroxoformates common regularities of the influence of salt composition (OH - -, CHOO - - and H 2 O-group numbers in the mulecule) on position of temperature decomposition effects and on the density of compounds, which have been previously found during the study of thorium and plutonium hydroxosalts are observed. It is shown that the density of plutonium dioxide decreases with the increase of hydration and hydrolysis degree of the initial plutonium hydroxoformate

  18. Studies of plutonium-iron and uranium-plutonium-iron alloys; Etudes d'alliages plutonium-fer et d'alliages uranium-plutonium-fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avivi, Ehud [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-01-15

    We study the plutonium-iron system, by means of dilatometry, X rays and metallography, especially in the domain between PuFe{sub 2} and Fe. We determine the solubilities of Fe in PuFe{sub 2} and of Pu in Fe. We show the presence of an hexagonal PuFe{sub 2} phase and we propose a modification in the Pu-Fe phase diagram. Some low iron concentration U-Pu-Fe alloys have also been investigated. We characterise the different phases. We confirm that adding some iron lowers the quantity of the zeta U-Pu phase. We emphasize some characteristics of the alloys having the global concentration (U, Pu){sub 6} Fe. (authors) [French] On etudie par dilatometrie, rayons X et micrographie le systeme plutonium-fer, principalement dans la region comprise entre PuFe{sub 2} et Fe, On determine les solubilites du fer dans PuFe{sub 2}, et de Pu dans Fe. On met en evidence une phase PuFe{sub 2} hexagonale et on propose une modification du diagramme d'equilibre Pu-Fe. Certains alliages U-Pu-Fe a faibles concentrations en fer sont egalement etudies. On caracterise les phases en presence. On confirme que l'addition de fer diminue rapidement la quantite de phase U-Pu zeta. Enfin on revele certaines caracteristiques des alliages de composition globale (U, Pu){sub 6} Fe. (auteurs)

  19. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)

  20. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  1. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  2. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid pure and alloyed Pu: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivineau, M., E-mail: michel.boivineau@cea.f [CEA, Centre de Valduc, Departement de Recherches sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-08-01

    The thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid pure and alloyed plutonium have been investigated up to 4000 K by use of a resistive pulse heating technique, the so-called isobaric expansion experiment (IEX). Electrical resistivity, specific volume (density), latent heats of transformations, heat of fusion have been measured and extended in the whole liquid region. Additional static measurements have been also performed in order to determine the heat transport properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of plutonium alloys. After a first part devoted to additional results on pure Pu under rapid heating, this paper mostly deals with studies on different delta-stabilized Pu alloys in the high temperature range, particularly in the liquid state which is the principal originality of this work. In addition to the thermophysical data mentioned above, an attention is also paid onto sound velocity measurements on these alloys in the solid and liquid states. Hence, an anomalous behavior such as elastic softening is confirmed in the delta phase as already reported previously. Moreover, sound velocity and equation of state parameters (adiabatic and thermal bulk moduli, Grueneisen parameter, and specific heats ratio) have been investigated on liquid alloyed Pu. Such results confirm previous works on liquid pure Pu by presenting an atypical dual behavior of sound velocity, and are discussed in terms of delocalization process of the 5f electrons of both liquid pure and alloyed Pu.

  3. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  4. PU-ICE Summary Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Generator Knowledge Report for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment Containment Systems (GK Report) provides information for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment (Pu- ICE) program to support waste management and characterization efforts. Attachment 3-18 presents generator knowledge (GK) information specific to the eighteenth Pu-ICE conducted in August 2015, also known as ‘Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and Pu-ICE Z-2841 (1).’ Shot 18 (Aug 2015) was generated on August 28, 2015 (1). Calculations based on the isotopic content of Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and the measured mass of the containment system demonstrate the post-shot containment system is low-level waste (LLW). Therefore, this containment system will be managed at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico (SNL/NM) as LLW. Attachment 3-18 provides documentation of the TRU concentration and documents the concentration of any hazardous constituents.

  5. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  6. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, S; Bridgewater, J S; Ward, J W; Allen, T H

    2010-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH 2 ). The heats of solution for PuH S and PuD S are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 deg. C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 deg. C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  7. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  8. Comparison of U-Pu-Mo, U-Pu-Nb, U-Pu-Ti and U-Pu-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, R.; Barthelemy, P.

    1964-01-01

    The data concerning the U-Pu, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb are recalled. The results obtained with U-Pu-Ti and U-Pu-Zr alloys containing 15-20 per cent Pu and 10 wt. per cent ternary element are reported. The transformation temperatures, the expansion coefficients, the nature of phases, the thermal cycling behaviour have been determined. A list of the principal properties of these different alloys is presented and the possibilities of their use as fast reactor's fuel element are considered. The U-Pu-Ti alloys seem to be quite promising: easiness of fabrication, large thermal stability, excellent behaviour in air, small quantity of zeta phase, temperature of solidus superior to 1100 deg. C. (authors) [fr

  9. Solubility of reactor fuels in the mouse lung with respect to their U/Pu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.J.; Baker, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported were designed to assess the comparative in vivo solubilities of a range of plutonium containing reactor fuels. To simulate these fuels, mixed U/Pu oxides were prepared and calcined at 1600 0 C. A plutonium content of 3% w/w was chosen as typical of water-cooled reactor fuel. Higher concentrations of plutonium (10, 20 and 30%) were included to simulate fast reactor fuel. As it is known that 238 PuO 2 , with high specific activity, is translocated more rapidly from lung than 239 PuO 2 , the effect of isotopic composition of plutonium in simulated reactor fuels was also investigated. For this purpose, both the water-cooled and fast-reactor fuels were prepared with plutonium containing 2% of 238 Pu by weight. The resulting oxides had about 6 times the specific activity of those prepared with 239 Pu. Groups of mice were killed at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after inhaling aerosols of the simulated reactor fuels. After 3 months, measurements of Pu retention in the lung showed no marked differences between materials. After 6 months, measurements of plutonium deposited in the liver and skeleton showed that mixed U/Pu oxides were more soluble in vivo than 239 PuO 2 . Their solubility was inversely related to their plutonium content. The addition of 238 Pu to the plutonium resulted in enhanced translocation of plutonium from the lung, in the cases of water-cooled reactor fuel by a factor of two. (author)

  10. Fuel cycle strategies and plutonium management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An overview will first be drawn on the present nuclear power production in Europe, and on the fuel cycle strategies followed in various countries. Indeed, for most countries in Europe, spent fuel is presently stored at reactor site, either for further conditioning and final deep geological storage, or in the expectation on a further decision on one of these options. Other countries have opted for spent fuel reprocessing as basic fuel cycle strategy. This option presents amongst other the merit of leading to a reduction of the final high level waste volume that will need in any case a geological disposal. It also allows the recovery from the spent fuel of energetic elements, principally the plutonium (Pu). The intention at the origin was to use this Pu in a fleet of fast breeder reactors, with the aim to make the best use of the uranium ore. However, fore reasons mainly linked to the low price of uranium (but also due to technical difficulties and political opposition), the project failed to develop. Now, the countries having followed the reprocessing option have to cope with an increasing amount of separated Pu. One industrial path, namely Pu recycling as MOX is presently operational in several European countries. It allows to reduce the increase in Pu stocks, but not to reduce it. Moreover, the quality of recycled Pu (in terms of its energetic value and of its radiotoxicity) decreases at each potential step of re-irradiation. Therefore, optimised or new ways of managing the Pu stocks in the medium and long term are required. The paper will present a status of the options considered today: - optimised Pu recycling as MOX in advanced LWR reactors (100 % MOX), as well as related optimised core designs; - utilisation of non-uranium matrices instead of uranium to prevent further Pu and minor actinides creation; - once-through Pu burning (up to high rates of destruction) in HTR fuel kernels; - multi-recycling of Pu in fast reactors of

  11. Biological behaviour of plutonium given as a trilaurylamine complex. Comparison with plutonium-tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Duserre, C.; Gil, I.; Rateau, G.; Metivier, H.

    1989-01-01

    The biokinetics of plutonium (Pu) were compared in rats after its administration by inhalation or intramuscular injection as Pu-trilaurylamine (Pu-TLA) or Pu-tri-n-butylphosphate (Pu-TBP). To study the mass effect, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were used. Translocation from the lungs and injection site was faster for 238 Pu than 239 Pu, and faster for Pu-TLA than Pu-TBP. The skeleton was always the main organ of deposition of the transferable Pu fraction. At 50 days after inhalation, the skeletal content, in per cent of the body content at death was 10% for 239 Pu-TBP, 54% for 238 Pu-TBP, 24% for 239 Pu-TLA and 62% for 238 Pu-TLA. The amounts in the liver were respectively 2, 6, 3, and 10% of the body content. Thirty days after intramuscular injection of 239 Pu-TLA, more Pu was translocated than after 239 Pu-TBP (26% versus 16%) and the skeletal deposit was 10 times the deposit in the liver. DTPA therapy after inhalation or injection of 238 Pu-TLA reduced the skeletal content by 35-58% with a corresponding increase in urinary excretion. (author)

  12. Dismantling techniques for plutonium-contaminated gloveboxes: experience from first year of decommissioning; Zerlegungstechniken fuer Pu-kontaminierte Handschuhkaesten: Erfahrungsbericht nach einem Jahr Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Faber, P. [Siemens Power Generation, Decommissioning Projects, Hanau (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    At the mixed-oxide (MOX) processing facility formerly operated by ALKEM GmbH in Hanau, Germany - which was taken over to Siemens in 1988 and renamed Siemens' Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant, MOX facility - around 8500 kg of plutonium were processed to make MOX fuel rods and fuel assemblies since production started in 1965. After shutdown of the facility by the authorities in mid-1991 for political reasons, the remaining nuclear fuel materials were processed during the subsequent ''cleanout'' phase starting in 1997 into rods and assemblies suitable for long-term storage. The last step in cleanout consisted of ''flushing'' the production equipment with depleted uranium and thoroughly cleaning the gloveboxes. During cleanout around 700 kg of plutonium were processed in the form of mixed oxides. The cleanout phase including the subsequent cleaning and flushing operations ended on schedule in September 2001 without any significant problems. Starting in mid-1999, the various glovebox dismantling techniques were tested using uncontaminated components while cleanout was still in progress and then, once these trials had been successfully completed, further qualified through use on actual components. The pilot-phase trials required four separate licenses under Section 7, Subsection (3) of the German Atomic Energy Act. Thanks to detailed advance planning and experience from the pilot trials the individual dismantling steps could be described in sufficient detail for the highly complex German licensing procedure. The first partial license for decommissioning the MOX facility under Sec. 7, Subsec. (3) of the Atomic Energy Act was issued on May 28, 2001. It mainly covers dismantling of the interior equipment inside the gloveboxes a well as the gloveboxes themselves. Actual decommissioning work inside the former production areas of the MOX facility started on a large scale in early September 2001. (orig.)

  13. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  14. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  15. Adsorption and diffusion of plutonium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    The behavior of plutonium (Pu) was studied in three soils that varied in texture, CEC, pH, organic matter content and mineralogy (Fuquay, Muscatine, Burbank). Two isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, were used in order to detect Pu over a range of several orders of magnitude. Unless added in a chelated form, Pu was added to the soil as a nitrate in .01 N HNO 3 to simulate the release of acidic waste on the soil and to prevent rapid Pu hydrolysis or polymerization

  16. Plutonium fallout at Fayetteville, AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.N.; Essien, I.O.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that atmospheric Pu fallout has its origin in the testing of nuclear devices and satellite accidents. Monitoring injections of Pu during the testing of nuclear devices can be useful in characterizing the detonation and subsequently tagging its global fallout. Since Pu uptake pathway into humans is mainly through the respiratory and digestive systems, it is important to know about the behavior of Pu in the atmosphere. Snow and rain samples were collected between Jan 1981 and April 1983, and analyzed for plutonium

  17. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  18. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2011-11-18

    Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity. [German] Kolloidales Plutonium ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil in waessrigen Pu-Bereitungen. Pu-Kolloide sind problematisch bei der Wiederaufbereitung von Kernmaterial und bilden einen potenziellen Transportvektor in die Umwelt. Mit einem Loesungsmittelgemisch aus n-Octanol und Trichloressigsaeure gelingt die selektive und reversible Trennung dieser Partikel durch Ausnutzung ihrer Oberflaechenreaktivitaet.

  19. Pu and Am determination in the environment method development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, M.; Simonoff, M.; Donard, O.; Michel, H.; Ardisson, G.

    2002-01-01

    A few articles were published in the recent years regarding the application of ICP MS HR to the determination of ultratrace Pu in the environment. Si removal was not applied in recent publications. It is well known from marine biology that some microorganisms use Si derivatives in their metabolism. This implies that important amounts of Pu will not be dissolved and instead will rest in the solid residue. In our work we chose a combination of methods from EML-300 Handbook: Pu-02-RC Plutonium in Soil Samples, Pu-03-RC Plutonium in Soil Residue - Total Dissolution Method, Pu-11-RC Plutonium Purification - Ion Exchange Technique, Pu-12-RC Plutonium and/or Americium in Soil or Sediments. A high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of Am and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratio. The total plutonium concentrations ( 239+240 Pu) measured in environmental samples by this method were in good agreement with recommended data obtained from alpha-spectrometry. A reduction in the time of analysis over 33% was achieved

  20. Characterization of a Pu-bearing zirconolite-rich synroc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Bakel, A.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A titanate-based ceramic waste form, rich in phases structurally related to zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), is being developed as a possible method for immobilizing excess plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) produced several ceramics that were then characterized at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The plutonium- loaded ceramic was found to contain a Pu-Gd zirconolite phase but also contained plutonium titanates, Gd-polymignyte, and a series of other phases. In addition, much of the Pu was remained as PuO 2- x . The Pu oxidation state in the zirconolite was determined to be mainly Pu 4+ , although some Pu 3+ was believed to be present

  1. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  2. Plutonium uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Wilhite, E.L.; Corey, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Uptake of 238 Pu 4+ , 238 Pu 6+ , 239 Pu 4+ and 239 Pu 6+ by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz was studied to determine whether isotope or oxidation state differences affect Pu uptake from aqueous medium by algal cells. At equivalent 238 Pu and 239 PU concentrations, even when initial oxidation states differed, accumulations of these isotopes by S.obliquus were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Plutonium accumulation by S.obliquus was log-linear. (author)

  3. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either /sup 238/Pu or /sup 239/Pu in either Pu/sup +4/ or Pu/sup +6/ oxidation state at the concentrations studied.

  4. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of 238 Pu and 239 Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either 238 Pu or 239 Pu in either Pu +4 or Pu +6 oxidation state at the concentrations studied

  5. Sorption of 237Pu by the diatom Asterionella formosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, H.L.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Peterson, N.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the man-made radionuclide plutonium within aquatic environments is of fundamental importance in assessing its potential hazards and ecological impact. The sorption of plutonium by phytoplankton and other algae is the dominant factor in the biological transport of plutonium in the aquatic environment, and it has been suggested that sorption by phytoplankton may be responsible for the seasonal loss of plutonium from the epilimnion of Lake Michigan. A unialgal diatom culture was spiked with 237 Pu tracer solution in an attempt to simulate the behavior of fallout plutonium observed in field studies. The results were encouraging in that the 237 Pu in the filtered lake water medium exhibited strongly anionic properties similar to fallout plutonium in Lake Michigan, with limited sorption on container walls. The purpose of the present study was to extend the investigations of the sorption of plutonium by phytoplankton in a controlled environment using continuous culture techniques

  6. Calculation of keff for plutonium in high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, P.R.; Culbreth, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed national high-level nuclear waste repository will be designed to store approximately 70,000 tons of commercial spent fuel, but other forms of waste will also be considered for ultimate storage at this site. Plutonium in the form of PuO 2 may be added to borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal in the repository. The maximum amount of this fissile that may be added to a glass ''log'' will be limited by its ability to sustain a chain reaction. In this study, the removal of neutron absorbers from a glass log and the subsequent possibility of water infiltration were studied to find corresponding neutron multiplication factors. Weight fractions of 1%, 2%, and 3% PuO 2 were analyzed in the study. The results show the maximum amount of plutonium fissile that may be safely added to a glass log under conditions that lead to leaching of the principal neutron absorbers from the glass

  7. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240}Pu core experiments : a fast reactor core with mixed (Pu,U)-oxide fuel and a centeral high{sup 240}Pu zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Morman, J. A.; Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-02-23

    ZPR-6 Assembly 7 (ZPR-6/7) encompasses a series of experiments performed at the ZPR-6 facility at Argonne National Laboratory in 1970 and 1971 as part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program (Reference 1). Assembly 7 simulated a large sodium-cooled LMFBR with mixed oxide fuel, depleted uranium radial and axial blankets, and a core H/D near unity. ZPR-6/7 was designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, so configurations in the Assembly 7 program were as simple as possible in terms of geometry and composition. ZPR-6/7 had a very uniform core assembled from small plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Pu-U-Mo alloy loaded into stainless steel drawers. The steel drawers were placed in square stainless steel tubes in the two halves of a split table machine. ZPR-6/7 had a simple, symmetric core unit cell whose neutronic characteristics were dominated by plutonium and {sup 238}U. The core was surrounded by thick radial and axial regions of depleted uranium to simulate radial and axial blankets and to isolate the core from the surrounding room. The ZPR-6/7 program encompassed 139 separate core loadings which include the initial approach to critical and all subsequent core loading changes required to perform specific experiments and measurements. In this context a loading refers to a particular configuration of fueled drawers, radial blanket drawers and experimental equipment (if present) in the matrix of steel tubes. Two principal core configurations were established. The uniform core (Loadings 1-84) had a relatively uniform core composition. The high {sup 240}Pu core (Loadings 85-139) was a variant on the uniform core. The plutonium in the Pu-U-Mo fuel plates in the uniform core contains 11% {sup 240}Pu. In the high {sup 240}Pu core, all Pu-U-Mo plates in the inner core region (central 61 matrix locations per half of the split table machine) were replaced by Pu-U-Mo plates containing 27% {sup 240}Pu in the plutonium

  8. Mortality study of Los Alamos workers with higher exposures to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Healy, J.W.; McInroy, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    A group of white male workers with the highest internal depositions of plutonium at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was selected in 1974 for a study of mortality. This group of 224 persons includes all those with an estimated deposition (in 1974) of 10 nanocuries or more of plutonium, principally 239 Pu but also in some cases 238 Pu. Follow-up of these workers is 100% complete through 1980. Smoking histories were obtained on all persons. Exposure histories for external radiation and plutonium were reviewed for each subject. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using rates for white males in the United States population, adjusted for age and year of death. SMRs are low for all causes of death (56; 95% CI 40, 75) or for all malignant neoplasms (54; 95% CI 23,106). Cancers of interest for plutonium exposures, including cancers of bone, lung, liver, and bone marrow/lymphatic systems, were infrequent or absent. The absence of a detectable excess of cancer deaths is consistent with the low calculated risk to these workers using current radiation risk coefficients. An alternate theory that suggests much higher risk of lung cancer due to synergistic effects of smoking and inhaled insoluble plutonium particles is not supported by this study

  9. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  10. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.P.; Icopini, G.A.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  11. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  12. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium

  13. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  14. Ultra trace plutonium isotopic analyse by thermo ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei; Long Kaiming; Yang Tianli

    2008-06-01

    An anion exchange combined with TTA extraction decontamination method was established. The nanogram quantity Plutonium was separated from milligram uranium and the decontamination coefficient achieved 10 7 , the recovery coefficient >95%. The active carbon powder was chosen as the ionization intensifier to increase the plutonium ion flow. Used 6.7 pg Plutonium standard as sample to measured by TIMS and the RSD of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ≤3.6%. (authors)

  15. Granulometric study of plutonium oxide particles in suspension in the atmosphere of a furnace enclosure during the preparation of U-Pu alloys; Etude granulometrique des particules d'oxyde de plutonium en suspension dans l'atmosphere d'une enceinte de fonderie pendant la fabrication d'alliages U-PU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, G; Lenkauer, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Since the extent of an internal contamination by respiration depends on the diameter of the radioactive particles in the atmosphere, a particle size study has been made of the particles present in the air of a working enclosure at the Plutonium Fuel Element Production Section during the preparation of Uranium Plutonium alloy bars. The air of this vessel is drawn through a glass fibre filter on which the dust is deposited. On these filters the radioactive particles are localized first of all by the luminous spots which they produce on a photographic plate when a scintillator is interposed (silver-activated zinc sulphide). An autoradiographic method then makes it possible to distinguish between, and to measure the particles of the oxides of uranium 235, uranium 238 and plutonium 239. On carrying out a microscopic scanning of the relevant parts of the filter, particles are seen surrounded by radial marks the length of which indicates the nature of the grains, and the number of which makes it possible to calculate the theoretical diameter of the radioactive grain. This latter can be compared with the diameter observed with the microscope. Thus for each category of particles it is possible to define a mean diameter and therefore to predict the path of the various inhaled particles in the human body. These results are compared with the very few weakly positive biological samples taken from the personnel working in this enclosure. (authors) [French] L'importance d'une contamination interne par inhalation etant fonction du diametre des particules radioactives en suspension dans l'atmosphere, une etude granulometrique a ete effectuee sur les poussieres existant dans l'air d'une enceinte de travail a la Section de Fabrication des Elements Combustibles au Plutonium pendant une fabrication de barreaux d'alliage Uranium Plutonium, L'air de ce caisson est aspire a travers un filtre en fibre de verre sur lequel restent fixees les poussieres. Sur ces filtres, les particules

  16. Solution species of 239Pu [V] in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, D.; Serne, R.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Information regarding the oxidation states of Pu in environmental samples is needed for estimating its migration through the geologic media. Thermodynamic data were used to develop stability fields for different Pu species. The data indicate that in the Eh-pH range of natural aqueous environments, the dominant species of Pu is likely to be Pu[V] in relatively oxidizing environments and Pu[III] in reducing environments. Because of the lack of methods of determining Pu[V] in environmental samples containing trace concentrations of Pu, Pu[V] has not been previously identified in these samples. Plutonium [VI] is generally assumed to be the dominant species in relatively oxidizing environments. However, a combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques used in this study show that solutions (> 10 -5 4 M Pu) in equilibrium with 239 Pu[IV] hydroxide contain Pu[V], which is in agreement with the thermodynamic predictions. Although this method could not be used conclusively with the remaining solutions ( -5 4 M Pu) contacting 239 Pu[IV] hydroxide and 239 PuO 2 , the solvent extraction and Eh-pH results are similar for all the samples suggesting the strong possibility that all samples contain Pu[V]. Thus the possibility, ignored in the past, that Pu[V] may be the dominant species in relatively oxidizing environments should be considered

  17. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ochaita, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240 Pu is higher than 238 Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  18. Determination of plutonium in soils by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, H.A.; Carlson, D.C.; Hunter, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure is described in which mass spectrometry is utilized for the determination of plutonium in soils. Using this procedure we have measured plutonium isotopic compositions at concentrations as low as 2 x 10 -14 grams Pu per gram soil. A thermal ionization source with canoe-shaped rhenium filament, is utilized in the mass spectrometer. The plutonium, when loaded onto the filament, is contained in a single Dowex-1 resin bead which is about 350 micrometers in diameter. Concentrating the plutonium within this single bead is a key step in the procedure and produces a relatively clean plutonium fraction. The resin bead also serves as an effective diffusion barrier such that the plutonium is prevented from being removed with the lower boiling impurities. The Pu remains in the bead until the temperature is sufficiently high for efficient production of Pu + ions. Plutonium ionization efficiencies as high as 2.5 percent have been measured

  19. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-01-01

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO 3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI 2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  20. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  1. Gamma-ray isotopic ratio measurements for the plutonium inventory verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemming, J.F.; Haas, F.X.; Jarvis, J.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The Plutonium Inventory Verification Program at Mound Laboratory provides a nondestructive means of assaying bulk plutonium-bearing material. The assay is performed by combining the calorimetrically determined heat output of the sample and the relative abundances of the heat-producing isotopes. This report describes the method used for the nondestructive determination of plutonium-238, -240, -241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 using gamma-ray spectroscopy for 93 percent plutonium-239 material. Comparison of chemical data on aliquots of samples to the nondestructive data shows accuracies of +-7 percent for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, +-15 percent for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, +- 3 percent for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and +-7 percent for 241 Am/ 239 Pu

  2. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  3. Plutonium interactions with soil microbial metabolites: effect on plutonium sorption by soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Rogers, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop an understanding of the mechanisms of plutonium (Pu) complexation and solubilization by soil microorganisms, a broad range of bacteria and fungi were isolated in pure cultures from soil on the basis of metal tolerance and carbon requirements. The organisms were then used in investigations to examine Pu cellular transport, Pu complexation by extracellular metabolites, and the effects of complexation on Pu valence state, chemical form, and solubility in soil. Of the 239 bacteria and 250 fungi isolated from soil, 19 bacteria and 60 fungi were selected for detailed study. Of these organisms, 15 bacteria and 18 fungi grew to form extracellular Pu complexes that increased the concentration of Pu in soil column eluates relative to controls. Elution through soil effectively removed positively charged Pu complexes. Increased Pu mobility in soil resulted from the formation of neutral and negatively charged Pu complexes, which differed with organism type. In the presence of known microbial metabolites and synthetic ligands (DTPA, EDTA, EDDHA), Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) before complexation, suggesting that Pu(IV) would be the dominant valence state associated with organic complexes in soils. Studies on selected organisms indicated that both active Pu transport and Pu sorption on the cell occurred, and these phenomena, as well as complexation by extracellular metabolites of Pu, were a function of the form of Pu supplied, the organism type and growth characteristics, and the ability of the organism to alter extracellular pH. 18 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  4. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  5. Development of a Self-Consistent Model of Plutonium Sorption: Quantification of Sorption Enthalpy and Ligand-Promoted Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Arai, Yuji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Becker, Udo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ewing, Rod [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    This university lead SBR project is a collaboration lead by Dr. Brian Powell (Clemson University) with co-principal investigators Dan Kaplan (Savannah River National Laboratory), Yuji Arai (presently at the University of Illinois), Udo Becker (U of Michigan) and Rod Ewing (presently at Stanford University). Hypothesis: The underlying hypothesis of this work is that strong interactions of plutonium with mineral surfaces are due to formation of inner sphere complexes with a limited number of high-energy surface sites, which results in sorption hysteresis where Pu(IV) is the predominant sorbed oxidation state. The energetic favorability of the Pu(IV) surface complex is strongly influenced by positive sorption entropies, which are mechanistically driven by displacement of solvating water molecules from the actinide and mineral surface during sorption. Objectives: The overarching objective of this work is to examine Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to pure metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals and sediments using variable temperature batch sorption, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and quantum-mechanical and empirical-potential calculations. The data will be compiled into a self-consistent surface complexation model. The novelty of this effort lies largely in the manner the information from these measurements and calculations will be combined into a model that will be used to evaluate the thermodynamics of plutonium sorption reactions as well as predict sorption of plutonium to sediments from DOE sites using a component additivity approach.

  6. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  7. Liquid chromatographic studies on the behaviour of Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) on a RP stationary phase in presence of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaison, P.G.; Kumar, Pranaw; Telmore, Vijay M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Division

    2017-06-01

    Since plutonium possesses multiple oxidation states which can coexist in solution, a method for the identification of these oxidation states is important to understand its chemical processes. Liquid chromatographic studies were carried out to compare the chromatographic behaviour of different oxidation states of Pu in presence of the eluent, α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA). The three oxidation states of Pu viz. Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) were separated under optimised conditions. It was seen that the presence of the complexing agent influences the equilibrium of Pu(III)/(IV) as well as Pu(IV)/(VI) systems. Pu(III) to Pu(IV) conversion was found to be enhanced by high pH and concentration of HIBA whereas a relatively low pH and high concentration of HIBA promotes the conversion of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV).

  8. The toxicity of inhaled particles of 238PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled 238 PuO 2 in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5μm and 72 inhaled 3.0 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of 238 PuO 2 . Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of 238 Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 μm and 3.0 μ, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10 4 Gy, 800 liver cancers/10 4 Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10 4 Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from 238 Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239 PuO 2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238 PuO 2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239 PuO 2 , and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. 238Pu fuel form activities, March 1-September 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The SRP portion of this report summarizes production 238 PuO 2 fuel forms for use in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's) in the Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The PuFF Facility began producing iridium-encapsulated, 62.5-watt 238 PuO 2 right circular cylinders for GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) RTG's in June 1980; this program was completed in December 1983. The PuFF Facility has been placed in a production readiness mode of operation pending funding of additional heat source programs

  11. Study of the magnetic susceptibilities of some plutonium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.

    1969-06-01

    We present a detailed description of an automatic recording apparatus for magnetic susceptibility measurement of radioactive samples in the temperature range 4 K - 1200 K. We have measured the magnetic susceptibility of various plutonium compounds: - PuO 2 , Pu 2 O 3 , PuO 2-x , - PuS, Pu 2 S 3 , Pu 3 S 4 , (U x Pu 1-x )S - PuN - PuC 1-x (N,O,H,vacancy), Pu 2 C 3 , (U 0.85 Pu 0.15 )C. The curves of susceptibilities versus temperature show many magnetic transitions. The interpretation of these results shows the existence of magnetic moments carried by the 5 f electrons and localized on the metallic sites as well as the great influence of the 'crystal field' in all these compounds. (author) [fr

  12. The AS-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determinaion of Pu-238. Part 3: Preparation and characterization of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortels, G.; Broothaerts, J.; Bievre, P. de

    1980-01-01

    Four plutonium samples containing 0.2, 0.8, 1.6 and 0.9 atom % of 238 Pu have been prepared for the Interlaboratory Experiment AS-76. Of these three were input solutions from a reprocessing plant. The fourth sample was from a plutonium product solution. These samples have been characterized by two alpha spectrometry laboratories and two mass spectrometry laboratories to certify the ratio of alpha activities 238 Pu/( 239 Pu + 240 Pu) and the isotopic composition, respectively

  13. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  14. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO 2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239 Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239 Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO 2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  15. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  16. Chemical speciation of Pu in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Larsen, R.P.; Penrose, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior of plutonium in natural waters is determined to a major degree by the chemical forms which are present. We have characterized the ambient Pu in a number of surface waters with regard to its oxidation state and association with natural colloidal organic carbon compounds using a combination of field measurements and laboratory experiments. Both of these factors are shown to have a profound effect on the adsorption of Pu to natural sediments, since both complexation with organic matter and oxidation compete with adsorption. The concentration of organic carbon in the water is the key variable influencing both oxidation state and organic binding. The adsorption process conforms to the laws applicable to a reversible equilibrium with values of the distribution coefficient, K/sub D/, measured in laboratory experiments being similar to those observed for ambient Pu. Experiments using natural waters and sediments in which the Pu concentration was varied show the forms present at typical ambient concentrations (10 -17 - 10 -14 M) are the same as those found at concentrations up to 10 -7 M. Moreover, the affinity for sediments did not change with concentration indicating the binding sites for Pu had not become saturated. Thus, the behavior observed for Pu at ultratrace concentrations should remain unchanged throughout this concentration range. The studies in this report all deal with Pu in exchangeable (and hence source independent) forms and should therefore reflect the behavior toward which the plutonium from any source will tend with time. 13 references, 7 figures, 10 tables

  17. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  18. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  20. Review of thermal expansion and density of uranium and plutonium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, J.F.; Latimer, T.W.

    1975-07-01

    The published literature on linear thermal expansion and density of uranium and plutonium carbide nuclear fuels, including UC, PuC, (U,Pu)C, U 2 C 3 , Pu 2 C 3 , and (U,Pu) 2 C 3 , is critically reviewed. Recommended values are given in tabular form and additional experimental studies needed for completeness are outlined. 16 tables, 52 references

  1. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  2. Determination of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio and its significance in environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of Pu concentrations and its isotopic ratios in environmental samples were developed by using ICP-MS. Detection limit of Pu by ICP-MS was about 0.02 pg ml{sup -1} (0.05 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 239}Pu; 0.17 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 240}Pu) in the sample solution. Analytical results of {sup 239+240}Pu in IAEA standard reference materials indicated that the accuracy of this method was satisfactory. Data on the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, which are rare in the literature, were also obtained for soil and sediment samples (including IAEA standard reference materials) from different areas such as Irish Sea, Mururoa Atoll, Marshall Islands, Chernobyl, Kyshtym, Nagasaki and some other places in Japan. The range of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios was about 0.04-0.4, and the ratios are depending on the origin of the materials. Analytical results for the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios provide information about the source of the contamination and the transfer of plutonium in the environment. (author)

  3. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, F.

    1999-01-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  4. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  5. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  6. Early retention of 237Pu + 239Pu in mature beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Five mature beagles, ranging in age from 57 to 84 months, were injected intravenously with about 0.05-0.1 μCi/kg of 239 Pu(IV) citrate to which tracer amounts of the photon-emitter 237 Pu had been added. Plutonium retention in liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was measured periodically in the living dogs for nearly 4 months after injection by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. All excreta were collected during the first 21 days and analysed for their Pu content. One dog was sacrificed at 14 days and another at 118 days for distribution studies. About 17% (14-20%) of the injected Pu was excreted in the urine and feces in the first 3 weeks, about the same as that excreted in a corresponding time by beagles injected as young adults (14%), but substantially more than beagles injected as juveniles (11%). In contrasts to juvenile beagles injected at 3 months of age, in which early retention was about 12% in liver and 68% in the skeleton, mature beagles retained about 30% in liver and 50% in the skeleton. Retention in young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age was similar to that of mature dogs. Relative distribution of skeletal plutonium among various bones was similar in the mature animals to that seen previously in young adults, but quite different from that of juveniles. A notable exception was the humerus for which there was no significant difference (P>0.2) in the % of retained skeletal Pu represented by the humerus among the juvenile, young adult and mature dogs. (author)

  7. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  8. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  9. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  10. Americium and plutonium in phosphates of trigonal structure (NZP type) Am1/3[Zr2(PO4)3] and Pu1/4[Zr2(PO4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, D.M.; Orlova, A.I.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lizin, A.A.; Lukinykh, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Am 1/3 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] and Pu 1/4 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] phosphates are synthesized and are investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Compounds have triclinic lattices and lattice parameters are determined. Possibility of actinide inclusion into hollows of framework of NZP type is shown for the first time. It is proposed that inclusion of Pu and Am highly-charged cations into framework hollows decreases crystal structure symmetry up to primitive trigonal one. Rate of Pu leaching from ceramics on Pu 1/4 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] basis are measured [ru

  11. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Madic, C.; Willemot, J.M.; Germain, P.; Colle, C.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10 +3 μg (4 x 10 -2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10 -4 . For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10 -2 and (7.4 + 4.1) x 10 -4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10 -4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10 -4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10 -3 would provide better safety margin [fr

  12. Vertical distribution of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The unique study on 241 Pu in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea was presented. • 241 Pu was determined using alpha spectrometry by indirect method. • The biggest amount of 241 Pu existed in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments. • The highest 241 Pu amount comes from the Chernobyl accident. - Abstract: The vertical distribution of plutonium 241 Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, 241 Pu/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of 241 Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of 241 Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident

  13. Decontamination of alpha-bearing solid wastes and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.; Saulze, J.L.; Broudic, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear activities in the Radiochemistry building of Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Center concern principally the study of fuel reprocessing and the production of transuranium isotopes. During these activities solid wastes are produced. In order to improve the management of these wastes, it has been decided to build new facilities: a group of three glove-boxes named ELISE for the treatment of α active solid waste and a hot-cell, PROLIXE, for the treatment of solid wastes. Leaching processes were developed in order to: decontaminate these wastes and recover actinide elements, particularly the highly valuable plutonium, from the leachates. The processes developed are sufficiently flexible to be able to accommodate solid wastes produced in other facilities. Laboratory studies were conducted to develop the leaching process based on the use of electrogenerated Ag(II) species which is particularly suitable to provoke the dissolution of PuO 2 . Successful exhaustive Pu decontaminations with DF(Pu) higher than 10 4 were achieved for the first time during the treatment of stainless steel PuO 2 cans (future MELOX plant) by electrogenerated Ag (II) in nitric acid medium

  14. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  15. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  16. Disposal criticality analysis for immobilized plutonium: Internal configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.; Massari, J.R.; Cloke, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    The analysis for immobilized Pu follows the disposal criticality analysis methodology. In this study the focus is on determining the range of chemical compositions of the configurations which can occur following the aqueous degradation processes, particularly with respect to the concentrations of uranium, plutonium, and the principal neutron absorber, gadolinium. The principal analysis tool is a mass balance program that computes the amounts of plutonium, uranium, gadolinium, and chromium in solution as a function of time with inputs from a range of possible waste form dissolution rates, stainless steel corrosion rates, and compound solubilities for the neutronically significant elements. For the waste forms and degradation modes considered here, it is possible to preclude the possibility of criticality by maintaining a plutonium loading limit. Since the presence of hafnium is shown to increase this loading limit, the defense-in-depth policy would suggest the maximization of the amount of Hf as a backup criticality control material. At the end of 1997, after this study was completed, the ceramic waste form was downselected and a new formulation was developed, with the amount of Hf increased to the point where internal criticality may no longer be possible. In addition, recent calculations indicate that GdPO 4 is insoluble over a much broader range of pH than is Gd 2 O 3 , so that its use as the Gd carrier in the waste form would provide an extra margin of defense-in-depth

  17. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  18. Reaction of alkali nitrates with PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Ohuchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Fujino, T.

    1990-01-01

    Improvement of solubility of plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) in acid solution is important to establish the nuclear fuel reprocessing technique for uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels. If insoluble PuO 2 can be converted into any soluble plutonium compounds, problems arising from the fuel dissolution process will be reduced to a great extent. Alkali metal plutonates and alkaline-earth plutonates are known to have enhanced solubility in mineral acids. However, the reaction conditions to form such plutonates and characterization thereof are not well elucidated. Then the reactivity and reaction conditions to form lithium and sodium plutonates from their nitrates and PuO 2 were studied at temperatures between 500 and 900 degree C and alkali metal to plutonium atom ratios between 0.5 and 6 by means of thermogravimetry as well as X-ray diffraction technique. The reaction behavior of alkali plutonates will be discussed in comparison with corresponding alkali uranates

  19. The absorption spectra of Pu(VI), -(V) and -(IV) produced electrochemically in carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption spectra in carbonate and bicarbonate media have been measured for various oxidation states of plutonium. The oxidation state of plutonium was adjusted electrochemically (Pu(VI)-V), Esub(f)=+0.11 V vs. SCE) to avoid contamination by redox reagents. In carbonate medium the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) showed marked differences from the spectra of the same oxidation state in acidic solutions. In bicarbonate the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV) also differed from the corresponding spectra in acidic media. Reduction to Pu(III) resulted in a precipitate in both carbonate and bicarbonate media. (author)

  20. The plutonium-oxygen and uranium-plutonium-oxygen systems: A thermochemical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The report of a panel of experts convened by the IAEA in Vienna in March 1964. It reviews the structural and thermodynamic data for the Pu-O and U-Pu-O systems and presents the conclusions of the panel. The report gives information on preparation, phase diagrams, thermodynamic and vaporization behaviour of plutonium oxides, uranium-plutonium oxides and PuO 2 -MeO x (Me=Be, Mg, Al, Si, W, Th, Eu, Zr, Ce) systems. 167 refs, 27 figs, 17 tabs

  1. EXAFS study of plutonium sorption onto kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, T.Y.; Banik, L.; Buda, R.A.; Amayri, S.; Drebert, J.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Reich, T.; Ageev, A.L.; Korshunov, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of plutonium by kaolinite was investigated by applying X-ray absorption spectroscopy to batch sorption samples (total Pu concentrations 1 and 10 μM; 4 g kaolinite/L in 0.1 M NaClO 4 ; 1 ≤ pH ≤ 9; presence and absence of ambient CO 2 ). For XAFS measurements, one sample was prepared from a Pu(III) solution at pH 6 under argon atmosphere. Three samples were obtained by sorption of Pu(IV) at pH I, 4, and 9 in an air-equilibrated system. The Pu L III -edge XANES spectra indicated that in all samples, including the Pu(III) sample, plutonium is sorbed at the kaolinite surface as Pu(IV). The Pu L III -edge k 3 -weighted EXAFS spectra showed eight oxygen atoms at an average Pu-O distance of 2.3 angstrom. Two Pu atoms were detected at ∼ 3.7 angstrom in all spectra, indicating the formation of polynuclear Pu(IV) species at the kaolinite surface. For the sample prepared from Pu(III) solution, an additional Pu-O shell at 3.2 angstrom was observed. The spectra of samples prepared from Pu(IV) included a Pu-Al/Si co-ordination shell at approximately 3.6 angstrom, indicating formation of inner-sphere sorption complexes. The structural models used in the least-squares fits were confirmed by an alternative EXAFS data analysis approach based on a modified Tikhonov regularization method. (authors)

  2. Plutonium chemistry: a synthesis of experimental data and a quantitative model for plutonium oxide solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Oversby, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry of plutonium is important for assessing potential behavior of radioactive waste under conditions of geologic disposal. This paper reviews experimental data on dissolution of plutonium oxide solids, describes a hybrid kinetic-equilibrium model for predicting steady-state Pu concentrations, and compares laboratory results with predicted Pu concentrations and oxidation-state distributions. The model is based on oxidation of PuO 2 by water to produce PuO 2+x , an oxide that can release Pu(V) to solution. Kinetic relationships between formation of PuO 2+x , dissolution of Pu(V), disproportionation of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and Pu(VI), and reduction of Pu(VI) are given and used in model calculations. Data from tests of pyrochemical salt wastes in brines are discussed and interpreted using the conceptual model. Essential data for quantitative modeling at conditions relevant to nuclear waste repositories are identified and laboratory experiments to determine rate constants for use in the model are discussed

  3. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  4. Distribution of 238Pu and 239240Pu in aquatic macrophytes from a midwestern watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Alberts, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes were collected in the Great Miami River, Ohio, above and below Miamisburg and in the canal and ponds, near the Mound Laboratory, which contain sediments of a high activity (approximately 10 3 to 10 6 times) relative to the river sediments. Macrophytes collected in the river below Miamisburg have higher activities of 238 Pu than those collected from above the city. Macrophytes from the canal and ponds contain high specific activities of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu with the exception of cattails grown in the ponds. Concentration factors are reported and discussed with reference to possible modes of plutonium accumulation and distribution within the plants

  5. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  6. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  7. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation's defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO 2 feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO 2 dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides

  8. Plutonium sorption by the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus (Tuerp) Kuetz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Corey, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the possible impact of released radioisotopes to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) environment, the interaction between a biological system and plutonium was investigated. Specifically, an algal culture, Scenedesmus obliquus, was exposed to the +4 and +6 oxidation states of 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu at three plutonium concentration levels. There was no significant different (p 3) 0.05) between 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu accumulation by the algae at equivalent concentrations or at different oxidation states

  9. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Johns, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent publications concerned with the radiotoxicity of inhaled insoluble Pu compounds. The publications are a paper by Thorne and Vennart (Nature 263:555 (1976)), a report entitled 'The Toxicity of Plutonium', (London (HMSO), 1975), and the 'Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution', (Cmnd. 6618, London (HMSO), 1976). Thorne and Vennart concluded that the previously accepted value for the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) of such compounds may be too high by a factor of about five, and a similar conclusion was reached in the other two publications. It is thought by the present authors that the methods which have been used to suggest new values for the MPAI are unduly pessimistic for high-fired PuO 2 ; calculations have been based on the lung model of ICRP Publication 19 'The Metabolism of Compounds of Plutonium and the Other Actinides', (International Commission of Radiological Protection, 1972). This involves concluding that the risks to bone and liver are comparable to those for lung. This is discussed and it is thought that the previously established idea that the lung is the critical organ remains substantially correct for the case of high-fired PuO 2 . (U.K.)

  10. Recent trends of plutonium facilities and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1974-02-01

    Much interest has been focussed on Pu recycle since the oil crisis because of an expected shortage of enriched uranium. Plutonium handling techniques and plutonium fuel fabricating facilities should be developed to meet the future demand of plutonium, but the radioactive property of plutonium to be reprocessed from spent fuel and recycled plutonium is remarkably different, and it has to be handled safely. Technical criteria for plutonium facilities are specified in the USAEC regulatory guides and other rules. Some of these criteria are location condition, quality of confinement, protection against accidents and so on. The control conditions for plutonium facilities are exposure control, criticality control, measurement control and new system of safeguard. These problems are under development to meet the future requirement for the safe handling of Pu material.

  11. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  12. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  13. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  14. Electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides is of technological importance as a method of purification of plutonium. Previous authors have reported that plutonium can be purified by electrorefining impure plutonium in various molten haldies. Work to eluciate the mechanism of the plutonium reduction in molten halides has been limited to a chronopotentiometric study in LiCl-KCl. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the standard reduction potential for the plutonium (III) couple in various molten alkali metal halides. Initial cyclic voltammetric experiments were performed in molten KCL at 1100 K. A silver/silver chloride (10 mole %) in equimolar NaCl-KCl was used as a reference electrode. Working and counter electrodes were tungsten. The cell components and melt were contained in a quartz crucible. Background cyclic voltammograms of the KCl melt at the tungsten electrode showed no evidence of electroactive impurities in the melt. Plutonium was added to the melt as PuCl/sub 3/, which was prepared by chlorination of the oxide. At low concentrations of PuCl/sub 3/ in the melt (0.01-0.03 molar), no reduction wave due to the reduction of Pu(III) was observed in the voltammograms up to the potassium reduction limit of the melt. However on scan reversal after scanning into the potassium reduction limit a new oxidation wave was observed

  15. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  16. Probing phonons in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: α → β → γ → (delta) → (delta)(prime) → (var e psilon) → liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature ∼640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS

  17. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  18. Plutonium uptake by plants from soil containing plutonium-238 dioxide particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-05-01

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in the soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots

  19. Application of ICP-MS and AMS for determination of Pu- and U-isotope ratios for source identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Isotope Lab.. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, AAs (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which have resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Plutonium isotope ratios are known to vary with reactor type, nuclear fuel-burn up time, neutron flux, and energy, and for fallout from nuclear detonations, weapon type and yield. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the 240Pu isotope, with 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios (civil nuclear power reactors have 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of between about 0.2-1). Thus, different sources often exhibit characteristic plutonium isotope ratios and these ratios can be used to identify the origin of contamination, calculate inventories, or follow the migration of contaminated sediments and waters. The measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios in these studies offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers. The present paper presents results from determination of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios in sediment samples collected during various expeditions to the Kara Sea, the Ob and Yenisey estuaries and their river systems and also Pu isotope ratios in the near area of Mayak PA. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the Pu-240 isotope, with Pu-240/Pu-239 isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher Pu-240/Pu-239 isotope ratios, and

  20. Determination of plutonium 241 in solutions of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, A.; Bilcot, J.B.; Poletiko, C.

    1990-09-01

    Determination of plutonium 241 in nuclear wastes is important because of long period and high energy of some daughter products. In this report are presented two quantitative analysis methods using both scintillation techniques: A complete method, in any case, by selective extraction of plutonium on an anionic resin allowing simultaneous determination of Pu 241 and the sum of other plutonium isotopes; a simplified method when alpha activity is higher than beta/gamma activity by liquid extraction with TTA. These methods are applied for analysis of 4 waste types: cement encapsulated wastes, bitumen encapsulated wastes, incineration ashes, leaching of encapsulated incineration ashes. In these 4 examples, Pu 241 activity is equal or higher than the sum of alpha plutonium isotope activity. Separation efficiency, measured from Pu 239 or with Pu 236 as tracer, is between 90 and 99% [fr

  1. The toxicological study of plutonium: tumor-inducing effect of plutonium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Zhao Yongchan; Wang Shoufang; Li Maohe

    1992-09-01

    The carcinogenic effects of Pu compounds through different routs of administration are introduced. The following results have been obtained: (1) Pu is really a powerful carcinogenic radionuclide. (2) Osteosarcoma can be induced in rats by plutonium nitrate at low level radiation. The incidence is from 38.9% to 42.9% in the 185 kBq/kg group. (3) Lung cancer can be induced by plutonium dioxide and the biological effect of TLN (thoracic lymph node) is significant. (4) Under the combined treatment of 239 Pu, 90 Sr and 144 Ce, the carcinogenic effects is much greater than their separative effect on rats. (5) By using the method of comparative toxicology, the risk of osteosarcoma induced by Pu in human is about 600/(10 6 man·cGy) which is extrapolated from animal to human. The above conclusions are important for evaluating the potential hazard of Pu to human beings

  2. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, H.J.

    1976-03-01

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239 Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  3. Criticality of mixtures of plutonium and high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolleau, E.; Lein, M.; Leka, G.; Maidou, B.; Klenov, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a criticality evaluation of moderated homogeneous plutonium-uranium mixtures. The fissile media studied are homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and high enriched uranium in two chemical forms: aqueous mixtures of metal and mixtures of nitrate solutions. The enrichment of uranium considered are 93.2wt.% 235 U and 100wt.% 235 U. The 240 Pu content in plutonium varies from 0wt.% 240 Pu to 12wt.% 240 Pu. The critical parameters (radii and masses of a 20 cm water reflected sphere) are calculated with the French criticality safety package CRISTAL V0. The comparison of the calculated critical parameters as a function of the moderator-to-fuel atomic ratio shows significant ranges in which high enriched uranium systems, as well as plutonium-uranium mixtures, are more reactive than plutonium systems. (author)

  4. Analytical determination of plutonium in the presence of complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel', D.

    1975-01-01

    The complexing of Pu(4) and Pu(6) with citrate and lactate were studied to establish possibilities which are provided by the complexing for analytical determination of plutonium in a solution. Plutonium in the sample analyzed is preliminarily reduced up to trivalent state. Then trivalent plutonium is oxidized up to tetravalent on the platinum electrode at +1.05 V. To avoid further oxidation complexing agents are added. The value of pH=2-4 is maintained to stabilize the oxidation degree. If hexavalent plutonium should be obtained, the oxidation is performed at the voltage of +1.5 V in the absence of complexing agents. Based on a detailed study of absorption spectra of plutonium complexes of various oxidation degrees it is stated that the most suitable for analytical purposes is the oxidation degree of Pu=4

  5. Interaction of Desulfovibrio aespoeensis with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, H.; Merroun, M.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Bernhard, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Microbes are widely distributed in nature and they can strongly influence the migration of actinides in the environment. Microorganisms in concentrations of 1 x 10 3 to 5 x 10 6 cells ml -1 were estimated by Pedersen et al. in the aquifer system of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL) in Sweden. The number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was between 10 1 to 2 x 10 4 cells ml -1 . We investigated the interaction of the SRB Desulfovibrio aespoeensis, DSM 10631 T , with plutonium. The 242 Pu was provided as a mixture of ca. 46% Pu(VI) and ca. 34% Pu(IV)-polymer. Interactions between bacteria and plutonium in mixed oxidation states were not yet intensively investigated. In this study, accumulation experiments were performed in order to obtain information about the amount of the Pu bound by bacteria in dependence on the contact time and the [Pu] initial at pH 5. We used liquid-liquid-extractions and absorption spectroscopy to determine the Pu speciation. In agreement with the results obtained with U(VI) [2] and Np(V), we found a strong dependence of the amount of accumulated Pu with [Pu] initial . Based on our results and taking into consideration the findings of Panak et al. [3], we developed a model describing the interaction of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV)- polymers with D. aespoeensis. In a first step, the Pu(VI) and Pu(IV)-polymers are bound to the biomass. The Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) due to the activity of the cells within the first 24 h of contact time. Most of the formed Pu(V) dissolves due to the weak complexing properties. The dissolved Pu(V) disproportionates to Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) which are then interacting with functional groups of the cell surface structure. Indications were found also for a penetration of Pu species inside the bacterial cells. [1] Pedersen, K.: Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal. SKB Technical Report TR-00- 04 (2000). [2] Moll, H.; Merroun, M.; Stumpf, Th.; Geipel, G.; Selenska-Pobell, S

  6. Plutonium isotopic determination from gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skourikhine, A.N.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-resolution room-temperature detectors for the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials has widespread applications to the safeguarding of nuclear materials. The challenge to using these detectors is the inherent difficulty of the spectral analysis to determine the amount of specific nuclear materials in the measured samples. This is especially true for extracting plutonium isotopic content from low- and medium-resolution spectral lines that are not well resolved. In this paper, neural networks trained by stochastic and singular value decomposition algorithms are applied to retrieve the plutonium isotopic content from a simulated NaI spectra. The simulated sample consists of isotopes 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, and 241 Am. It is demonstrated that the neutral network optimized by singular value decomposition (SVD) and stochastic training algorithms is capable of estimating plutonium content consistently resulting in an average error much smaller than the error previously reported

  7. Measurement of plutonium isotopic composition by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Ahn, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of the analysis of plutonium isotopic ratio is independent of the measurement geometry and applicable to samples of physical and chemical composition. Three standard plutonium samples were measured in the HPGe system. The results showed that CRM 136 and CRM 137 containing 238 Pu(0.223%) and 238 Pu(0.268%) were 18.4% and 14.2% error and CRM 138 of 238 Pu(0.01%) was 76% error. However the analysis represented less than 1.6% and 9% error in the three standard samples of highly involved 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Therefore, gamma-ray spectroscopy is very effective in the plutonium isotope analysis, having greater than 10% in content

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS

  9. Synthesis of complex plutonium oxides with alkaline-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasufumi; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Iwai, Takashi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1995-03-01

    Complex plutonium(IV) oxides with strontium and barium, SuPuO 3 and BaPuO 3 , were synthesized and their crystal structure was analyzed. Compacted mixture of plutonium dioxide powder and the carbonate of strontium or barium was heated in a stream of argon gas using a cell with a small orifice. The products obtained were found to be composed of a nearly single phase showing the structure of orthorhombic slightly distorted from cubic. (author)

  10. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  11. Laboratory studies of plutonium in marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.W.; Choppin, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of plutonium in natural waters is among the most complex of any element. Much of this complexity is due to the fact that Pu can exist in up to four oxidation states (III, IV, V, VI) at one time under conditions encountered in the marine environment. The chemical properties of Pu in these different oxidation states differ dramatically. Our examination of thermodynamic and environmental data indicates that speciation of Pu in natural waters is primarily governed by kinetic factors, and that interactions with organic compounds, such as humates, are important. Pu is primarily removed from oceanic waters by adsorption on particle surfaces. Adsorption processes are also governed by reaction kinetics. A major aspect of the adsorption chemistry of Pu on metal oxide surfaces is their ability to promote redox reactions which change the oxidation state of the adsorbed Pu. (Auth.)

  12. Partitioning of plutonium and uranium in aqueous medium using hydroxyurea as reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, P.; Subba Rao, R.V.; Meenakshi, S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process for the partitioning of plutonium and uranium during the reprocessing of spent fuel discharged from fast reactor was optimised using hydroxyurea (HU) as a reductant. Stoichiometric ratio of HU required for the reduction of Pu(IV) was studied. The effect of concentration of uranium, plutonium and acidity on the distribution ratio (Kd) of Pu in the presence of HU was studied. The effect of HU in further purification of Pu such as solvent extraction and precipitation of plutonium as oxalate was also studied. The results of the study indicate that Pu and U can be separated from each other using HU as reductant. (author)

  13. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  14. Redox reactions of Pu(IV) and Pu(III) in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid in HNO(3) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkac, Peter; Precek, Martin; Paulenova, Alena

    2009-12-21

    The reduction of Pu(IV) in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid (HAHA) was monitored by vis-NIR spectroscopy. All experiments were performed under low HAHA/Pu(IV) ratios, where only the Pu(IV)-monoacetohydroxamate complex and Pu uncomplexed with HAHA were present in relevant concentrations. Time dependent concentrations of all absorbing species were resolved using molar extinction coefficients for Pu(IV), Pu(III), and the Pu(AHA)(3+) complex by deconvolution of spectra. From fitting of the experimental data by rate equations integrated by a numeric method three reactions were proposed to describe a mechanism responsible for the reduction and oxidation of plutonium in the presence of HAHA and HNO(3). Decomposition of Pu(AHA)(3+) follows a second order reaction mechanism with respect to its own concentration and leads to the formation of Pu(III). At low HAHA concentrations, a two-electron reduction of uncomplexed Pu(IV) with HAHA also occurs. Formed Pu(III) is unstable and slowly reoxidizes back to Pu(IV), which, at the point when all HAHA is decomposed, can be catalyzed by the presence of nitrous acid.

  15. Distribution of 238Pu in tissues of fish from the canal in Miamisburg, Oho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The 238 Pu concentrations of varous tissues were measured for seven species of freshwater fish from an ecosystem containing elevated levels of 238 Pu. The highest levels of 238 Pu were found in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills, while the lowest levels were found in muscle tissue. A rapid uptake of 238 Pu was observed for hatchery bluegills introduced into this system. High plutonium concentrations in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills suggest that these organs are potential uptake sites. The presence of 238 Pu in certain tissues (liver, gonads, bone, and muscle) indicates that there is a translocation of 238 Pu from the uptake sites

  16. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Outola, I.; Pulli, S. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Tarvainen, M.; Ristonmaa, S. [Finnish Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Zilliacus, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ossintsev, A.; Larin, V. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m{sup 3} volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. {sup 137}Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median {sup 239,240}Pu activities were 100 nBq/m{sup 3} and {sup 238}Pu activities 34 nBq/m{sup 3}. The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, and in half of the filters the {sup 238}Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 {mu}Sv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  17. Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10 -3 --10 -7 M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes

  18. Deposition of Pu-239 in human bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki

    1976-01-01

    It is known that plutonium produced by nuclear explosion tests has been widely dispersed on all over the earth and Pu-238 generated by the ''Accident of SNAP-9A'' in 1964 has been disposed into the atmosphere. These Pu are gradually falling down on the earth and taken into the human body through inhalation and ingestion. The measurements on the concentrations of Pu in bones and other various organs of Japanese population have been carried out. The results reveal that the concentrations of Pu in bones has a trend to be gradually increasing since 1962 and seems to be saturated at about 1970. The concentrations of Pu in bones sampled in 1971 are, in average, in the level of 4fCi per gram of wet samples and those in other organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, reproductive organs, etc.) sampled from 1963 to 1973 are in the level of 0.5-3.4 fCi per gram of wet tissues. Pu has been identified in the bones of fetus and infants and the averaged concentrations of placenta was 42.5 fCi. These may indicate that Pu would be transferred to the fetus through the placenta of mother. Some calculation has been attempted on the ratio of contributions through inhalation and ingestion to the body content of Pu, by using the formula for the scheme of metabolism of Pu compound in the body recommended by I.C.R.P. and this revealed that the contribution through inhalation route seemed to be greater than the other for the accumulation of Pu in the body. (auth.)

  19. Fabrication of 12% 240Pu calorimetry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.M.; Hildner, S.; Gutierrez, D.; Mills, C.; Garcia, W.; Gurule, C.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, laboratories are performing calorimetric assays on items containing high burnup plutonium. These materials contain higher isotopic range and higher wattages than materials previously encountered in vault holdings. Currently, measurement control standards have been limited to utilizing 6% 240 Pu standards. The lower isotopic and wattage value standards do not complement the measurement of the higher burnup material. Participants of the Calorimetry Exchange (CALEX) Program have identified the need for new calorimetric assay standards with a higher wattage and isotopic range. This paper describes the fabrication and verification measurements of the new CALEX standard containing 12% 240 Pu oxide with a wattage of about 6 to 8 watts

  20. Multilevel resonance parameters of 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, L.W.; Todd, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The data previously reported by the authors on the neutron fission and capture cross sections of 241 Pu were simultaneously fit with the Adler formalism to obtain multilevel resonance parameters. The neutron energy range of the fit was 0.01 to 100 eV. The 241 Pu cross sections in the resonance region of neutron energies are complex, and the Adler parameters present an efficient method of representing these cross sections, which are important for plutonium-fueled reactors. The parameters represent the data to an accuracy within the quoted experimental errors. 5 figures, 2 tables

  1. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  2. Color center formation in plutonium electrorefining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Eller, P.G.; Hobart, D.E.; Eastman, M.P.; McCurry, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium electrorefining residues containing Pu(III) in KCl exhibit dramatic reversible, light-induced color changes. Similar color changes were observed in Ln-doped (Ln = La, Nd, Gd, and Lu) and undoped KCl samples which were subjected to intense gamma irradiation. Diffuse reflectance electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to show conclusively that Pu(III) is present in both the bleached and unbleached plutonium-bearing residues and the spectacular color changes are the result of color center formation and alternation by visible light. (orig.)

  3. Process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremanns, R.H.; Vandersteene, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide in the form of PuO 2 . Mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide are being used more and more. The plants which prepare these mixed fuels have around 5% of the total mass of fuels as fabrication residue, either as waste or scrap. In view of the high cost of plutonium, it has been attempted to recover this plutonium from the fabrication residues by a process having a purchase price lower than the price of plutonium. The problem is essentially to separate the plutonium, the uranium and the impurities. The residues are fluorinated, the UF 6 and PuF 6 obtained are separated by selective absorption of the PuF 6 on NaF at a temperature of at least 400 0 C, the complex obtained by this absorption is dissolved in nitric acid solution, the plutonium is precipitated in the form of plutonium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, and the precipitated plutonium oxalate is calcined

  4. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  5. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  6. Qualitative chemical analysis of plutonium by Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J Qumica.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the separation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium was done. The plutonium, produced by the irradiation of uranium in a nuclear reactor and the β decay of 239 Np, was stabilized to Pu +4 with sodium nitrite. Plutonium was separated from the fission products and uranium by ion exchange using the resin Ag 1 X 8. It was electrodeposited on stainless steel discs and the alpha radioactivity of plutonium was measured in a surface barrier detector. The results showed that plutonium was separated with a radiochemical purity higher than 99 %. (Author)

  7. Phonon anharmonicity and Gruneisen parameters of alpha-plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filanovich, A.N.; Povzner, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    A self-consistent thermodynamic model of alpha-phase of plutonium is constructed. The calculations of thermal and elastic properties of α-Pu, carried out within this model, demonstrate that anomalously strong temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and unusually high value of the coefficient of thermal expansion of α-Pu are caused by its strong lattice anharmonicity. The isothermal and isobaric Gruneisen parameters of α-Pu and δ-Pu Pu_0_._9_6Ga_0_._0_4 are calculated. It is shown that wide spread of the values of Gruneisen parameter of α-Pu, obtained previously from different experimental data, is explained by the dependence of Gruneisen parameter of α-Pu on temperature. - Highlights: • A self-consistent thermodynamic model of alpha-plutonium is developed. • Thermal and elastic properties of alpha-plutonium are calculated. • The reason of spread in the values of Gruneisen parameter of alpha-Pu is established. • Different types of phonon anharmonicity in alpha-Pu and delta-Pu are revealed.

  8. Corrosion tests with uranium- and plutonium-loaded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L. R.; Johnson, S. G.; Ebert, W. L.; DiSanto, T.; Frank, S. M.; Holly, J. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Richmann, M. K.; Sinkler, W.; Tsai, Y.; Warren, A. R.; Noy, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tests were conducted with ceramic waste form (CWF) materials that contained small amounts of uranium and plutonium to study their release behavior as the CWF corroded. Materials made using the hot isostatic press (HIP) and pressureless consolidation (PC) methods were examined and tested. Four different materials were made using the HIP method with two salts having different U:Pu mole ratios and two zeolite reagents having different residual water contents. Tests with the four HIP U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at CWF-to-water mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:20, and for durations between 7 and 365 days. Materials made using two PC processing conditions were also tested. Tests with the two PC U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at a CWF-to-water mass ratio of 1:10, and for durations between 7 and 182 days. The releases of matrix elements, U, and Pu in tests conducted under different test conditions and with different materials are compared to evaluate the effects of composition and processing conditions on the release behavior of U and Pu and the chemical durabilities of the different materials. The distributions of released elements among the fractions that were dissolved, in colloidal form in the solution, and fixed to test vessel walls were measured and compared. Characterization of Pu-bearing colloidal particles recovered from the test solutions using solids analysis techniques are also reported. The principal findings from this study are: (1) The release of U and Pu is about 10X less than the release of Si and 50X less than the release of B under all test conditions. This implies that U and Pu are in a phase that is less soluble than the sodalite and binder glass matrix. (2) Almost all of the plutonium that is released from U,Pu-loaded CWF is present either as colloidal-sized particles in the size range between 5 and 100 nm in the test solution (about 15% of the total) or becomes fixed on stainless steel test vessel

  9. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Economical Production of Pu-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

    2013-02-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  11. MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1961-01-24

    A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

  12. Plutonium 238/239 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    4. Transfer Coefficients for the DTPA Biokinetic Model (Breustedt 2009) ...................... 25 Table 5. Decay Properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239...volume 2), cesium-137 (volume 3), F. tularensis (volume 4), sulfur mustard (volume 5), americium-241 (volume 6), Y. pestis (volume 7), botulinum ... toxin (volume 8), plutonium-238/239 (volume 9) and vesicants (volume 10, an expansion on volume 5). This paper presents an inhalation exposure model for

  13. Method of immobilizing weapons plutonium to provide a durable, disposable waste product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lutze, Werner; Weber, William J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of atomic scale fixation and immobilization of plutonium to provide a durable waste product. Plutonium is provided in the form of either PuO.sub.2 or Pu(NO.sub.3).sub.4 and is mixed with and SiO.sub.2. The resulting mixture is cold pressed and then heated under pressure to form (Zr,Pu)SiO.sub.4 as the waste product.

  14. Vertical distributions of particulate plutonium in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratio in particles collected by large volume water in-situ pump in the western North Pacific Ocean (off Rokkasho, Japan). This is the first information of vertical distribution of plutonium activity and Plutonium atom ratio in small particle (1-70 μm) and large particle (>70 μm). (author)

  15. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  16. Solid-phase extraction of plutonium in various oxidation states from simulated groundwater using N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevalov, S.A.; Malofeeva, G.I.; Kuzovkina, E.V.; Spivakov, B.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction of plutonium in different individual and mixed oxidation states from simulated groundwater (pH 8.5) was studied. The extraction of plutonium species was carried out in a dynamic mode using DIAPAK C16 cartridges modified by N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine (BPHA). It was shown that the extent of recovery depends on the oxidation state of plutonium. The extraction of Pu(IV) was at the level of 98-99% regardless of the volume and flow-rate of the sample solution. Pu(V) was extracted by 90-95% and 75-80% from 10- and 100-mL aliquots of the samples, respectively, whereas the extraction of Pu(VI) did not exceed 45-50%. An equimolar mixture of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) was extracted by 74%. The distribution coefficients (K d ) and kinetic exchange capacities (S) of plutonium in various oxidation states were measured. It was found that during the sorption process, Pu(V) was reduced to Pu(IV) by 80-90% after an hour-long contact with the solid phase. Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) by 34% and to Pu(IV) by 55%. In the case of mixed-valent solution of plutonium, only Pu(V) and Pu(IV) were found in the effluents. (author)

  17. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  18. Calculation of Plutonium content in RSG-GAS spent fuel using IAFUEL computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad-Imron

    2003-01-01

    It has been calculated the contain of isotopes Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and isotope Pu-242 in MTR reactor fuel types which have U-235 contain about 250 gram. The calculation was performed in three steps. The first step is to determine the library of calculation output of BOC (Beginning of Cycle). The second step is to determine the core isotope density, the weight of plutonium for one core, and one fuel isotope density. The third step is to calculate weight of plutonium in gram. All calculation is performed by IAFUEL computer code. The calculation was produced content of each Pu isotopes were Pu-239 is 6.7666 gr, Pu-240 is 1.4628 gr, Pu-241 is 0.52951 gr, and Pu-242 is 0.068952 gr

  19. Simulation study for purification, recovery of plutonium and uranium from plant streams of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, S.; Siva Kumar, P.; Radhika, R.; Subbuthai, S.; Mohan, S.V.; Subha Rao, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    A method for removal of plutonium from the lean organic streams obtained after co-stripping of uranium -plutonium was developed. Plutonium from lean organic phase was stripped using U 4+ /hydrazine as the stripping agent. The effect of concentrations of stripping agent U 4+ and feed Pu concentration in the lean organic phase was studied. Lean organic phases having higher plutonium concentration require three stages of stripping to bring plutonium concentration 4+ stabilized by hydrazine reduces Pu (IV) to Pu (III) thereby stripping plutonium from the organic phase. The non-extractability of Pu (III) by TBP was utilized for development of flow sheet for obtaining a uranium product lean of plutonium for ease of handling. (author)

  20. Plutonium in the environment. Can we predict its subsurface behavior?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Lawrence Livermore National Laborartory, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    There is an acute need to expedite progress toward a permanent storage facility that can safely isolated long-lived radionuclides from the biosphere. Significant uncertainty remains on how to safely store long-lived radionuclides that will make up the majority of the dose after a few hundred years.Plutonium (Pu) is of particular interest because of its high toxicity and long half life (t1/2 239Pu 2.4 x104 yrs). The chemical interactions of Pu are dependent on its oxidation state, which in turn control its stability and solubility. Understanding the interplay (the bio-geo-chemistry) between Pu and the repository environment is necessary to predict the conditions for which Pu will either migrate or remain immobile. A mechanistic understanding of the surface structure and reactivity of coupled Pu*mineral, Pu*organic ligand, and Pu*microbe interfacial processes is needed to advance our understanding Pu. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling Pu transport, we have investigated Pu desorption rates from montmorillonite and other mineral colloids. These data suggest that Pu desorption rates are slow enough that colloid-facilitated transport of adsorbed Pu is possible at the field scale (km distances and decade timescales). Additional experiments show that the presence of organic matter plays an important role in stabilizing Pu both in solution and on mineral surfaces. Our experiments are helping to develop a conceptual model of Pu subsurface behavior.

  1. Magnetism, superconductivity and Fermi surfaces of plutonium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Y.; Aoki, D.; Yamagami, H.; Matsuda, T.D.; Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A.; Onuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of plutonium compounds PuRhGa 5 and PuIn 3 are successfully grown. For PuRhGa 5 , anisotropy of the superconducting upper critical field was found and analyzed by the anisotropic mass model, consistent with quasi-two-dimensional electronic states predicted by band calculations. On the other hand, the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation was observed in PuIn 3 . By comparing with the band calculations, it is concluded that 5f electrons are itinerant in PuIn 3

  2. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  3. A 244Pu spike reference material CBNM IRM-042A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Gallet, M.; Hendrickx, F.; Bievre, P. de

    1991-01-01

    An highly enriched 244 Pu isotopic reference material (CBNM IRM-042a) has been prepared and certified for 244 Pu isotope concentration. The certified value of (2.257 7 ± 0.004 4).10 18 atoms 242 Pu.kg -1 of solution has been established by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The plutonium isotopic composition has been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry and calibration of these measurements by means of synthetic 242 Pu/ 239 Pu mixtures. The isotopic reference material is supplied in a sealed glass ampoule containing approximately 10 g of a 5M nitric acid solution at an approximate concentration of 1 μg Pu per g solution. This isotopic reference material is part of a systematic CBNM programme to supply spike isotopic reference materials of various isotopes at different concentrations

  4. Gamma-ray monitor for plutonium uniformity in fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Plutonium fuel tubes must be examined for abnormal PuO 2 densities. A fuel-gamma densitometer (FGD) was developed to measure the PuO 2 content within 3.2-mm-diameter areas. The FGD measurement of hot spot densities is an extension of the usual gamma-scanner application of verifying fuel uniformity within a few percent

  5. Similarities in magnetic behavior of cerium and plutonium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.; Thayamballi, P.; Spirlet, J.C.; Mueller, W.; Vogt, O.

    1983-01-01

    The first sizable single crystals have been prepared of plutonium compounds. The field and temperature dependence of magnetization of single-crystal PuSb is highly evocative of that of CeSb or CeBi, and PuSb gives anisotropy and magnetic structural behavior as expected from hybridization-mediated interionic interactions for moderately delocalized f-electron systems

  6. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  7. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high 239 Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations

  8. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  9. Model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A linear compartment model with donor-controlled flows between compartments was designed to describe and simulate the behavior of plutonium ( 239 240 Pu) in a contaminated forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, TN. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the plutonium in the ecosystem resides in biota. Soil is the major repository of plutonium in the forest, and exchanges of plutonium between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of plutonium. Variation in predicted steady-state amounts of plutonium in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicates that our ability to develop models of plutonium transport in ecosystems should improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in plutonium data

  10. Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr

  11. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Estimation of 239Pu in urine, influence of Sulkowich reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium is known to be co-precipitated with Sulkowich reagent as calcium ammonium oxalate. In adopting this technique for bio-assay of plutonium, its accuracy depends on the self-absorption of the resulting precipitate in each urine sample. Pu recovery experiments were carried out with varying concentration of Ca and Mg, using different volumes of Sulkowich reagent. When the sample volume is 500 ml, Pu in urine can be estimated with an accuracy and precision of 74.38%+-7.4%, with a detection limit of 0.06 Bq (1.6 pCi) per dm 3 . (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  15. Process for the production of 238Pu16O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, W.

    1976-01-01

    For use as a power source in heart pacers, plutonium dioxide having a naturally occurring oxygen isotope composition is converted into solid phase PuCl 3 which is subsequently oxidized to form plutonium dioxide of the desired isotope composition by means of water vapor, the oxygen component of which consists essentially of the isotope 16 O. Apparatus suited for this purpose is also described

  16. Discrimination of source reactor type by multivariate statistical analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopic concentrations in unknown irradiated nuclear fuel material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Martin; Kristo, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The problem of identifying the provenance of unknown nuclear material in the environment by multivariate statistical analysis of its uranium and/or plutonium isotopic composition is considered. Such material can be introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear accidents, inadvertent processing losses, illegal dumping of waste, or deliberate trafficking in nuclear materials. Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition were analyzed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) of the concentrations of nine U and Pu isotopes in fuel as a function of burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of (234)U and (236)U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was incorporated. The U and Pu were also analyzed separately, with results that suggest that, even after reprocessing or environmental fractionation, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the source reactor type and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination.

  17. α spectrometry on thick sources. Application to Pu dosing in U-Pu alloys with a low Pu content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guery, Marcel

    1969-06-01

    After having noticed that alpha spectrometry of thick sources has been not much studied, the author reports the application of this type of alpha spectrometry to a problem of plutonium dosing in uranium-plutonium alloys with low plutonium content. Four measurement and test campaigns, each being few month long, have been performed. During the first three ones, the best measurement conditions have been determined, the necessary apparatus has been acquired, and data compilation has been elaborated. This report addresses the last campaign during which exploitable results have been obtained. After some generalities about alpha rays from thick sources, the author reports a detailed examination of measurements made on U-Pu alloys, and of corrections to be made, notably those due to the Am-241 content, to stacking and to oxidation. The method appears to be very sensitive, with a precision better than 1 per cent. Improvements seem possible [fr

  18. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium fluoride reduction slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Rayburn, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    A process was developed for the pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from residues resulting from the PuF 4 reduction process. The process involves crushing the CaF 2 slag and dissolving it at 800 0 C in a CaCl 2 solvent. The plutonium, which exists either as finely divided metal or as incompletely reduced fluoride salt, is reduced to metal and/or allowed to coalesce as a massive button in the bottom of the reaction crucible. The recovery of plutonium in a 1-day cycle averaged 96%; all of the resulting residues were discardable

  19. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  20. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report: 238Pu fuel form processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the Savannah River 238 Pu Fuel Form Program is discussed. Goals of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) program are to provide technical support for the transfer of the 238 Pu fuel form fabrication operations from Mound Laboratory to new facilities being built at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), to provide the technical basis for 238 Pu scrap recovery at SRP, and to assist in sustaining plant operations. During the period it was found that the density of hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 pellets decreased as the particle size of ball-milled powder decreased;the surface area of calcined 238 PuO 2 powder increased with increasing precipitation temperature and may be related to the variation in ball-milling response observed among different H Area B-Line batches; calcined PuO 2 produced by Pu(III) reverse-strike precipitation was directly fabricated into a pellet without ball milling, slugging, or sharding. The pellet had good appearance with acceptable density and dimensional stability, and heat transfer measurements and calculations showed that the use of hollow aluminum sleeves in the plutonium fuel fabrication (PuFF) storage vault reduced the temperature of shipping cans to 170 0 C and will reduce the temperature at the center of pure plutonium oxide (PPO) spheres to 580 0 C

  1. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-01-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to 239 Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: ► Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). ► Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. ► Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. ► The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  2. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  3. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10 -4 ; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10 -4 . Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10 -4 . Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10 -4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10 -4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  4. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  5. ZZ WPPR-FR-MOX/BNCMK, Benchmark on Pu Burner Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Ikegami, T.

    1993-01-01

    Description of program or function: In order to intercompare the characteristics of the different reactors considered for Pu recycling, in terms of neutron economy, minor actinide production, uranium content versus Pu burning, the NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) is setting up several benchmark studies. They cover in particular the case of the evolution of the Pu quality and Pu fissile content for Pu recycling in PWRs; the void coefficient in PWRs partly fuelled with MOX versus Pu content; the physics characteristics of non-standard fast reactors with breeding ratios around 0.5. The following benchmarks are considered here: - Fast reactors: Pu Burner MOX fuel, Pu Burner metal fuel; - PWRs: MOX recycling (bad quality Pu), Multiple MOX recycling

  6. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ], Pu-citrate [ 239 Pu(C 6 H 5 O 7 ) + ], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [ 239 Pu-C 14 H 23 O 10 N 3 ]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g -1 as Pu-nitrate , Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less influenced. This fraction in the soil was more affected with time

  7. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  8. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Oil and vinegar: Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity (Li{sub 2}[Pu{sub 38}O{sub 56}Cl{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O){sub 20}].15H{sub 2}O). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  11. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  12. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  13. Determination of Pu in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of "2"3"8UH "+ in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  14. Quantitative dissolution of (U, Pu)O2 MOX (0.4% to 44% PuO2) using microwave heating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malav, R.K.; Fulzele, Ajit K.; Prakash, Amrit; Afzal, Md.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    AFFF has fabricated the (U, Pu)O 2 mixed oxide fuels for PHWRs, BWRs, PFBRs and FBTRs. The quantitative dissolution of the fuel samples are required within time for accurate determination of uranium-plutonium in chemical quality control laboratory. This paper describes the use of microwave heating technique in quantitative dissolution of (U, Pu)O 2 MOX (from 0.4% to 44% PuO 2 ). (author)

  15. Use of combined alpha-spectrometry and fission track analysis for the determination of 240Pu/239Pu ratios in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.F.; Filby, R.H.; Glover, S.E.; Stuit, D.B.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides were determined in human autopsy tissues of occupationally exposed workers who were registrants of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In this study, Pu was purified and isolated from Am, U and Th, after drying and wet-ashing of the tissues, and the addition of 238 Pu as a radiotracer. After electrodeposition onto vanadium planchets, the 239+240 Pu activity was determined by alpha-spectrometry. A fission track method was developed to determine 239 Pu in the presence of 238 Pu and 240 Pu, using Lexan TM polycarbonate detectors. Combining the two techniques allowed the determination of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu activity and atom ratios. Data from selected USTUR cases are presented. (author)

  16. Calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium for reactions of plutonium with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lexi; Sun Ying; Luo Deli; Xue Weidong; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Rong

    2000-01-01

    There are six independent component with 4 chemical elements, i.e. PuH 2.7 (s), PuN(s), Pu 2 O 3 (s), N 2 (g) and H 2 (g), therefore, the system described involves of 2 independent reactions, both ΔG degree << O. The mass balances calculated for gas and solid phases are in good agreement with those of experimental, indicating the chemical equilibrium is nearly approached. So, it is believed that the reaction ratio of plutonium hydride with air is extremely rapid. The results are meaningful to the storage of plutonium

  17. Stability with temperature of mixed uranium plutonium monocarbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Dumas, J.C.; Piron, J.P.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Among the different advanced fuel materials of concern for Generation IV systems, the mixed carbide of uranium and plutonium fuel is considered as one of the key materials for Gas Fast Reactors (GFR) systems. For purposes of optimising its fabrication process as well as its performances in various operating conditions, the losses of gaseous plutonium specially at elevated temperatures have to be controlled and minimized. The paper is therefore concerned with a parametric analysis of the stability with temperature of mixed carbides of uranium and plutonium. Previous published experimental studies have shown that mixed (U ,Pu) carbides undergo a highly incongruent sublimation at high temperatures: the vapour phase in equilibrium with the solid is mainly composed of gaseous plutonium (P Pu /P total > 99 % ) while the contribution of gaseous U and C remains very low. The composition of the system U 1-z Pu z C 1+x ' (z =Pu/(U+Pu) and x C/(U+Pu)), the temperature (T) and the expansion volume (V) of the gas are the main parameters in the loss of gaseous Pu. The calculations are carried out using the SAGE (Solgasmix Advanced Gibbs Energy) software, by assuming ideal solid solutions between UC and PuC, as well as between U 2 C 3 and Pu 2 C 3 . The validity of the model is previously tested using published equilibrium vapour pressure data. This work gives rise to a large description of the variations of Pu losses from mixed uranium plutonium carbides and leads to some basic recommendations in connection with the use of this advanced fuel materials

  18. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1967-01-01

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of 240 Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  19. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinchin, G. H. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of {sup 240}Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  20. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author)

  1. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author).

  2. Plutonium-238 alpha-decay damage study of the ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S. M.; Barber, T. L.; Cummings, D.G.; DiSanto, T.; Esh, D.W.; Giglio, J. J.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S.G.; Kennedy, J.R.; Jue, J-F; Noy, M.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Sinkler, W.

    2006-01-01

    An accelerated alpha-decay damage study of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form has recently been completed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical durability of the waste form after significant exposure to alpha decay. This accelerated alpha-decay study was performed by doping the ceramic waste form with 238 Pu which has a much greater specific activity than 239 Pu that is normally present in the waste form. The alpha-decay dose at the end of the four year study was approximately 1 x 10 18 alpha-decays/gram of material. An equivalent time period for a similar dose of 239 Pu would require approximately 1100 years. After four years of exposure to 238 Pu alpha decay, the investigation observed little change to the physical or chemical durability of the ceramic waste form (CWF). Specifically, the 238 Pu-loaded CWF maintained it's physical integrity, namely that the density remained constant and no cracking or phase de-bonding was observed. The materials chemical durability and phase stability also did not change significantly over the duration of the study. The only significant measured change was an increase of the unit-cell lattice parameters of the plutonium oxide and sodalite phases of the material and an increase in the release of salt components and plutonium of the waste form during leaching tests, but, as mentioned, these did not lead to any overall loss of waste form durability. The principal findings from this study are: (1) 238 Pu-loaded CWF is similar in microstructure and phase composition to referenced waste form. (2) Pu was observed primarily as oxide comprised of aggregates of nano crystals with aggregates ranging in size from submicron to twenty microns in diameter. (3) Pu phases were primarily found in the intergranular glassy regions. (4) PuO phase shows expected unit cell volume expansion due to alpha decay damage of approximately 0.7%, and the sodalite phase unit cell volume has expanded slightly by 0.3% again

  3. Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu 3+ in LaCl 3 , and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states

  4. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Ditada, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Clacher, A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  5. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R; Ditada, M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J P; Clacher, A [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N D [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  6. Natural Pu-traces within the continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, M.; Barth, H.; Fuest, M.; Molzahn, D.; Brandt, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pu-traces are observed in the environmental all over the world, 'man made'-Pu as well as 'natural' Pu ( 239 Pu). 239 Pu occurs within a range of about 10 -12 g Pu/g sample in pitchblende. In the FRG, the deep-drilling project 'KTB, Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm', was started with the aim to obtain a very deep hole (14 km). We wanted to establish upper concentration limits for plutonium in samples from KTB. For a first investigation, we obtained a 400 g sample of granite from a pre-drill of KTB. Its Pu-concentration was ≤ (4.5 ± 2.5)x10 -16 g 239 Pu/g sample. To compare this result to the Pu-content in geological brines, we obtained a sample from a borehole at the Salton Sea Geothermal field (Southeastern California). In this sample we found an upper concentration limit of (2.1 ± 1.0)x10 -16 g 239 Pu/g sample. (orig.)

  7. The US plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, S.J.; Mason, C.F.V.; Hahn, W.K.

    2000-01-01

    Progress has been made in Russia towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease the available weapons-grade Pu. A similar agenda is being followed in the US to address disposition of US surplus weapons-grade Pu. In Russia a conversion process has been selected and a site proposed. This paper discusses the present state of the program in support of this future operating facility that will process up to 5 metric tons of plutonium a year. (authors)

  8. Plutonium isotopes in the surface air in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Sugimura, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium isotope concentrations in the surface air at Tsukuba, Japan are reported during the period from 1981 to the end of 1986. The 239,240 Pu concentration in the surface air, which showed a marked seasonal variation with a spring maximum and fall minimum, decreased until the end of 1985 according to the stratospheric residence time of 1.15 years. In May 1986, elevated 239,240 Pu concentrations with high 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios were observed. The serial trend of plutonium concentration in the surface air is similar to the concentrations of the Chernobyl-released radionuclides. These findings suggest that a significant part of the plutonium in the surface air in May 1986 was due to the Chernobyl fallout. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. ''Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.

    1997-01-01

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration 238 Pu/ 239 , Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l -1 . Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author)

  10. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  12. Reduction stripping of plutonium (IV) with hydroxylamine nitrate in the centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zefu; Ding Dachun; Fei Hongcheng

    1989-01-01

    Reduction stripping of Pu(IV) with hydroxylamine nitrate under conditions of Purex 3B contactor is carried out with 16-stage mixer-centrifugal settler in laboratory scale. Results show that the apparent recovery of Pu is more than 99.9%. But there is a great difference in the concentration of plutonium of every stage in extraction equipment at different temperature. For example, plutonium concentrations in organic phase of several stages near the organic effluent at 45-50 deg C are lower than that at 20-24 deg C. Thus, recovery efficiency of plutonium can be assured only for the former. However, plutonium will probably be lost, if operating conditions are fluctuated. In addition, plutonium accumulated in the extraction equipment increased appreciably for the case of 20-24 deg C. Therefore, in order to ensure recovery efficiency of Pu, reduction stripping of Pu should be made at higher temperature

  13. Investigation on U - O - Na, Pu - O - Na and U,Pu - O - Na phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.

    1989-03-01

    The thermochemical interaction between the nuclear fuel (uranium and plutonium mixed oxides) and the sodium has been investigated and particularly the three phase diagrams: U - O - Na; Pu - O - Na; U,Pu - O - Na. High temperature neutron diffraction, microcalorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the compounds synthetized. This study allowed to complete the knowledge about each of these diagrams and to measure some physical and thermal properties on the compounds. The limits on the modelization of the fuel-sodium interaction are discussed from the results of the UO 2 - Na reaction [fr

  14. Process for plutonium rextraction in aqueous solution from an organic solvent, especially for uranium plutonium partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.; Gillet, B.; Pasquiou, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The organic solvent containing plutonium is contacted with an aqueous solution of a uranous salt, for instance uranous nitrate, and a hydroxylamine salt, for instance the nitrate. In these conditions uranous nitrate is a reducing agent of Pu III and hydroxylamine nitrate stabilizes Pu III and U IV in the aqueous phase. Performances are similar to these of the U IV-hydrazine nitrate without interference of hydrazine nitrate degradation products [fr

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and reactive transport models for Pu: employing numerical methods to uncover the nature of the intrinsic colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Batchelor, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Future missions for the Department of Defense include processing plutonium for vitrification and conversion to mixed oxide fuels for commercial use. Such processing could result in the production of Pu-containing waste and unplanned releases of Pu to the environment. Some releases related to plutonium processing have occurred in the past. However, scientists are currently not able to explain the observed behavior of plutonium in natural systems. For example, classical filtration theory predicts that plutonium transport within groundwater should be limited to a few tens of meters. Experimental observations, however, show that plutonium is present in groundwater at distances orders of magnitude farther away from its source than predicted. Before adequate disposal practices can be designed for plutonium, its behavior in these systems must be better understood. The overall goal of this project is to develop equilibrium, kinetic and reactive transport models that describe the behavior of Pu in aqueous systems and to apply these models to natural and engineered systems

  16. Considerations in the assessment of plutonium deposition in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.; Umbarger, J.; McInroy, J.; Healy, J.

    1975-01-01

    Data from human cases of plutonium inhalation are used to illustrate several important problems in the current methods of estimating plutonium body burdens. Individuals exposed to 238 PuO 2 particles in a highly insoluble matrix showed an unusually slow rising urinary excretion curve over 300 to 400 days. In vivo chest counts during the first 6 months estimated lung burdens to be 10 to 30 nCi, but urinary excretion methods calculate residual systematic body burdens of 50 to 100 nCi at 1200 days after exposure. Current assumptions used in the in vivo calibration do not consider possible lung distribution of particulates soon after exposure that could alter the interpretation significantly. Tissue analysis of a lung from another case after recent inhalation exposure shows a significantly lesser concentration of plutonium in the subpleural region--the principal region of plutonium measurement by in vivo chest counting--as compared to distributions found years after exposure. Tissue analyses indicate that urinary excretion estimates of body burden over the long term tend to err on the high side up to a factor of 5 or more. This procedure serves well for the purpose of protection of workers, but high estimates can lead to unnecessary job reassignments for the individual worker and can cause misleading conclusions when such data is used uncritically for reference in health effects studies. Additional research is needed to improve urinary excretion data analysis to reflect newer information derived from tissue data and to seek further understanding of the sources of variation in in vivo counting technology so it can be used with greater confidence

  17. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere Ocean Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka (Japan); Kim, C. -S. [Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Roos, P. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Yim, S. A. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP-SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water of the central South Pacific (32.5{sup o}S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m{sup 3}. The {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20{sup o}S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic surface waters (30{sup o}S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The {sup 239}Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging. (author)

  18. Conceptual designs for a long term 238PuO2 storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.M.; Replogle, W.C.

    1996-08-01

    This is a report on conceptual designs for a long term, 250 years, storage container for plutonium oxide ([sup 238]PuO[sub 2]). These conceptual designs are based on the use of a quartz filter to release the helium generated during the plutonium decay. In this report a review of filter material selection, design concepts, thermal modeling, and filter performance are discussed

  19. Base case short-term Pu-oxide store. 2. Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper describes the interim storage of plutonium oxide after its conversion from plutonium nitrate and before fabrication into fuel elements. The capacity of the store is 3 tons Pu. A description of the major handling, criticality, maintenance and physical protection philosophy is given, together with comments on the safety of the store and its impact on the environment

  20. Late effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; Powers, G.J.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Osteosarcomas were the primary cause of death in beagle dogs 4 to 8 years after inhalation of 238 PuO 2 . The plutonium body burden at death ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 μCi with 32 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Pulmonary neoplasia was observed in three of the bone-tumor-bearing dogs

  1. Investigation of the oxidation states of Pu isotopes in a hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.H. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P. O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mhlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, W.H.; Jung, E.C.; Jee, K.Y. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P. O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The characteristics of the oxidation states of Pu in a hydrochloric acid solution were investigated and the results were applied to a separating of Pu isotopes from IAEA reference soils. The oxidation states of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were prepared by adding hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite to a Pu stock solution, respectively. Also, the oxidation state of Pu(VI) was adjusted with concentrated HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The stability of the various oxidation states of plutonium in a HCl solution with elapsed time after preparation were found to be in the following order: Pu(III){approx}Pu(VI)>Pu(IV)>Pu(V). The chemical recoveries of Pu(IV) in a 9 M HCl solution with an anion exchange resin were similar to those of Pu(VI). This method for the determination of Pu isotopes with an anion exchange resin in a 9 M HCl medium was applied to IAEA reference soils where the activity concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}Pu in IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 were consistent with the reference values reported by the IAEA.

  2. Phytoextraction studies for removal of 239Pu using Vetiveria zizanoides plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D.P.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Vetiveria zizanoides, a plant used for environmental conservation was tested for remediation of radionuclide plutonium ( 239 Pu). While the plant could remediate high levels of 239 Pu (65%) from solutions, remediation of radionuclides from soil was limited. Addition of chelating agents such as citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhanced phytoremediation of 239 Pu from soil. Translocation of 239 Pu to the shoot biomass showed an enhancement in the presence of chelating agents. The present studies have shown that V. zizanoides is a suitable candidate plant for remediation of 239 Pu and addition of DTPA enhanced translocation of radionuclide to shoot which may further lead to phytoextraction. (author)

  3. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  4. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Martin W.A.; Moricca, Sam A.; Zhang, Yingjie; Day, R. Arthur; Begg, Bruce D.; Scales, Charlie R.; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Hobbs, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  5. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  6. A rapid and specific titrimetric method for the precise determination of plutonium using redox indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Dubey, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of plutonium in plutonium nitrate solution and its application to the purex process solutions is discussed. The method involves the oxidation of plutonium to Pu(VI) with the help of argentic oxide followed by the destruction of the excess argentic oxide by means of sulphamic acid. The determination of plutonium is completed by adding ferrous ammonium sulphate solution which reduces Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) and titrating the excess ferrous with standard potassium dichromate solution using sodium diphenylamine sulphonate as the internal indicator. The effect of the various reagents add during the oxidation and reduction of plutonium, on the final titration has been investigated. The method works satisfactorily for the analysis of plutonium in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg. The precision of the method is found to be within 0.1%. (author)

  7. Chemical characterization of local and stratospheric plutonium in Ohio soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical nature of plutonium derived from stratospheric fallout and industrial sources was studied in three agricultural soils. The majority of the soil plutonium was associated with a reductant-soluble, hydrous oxide phase that, under most conditions of terrestrial ecosystems, remains essentially immobile. The proportion of plutonium associated with organic matter (0.1N NaOH-extractable) varied among soils, and increased with decreasing particle size in the same soil. In a soil containing 238 Pu from a local fabrication facility and 239 , 240 Pu from stratospheric fallout, isotopic ratios between the NaOH-extractable and residual phases were essentially constant, indicating that, in these soils, plutonium from both sources behaves similarly. The distribution of soil plutonium with particle size appears to be most directly related to the mass of the soil particle

  8. Determination of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in radioactive waste from IPEN reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Cheberle, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    Ion exchange resin is a common type of radioactive waste arising from treatment of coolant water of the main circuit of research and nuclear power reactors. This waste contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to determine and quantify specific radionuclides including those known as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of RDMs generally involves expensive and time-consuming complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides. The objective of this work is to show an easy methodology for quantifying plutonium and americium isotopes in spent ion exchange resin, used for purification of the cooling water of the IEA-R1 reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. The resins were destroyed by acid digestion, followed by purification and separation of the Pu and Am isotopes with anionic and chromatographic resins. 238 Pu, 239 + 24 '0Pu, and 24 '1Am isotopes were analyzed in an alpha spectrometer equipped with surface barrier detectors. 241 Pu isotope was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Chemical recovery yield ranged from 73 to 98% for Pu and 77 to 98% for Am, demonstrating that the methodology is suitable for identification and quantification of the isotopes studied in spent resins. (author)

  9. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  10. Plutonium determination in solution with excess hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.; Kuvik, V.; Spevackova, V.

    1975-01-01

    The determination is described of plutonium in solutions in the presence of fluoride ions resulting from the hydrolysis of PuF 6 . The method is based on reduction of Pu(VI) by excess of Fe(II) and on re-titration of Fe(II) with ceric salt. The effect of fluoride ions on plutonium determination was studied. It was found that a 3 mole excess of HF with respect to Pu decreased the results of Pu determination. The interference of fluoride ions was eliminated by a two-fold evaporation of the solution to be titrated with HNO 3 to dryness or by complex formation with boric arid. The amount of 20.50 mg Pu in the presence of a 10 mole excess of fluoride ions (17 mg HF) was determined with an error of +- 0.09 mg ). (author)

  11. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of 239 + 240 Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10 5 and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized 239 + 240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of 239 + 240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239 + 240 Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay

  12. Determination of plutonium and uranium in the same aliquot by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karekar, C.V.; Chander, Keshav; Nair, G.M.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A potentiometric titration method was developed for the determination of plutonium and uranium in the same aliquot in nitric acid medium. Plutonium was first determined by oxidation to Pu(VI) by fuming with HClO 4 . Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) with known excess of Fe(II). Uranium in the same solution was determined by reduction to U(IV) with Fe(II) in H 3 PO 4 medium. For the quantity of plutonium and uranium in the range of 3-5 mg per aliquot a precision of +-0.2% and +-0.4%, respectively, was obtained. (author)

  13. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions

  14. Plutonium Solubility In High-Level Waste Alkali Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to ∼18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m 3 of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m 3 3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt

  15. Source identification of Pu and 236U deposited on Norwegian territories

    OpenAIRE

    Wendel, Cato Christian

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) is a predominately anthropogenic element produced during neutron irradiation of U in reactors and nuclear weapon detonations. Pu has been released to the environment during nuclear weapon detonations, nuclear reactor accidents, and in association with reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The most important source of Pu in the environment were the 543 atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted worldwide in the period 1945 – 1980 by the former Soviet Union (FSU), USA, United Kingdo...

  16. PDF analysis of PuAl alloys local structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteau, C. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)], E-mail: platteau.cyril@yahoo.fr; Bruckel, P.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-03-15

    For understanding singular properties of plutonium, there is a need in studying the average and local atomic structure in Pu alloys. To study the local structure of the {delta} phase, a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis was done and has shown some significant differences with the average structure.

  17. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1973-11-01

    A method is reported for analysis of isotopic and total plutonium by detecting and analyzing gamma rays emitted by the sample. A computerized prototype-system was developed and is now being routinely used at the Savannah River Plant for the nondestructive assay of solution samples. The analyses for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and for 241 Am, when it is present, can be made in counting times as short as 10 to 15 minutes under optimum conditions. Comparison of isotopic ratio values with mass spectrometry generally shows agreement within 0.1 percent for 239 Pu and about 1 percent for 240 Pu and 241 Pu. Some preliminary isotopic measurements on solids are also discussed. (U.S.)

  18. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  19. Beiological behaviour of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is scarcely incorporated from the environment into the food chain because of its unability to penetrate biological membranes. Workers can be contaminated through inhalation or deposition in wounds. Pu present in the pulmonary alveoles or incorporated in wounds is redistributed in the organism either through cellular transport resulting in an important accumulation in the lymphatic ganglia either by blood transport as dissolved Pu bound to proteins. This mechanism results in a progressive accumulation of the radioelement in liver and bone. It is estimated that about 40% of the Pu present in the blood is deposited in the liver from which one half is eliminated every ten years. 50% is deposited in bone from which the elimination takes much longer and 10% is eliminated with the urines. Intravenous injection of DIPA is very useful for Pu elimination immediately after contamination. For elimination of pulmonary Pu the technique of ''pulmonary washing'' is suggested. This method reduces the pulmonary contamination in laboratory aniamls by a factor 10. (author)

  20. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in liquid effluents of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1983-04-01

    A procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption, the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter from the resolution in the alpha spectrometer was used. Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Pu-241 were measured in the liquid effluents of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK). The concentrations in monthly mixed samples ranged from 0.07 until 46 nCi Pu-238/m 3 , from 0.13 until 2.1 nCi Pu-239+240/m 3 and from 25 until 190 nCi Pu-241/m 3 . Between 5.4% and 41% of the plutonium content of the KfK waste water are released to the River Old Rhine. The values for the activity ratio Pu-238/Pu-239+240 are between 0.39 and 1.1 and for Pu-241/Pu-239+240 are between 11 and 300. The mean value for Pu-241/Pu-239+240 is 61. The dose exposure of the environmental population of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center caused by released Pu-241 is negligible low. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Determination of free acid in plutonium (IV) solutions - thermometrically, potentiometrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.L.; Tucker, G.M.; Huff, G.A.; Jordan, L.G.

    1981-09-01

    The thermometric titration technique was found to offer certain advantages over potentiometry in the determination of free acid in Pu(IV) solutions. The thermometric technique was applied to the determination of free acid in plutonium nitrate solutions using potassium fluoride to suppress the hydrolytic interference of plutonium(IV). The results indicate that 0.2 to 2.0 milliequivalents of free acid can be determined with acceptable bias and precision in solutions containing up to 30 milligrams of plutonium. In contrast, neither the thermometric nor the potentiometric technique was suitable for samples containing more than eight milligrams of plutonium complexed with potassium oxalate

  2. Study of the magnetic susceptibilities of some plutonium derivatives; Etude des susceptibilites magnetiques de quelques derives du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    We present a detailed description of an automatic recording apparatus for magnetic susceptibility measurement of radioactive samples in the temperature range 4 K - 1200 K. We have measured the magnetic susceptibility of various plutonium compounds: - PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, PuO{sub 2-x}, - PuS, Pu{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Pu{sub 3}S{sub 4}, (U{sub x}Pu{sub 1-x})S - PuN - PuC{sub 1-x}(N,O,H,vacancy), Pu{sub 2}C{sub 3}, (U{sub 0.85}Pu{sub 0.15})C. The curves of susceptibilities versus temperature show many magnetic transitions. The interpretation of these results shows the existence of magnetic moments carried by the 5 f electrons and localized on the metallic sites as well as the great influence of the 'crystal field' in all these compounds. (author) [French] Nous decrivons d'une facon detaillee un appareil permettant de mesurer d'une facon continue et automatique des susceptibilites magnetiques sur des echantillons radioactifs dans un domaine de temperature s'etalant de 4 K a 1200 K. Nous avons mesure les susceptibilites magnetiques de certains composes du plutonium tels que: - PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, PuO{sub 2-x} - PuS, Pu{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Pu{sub 3}S{sub 4}, (U{sub x}Pu{sub 1-x})S - PuN - PuC{sub 1-x}(N,O,H,vacancy), Pu{sub 2}C{sub 3}, (U{sub 0.85}Pu{sub 0.15})C. Les courbes de susceptibilite magnetique en fonction de la temperature mettent en evidence de nombreuses transitions magnetiques. L'interpretation de ces resultats a montre l'existence de moments magnetiques portes par les electrons f et localises sur les sites metalliques ainsi que l'influence tres grande du champ cristallin. (auteur)

  3. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Powell, Brian A.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time which has implications for near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption-desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethite was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.

  4. Global plutonium management: A security option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.hor-ellipsis) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints

  5. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  6. Methods for the assay of plutonium in vivo: what are the alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Strauss, M.G.; Sherman, I.S.; Brenner, R.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the amount of plutonium in the human body in vivo is of considerable importance in view of the major role Pu may play in the future nuclear power program. It is a particularly difficult one because the 238 Pu and 239 Pu present in reactor-grade material emit virtually no penetrating radiation, so that conventional methods of body radioactivity measurement are useless. The existing methods of estimating Pu body burdens are reviewed and alternatives are suggested. Emphasis is placed on Pu in lung, the major problem, but reference is also made to systemically deposited Pu. Both indirect and direct methods are discussed

  7. Initial synthesis of area 13 239Pu data and other statistical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-02-01

    An initial effort is made here to synthesize the 239-240 Pu data currently available from Area 13 (Project 57). Plutonium concentrations for soil, vegetation, small vertebrates, and various tissues in beef cattle (grazed on the Pu contaminated vegetation) are plotted on a single graph for visual comparison. Hypothetical 239-240 Pu concentrations for lungs, skeletal bone, and kidney of a Standard Man assumed to live in and obtain most of his food from the area are also plotted. These hypothetical values were obtained using results from the plutonium transport and dose estimation model of Martin and Bloom (1975)

  8. Characterization of (241)Pu occurrence, distribution, and bioaccumulation in seabirds from northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents unique data of plutonium (241)Pu study in seabirds from northern Eurasia, permanently or temporally living at the southern Baltic Sea coast. Together, ten marine birds species were examined, as follows: three species that permanently reside at the southern Baltic, four species of wintering birds, and three species of migrating birds; 366 samples were analyzed. The obtained results indicated plutonium was non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest (241)Pu content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the lowest in muscles. Also, the internal radiation doses from (241)Pu were evaluated.

  9. Migration modelling of different plutonium chemical forms through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltelli, A.

    1979-01-01

    Two solutions of the migration equations are described. The first relates to the transport equations for the decay chain Am 243→Pu 239→U 235. Numerical integration was performed in this case by a simulation code written in CSMP III language and plutonium is considered to be all in the same chemical form. The second case relates to the problem of Pu speciation and migration. The decay chain Pu 240→U 236 is considered and numerical integration is performed by a modified version of Bo code COLUMN. Pseudo first order reactions are supposed to act between Pu states to maintain equilibrium during the migration

  10. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  11. Airborne plutonium transported during southwesterly winds near the Hanford Prosser Barricade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne plutonium could result from resuspension of nuclear-weapons-testing stratospheric fallout deposition. To determine this possible resuspension at the Hanford site, two field experiments between April 12 to june 29, 1976 and August 12, 1976 to January 11, 1977 were conducted near the Prosser Barricade in the Hanford area about 19 to 22 km southeast (140 0 to 160 0 ) of the fuel-processing areas. The primary objective of these experimentss was to determine if stratospheric fallout resuspension was reflected by airborne plutonium concentrations increasing with increasing wind speed. A secondary objective was to confirm the source of the airborne plutonium by determining the plutonium-240 isotopic content or the plutonium-240/plutonium-239-mass ratio. Stratospheric fallout can be identified by the ratio of 240 Pu to other plutonium isotopes in surface soils. Plutonium was transported during southwesterly winds during the two study periods at the Prosser Barricade. Airborne 239 240 Pu concentrations varied as powers of wind speed (U):U -0 2 to U 7 8 . The airborne solids content ranged from 6 x 10 -8 to 1.7 x 10 -6 μCi/g. The 240 Pu isotopic content ranged from 5.6 to 8.1 atom percent and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu mass ratio ranged from 0.065 to 0.089. The estimated fraction of stratospheric fallout plutonium in these samples was less than 0.24. The remaining airborne plutonium was probably of Hanford origin. Airborne plutonium probably represents resuspension of plutonium from undetermined sites by mechanisms and events not clear at present. An increasing airborne plutonium concentration with increasing wind speed might be expected for an upwind resuspension source(s). However, the geographical source(s) location was not investigated in this study

  12. Environmental behaviour of plutonium accidentally released at Thule, Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna. Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1 to 2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi sup(239,240)Pu km -2 = 460sub(e)sup(-0.28R) or by a power function: mCisup(239,240)Pu km -2 = 370 Rsup(-1.2), where R is the distance in km from the point of impact. The inventory of sup(239,240)Pu in the marine environment from the accident was estimated at 25 to 30 Ci. The amount of 238 Pu was approximately 0.5 Ci. The bottom animals, such as worms and molluscs, showed a horizontal distribution of radioactivity similar to that of the sediments. From 1968 to 1970 the sup(239,240)Pu concentrations in the biota decreased by an order of magnitude, since 1970 the decrease has been less evident. In 1970 and 1974 there were no indications of increased plutonium concentrations in surface seawater or in sea plants or zooplankton. Higher animals such as fish, seabirds and marine mammals have shown no tendency to increasing plutonium levels since the accident. (author)

  13. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...

  14. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  15. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  16. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of plutonium solid species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropf, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We present XANES at the L III edge for four plutonium solid phases: Pu(III)F 3 , Pu(IV)O 2 , NaPu(V)O 2 CO 3 , and Ba 3 Pu(VI)O 6 . These correspond to the four important oxidation states in the process chemistry and environmental chemistry of plutonium. By a fitting method that uses an arc tangent function and gaussian curves, it was possible to reproducibly determine the edge energy and distinguish among the four oxidation states. These data demonstrate a 1.85 ± 0.20 eV shift per oxidation state

  17. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  18. Behavior of plutonium isotopes in the marine environment of Enewetak atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    There continue to be reports in the literature that suggest a difference in the behavior of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu in some aquatic environments. Plutonium isotopes have been measured in marine samples collected over 3 decades form Enewetak atoll, one of the sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States between 1946 and 1958 to test nuclear devices. The plutonium isotopes originated from a variety of complex sources and could possibly coexist in this environment as different physical-chemical species. However results indicate little difference in the mobility and biological availability of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  19. Preparation of additional supplies of 244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Newman, E.; Alexander, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, gram quantities of the man-made isotope 244 Pu were produced in high purity for basic research as a by-product of a program to prepare gram quantities of 252 Cf. Because 244 Pu is not produced in appreciable quantities in standard power reactor fuel, this nuclide has become extremely useful in the application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), a high-precision analytical technique, to problems of plutonium accountability in support of international safeguards agreements. Although only a small amount (a fraction of a microgram) is needed for each analysis, the present supply of certified nuclear reference standard SRM-996 is expected to last only an additional 3 to 5 years. Three options for producing additional supplies of this rare and valuable material were examined. The options encompassed the production of from 1 to 8.5 g during time spans of from 3 to 10 years. Unit costs ranged from $2300 to $7200 per mg of plutonium of >97% 244 Pu. While the paper concludes that the short-term option can be pursued along with further study of the longer-term options, this should not be regarded as an offer or a commitment on the part of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to furnish the described material

  20. Preparation of additional supplies of 244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Newman, E.; Alexander, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, gram quantities of the man-made isotope 244 Pu were produced in high purity for basic research as a by-product of a program to prepare gram quantities of 252 Cf. Because 244 Pu is not produced in appreciable quantities in standard power reactor fuel, this nuclide has become extremely useful in the application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), a high-precision analytical technique, to problems of plutonium accountability in support of international safeguards agreements. Although only a small amount (a fraction of a microgram) is needed for each analysis, the present supply of certified nuclear reference standard SRM-996 is expected to last only an additional 3 to 5 years. Three options for producing additional supplies of this rare and valuable material were examined. The options encompassed the production of from 1 to 8.5 g during time spans of from 3 to 10 years. Unit costs ranged from $2300 to $7200 per mg of plutonium of >97% 244 Pu. While the paper concludes that the short-term option can be pursued along with further study of the longer-term options, this should not be regarded as an offer or a commitment on the part of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to furnish the described material. (author)

  1. Plutonium concentrations in arthropods at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, J A; Whicker, F W [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Biology

    1979-09-01

    Arthropods were collected for /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu (/sup 239/Pu) and /sup 238/Pu analysis from three study plots in close proximity to the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant and from a site 110 km N-NE of the plant. Mean /sup 239/Pu concentrations in arthropods were 265, 16, 0.7 and 0.5 dis/min g/sup -1/ at the three Rocky Flats study plots and at the control site, respectively. Arthropod /sup 239/Pu concentration data were statistically analyzed by season of collection, taxonomic group, and sampling site. Only the collection site differences were significant (..cap alpha.. = 0.01) and these were correlated with /sup 239/Pu concentrations in soil. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/Pu to /sup 238/Pu in arthropods was 52, similar to the value of 51 obtained for soil. The mean ratio of /sup 239/Pu in arthropods to /sup 239/Pu in 0-3 cm soil at Rocky Flats was 9 x 10/sup -3/. Arthropod biomass and Pu concentration data indicated that only about 10/sup -8/ of the total plutonium inventory is in the arthropod component of the ecosystem. Leafhoppers, grasshoppers and spiders accounted for roughly 80% of the arthropod inventory of /sup 239/Pu.

  2. Plutonium concentrations in arthropods at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, J.A.; Whicker, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    Arthropods were collected for 239 240 Pu ( 239 Pu) and 238 Pu analysis from three study plots in close proximity to the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant and from a site 110 km N-NE of the plant. Mean 239 Pu concentrations in arthropods were 265, 16, 0.7 and 0.5 dis/min g -1 at the three Rocky Flats study plots and at the control site, respectively. Arthropod 239 Pu concentration data were statistically analyzed by season of collection, taxonomic group, and sampling site. Only the collection site differences were significant (α = 0.01) and these were correlated with 239 Pu concentrations in soil. The mean activity ratio of 239 Pu to 238 Pu in arthropods was 52, similar to the value of 51 obtained for soil. The mean ratio of 239 Pu in arthropods to 239 Pu in 0-3 cm soil at Rocky Flats was 9 x 10 -3 . Arthropod biomass and Pu concentration data indicated that only about 10 -8 of the total plutonium inventory is in the arthropod component of the ecosystem. Leafhoppers, grasshoppers and spiders accounted for roughly 80% of the arthropod inventory of 239 Pu. (author)

  3. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  4. Investigation of plutonium abundance and age analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huailong, Wu; Jian, Gong; Fanhua, Hao [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    Based on spectra analysis software, all of the plutonium material peak counts are analyzed. Relatively efficiency calibration is done by the non-coupling peaks of {sup 239}Pu. By using the known isotopes half life and yield, the coupling peaks counts are allocated by non-coupling peaks, consequently the atom ratios of each isotope are gotten. The formula between atom ratio and abundance or age is deduced by plutonium material isotopes decay characteristic. And so the abundance and age of plutonium material is gotten. After some re- peat measurements for a plutonium equipment are completed, a comparison between our analysis results and PC-FRAM and the owner's reference results are done. (authors)

  5. Metal-carbide multilayers for molten Pu containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, T.S.E.; Curtis, P.G.; Juntz, R.S.; Krueger, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    Multilayers composed of nine or ten alternating layers of Ta or W and TaC were studied for the feasibility of their use in containing molten plutonium (Pu) at 1200 degrees C. Single layers of W and TaC were also investigated. A two-source electron beam evaporation process was developed to deposit these coatings onto the inside surface of hemispherical Ta cups about 38 mm in diameter. Pu testing was done by melting Pu in the coated hemispherical cups and holding them under vacuum at 1200 degrees C for two hours. Metallographic examination and microprobe analysis of cross sections showed that Pu had penetrated to the Ta substrate in all cases to some extent. Full penetration to the outer surface of the Ta substrate, however, occurred in only a few of the samples. The fact that full penetration occurred in any of the samples suggests that it would have occurred in uncoated Ta under these testing conditions which in turn suggests that the multilayer coatings do afford some protection against Pu attack. The TaC used for these specimens was wet by Pu under these testing conditions, and following testing, Pu was found uniformly distributed throughout the carbide layers which appeared to be rather porous. Pu was seen in the W and Ta layers only when exposed directly to molten Pu during testing or near defects suggesting that Pu penetrated the multilayers at defects in the coating and traveled parallel to the layers along the carbide layers. These results indicate that the use of alternating metal and ceramic layers for Pu containment should be possible through the use of nonporous ceramic that is not wet by molten Pu and defect-free films

  6. Observations of surface-mediated reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) on hematite nanoparticles by ATR FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Hilary P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Clemson Univ., Dept. of Enviromental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral surfaces may facilitate the reduction of plutonium though the mechanisms of the reduction are still unknown. The objective of this study is to use batch sorption and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments to observe the surface-mediated reduction of plutonium on hematite nanoparticles. These techniques allow for in situ measurement of reduction of plutonium with time and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of surface mediated reduction of plutonium. For the first time, ATR FT-IR peaks for Pu(VI) sorbed to hematite are measured at ∝ 916 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The decrease in peak intensity with time provides a real-time, direct measurement of Pu(VI) reduction on the hematite surface. In this work pseudo first order rate constants estimated at the high loadings (22 mg{sub Pu}/g{sub hematite}, 1.34 x 10{sup -6} M{sub Pu}/m{sup 2}) for ATR FT-IR are approximately 10 x slower than at trace concentrations based on previous work. It is proposed that the reduced rate constant at higher Pu loadings occurs after the reduction capacity due to trace Fe(II) has been exhausted and is dependent on the oxidation of water and possibly electron shuttling based on the semiconducting nature of hematite. Therefore, the reduction rate at higher loadings is possibly due to the thermodynamic favorability of Pu(IV)-hydroxide complexes.

  7. Investigation on the attribute detection of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Wu Huailong; Hu Guangchun; Hu Yongbo

    2006-01-01

    A long-term detection of the 871 keV gamma-ray emitted from two PuO 2 samples (100 g recovered powder and 8 g pure powder) has been conduced with a high resolution HPGe spectrometer in a lead-shielded chamber. An on-site detection of the 871 keV gamma-ray emitted from 200 g recovered PuO 2 powder has also been performed. Although the 871 keV peak can be observed in all 3 samples, other characteristic gamma-rays related to the existence of oxygen are not seen. The 871 keV peak is absent in spectra acquired from metal plutonium samples, which can answer whether the plutonium material in a sealed container is metal plutonium or plutonium oxide, i.e. the 871 keV gamma-ray can be an evidence for the absence of metal plutonium. The 871 keV peak is strong in the spectrum of 200 g recovered PuO 2 sample. A software of plutonium abundance and age analysis developed by ourselves can identify the 871 keV peak from a spectrum of 10 min. If the system is appropriately improved, it can be used to detect attribute of plutonium oxide through identifying 871 keV gamma-ray peak. (authors)

  8. Radiative capture on $^{242}$Pu for MOX fuel reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    The use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO$_{2}$ and PuO$_{2}$) in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. Indeed around 66% of the plutonium from spent fuel is made of $^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu, which are fissile in thermal reactors. A typical reactor of this type uses a fuel with 7% reprocessed Pu and 93% depleted U, thus profiting from both the spent fuel and the remaining $^{238}$U following the $^{235}$U enrichment. With the use of such new fuel compositions rich in Pu the better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. This is clearly stated in the recent OECD NEA’s “High Priority Request List” and in the WPEC-26 “Uncertainty and target accuracy assessment for innovative systems using recent covariance data evaluations” report. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations have been recently carried out jointly by the European (JEFF) and United ...

  9. Specification analysis of plutonium fuels : a potentiometric method for the determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    A potentiometric method for the routine determination of plutonium in the specification analysis of plutonium fuels is described. Plutonium is oxidized to Pu(VI) with AgO and Pu(VI) is reduced with Fe(II) after the destruction of excess AgO with sulphamic acid. The excess Fe(II) is titrated potentiometrically against K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , the titration being carried out by adding a concentrated titrant solution from a weight burette and a suitably diluted solution from another weight burette near the end. The overall relative standard deviation obtained in 326 analyses of a working standard solution by eight experimenters is 0.14 percent. (author)

  10. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S.; Delpech, S.; Picard, G.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 , equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl 2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl 2 , 1 atm/Cl - reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl 2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl 2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  11. ``Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary``; ``Distribution et comportement du plutonium dans les eaux de la manche et de l`estuaire de la seine``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K

    1998-12-31

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239}, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l{sup -1}. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author).

  12. The study of reductive reextraction of plutonium in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.

    1985-01-01

    The methods of separation of U and Pu in the Purex process and the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Pu(4) reductants are discussed. The kinetic equation of the process of reductive reextraction of plutonium for the first order reaction with respect to Pu(4) is derived. The kinetics of plutonium reextraction with the use of uranium (4), ascorbic acid and other reductants has been studied. The necessity of application of the stoichiometric excess of reductant has been explained by simultaneously occured reoxidation process of plutonium. The method of calculation of the steady- state plutonium concentration profiles has been elaborated for counter-current separation of U and Pu in multistage contactor. 90 refs., 20 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  13. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the 237 Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating 241 Pu and 233 Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within ± 10% for samples containing 3 μg Pu, while being within ± 20% for 0.4 μg Pu. (authors)

  14. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S. [IAEA, Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, Wagramer Str. 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the {sup 237}Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating {sup 241}Pu and {sup 233}Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within {+-} 10% for samples containing 3 {mu}g Pu, while being within {+-} 20% for 0.4 {mu}g Pu. (authors)

  15. Importance of 241 Am Determination in the Characterization of PuO2 Standards for Calorimetric Assay.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) standards are often used both as heat standards and isotopic standards for calorimetric assay. Calorimetric assay is the combination of the power in watts measured in a calorimeter with the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) in watts/g Pu, determined either by nondestructive gamma-ray assay or by destructive mass spectrometry, to yield the total elemental plutonium mass in the sample. To use a PuO{sub 2} sample as a heat standard for calorimetry, one must determine both the plutonium mass and P{sub eff} with very small uncertainties and then calculate the sample watts from the known plutonium mass, specific powers, and isotopic composition. Well-characterized PuO{sub 2} standards have plutonium mass values determined by analytical chemistry with a precision and accuracy on the order of 0.1%-0.2% relative to the total mass of the sample. Mass spectrometry, typically used to determine the isotopic fractions of plutonium standards, is very accurate and precise for the major isotopes but is somewhat less precise for low-abundance isotopes. The characterization of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in the standard is also of great importance because {sup 241}Am can contribute significantly to P{sub eff} and to the heat output of the standard. The determination of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in a plutonium-bearing sample is a process that is less standardized than mass spectrometry. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) traceable to the national measurement system for {sup 241}Am in plutonium, and routine analytical {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio measurements often exhibit uncertainties of several percent relative to the total plutonium or greater.

  16. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2000-09-30

    The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.

  17. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  18. Vertical distribution of (241)Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2014-12-15

    The vertical distribution of plutonium (241)Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of (241)Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of (241)Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim; Leclaire, Nicolas; Letang, Eric [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick [CEA, VALDUC (France)

    2008-07-01

    Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the 'Apparatus B' facility at the CEA Valduc research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 deg. C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase II experiment (in which the use of the same plutonium solution was ensured) from 22 to 28 deg. C performed in July 2007. This experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect approx +2 pcm/deg. C (from 22 to 28 deg. C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). (authors)

  20. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  1. Cation exchange process for recovery of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1978-10-01

    A cation exchange technique was developed for the separation of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing either Pu(III) or Pu(III)--Pu(IV) mixtures in acidic solutions containing chloride ions. The procedure consists of adjusting the acid concentration to less than one molar and adjusting the valence of the plutonium ion to the (III) state, if necessary. The adjusted solution is fed to a cation exchange column and washed with distilled water to remove residual chlorides from the column. Plutonium is then eluted from the column with 5M nitric acid containing 0.34M sulfamic acid. This procedure was used to separate plutonium from 1.2M chloride solution on a production-scale column. Typical plutonium recovery was 99.97%, while greater than 96% of the original chloride was rejected

  2. Radiation-induced non-equilibrium redox chemistry of plutonium: implications for environmental migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Static concentrations of plutonium oxidation states in solution and at surfaces in oxide-water systems are identified as non-equilibrium steady states. These kinetically controlled systems are described by redox cycles based on irreversible disproportionation of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) in OH-bridged intermediate complexes and at OH-covered oxide surfaces. Steady state is fixed by continuous redox cycles driven by radioactivity-promoted electron-transfer and energetically favorable reactions of Pu(III) and Pu(VII) disproportionation products with H2O. A model based on the redox cycles accounts for the high steady-state (Pu) coexisting with Pu(IV) hydrous oxide at pH 0-15 and for predominance of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) in solution. The steady-state (Pu) depends on pH and the surface area of oxide in solution, but not on the initial Pu oxidation state. PuO 2+x formation is attributed to high Pu(V) concentrations existing at water-exposed oxide surfaces. Results infer that migration of Pu in an aqueous environment is controlled by kinetic factors unique to that site and that the predominant oxidation states in solution are Pu(V) and Pu(VI)

  3. Reversibility of sorption of plutonium-239 onto hematite and goethite colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, N.; Cotter, C.R.; Kitten, H.D.; Bentley, J.; Triay, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate: (1) sorption of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) on different iron oxide colloids (hematite and geothite), (2) sorption kinetics of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) onto these two colloids, and (3) desorption of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) from 239 Pu-loaded colloids as a function of time. Natural groundwater and carbonate-rich synthetic groundwater were used in this study. To examine the possible influence of bicarbonate on 239 Pu sorption, an additional set of experiments was conducted in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions under carbon dioxide free environments. Our results show that colloidal Pu(IV) as well as soluble Pu(V) was rapidly adsorbed by hematite and goethite colloids in both natural and synthetic groundwater. The amount of 239 Pu adsorbed by both iron oxide colloids in synthetic groundwater was higher than in natural groundwater. The presence of carbonate did not influence the sorption of 239 Pu. While sorption of soluble Pu(V) is a slow process, sorption of colloidal Pu(IV) occurs rapidly. Desorption of Pu from iron oxide colloids is much slower than the sorption processes. Our findings suggest that different sorption and desorption behaviors of 239 Pu by iron oxide colloids in groundwater may facilitate the transport of 239 Pu along potential flowpaths from the areas contaminated by radionuclide and release to the accessible environment. (orig.)

  4. Interaction of plutonium with complexing substances in soils and natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Reynolds, S.A.; Shanks, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    The reactions of Pu with selected organic substances found in the environment have been studied to evaluate the valence and metalcomplex behaviour of Pu. Hexavalent Pu (and by inference pentavalent Pu) was unstable in the presence of fulvic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and alginic acid. Citrate-Pu(VI) complexes, however, were relatively more stable. Plutonium (IV) was the most stable valence upon interaction with these organics. Further reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) occurred by fulvic and humic acids. The reduction, under aerobic conditions, does not appear to occur above pH 3.1. The reduction mechanisms is probably similar to the Fe(III) reduction previously documented for phenolic humic substances. Data are presented that demonstrate that Pu is at least partially associated with humic materials in ORNL soil contaminated 30 years ago with trace levels of Pu. Desorption studies using solid exchange resins also showed that, while a cation exchange resin did not desorb Pu from soil after 14 weeks equilibration, chelating resin effected Pu desorption. The desorption rate was not constant, suggesting differential Pu forms. While the resin-extractable Pu was believed to originate from solid-phase organic complexes, over 80% of the Pu in this soil was not readily resin-desorbable. This indicates that more inert soil-Pu reaction products effectively immobilize soil Pu. Some of these associations also appear to be organic. (author)

  5. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  6. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  7. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  8. Artificial radioactivity and marine environment. Study of 238Pu, 239Pu+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in the Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, Serge.

    1980-10-01

    This paper is in two parts. Part one is about the methods for analyzing transuranium elements particularly the development of an analytical process for plutonium and for perfecting an Americium analyzing method, capable of treating samples of 200 litres of sea water, 100 grams of sediment and 100 grams of biological matter. Part two concerns the in situ determinations carried out within the scope of the study on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the Mediterranean sea. The high sea studies concerned the effects of atmospheric fall out and the vertical distribution of Pu and Am. Studies along the coasts enabled a quantitative study to be made of the contribution of rivers to the Mediterranean and to study the distribution of Pu along the French Mediterranean coast line [fr

  9. The effect of oxidation state on the absorption of ingested or inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Ryan, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats received plutonium nitrate (as 239 Pu(IV) or 239 Pu(VI) by gavage or nose-only exposure. Some of the animals were deprived of food before and/or after exposure. Results obtained indicate that there was increased retention of plutonium after exposure to 239 Pu(VI) in comparison with 239 Pu(IV). The absence of food either before and/or after inhalation exposure had no effect on the amount of 239 Pu retained by the liver and carcass. It was concluded that plutonium in its hexavalent state may under certain conditions be more readily absorbed from the GI tract, but that these conditions are unlikely to occur in human exposure. (H.K.)

  10. Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

    1972-01-01

    Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

  11. Determination of uranium and plutonium in urine of people working with regenerated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvina, M.M.; Ryzhova, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Method of determining uranium and plutonium content in urine with their combined presence up to α-activity ratio Pu:U=1:100 is developed. The method is based on extraction chromatographic separation of nuclides using trimethyloctylammonium nitrate and their subsequent α-spectrometric determination. The coefficient of plutonium purification from uranium makes up 750. Chemical yield of Pu is 72±6%, U-76±8%. The method sensitivity is 0.2 decompositions per minute for a sample

  12. Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; McInroy, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242 Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242 Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

  13. Uptake and translocation of plutonium in two plant species using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Hossner, L R; Attrep, M; Kung, K S

    2002-01-01

    This study presents determinations of the uptake and translocation of Pu in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from Pu contaminated solution media. The initial activity levels of Pu were 18.50 and 37.00 Bq ml(-1), for Pu-nitrate [239Pu(NO3)4] and for Pu-citrate [239Pu(C6H5O7)+] in nutrient solution. Plutonium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA: [239Pu-C14H23O10N3] solution was prepared by adding 0, 5, 10, and 50 microg of DTPA ml(-1) with 239Pu(NO3)4 in nutrient solution. Concentration ratios (CR, Pu concentration in dry plant material/Pu concentration in nutrient solution) and transport indices (Tl, Pu content in the shoot/Pu content in the whole plant) were calculated to evaluate Pu uptake and translocation. All experiments were conducted in hydroponic solution in an environmental growth chamber. Plutonium concentration in the plant tissue was increased with increased Pu contamination. Plant tissue Pu concentration for Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate application was not correlated and may be dependent on plant species. For plants receiving Pu-DTPA, the Pu concentration was increased in the shoots but decreased in the roots resulting in a negative correlation between the Pu concentrations in the plant shoots and roots. The Pu concentration in shoots of Indian mustard was increased for application rates up to 10 microg DTPA ml(-1) and up to 5 microg DTPA ml(-1) for sunflower. Similar trends were observed for the CR of plants compared to the Pu concentration in the shoots and roots, whereas the Tl was increased with increasing DTPA concentration. Plutonium in shoots of Indian mustard was up to 10 times higher than that in shoots of sunflower. The Pu concentration in the apparent free space (AFS) of plant root tissue of sunflower was more affected by concentration of DTPA than that of Indian mustard.

  14. Solubility and speciation calculation for uranium, plutonium, neptunium and thorium in natural groundwaters. Theory, thermodynamic data bases and first applications. Loeslichkeits- und Speziationsberechnungen fuer U, Pu, Np und Th in natuerlichen Grundwaessern. Theorie, thermodynamische Dateien und erste Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweingruber, M

    1981-11-01

    The computer code MINEQL was adapted and extended to assess the solubility and speciation of radioactive waste nuclides in groundwaters under conditions which are expected to exist in the surroundings of planned underground repositories. By means of an additional data base including standard reaction enthalpies and heat capacities at 25 degrees C, the relevant equilibrium constants at 25 degrees C can be converted to other temperatures using Ulich's formulae. The activity coefficients for dissolved species are modelled with a temperature dependent function of the Davies' approximation type. The report is segmented in three main parts: (1) a review of the MINEQL fundamentals and a summary of the theory needed for the extensions; (2) an outline of the general programme structure and of criteria applied to the selection of thermodynamic data; (3) a discussion of the results from first model applications to evaluate the solubility and speciation of U, Pu, Np and Th in two Swiss groundwaters, based either on the approach of negligible chemical disturbance or on a solid/solution titration concept. All thermodynamic data involved in this study are collected in an appendix, together with a compilation of references.

  15. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  16. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  17. Migration of plutonium from freshwater ecosystem at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; McShane, M.C.

    1977-09-01

    A reprocessing waste pond at Hanford has been inventoried to determine quantities of plutonium (Pu) that have been accumulated since its formation in 1944. Expressions of export were developed from these inventory data and from informed assumptions about the vectors which act to mobilize material containing Pu. This 14-acre pond provides a realistic illustration of the mobility of Pu in a lentic ecosystem. The ecological behavior of Pu in this pond is similar to that in other contaminated aquatic systems having widely differing limnological characteristics. Since its creation, this pond has received about one Ci of 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu, most of which has been retained by its sediments. Submerged plants, mainly diatoms and Potamogeton, accumulate >95% of the Pu contained in biota. Emergent insects are the only direct biological route of export, mobilizing about 5 x 10 3 nCi of Pu annually, which is also the estimated maximum quantity of the Pu exported by waterfowl, birds and mammals collectively. There is no apparent significant export by wind, and it is not likely that Pu has migrated to the ground water below U-Pond via percolation. Although this pond has a rapid flushing rate, a eutrophic nutrient supply with a diverse biotic profile, and interacts with an active terrestrial environment, it appears to effectively bind Pu and prevent it from entering pathways to man and other life

  18. Accumulation of plutonium from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.

    1981-01-01

    The body burden of 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps was determined by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry through analyses of autopsy tissue samples. Comparing the body burden against the inhalation and ingestion intake of plutonium of these population groups the fractional absorption factor for plutonium from the human gastrointestinal tract and lungs was estinated. In addition, the determined tissue values were compared with those computed with the aid of the ICRP lung model and plutonium content of surface air in the Helsinki area. The 239 , 240 Pu concentrations per wet weight of tissue descended in the order liver>lymph nodes>bone>lung>testes>muscle. A dependence of plutonium content of tissues on the amount of air inhaled by the person during the fallout period and, thus, on the age of the person, was shown. The skeletal distribution of plutonium in man was roughly similar to that reported for animals. The ratio of 239 , 240 Pu content in vertebrae to that in ribs was 1.4, on the average, and the rib/femur ratio 1.0. The average body burden of 239 , 240 Pu in adult southern Finn and Lapp males was estimated to be 1.2 pCi (44.4 mBq), of which about 51 per cent was located in liver and 40 per cent in skeleton. The estimates for the ingestion and inhalation intake of 239 , 240 Pu during the period 1945-78 were 36 and 18 pCi (1.3, 0.67 Bq) and 540 and 13 pCi (19.9, 0.48 Bq) for southern Finn and Lapp males, respectively. The estimated fractional absorption factor of plutonium in humn GI-tract was of the order (6-9)x10 -4 and in lungs (7.5-8.5)x10 -2 . (author)

  19. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  20. Plutonium production in a remote cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddux, E.P.; Purcell, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of 239 Pu metal has traditionally been carried out in glovebox enclosures for protection of operating personnel and the environment. With the advent of more stringent federal regulations for protecting personnel, the environment, and security of special nuclear materials, it is proposed that plutonium be processed in a totally remote environment using automated work stations and robotic materials transfer and equipment maintenance. At the Savannah River Plant, the existing plutonium production facility is a batch-type glovebox operation built in the 1950s. A viable alternative to restoration of the existing glovebox operation is to provide a facility that uses remote cell operation

  1. Preconcentration of plutonium radionuclides from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.M.; Nioshkin, V.E.; Jokela, T.A.

    1978-02-01

    A large volume water sampler using manganese dioxide impregnated cartridges for the in situ separation of plutonium in sea water and ground water was studied. Plutonium concentrations obtained by this technique are compared with a radiochemical coprecipitation method. Consistent results were obtained between the two methods for water samples from the Pacific Ocean and Enewetak lagoon. Different results were noted from samples collected in the Enewetak reef and ground water stations. Using this preconcentration technique and the coprecipitation method it was shown that the physical-chemical characteristics of Pu in Enewetak reef and ground water are different from the lagoon and open ocean

  2. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  3. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  4. Studies of plutonium and the lymphatic system: six years of progress at Colorado State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, J.L.; Bistline, R.W.; Schallberger, J.A.; Dagle, G.E.; Gomez, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Air-oxidized PuO 2 , high-fired (850 0 C) PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , PuF 4 , and PuCl 3 , all of which had known amounts of 241 Am, were implanted over the left metacarpus of beagles. The concentration of plutonium and 241 Am in various tissues was measured as a function of time. The effect of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) therapy on organ deposition was studied. Significant differences in the translocation dynamics of air-oxidized PuO 2 , high-fired PuO 2 , and Pu(NO 3 ) 4 in the left superficial cervical lymph node (LSCLN) were observed by in vivo measurement and radiochemical analysis. A 3 percent buildup of plutonium was observed 2 weeks after implantation of air-oxidized PuO 2 , with an exponential buildup to 17 percent at 1 year. With Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and high-fired PuO 2 , the activity accumulation built up to a peak of 31 and 20 percent, respectively, at 30 and 60 days after implantation, followed by a gradual regression. At the implant site 1 year postimplant, a 70 percent reduction in activity was observed with Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , a 90 percent reduction with PuO 2 (high-fired), and only a 20 percent reduction with air-oxidized PuO 2 . The effect of larger particle size on the movement of plutonium from a wound site was speculated. Chemical form and physical form appear to change the rate of translocation and relative depositions of plutonium and americium in various organs.Particle size was not found to be an important factor in the total movement of plutonium in afferent and efferent lymph. More plutonium moves in the cellular fraction of afferent and efferent lymph regardless of particle size. The clearance of plutonium particles from the lymph nodes was associated with necrosis of macrophages. The effect of DTPA therapy on plutonium concentration was greater for the nitrate than for the other chemical forms

  5. Plutonium speciation and isotope ratios in Yenisey and Ob river and Yenisey estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Oughton, DH.; Fifield, K.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Plutonium isotope ratios are known to vary with reactor type, nuclear fuel-burn up time, neutron flux, and energy, and for fallout from nuclear detonations, weapon type and yield. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the 240 Pu isotope, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios (civil nuclear power reactors have 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of between about 0.2-1). Thus, different sources often exhibit characteristic plutonium isotope ratios and these ratios can be used to identify the origin of contamination, calculate inventories, or follow the migration of contaminated sediments and waters. Together with activity measurements and isotope ratios, knowledge of plutonium speciation in the Ob and Yenisey rivers and processes controlling its behaviour in estuarine systems is a prerequisite for predicting the transfer and subsequent environmental impact to Arctic Seas. With this in mind, the study had two objectives: first to determine whether discharges from nuclear installations in the river catchment areas are having any influence on Pu levels in the estuaries; and, second, to investigate the transfer and mobility of plutonium in the Yenisey river and estuary. Plutonium 240/239 ratios were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The data indicated a clear influence from a low 240 Pu: 239 Pu source in surface sediments collected from the Yenisey Estuary, whereas plutonium in the Ob Estuary sediments are dominated by global fallout. The results also show an increase in plutonium concentration and a decrease in isotope ratio going upstream from the estuary. Sequential extractions of sediments indicate that up 70% of the Pu in the Yenisey river is easily mobilized with weak oxidizing agents, which indicates that the Pu is organically bound, while the Pu is more strongly irreversible bound further out

  6. Investigation of plutonium behaviour in artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration and transformation of plutonium chemical forms artificially supplied to sandy loam columns after its exposure to natural conditions for about one year was investigated. An analysis of artificially contaminated samples after one year had shown that 81% of 239 Pu 4+ and 44% of 239 Pu 3+ were accumulated in the 0-5 cm layer of sandy loam. The data of sequential analysis of the same type of soil at the adequate artificial contamination level after one month exposure under laboratory conditions are presented as well. Pu 239 binding to soil geochemical fractions was rather uneven. The largest amount of Pu 239 (60%) was determined in the residual fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that organic substances and some inorganic compounds, which usually are the main components of a residual fraction, affects the retention and migration of plutonium in the soil. (authors)

  7. Investigation of plutonium behaviour in artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukshiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration and transformation of plutonium chemical forms artificially supplied to sandy loam columns after its exposure to natural conditions for about one year was investigated. An analysis of artificially contaminated samples after one year had shown that 81% of 239 Pu 4+ and 44% of 239 Pu 3+ were accumulated in the 0-5 cm layer of sandy loam. The data of sequential analysis of the same type of soil at the adequate artificial contamination level after one month exposure under laboratory conditions are presented as well. Pu 239 binding to soil geochemical fractions was rather uneven. The largest amount of Pu 239 (60 %) was determined in the residual fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that organic substances and some inorganic compounds, which usually are the main components of a residual fraction, affects the retention and migration of plutonium in the soil. (authors)

  8. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Weller, R.E.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Beagles that inhaled 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238 PuO 2 , 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and 239 PuO 2 , respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Determination of low level of plutonium and uranium isotopes in safeguard swipe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Seong Yong; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong Ju; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    For the determination of radionuclides, the separation techniques based on the principles of anion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction or column extraction chromatography are frequently used in nuclear analytical applications. Recently, a novel extraction chromatographic resin has been developed by Horwitz and co-workers, which are capable of selective extraction of the actinides. General separation of plutonium and uranium with extraction chromatographic techniques are focused on the environmental or radioactive waste samples. Also, the chemical yields for Pu and U isotopes with extraction chromatographic method sometimes are variable. For effective extraction of Pu isotopes in the very level of plutonium sample with UTEVA resin, the valence adjustment of Pu isotopes in the sample solution requires due to unstability in the oxidation state of Pu isotopes during separation step. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a simple and robust radiochemical separation method for nano- or pico gram amounts of uranium and plutonium in safeguard swipe samples. Chemical yields of plutonium and uranium with extraction chromatographic method of Pu and U upgrades in this study were compared with several separation methods for Pu and U generally used in the radiochemistry field. Also, the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide with plutonium in the nitric acid media were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Based on general extraction chromatography method with UTEVA resin, the separation method of nano- and picogram amounts of uranium and plutonium in safeguard swipe samples was developed in this study

  10. Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in sediment and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Tarigan, C.; Rustam, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water have been conducted. This study is to develop a method for separation of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am from 100-300 g of sediment and 100-200 l of sea water samples. Most of the methods described in the literature are to separation of '2 39 Pu, '2 40 Pu and 241 Am from 20-50 g of sediment and 30-100 l of sea water samples. By this method, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am were concentrated using the coprecipitation of CaC 2 O 4 and Fe (OH) 3 . Plutonium-242 and Curium-244 were used as tracer to determine chemical recovery. The result of analysis of some sediment samples showed that the chemical recoveries were respectively obtained in the range of 59.7 to 72.6% with average of 66.2 % for 242 Pu and 72.0 % to 85.5 % with average 78.8 % for 244 Cm. Analysis of some sea water samples were obtained in the range of 67 % to 78 % with average 73.9 % for 242 Pu and 74.0 % to 90.0 % with average 84.2 % for '2 42 Cm. This method was tested by the IAEA marine sediment, the result was excellent agreement with the IAEA certified sediment. It could be suggested that the developed analytical method is suitable to analyze the low level 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water samples (author)

  11. Gas adsorption during storage of plutonium dioxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Germain, M.

    1984-10-01

    Adsorption phenomena occuring in plutonium dioxide containers are studied for the determination of safe conditions for storage and transportation of plutonium dioxide powders. Adsorption on dried PuO 2 of air individual gases, influence of powder isotopic composition, chemisorption, effect of moisture are determined. Adsorption of dry air obeys an Elovich's law for its kinetics it is greatly exchange by α radiolysis. Pressure in the container can be reduced by storage under dry inert gas (Ar), decreasing the PuO 2 load and using powder containing preadsorbed water or wet air then radiolysis may occur (H 2 formation)

  12. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  13. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.P.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Pujol, L.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Separation of trace uranium from plutonium for subsequent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    Trace uranium quantities are separated from plutonium metal and plutonium oxide for subsequent analysis. Samples are dissolved in hydrobromic acid or a hydrobromic acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The U(VI)-halide complex is separated from nonsorbed Pu(III) on an anion exchange column using sequential washes of 9M HBr, a 0.1M HI-12M HCl mixture and 0.1M HCl

  15. Non-proliferation issues with weapons-usable plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the plutonium produced in power reactors and with their using. Excess plutonium, mineralized in a ceramic matrix and incised in HLW glass, is a less attractive target for terrorist groups than either aged, irradiated weapons grade MOX fuel, or aged, U oxide spent fuel. This is especially true after the Russian and United States' Pu Disposition Programs have been completed, until the material (spent MOX fuel or the immobilized form) is stored in a sealed, repository. (authors)

  16. Simultaneous determination of plutonium and uranium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Shufen

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium and uranium in a plant sample ash was simultaneously determined by using anion exchange resin columns, and concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. At the final stage of the determination of the nuclides, each of them was electrodeposited together with a little amount of molybdenum carrier onto a stainless steel plate and measured by α-ray spectrometer. The recoveries of uranium and plutonium from the plant samples determined by adding internal standard 236 Pu which was 100% and 63%, respectively

  17. Critical and subcritical parameters of the system simulating plutonium metal dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Yury Yu.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.; Mozhayeva, Lubov I.

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution of plutonium metal was simulated using the Monte Carlo computer code to calculate criticality safety limits for the process. Calculations were made for the constant masses of plutonium charged to the dissolving vessel considering distribution of plutonium in metal and solution phases. Critical parameters and limits were calculated as a function of dissolving vessel volume and plutonium metal mass. 240 Pu content was assumed to be from 0% to 10% (mass). Critical parameters were evaluated for the system with a water reflector. Results of this paper may be used in the designing process equipment for plutonium metal dissolution. (author)

  18. Qualitative chemical analysis of plutonium by Alpha spectroscopy.; Determinacion cualitativa de plutonio mediante espectroscopia alfa.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, J Qumica.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this work the separation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium was done. The plutonium, produced by the irradiation of uranium in a nuclear reactor and the {beta} decay of {sup 239} Np, was stabilized to Pu {sup +4} with sodium nitrite. Plutonium was separated from the fission products and uranium by ion exchange using the resin Ag 1 X 8. It was electrodeposited on stainless steel discs and the alpha radioactivity of plutonium was measured in a surface barrier detector. The results showed that plutonium was separated with a radiochemical purity higher than 99 %. (Author).

  19. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  20. Testing plutonium fuel assembly production for fast-neutron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougues, B.; Benhamou, A.; Bertothy, G.; Lepetit, H.

    1975-01-01

    The main characteristics of plutonium fuel elements for fast breeder reactors justify specific test procedures and special techniques. The specific tests relating to the Pu content consist of Pu enrichment and distribution tests, determination of the O/M ratio and external contamination tests. The specific tests performed on fuel configuration are: testing of sintered pellet diameter, testing of pin welding and checking of internal assmbly [fr

  1. Phase equilibrium study on system uranium-plutonium-tungsten-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1976-11-01

    Metallurgical properties of the U-Pu-W-C system have been studied with emphasis on phases and reactions. Free energy of compound formation, carbon activity and U/Pu segregation in the W-doped carbide fuel are estimated using phase diagram data. The results indicate that tungsten metal is useful as a thermochemical stabilizer of the carbide fuel. Tungsten has high temperature stability in contact with uranium carbide and mixed uranium-plutonium carbide. (auth.)

  2. Nondestructive assay instrument for measurement of plutonium in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hsue, F.; Li, T.K.; Canada, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument that measures the 239 Pu content in solutions, using a passive gamma-ray spectroscopy technique, has been developed and installed in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. A detailed evaluation of this instrument has been performed. The results show that the instrument can routinely determine 239 Pu concentrations of 1 to 500 g/l with accuracies of 1 to 5% and assay times of 1 to 2 x 10 3 s

  3. Calculated critical parameters in simple geometries for oxide and nitrate water mixtures of U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 with thorium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, W.E.; Bierman, S.R.

    1979-11-01

    Calculations have been performed on water mixtures of oxides and nitrates of 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu with chemically similar thorium compounds to determine critical dimensions for simple geometries (sphere, cylinder, and slab). Uranium enrichments calculated were 100%, 20%, 10%, and 5%; plutonium calculations assumed 100% 239 Pu. Thorium to uranium or plutonium weight ratios (Th: U or Pu) calculated were 0, 1, 4, and 8. Both bare and full water reflection conditions were calculated. The results of the calculations are plotted showing a critical dimension versus the uranium or plutonium concentration. Plots of K-infinity and material buckling for each material type are also shown

  4. Detection of Pu in Pacific Ocean water with AMS related to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, Karin; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Guzman, Jose Manuel; Korschinek, Gunther; Kortmann, Florian; Lierse v Gostomski, Christoph; Ludwig, Peter [TUM (Germany); Golser, Robin; Steier, Peter [Universitaet Wien (Austria); Yamada, Masatoshi [Hirosaki University (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of plutonium (Pu) and its isotopic ratios were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Pacific Ocean water samples. The isotopic ratios {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu can be used to identify a possible release of Pu into the ocean by the Fukushima accident. {sup 241}Pu from fallout of nuclear weapon testings has already significantly decayed. {sup 241}Am, the daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, causes isobaric background on {sup 241}Pu in mass-spectrometric measurements. Therefore, Am and Pu had to be separated chemically using extraction chromatography. The method was verified by analyzing certified reference material. 12 sea water samples, collected at different depths, were prepared at the Radiochemie Muenchen. The concentration of Pu was measured with AMS at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich and the Vienna Environmental Research Laboratory (VERA). After a short motivation related to the Fukushima accident, the chemical separation method will be presented. Preliminary results of the distribution of Pu in ocean water will be discussed.

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in mice, rats, and dogs: application to establishing values of f1 for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1985-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium was measured in mice, rats, and dogs under conditions relevant to setting drinking water standards. The fractional GI absorption of Pu(VI) in adult mice was 2 x 10 -4 (0.02%) in fed mice and 2 x 10 -3 (0.2%) in fasted mice. The GI absorption of plutonium was independent of plutonium oxidation state, administration medium, and plutonium concentration; absorption was dependent upon animal species, state of animal fasting, state of Pu(IV) hydrolysis, and age of the animal. Fractional GI absorption values ranged from 3 x 10 -5 (0.003%) for hydrolyzed Pu(IV) administered to fed adult mice to 7 x 10 -3 (0.7%) for Pu(VI) administered to fed neonatal rats. From analysis of our data, we suggested values of f 1 (the fraction transferred from gut to blood in humans) for use in establishment of oral limits of exposure to plutonium. For an acute exposure in the occupational setting, we proposed one value of f 1 for fed (2 x 10 -4 ) and one for fasted (2 x 10 -3 ) individuals. For the environmental setting, we developed two approaches to obtaining values of f 1 ; suggested values were 6 x 10 -4 and 4 x 10 -3 , respectively. Both approaches took into account effects of animal age and fasting. We discussed uncertainties in proposed values of f 1 and made recommendations for further research. 41 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs

  6. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (Israel)

    1962-03-15

    son origine. En principe, ce plutonium peut provenir de trois sources differentes; a) reacteurs plutonigenes; b) reacteurs de puissance a neutrons thermiques, utilisant l'uranium naturel ou l'uranium enrichi comme combustible; c) couches fertiles de reacteurs a neutrons rapides. En general, la source a) et, a un degre moindre, la source c) fourniront du plutonium relativement , c'est-a-dire compose en majeure partie de {sup 239}Pu, tandis que le plutonium provenant de la source b) sera un plutonium , c'est-a-dire un plutonium contenant une forte proportion de {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu et {sup 242}Pu. Ce plutonium sera plus ou moins suivant le type du reacteur, le taux de combustion et, de maniere generale, suivant l'irradiation subie par le combustible. La question qui se pose est alors la suivante: peut-on utiliser comme combustible, dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides, n'importe quelle sorte de plutonium? Pour etudier l'effet des differentes compositions isotopiques de plutonium utilise comme combustible sous forme de metal, d'oxyde ou de carbure, sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides, les auteurs ont procede a une serie de calculs dans une theorie de la diffusion a 16 groupes en geometrie spherique; ils ont utilise a cet effet l'ensemble de sections efficaces a 16 groupes, recemment mis au point par Yiftah, Okrent et Moldauer, et ont etudie trois types differents de plutonium en prenant d'abord le {sup 239}Pu a l'etat pur et en augmentant ensuite la quantite des isotopes superieurs. Pour les systemes etudies - coeurs d'un volume de 800, 500 et 2500 l, qui sont courants pour les grands reacteurs de puissance a neutrons rapides - on constate, en ne tenant compte que des isotopes {sup 239}Pu et {sup 241}Pu, fissiles sous l'action de neutrons thermiques, que plus le plutonium est , plus la masse critique est faible et plus le rapport de conversion est eleve. Dans le cas d'un reacteur dont le coeur a un volume de 1500 l, on

  7. Biological behaviour of plutonium inhaled by baboons as plutonium n-tributylphosphate complex. Comparison with ICRP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Duserre, C.; Rateau, G.; Legendre, N.; Masse, R.; Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to devise a model capable of calculating committed doses for workers contaminated by inhalation of plutonium tributylphosphate complex during reprocessing, we investigated the biokinetics of plutonium in baboons after inhalation of this chemical form. The animals were killed 0.6, 3, 15, 30, 90 and 365 days post inhalation. Urine and faeces were collected daily. After killing, the main organs were collected for chemical analysis. In order to improve our knowledge of the behaviour of systemic plutonium, three baboons were given an intravenous injection of Pu-TBP and were respectively killed 2, 30 and 365 days post injection. We observed that Pu-TBP could be classified as a W compound, with a half-time for lung clearance of 150 days. Urinary Pu excretion was 3 times higher than was expected from Durbin's model, suggesting that Pu introduced as Pu-TBP, is extremely mobile, and that the complex formed with blood proteins differs from the one formed after inhalation of plutonium nitrate. (author)

  8. Gamma densitometer for measuring Pu density in fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel-gamma-densitometer (FGD) has been developed to examine nondestructively the uniformity of plutonium in aluminum-clad fuel tubes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The monitoring technique is γ-ray spectroscopy with a lead-collimated Ge(Li) detector. Plutonium density is correlated with the measured intensity of the 208 keV γ-ray from 237 U (7d) of the 241 Pu (15y) decay chain. The FGD measures the plutonium density within 0.125- or 0.25-inch-diameter areas of the 0.133- to 0.183-inch-thick tube walls. Each measurement yields a density ratio that relates the plutonium density of the measured area to the plutonium density in normal regions of the tube. The technique was used to appraise a series of fuel tubes to be irradated in an SRP reactor. High-density plutonium areas were initially identified by x-ray methods and then examined quantitatively with the FGD. The FGD reliably tested fuel tubes and yielded density ratios over a range of 0.0 to 2.5. FGD measurements examined (1) nonuniform plutonium densities or hot spots, (2) uniform high-density patches, and (3) plutonium density distribution in thin cladding regions. Measurements for tubes with known plutonium density agreed with predictions to within 2%. Attenuation measurements of the 208-keV γ-ray passage through the tube walls agreed to within 2 to 3% of calculated predictions. Collimator leakage measurements agreed with model calculations that predicted less than a 1.5% effect on plutonium density ratios. Finally, FGD measurements correlated well with x-ray transmission and fluoroscopic measurements. The data analysis for density ratios involved a small correction of about 10% for γ-shielding within the fuel tube. For hot spot examinations, limited information for this correction dictated a density ratio uncertainty of 3 to 5%

  9. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1975-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  10. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    was revisited in August 1997, 29 years after the accident. Water and brown algae data indicate that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area...... outside Bylot Sound. The present data support an earlier quantification of the sedimentation rate as 2-4 mm per year, i.e. 5-12 cm during the 29 years since the accident. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium much deeper down, to 20-30 cm, and the 5-12 cm new sediment has been efficiently mixed...... than in sediments. Some biota groups show a somewhat higher uptake of americium than of plutonium. Sediment samples with weapons plutonium from the accident show a significant variation in Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in the range 0.027-0.057. This supports the hypothesis that the Thule plutonium...

  11. Studies and manufacture of plutonium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, P.; Mustelier, J.P.; Pascard, R.

    1964-01-01

    The studies carried out at the C.E.A. on the properties of fast neutron reactor fuels, the manufacture of fuel elements and their behaviour under irradiation are broadly outlined. The metal fuels studied are the ternary alloys U Pu Mo, U Pu Nb, U Pa Ti, U Pa Zr, the ceramic fuels being mixed uranium and plutonium oxides, carbides and nitrides obtained by sintering. Results are given on the manufacture of uranium fuel elements containing a small proportion of plutonium, used in a critical experiment, and on the first experiments in the manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor Rapsodie. Finally the results of irradiation tests carried out on the prototype fuel pins for Rapsodie are described. (authors) [fr

  12. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  13. Impurity diffusion of cobalt in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charissoux, Christian; Calais, Daniel.

    1975-01-01

    The sectioning method for investigation of the impurity diffusion of 60 Co in the fcc and bcc phases of plutonium gives the following results: 344-426 deg C: D=1.2x10 -2 exp(-12700/RT)cm 2 /s in delta Pu(fcc); 484-621 deg C: D=1.4x10 -3 exp(-9900/RT)cm 2 /s in epsilon Pu(bcc). Cobalt is a fast diffuser in plutonium; the diffusion coefficient being unaffected by phase changes delta'→delta; delta'→epsilon, the diffusion mechanism is probably dissociative in both phases, the solute becoming interstitial by: solute (substitution) reversible solute (interstitial) + vacancy [fr

  14. Aerosol generation by oxidation and combustion of plutonium and its compounds: literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1987-09-01

    Generation of aerosols by oxidation or combustion is one of the greatest risks due to plutonium. A review is made of the most interesting documents available on this topic. Following a brief study of plutonium oxydation conditions, characteristics of aerosols generated by accidents of fires involving metallic Pu and some of its compounds are assessed. Nuclear weapons are not included in this review [fr

  15. Electronic structure of Pu-Ce(-Ga) and Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, stabilized in the {delta} phase; Structure electronique d'alliages Pu-Ce(-Ga) et Pu-Am(-Ga) stabilises en phase {delta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormeval, M

    2001-09-01

    The behaviour of {delta}-plutonium, stable between 319 and 451 deg C, exhibits numerous singularities which are still a mystery for both physicists and metallurgists. This is due to its complex electronic structure, and in particular to the 5f electrons, which are at the edge between localization and delocalization. The stability domain of the {delta} phase can be extended down to room temperature by alloying with so called 'deltagen atoms' such as gallium (Ga), aluminum (A1), cerium (Ce) or americium (Am). The present work deals, one the one hand, with the influence of cerium and americium solutes regarding the localization of the 5f electrons of {delta}-plutonium, in binary Pu-Ce and Pu-Am alloys. On the other hand, the effect of two different deltagen solutes, simultaneously present, on the stability of the {delta} phase has been studied in ternary Pu-Am-Ga and Pu-Ce-Ga alloys. The electronic structure being strongly related to the crystalline organization, characterization methods such as X-Ray diffraction and EXAFS measurements were used together with electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility experiments. These showed that the roles of cerium and americium, supposed to be similar at the beginning of this investigation, are actually very different. Moreover, the additive effect of cerium and gallium, and, americium and gallium, has been demonstrated. Studying plutonium alloys, which are radioactive, also means following their evolution in time. The characteristics of the alloys have then been followed which allowed to detect, in Pu-Ce(-Ga) alloys, a destabilization of the {delta} phase and, to observe, in Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, the influence of self-irradiation defects on the magnetic response. (author)

  16. Electronic structure of Pu-Ce(-Ga) and Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, stabilized in the {delta} phase; Structure electronique d'alliages Pu-Ce(-Ga) et Pu-Am(-Ga) stabilises en phase {delta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormeval, M

    2001-09-01

    The behaviour of {delta}-plutonium, stable between 319 and 451 deg C, exhibits numerous singularities which are still a mystery for both physicists and metallurgists. This is due to its complex electronic structure, and in particular to the 5f electrons, which are at the edge between localization and delocalization. The stability domain of the {delta} phase can be extended down to room temperature by alloying with so called 'deltagen atoms' such as gallium (Ga), aluminum (A1), cerium (Ce) or americium (Am). The present work deals, one the one hand, with the influence of cerium and americium solutes regarding the localization of the 5f electrons of {delta}-plutonium, in binary Pu-Ce and Pu-Am alloys. On the other hand, the effect of two different deltagen solutes, simultaneously present, on the stability of the {delta} phase has been studied in ternary Pu-Am-Ga and Pu-Ce-Ga alloys. The electronic structure being strongly related to the crystalline organization, characterization methods such as X-Ray diffraction and EXAFS measurements were used together with electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility experiments. These showed that the roles of cerium and americium, supposed to be similar at the beginning of this investigation, are actually very different. Moreover, the additive effect of cerium and gallium, and, americium and gallium, has been demonstrated. Studying plutonium alloys, which are radioactive, also means following their evolution in time. The characteristics of the alloys have then been followed which allowed to detect, in Pu-Ce(-Ga) alloys, a destabilization of the {delta} phase and, to observe, in Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, the influence of self-irradiation defects on the magnetic response. (author)

  17. Measurements Conducted on an Unknown Object Labeled Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoteling, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on 12 November 2013 to determine whether Pu-239 was present on an object discovered in a plastic bag with label ''Pu-239 6 uCi''. Following initial survey measurements to verify that the object was not leaking or contaminated, spectra were collected with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with object positioned in two different configurations. Analysis of the spectra did not yield any direct evidence of Pu-239. From the measured spectra, minimum detectable activity (MDA) was determined to be approximately 2 uCi for the gamma ray measurements. Although there was no direct evidence of Pu-239, a peak at 60 keV characteristic of Am-241 decay was observed. Since it is very likely that Am-241 would be present in aged plutonium samples, this was interpreted as indirect evidence for the presence of plutonium on the object. Analysis of this peak led to an estimated Pu-239 activity of 0.02-0.04 uCi, or <1x10 -6 grams.

  18. Vapor pressure of plutonium carbide adsorbed on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Wichner, R.P.; Towns, R.L.; Godsey, T.T.

    1984-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain data needed to make realistic estimates of plutonium contamination in the primary coolant system in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The vapor pressure of plutonium over plutonium sesquicarbide (Pu 2 C 3 ) adsorbed on the surface of H-451 graphite was found to be defined by adsorption isotherms at test temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 0 C. The vapor pressures at low concentrations of Pu 2 C 3 on the surface of the graphite were up to three orders of magnitude below that of pure Pu 2 C 3 at a given temperature. The heat of adsorption increases with decreasing Pu 2 C 3 surface coverage with the measured value at 0.05 μmol Pu 2 C 3 /m 2 being 107.9 kcal/mol. The Pu 2 C 3 concentration required for monolayer surface coverage on the graphite was found to be 3.27 μmol/m 2

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plutonium in solid waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Escarieux, Emile

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the results given by a study carried out for the development of qualitative and quantitative analysis, by γ spectrometry, of plutonium in solid waste drums is presented. After having reminded the standards and their incidence on the quantities of plutonium to be measured (application at industrial Pu: 20% of Pu 240 ) the equipment used is described. Measurement station provided with a mechanical system consisting of: a rail and a pulley block to bring the drums; a pit and a hydraulic jack with a rotating platform. The detection instrumentation consisting of: a high volume coaxial Ge(Li) detector with a γ ray resolution of 2 keV; an associated electronic; a processing of data by a 'Plurimat 20' minicomputer. Principles of the identification and measurements are specified and supported by experimental results. They are the following: determination of the quality of Pu by measuring the ratio between the γ ray intensities of the 239 Pu 129 keV and of the 241 Pu 148 keV; measurement of the 239 Pu mass by estimating the γ ray counting rate of the 375 keV from the calibrating curves given by plutonium samples varying from 32 mg to 80 g; correction of the results versus the source position into the drum and versus the filling in plastic materials into this drum. The experimental results obtained over 40 solid waste drums are presented along with the error estimates [fr

  20. Six-kilogram-scale electrorefining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.; Apgar, S.A. III; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-01

    The electrorefining of metallic plutonium scrap to produce high purity metal has been an established procedure at Los Alamos since 1964. This is a batch process and was limited to 4-kg plutonium because of criticality safety considerations. Improvements in critical mass measurements have permitted us to develop a process for 6-kg plutonium. The 6-kg process is now operational. The increased size of the process, together with other improvements which have been made, makes plutonium electrorefining the principal industrial tool for processing and purifying metallic plutonium scrap

  1. Equation of state and transport properties of uranium and plutonium carbides in the liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.; Leibowitz, L.

    1975-09-01

    By the use of available low-temperature data for various thermophysical and transport properties for uranium and plutonium carbides, values above the melting point were estimated. Sets of recommended values have been prepared for the compounds UC, PuC, and (U,Pu)C. The properties that have been evaluated are density, heat capacity, enthalpy, vapor pressure, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and emissivity

  2. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...

  3. Plutonium transport to and deposition and immobility in Irish Sea intertidal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, S R; Stanners, D A [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1981-02-12

    The results are presented of an investigation of plutonium in intertidal sediments of the Irish Sea, contaminated with radioactive wastes from the Windscale reprocessing facility. The deposition characteristics and lack of vertical migration of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/ and /sup 240/Pu are discussed.

  4. Preliminary results for complexation of Pu with humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guczi, J.; Szabo, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygi ene, Budapest, H-1775 (Hungary)]. e-mail: guczi@hp.osski.hu; Reiller, P. [CEA, CE Sac lay, Nuclear Energy Division/DPC/SERC, Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionuclei des et des Molecules, F-91191 Gif-sue-Yvette (France); Bulman, R.A. [Radiation Protection Division Division, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Geckeis, H. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Interaction of plutonium with humic substances has been investigated by a batch method use of the surface bound humic acid from perchlorate solutions at pH 4-6. By using these novel solid phases, complexing capacities and interaction constants are obtained. The complexing behavior of plutonium is analyzed. Pu(IV)-humate conditional stability constants have been evaluated from data obtained from these experiments by using non-linear regression of binding isotherms. The results have been interpreted in terms of complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry.

  5. Estimation of trace levels of plutonium in urine samples by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Prabhu, S.; Pendharkar, K.A.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Individual monitoring of radiation workers handling Pu in various nuclear installations requires the detection of trace levels of plutonium in bioassay samples. It is necessary to develop methods that can detect urinary excretion of Pu in fraction of mBq range. Therefore, a sensitive method such as fission track analysis has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of Pu in bioassay samples. In this technique, chemically separated plutonium from the sample and a Pu standard were electrodeposited on planchettes and covered with Lexan solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA reactor of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The fission track densities in the Lexan films of the sample and the standard were used to calculate the amount of Pu in the sample. The minimum amount of Pu that can be analyzed by this method using doubly distilled electronic grade (E. G.) reagents is about 12 μBq/L. (author)

  6. Feasibility study of plutonium isotopic analysis of resin beads by nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    We have initiated a feasibility study on the use of nondestructive low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy for plutonium isotopic analysis on resin beads. Seven resin bead samples were measured, with each sample containing an average of 9 μg of plutonium; the isotopic compositions of the samples varied over a wide range. The gamma-ray spectroscopy results, obtained from 4-h counting-time measurements, were compared with mass spectrometry results. The average ratios of gamma-ray spectroscopy to mass spectrometry were 1.014 +- 0.025 for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 0.996 +- 0.018 for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 0.980 +- 0.038 for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu. The rapid, automated, and accurate nondestructive isotopic analysis of resin beads may be very useful to process technicians and International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Evaluation of the U-Pu residual mass from spent fuel assemblies with passive and active neutronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignan, G.; Martin-Deidier, L.

    1991-01-01

    The interpretation of passive and active neutronic measurements to evaluate the U-Pu residual mass in spent fuel assemblies is presented as follows: passive neutron measurements are well correlated to the plutonium mass, active neutron measurements give information linked to the fissile mass content of the assembly ( 235 U + 239 Pu + 241 Pu) and, using the passive neutron measurement, lead to the 235 U mass content of the assemblies

  8. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  9. Study of plutonium-addition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, L.; Wozniakova, B.

    1976-11-01

    Steady state phase diagrams and calculated values of concentrations on the solid and liquid curves, the steady state distribution coefficient and thermodynamic control are presented for temperatures ranging from the eutectic reaction temperatures to the Pu melting point temperature for binary systems plutonium-addition (Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Ru, Os, Th, U, Np). (J.P.)

  10. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, O.V.; Murin, B.P.; Kochurov, B.P.; Shubin, Yu.M.; Volk, V.I.; Bogdanov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  11. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP

  12. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is 5 g/L within a 2000-s count time

  13. Recovery of plutonium from the combustion residues of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.; Wieczorek, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental researches on plutonium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid in inactive and alpha-bearing wastes are presented in this report. After a review of the literature published on dissolution methods of PuO 2 combustion residues. Then results obtained in the ALONA plant on the dissolution of plutonium containing ashes in sulfuric acid and nitric acid are presented. Plutonium purification is studied. At last a simplified scheme of processing based on results obtained

  14. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  15. Separation of Pu from soil prior to determination by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, U.; Baxter, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the determination of plutonium in environmental materials by ICP-MS, chemical separation is often needed to remove, e.g., heavy sample matrices and interference from UH + on m/z 239. This separation can be, and often is, performed in the same way as for alpha-spectrometric analysis. There are, however, somewhat different demands on separation for ICP-MS compared to alpha-spectrometry, but so far little has been published on the optimisation of separation procedures for plutonium determination by ICP-MS. This paper describes the development of a separation procedure especially suited for the determination of Pu by ICP-MS. Focus has been on parameters such as chemical yield of plutonium and decontamination from uranium, as well as time requirements and ease of performance. The separation of plutonium was performed using various resins, such as anion exchange resin and extraction chromatographic materials. The procedures were carried out on water spiked with 238 U and 240 Pu to concentrations of approximately 300 ppb and 50 ppt, respectively. The basic separation procedure was: 1. Adjustment of oxidation state for Pu 2. Loading on column 3. Rinsing using 4*5 free column volumes (FCVs) of load solution - if needed in combination with 1*5 FCVs of an other rinsing agent 4. Elution of Pu - if needed followed by evaporation and dissolution in a solution suitable for ICP-MS determination 5. Determination by high resolution ICP-MS The elution of plutonium was performed using various media, based on either reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) or complex formation. The chemical yield of plutonium and the decontamination from uranium for various resin/elution combinations can be seen in Figs. 1 and 2. It was found that the most efficient separation procedure in terms of yield and uranium decontamination was the combination of two extraction chromatographic materials, UTEVA followed by TRU, and elution of Pu by 0.1 % 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA). In this procedure

  16. FY12 Final Report for PL10-Mod Separations-PD12: Electrochemically Modulated Separation of Plutonium from Dilute and Concentrated Dissolver Solutions for Analysis by Gamma Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Cloutier, Janet M.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned “on” and “off” depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  17. Protected Plutonium Production by Transmutation of Minor Actinides for Peace and Sustainable Prosperity [O1] - Fundamentals of P{sup 3} Mechanism and Methodology Development for Plutonium Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 1528550 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    'Protected Plutonium Production (P{sup 3})' has been proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MAs). Doping the small amount of MAs such as {sup 237}Np or {sup 241}Am with large neutron capture cross-section into the uranium fuel to enhance the production of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 242}Pu, which have high spontaneous fission neutron source or also high decay heat to makes the process of the nuclear weapon manufacture and maintenance technologically difficult, can be effective for improving the isotopic barrier of proliferation resistance of the plutonium in thermal reactors. Super weapon grade plutonium could be produced in the blanket of a conventional FBR. However, by increasing the {sup 238}Pu or {sup 242}Pu ratio in the total plutonium by MAs doping into the fresh blanket, the protected plutonium with high proliferation-resistance can be bred. A new evaluation function, 'attractiveness', defined as a ratio of potential of fission yield to the technological difficulties of nuclear explosive device, has been proposed to evaluate the proliferation resistance of Pu based on the nuclear material property for Plutonium Categorization. In the conference, the fundamentals of P{sup 3} mechanism by transmutation of MA, and the comparison of the 'attractiveness' of the Pu produced in advanced reactors based on P{sup 3} mechanism and in the conventional reactors will be presented. Instead of the geological disposal or just their burning of MAs by the fission reaction, they should be treated as valuable fertile materials to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium produced in the thermal and fast breeder reactors for peace and sustainable prosperity in future. Acknowledgement: Some parts of this work have been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. (authors)

  18. Reduction of Tetravalent Plutonium in the Presence of Acetohydroxamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Precek, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Paulenova, Alena [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a salt-free stripping reagent in the modified PUREX process for the spent nuclear fuel re-processing. AHA is a capable reductant of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) and a strong complexant for tetravalent neptunium and plutonium; hence, its behavior must be studied in detail. For better characterization of the all relevant chemical processes and successful design of the future separation flowsheets it is important to predict the speciation and partitioning of Pu between the organic and aqueous phases in the proposed extraction systems containing acetohydroxamic acid. The hydrolytic instability of hydroxamic group under acidic conditions causes a slow degradation of AHA followed by formation of acetic acid and hydroxylamine which also acts as a reductant of Pu(IV). The complexes of Pu(IV) with AHA are very strong; however, under acidic conditions, the chelate ring prevents the acidic hydrolysis only temporarily. The decomposition of Pu-aceto-hydroxamate complex and reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) observed for these systems was investigated in the present paper. Reduction of Pu(IV) in the presence of AHA was monitored by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in the range of 400-700 nm. All complexes between Pu(IV) and AHA have a very intense absorption in this region; therefore, for a better resolution of spectra, all experiments were performed under low AHA:Pu ratios, where only two species, non-complexed Pu(IV) and Pu(IV)-mono-aceto-hydroxamate complex, are initially present in relevant concentrations. To characterize the rate and the reaction mechanism, spectra were collected as a function of time for different initial concentrations of reactants and analyzed at several wavelengths using the data on extinction coefficients for all absorbing species. The extinction coefficient for Pu(IV)-AHA complex was resolved by fitting the absorption spectra with the chemical equilibrium modeling software FITEQL 4.0. The analysis of the experimental data obtained

  19. Plutonium sorption to nanocast mesoporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi; Wang, Deborah; Jones, Stephen; Olive, Daniel; Nitsche, Heino [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.; Tueysuez, Harun [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Nanocast ordered mesoporous carbons are attractive as sorbents because of their extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes. This paper compares Pu uptake, added as Pu(VI), to both untreated and chemically oxidized CMK-(carbon molecular sieves from KAIST) type mesoporous carbon with that to a commercial amorphous activated carbon. The CMK was synthesized via nanocasting by using cubic ordered mesoporous silica KIT-6 as a hard template, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption. A portion of the CMK was oxidized by treatment with nitric acid, and will be called OX CMK. The three carbon powders have similar particle morphology, and high BET surface areas. The activated carbon is disordered, while the CMK materials show large domains of ordered cubic mesostructure. The CMK material seems to have more oxygen-containing functional groups than the activated carbon, and the oxidation of the CMK increased the density of these groups, especially - COOH, thus lowering the point of zero charge (PZC) of the material. Batch studies of all 3 materials with plutonium solutions, in a 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} matrix were performed to investigate pH dependence, sorption kinetics, Pu uptake capacities, competition with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in solution, and Pu desorption. Both CMK materials demonstrated high Pu sorption from solutions of pH 3 or greater, and the oxidized CMK also showed high sorption from pH 2 solutions. The activated carbon bound less Pu, and at a much slower rate than CMK. All other batch experiments were carried out in pH 4 solutions. The Pu uptake from low-concentration solutions was faster for the oxidized CMK than for untreated CMK, but in more concentrated samples (∝ 250 μM Pu), the Pu uptake kinetics and apparent capacity were the same for oxidized and untreated CMK. The 23-h Pu uptake capacity of the CMK

  20. Estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented pertinent to the contamination of vegetation by plutonium and other radionuclides in aged fallout areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The standing biomass of vegetation estimated by nondestructive dimensional methods varied from about 200 to 600 g/m 2 for the different fallout areas. Estimated inventories of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 235 U in plants and their biological effects are discussed

  1. Occurrence of plutonium in the terrestrial environment at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Per; Jernström, Jussi; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2011-01-01

    Samples of air, resuspended particles, water, soil and precipitation were collected in an area 10 km south of the Thule 1968 impact point and analysed for their content of 241Am and plutonium. The results from the soil sampling show a very inhomogeneous distribution with hot spots ranging up...... to several hundred kBq per m2 of Pu. Although concentrations in surface soil can be very high the concentration in analysed air filter samples and passive aerosol collectors are very low. Exposure to plutonium due to inhalation of airborne plutonium particles in the area is of little importance according...

  2. Investigations on the oxidation of nitric acid plutonium solutions with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of ozone with nitric acid Pu solutions was studied as a function of reaction time, acid concentration and Pu concentration. Strong nitric acid Pu solutions are important in nuclear fuel element production and reprocessing. The Pu must be converted into hexavalent Pu before precipitation from the homogeneous solution together with uranium-IV, ammonia and CO 2 in the form of ammonium uranyl/plutonyl carbonate (AUPuC). Formation of a solid phase during ozonation was observed for the first time. The proneness to solidification increases with incrasing plutonium concentrations and with decreasing acid concentrations. If the formation of a solid phase during ozonation of nitric acid Pu solutions cannot be prevented, the PU-IV oxidation process described is unsuitable for industrial purposes as Pu solutions in industrial processes have much higher concentrations than the solutions used in the present investigation. (orig./EF) [de

  3. A compartment model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A linear compartment donor-controlled model was designed to describe and simulate the behaviour of plutonium ( 239 , 240 Pu) in a contaminated deciduous forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the Pu in the ecosystem resides in forest biota. Soil is the major repository of Pu in the forest, and reciprocal exchanges of Pu between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of Pu. Variation in predicted steady state amounts of Pu in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicated that ones ability to develop reliable models of Pu transport in ecosystems will improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in Pu data. (author)

  4. Mechanical resuspension of 239Pu from unpaved roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The impacts of resuspended plutonium from two unpaved roads at the Rocky Flats Plant on nearby air samplers were investigated. Because the sources were complex fugitive dust emitters and because of the small source-receptor distances, traditional dispersion modeling techniques could not be employed. Thus two specialized techniques, one for fugitive dust emissions and one for near distance dispersion, were developed and used to calculate atmospheric dust concentrations at the subject air samplers. Atmospheric 239 Pu impacts were then determined from measurements of plutonium concentrations in the resuspendible dust on the road surfaces. As a final step in the process the calculated plutonium impacts were compared to the 1980 annual average 239 Pu concentration at four samplers. The impact calculated for the Gunnery Range Road represented 2.1 percent of the observed annual concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 1.1 to 7.9 percent. The Southeast Perimeter Road produced a more substantial effect with a point estimate of 3.8 percent. The 95 percent confidence interval for this source was 2.0 to 9.1 percent. The combined impact of the two roads on the subject samplers was 5.9 percent of the observed plutonium concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.2 to 17.0 percent. Thus it was shown that fugitive plutonium emissions from the Gunnery Range Road and Southeast Perimeter Road are not substantial contributors to the plutonium concentrations observed at the subject samplers. Even an increase in dust control efficiency to 90 percent (as with paving) would result in only a four percent decrease in the overall atmosperic plutonium concentration at the site

  5. Chemical speciation of plutonium in the radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-08-01

    The plutonium chemical species in two types of samples from the Savannah River Plant burial ground for radioactive waste were identified. Samples analyzed were water and sediment from burial ground monitoring well C-17 and soil from an alpha waste burial trench. Soluble plutonium in the monitoring well was less than 12A in diameter, was cationic, and contained about 43% Pu(VI) and 25% Pu(IV). The equilibrium distribution coefficient (K /sub d/) for soluble plutonium from the well water (pH 7) to burial ground soil was about 60. Soil plutonium from the waste trench was not cation-exchanged; 78% of the soil plutonium was associated with metallic oxides in the soil. Approximately 9% of the Pu was contained in the crystalline soil matrix. Thus, about 87% of the plutonium in the soil was in a relatively immobile form. Ion-exchangeable and organic acid forms of plutonium amounted to only about 2.5% each. The bulk of the plutonium now on burial ground soils will be immobile except for movement of soil particles containing plutonium. 6 tables

  6. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  7. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238 Pu or 239 Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  8. Size determinations of plutonium colloids using autocorrelation photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Autocorrelation Photon Spectroscopy (APS) is a light-scattering technique utilized to determine the size distribution of colloidal suspensions. The capabilities of the APS methodology have been assessed by analyzing colloids of known sizes. Plutonium(IV) colloid samples were prepared by a variety of methods including: dilution; peptization; and alpha-induced auto-oxidation of Pu(III). The size of theses Pu colloids was analyzed using APS. The sizes determined for the Pu colloids studied varied from 1 to 370 nanometers. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Equilibrium composition for the reaction of plutonium hydride with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lexi; Sun Ying; Xue Weidong; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Rong; Luo Deli

    2002-01-01

    There are six independent constituents with 4 chemical elements, i.e. PuH 2.7 (s), PuN(s), Pu 2 O 3 (s), N 2 , O 2 and H 2 , therefore, the system described involves of 2 independent reactions, both ΔG 0 <<0. The calculated equilibrium compositions are in agreement with those of the experimental, which indicates that the chemical equilibrium is nearly completely approached. Therefore, it is believed that the reaction rate of plutonium hydride with air is extremely rapid. The author has briefly discussed the simultaneous reactions and its thermodynamic coupling effect

  10. Effect of compression on reactivity of plutonium based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Marotta, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was made to determine if criticality could occur due to compression of bare spheres of Pu and PuO 2 (solid or powdered) during a high-speed impact accident of an air transportable plutonium package. It was calculated that an initial k/sub eff/ less than 0.70 would not result in a critical condition (less than 0.97); thus, a conservative max permissible design value of k/sub eff/ for a Pu air transportable package is 0.70

  11. Accountability control system in plutonium fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruki, Kaoru; Aoki, Minoru; Mizuno, Ohichi; Mishima, Tsuyoshi

    1979-01-01

    More than 30 tons of plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel have been manufactured at the Plutonium Facility in PNC for JOYO, FUGEN and DCA (Deuterium Critical Assembly) and for the purpose of irradiation tests. This report reviews the nuclear material accountability control system adopted in the Plutonium Facility. Initially, the main objective of the system was the criticality control of fissible materials at various stages of fuel manufacturing. The first part of this report describes the functions and the structure of the control system. A flow chart is provided to show the various stages of material flow and their associated computer files. The system is composed of the following three sub-systems: procedures of nuclear material transfer; PIT (Physical Inventory Taking); data retrieval, report preparation and file maintenance. OMR (Optical Mark Reader) sheets are used to record the nuclear material transfer. The MUF (Materials Unaccounted For) are evaluated by PIT every three months through computer processing based on the OMR sheets. The MUF ratio of Pu handled in the facility every year from 1966 to 1977 are presented by a curve, indicating that the MUF ratio was kept well under 0.5% for every project (JOYO, FUGEN, and DCA). As for the Pu safeguards, the MBA (Material Balance Area) and the KMP (Key Measurement Point) in the facility of PNC are illustrated. The general idea of the projected PINC (Plutonium Inventory Control) system in PNC is also shortly explained. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Study on material attractiveness aspect of spent nuclear fuel of LWR and FBR cycles based on isotopic plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Suud, Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper analyzes the plutonium production of recycling nuclear fuel option. • To evaluate material attractiveness based on intrinsic feature of material barrier. • Evaluation based on isotopic plutonium composition of spent fuel LWR and FBR. • Even mass number of plutonium gives a significant contribution to material barrier, in particular Pu-238 and Pu-240. • Doping MA in FBR blanket is effective to increase material barrier from weapon grade plutonium to more than MOX fuel grade. - Abstract: Recycling minor actinide (MA) as well as used uranium and plutonium can be considered to reduce nuclear waste production as well as to increase the intrinsic aspect of nuclear nonproliferation as doping material. Plutonium production as a significant aspect of recycling nuclear fuel option, gives some advantages and challenges, such as fissile material utilization of plutonium as well as production of some even mass number plutonium. The study intends to evaluate the material attractiveness based on the intrinsic feature of material barrier such as plutonium composition, decay heat and spontaneous fission neutron components from spent fuel (SF) light water reactor (LWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycles. A significant contribution has been shown by decay heat (DH) and spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) of even mass number of plutonium isotopes to the total DH and SFN of plutonium element, in particular from isotopic plutonium Pu-238 and Pu-240 contributions. Longer decay cooling time and higher burnup are effective to increase the material barrier (DH and SFN) level from reactor grade plutonium level to MOX grade plutonium level. Material barrier of plutonium element from spent fuel (SF) FBR in the core regions has similarity to the material barrier profile of SF LWR which can be categorized as MOX fuel grade plutonium. Plutonium compositions, DH and SFN components are categorized as weapon grade plutonium level for FBR blanket regions with no

  13. Spectrochemical determination of tantalum in plutonium metal using direct current plasma emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Morris, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Tantalum is determined by direct current plasma spectrometry after separation of plutonium from solution as PuF 3 . After centrifugation of the PuF 3 precipitate, a low level of plutonium remains in solution in sufficient quantity to cause spectral interferences. It is necessary to determine the plutonium by dc plasma spectrometry and apply a correction to determine low tantalum concentrations with good accuracy and precision. Tantalum can be determined down to 0.4 ppM in solution with a relative standard deviation of 10 percent. Better precision can be achieved at higher concentrations. The procedure is simple and convenient for glovebox work. 5 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  14. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in human tissues collected from areas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site by sector-field high resolution ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Oikawa, S; Sakaguchi, A; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Apsalikov, K N

    2008-09-01

    Information on the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in human tissues for people living around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was deduced from 9 sets of soft tissues and bones, and 23 other bone samples obtained by autopsy. Plutonium was radiochemically separated and purified, and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) were determined by sector-field high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. For most of the tissue samples from the former nine subjects, low 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios were determined: bone, 0.125 +/- 0.018 (0.113-0.145, n = 4); lungs, 0.063 +/- 0.010 (0.051-0.078, n = 5); and liver, 0.148 +/- 0.026 (0.104-0.189, n = 9). Only 239Pu was detected in the kidney samples; the amount of 240Pu was too small to be measured, probably due to the small size of samples analyzed. The mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio for bone samples from the latter 23 subjects was 0.152 +/- 0.034, ranging from 0.088 to 0.207. A significant difference (a two-tailed Student's t test; 95% significant level, alpha = 0.05) between mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios for the tissue samples and for the global fallout value (0.178 +/- 0.014) indicated that weapons-grade plutonium from the atomic bombs has been incorporated into the human tissues, especially lungs, in the residents living around the SNTS. The present 239,240Pu concentrations in bone, lung, and liver samples were, however, not much different from ranges found for human tissues from other countries that were due solely to global fallout during the 1970's-1980's.

  15. Thermodynamic database development: Al-Am-Ga-Pu-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Sciences; Turchi, P. E. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Sciences; Landa, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Sciences; Soderlind, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Sciences

    2014-03-17

    The goal of this study is about the thermodynamic re-assessment of the Plutonium- Uranium (Pu-U) system as a first step leading to the development of a plutonium-based thermodynamic database (i.e., Pu with Al, Am, Ga, Mo, U…) with resulting phase diagrams and associated thermodynamic data. Indeed, phase stability trends and phase diagrams of multi-component nuclear materials are crucial for predicting properties and performance under normal, hypothetical or even accidental conditions. This work is based on a coupling between ab initio energetics, phenomenological thermodynamics models - based on the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach - and the use of the Thermo-Calc software, together with experimental data (whenever available). The present report summarizes results obtained (quarter period: 10/07/2013-01/07/2014) under the auspices of an agreement between CEA/DAM and NNSA/DP on cooperation in fundamental science supporting stockpile stewardship (P182).

  16. Monitoring and detection of plutonium movement in storage vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; Caldwell, J.T.; France, S.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.; Goin, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 3 He proportional counters in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Data collected by each counter were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% 240 Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory

  17. Preparation standardisation and use of plutonium nitrate reference solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Drummond, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of a plutonium nitrate solution in nitric acid for use as a plutonium master standard. Anion exchange chromatography followed by oxalate precipitation is used to purify the plutonium and the residual cationic impurities are analysed by emission spectroscopy. The plutonium content is accurately and precisely measured by two independent methods, namely by gravimetry as PuO 2 at 1250 0 C and by ceric oxidation, ferrous reduction and dichromate titration. Full details of the purification procedure are given, with recommended methods for storing and using the standard solution. It is concluded that such a solution is the most satisfactory reference material, available for plutonium analysis for reprocessing plants, and is adequately related to other, internationally accepted, standard reference materials. (author)

  18. Recovery of plutonium from pyrolysis and incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, J.W.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ashes prepared from typical plutonium-handling, glove box, combustible wastes on the dissolution of PuO 2 is described. Synthetic ashes have been prepared by doping inactively-prepared ashes with various plutonium-containing compounds, followed by heating at temperatures in the range 550-1200 0 C. The resulting ashes have been leach-tested in order to provide information on the relationship between leachability, the nature of the ashes, the type of plutonium contamination and temperature of thermal treatment. Optimum temperatures for the recovery of plutonium and for the production of inert ''slag'' -type residues have been identified. A furnace for producing model incinerator ashes and pyrolysis chars under carefully controlled conditions is described. Preliminary results on the leaching of these plutonium-active ashes and chars are discussed. (author)

  19. Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (α,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (α,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the 240 Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (α,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride

  20. Tables of thermodynamic functions for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    Measured and estimated spectroscopic data for thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxide vapor species have been used with the methods of statistical mechanics to calculate thermodynamic functions. Some inconsistencies between spectroscopic data and some thermodynamic data have been resolved by recalculating ΔH 0 /sub f/ (298.15 0 K) values for the vapor species of these oxides. Evaluation of the uncertainties in data, methods of estimating molecular parameters, and effects of assumptions have been discussed elsewhere. The tables of thermodynamic functions that were reported earlier have been revised principally because the low-frequency vibrational modes of UO 2 and UO 3 have now been measured. These new empirical data resulted in changes in the electronic contributions to the calculated thermodynamic functions of UO 2 and the estimated vibrational contributions for PuO 2 . In addition, some minor changes have been made in the methods of calculation of the electronic contributions for all molecules

  1. A FIFO based neutron arrival time collection technique for assay of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Saisubalakshmi, D.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The system assays plutonium by counting the time correlated neutrons emitted by the spontaneous fissions of the even-even Pu isotopes in the presence of random neutron background, originating principally from (a,n) reactions in the material. The correlation technique discussed in this paper utilizes twofold neutron coincidence counting but the system is proposed to be enhanced for neutron multiplicity counting. A microcontroller based data acquisition system has been developed using a couple of fast FIFO 2kX9 bit memory ICs and a 16 bit counter for identifying time-correlated neutrons. Since the neutron pulses are arriving at a rapid rate, the incoming pulses are buffered in the FIFO and then transferred to PC by the microcontroller through the parallel port. The correlation analysis based on this time arrival information is done in the PC off-line. (author)

  2. Fabrication of gamma sources using the neutron-gamma reactions of 238Pu13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinhac, I.; Maillard, C.; Donnet, L.

    2004-01-01

    A production campaign for 238 Pu 13 C sources with gamma fluence ranging from 2500 to 4500 gamma/s/4π at 6.13 MeV was carried out in 2002 in Atalante. An experimental study was undertaken to prepare the 238 PuC mixture, which is the most delicate step. This procedure is described together with the other steps in the source fabrication process: purification of a plutonium oxide batch, preparation of a nitric solution of 238 Pu, measurement of the gamma fluence of the PuC mixture before and after insertion into each of the two stainless steel capsules that constitute a PuN 2 O package, welding of the second envelope followed by leak testing, final measurement of the gamma fluence of the sealed source. This PuC sources fabrication procedure is effective: all the sources include the required gamma activity with an uncertainty on the gamma fluence of less than 10%. (authors)

  3. Hematological responses after inhaling 238PuO2: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to 238 PuO 2 have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of 238 Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled 238 PuO 2 on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting 238 PuO 2 particles and to extrapolate results to humans

  4. Sources of plutonium to the great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, G.E.; Kennedy, C.W.; Bobula, C.M. III.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in the study of 238 Pu, in the Great Miami River watershed the contribution of various sources to the total 238 Pu transported by the river. Periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from Mound Laboratory from 1973 to 1975 have released approximately 20 mCi of 238 Pu each year to the Great Miami River. Changes in the wastewater treatment system in 1976 have reduced the annual discharge to less than 3 mCi/year. However, despite this sevenfold reduction of plutonium in the wastewater discharge, the annual flux of 238 Pu down the river has remained relatively constant and is approximately 10 times greater than can be accounted for by the reported effluent discharges. Therefore, other sources of the 238 Pu in the Great Miami River exist. A second possible source of plutonium is the resuspension of sediments enriched by earlier waste water releases and deposited in the river. However, since there appear to be few areas where large accumulations of sediment could occur, it seems improbable that resuspension of earlier sediment deposits would continue to be a significant contributor to the annual flux of plutonium. A much more likely source is the continuing erosion of soil from a canal and stream system contaminated with approx. 5 Ci of 238 Pu, 7 which connects directly to the river 6.9 km upstream from Franklin. Results from samples analyzed in 1978 show the average concentration of 238 Pu in suspended sediments from the canal to be approximately 10 3 times greater than suspended sediment concentrations in the river and waste water effluent.Thus the main contributor to the total amount of plutonium transported by the Great Miami River appears to be highly enriched sediment from the canal, which is eroded into the river where it is then diluted by uncontaminated sediments

  5. On the solubility of plutonium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, G.

    1977-12-01

    In a theoretical study, the chemical equilibrium state of saturated Pu solutions in water was determined and the effect of the addition of EDTA on the solubility of Pu estimated. Concentrations of Plutonium in true solution in the range of grams/litre seem to be achievable, at least in principle. The amount of EDTA necessary is not larger than the total amount of Pu. It is however questionable, specially after taking into account all possible effects of reaction kinetics, whether such high concentrations can be achieved at all under normal environmental conditions. Only experiments under real world conditions can give an answer to this question. (orig./HK) 891 HK 892 AP [de

  6. The influence of fasting and valence on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in hamsters and rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Harrison, J.D.; Smith, H.; Rodwell, P.; David, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium ingested in contaminated food may be complexed to biological ligands in the food materials. Also, it is known that Pu in drinking water can exist as Pu(VI). A suggestion has been made, based on the results obtained by Weeks et al (Radiation Res., Vol. 4, 339,1956) that ingestion of Pu(VI) could mean that absorption of Pu would be substantially underestimated by using the value recommended by the ICRP. To further investigate the effect on absorption of both the oxidation state of ingested Pu and the nutritional state of the animal, Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) were administered to normally fed and fasted hamsters. The absorption of Pu(IV) was also measured in rabbits. Absorption of Pu in hamsters was not enhanced by prior oxidation to Pu(VI). However, increased absorption of both Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) was obtained in fasted animals. The results do not substantiate the high value for absorption of Pu(VI) obtained by Weeks et al, and support the value of 10sup(-2%) recommended by the ICRP for soluble forms of Pu. (author)

  7. Evidence of plutonium bioavailability in pristine freshwaters of a karst system of the Swiss Jura Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Christl, Marcus; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of trace environmental plutonium with dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role on its mobility and bioavailability in freshwater environments. Here we explore the speciation and biogeochemical behavior of Pu in freshwaters of the karst system in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Chemical extraction and ultrafiltration methods were complemented by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) to measure the dissolved and bioavailable Pu fraction in water. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to accurately determine Pu in this pristine environment. Selective adsorption of Pu (III, IV) on silica gel showed that 88% of Pu in the mineral water is found in +V oxidation state, possibly in a highly soluble [PuO2+(CO3)n]m- form. Ultrafiltration experiments at 10 kDa yielded a similar fraction of colloid-bound Pu in the organic-rich and in mineral water (18-25%). We also found that the concentrations of Pu measured by DGT in mineral water are similar to the bulk concentration, suggesting that dissolved Pu is readily available for biouptake. Sequential elution (SE) of Pu from aquatic plants revealed important co-precipitation of potentially labile Pu (60-75%) with calcite fraction within outer compartment of the plants. Hence, we suggest that plutonium is fully available for biological uptake in both mineral and organic-rich karstic freshwaters.

  8. The Optimum Plutonium Inert Matrix Fuel Form for Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Acosta, C.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Florida has underway an ongoing research program to validate the economic, operational and performance benefits of developing an inert matrix fuel (IMF) for the disposition of the U.S. weapons plutonium (Pu) and for the recycle of reprocessed Pu. The current fuel form of choice for Pu disposition for the Department of Energy is as a mixed oxide (MOX) (PuO2/UO2). We will show analyses that demonstrate that a Silicon Carbide (SiC) IMF offers improved performance capabilities as a fuel form for Pu recycle and disposition. The reason that UF is reviewing various materials to serve as an inert matrix fuel is that an IMF fuel form can offer greatly reduced Pu and transuranic isotope (TRU) production and also improved thermal performance characteristics. Our studies showed that the Pu content is reduced by an order of magnitude while centerline fuel temperatures are reduced approximately 380 degrees centigrade compared to MOX. These reduced temperatures result in reduced stored heat and thermal stresses in the pellet. The reduced stored heat reduces the consequences of the loss of coolant accident, while the reduced temperatures and thermal stresses yield greatly improved fuel performance. Silicon Carbide is not new to the nuclear industry, being a basic fuel material in gas cooled reactors

  9. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  10. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of original injection experimental records at LASL suggest that the power function fit is a good choice to describe early plutonium excretion; however, the later period (300-, 500-, and 1600-day) results along with 10,000 day results show a significant departure from the Langham power function model used to describe long-term Pu excretion. The authors suggest that since the 523- and 1600-day data in question influenced the mathematical development of the Langham power function equation, its use in predicting Pu body burdens from long-term excretion data should be discouraged. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Plutonium and Americium with Sediment Particles in the Estuarine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45pm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  12. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  13. First-principles elastic constants and phonons of delta-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Sadigh, B.

    2004-01-01

    Elastic constants and zone-boundary phonons of delta-plutonium have been calculated within the density-functional theory. The paramagnetic state of delta-Pu is modeled by disordered magnetism utilizing either the disordered local moment or the special quasirandom structure techniques. The anomalo......Elastic constants and zone-boundary phonons of delta-plutonium have been calculated within the density-functional theory. The paramagnetic state of delta-Pu is modeled by disordered magnetism utilizing either the disordered local moment or the special quasirandom structure techniques....... The anomalously soft C-' as well as a large anisotropy ratio (C-44/C-') of delta-Pu is reproduced by this theoretical model. Also the recently measured phonons for delta-Pu compare relatively well with their theoretical counterpart at the zone boundaries....

  14. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  15. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and 239PuO2 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Griffith, W.C.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high linear energy transfer alpha particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be; Be is currently classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United States and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of plutonium dioxide ( 239 PuO 2 ), Be metal, or these agents in combination

  16. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 +/- 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (239+240Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

  17. Study of plutonium sorption in aluminia column in the system HNO3-HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.A. de.

    1977-01-01

    The column chromatographic method using alumina has been applied successfully to study the sorption-desorption behavior of plutonium traces in HNO 3 -HF and HNO 3 -HF-UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 systems, aiming to elaborate a process for recovering plutonium traces from reprocessing wastes, mainly in existing solutions where uranium is presented in macro quantities. Basically, the method consists in the sorption of plutonium by percolating a solution containing HNO 3 (0,1 to 0,8M) or uranyl nitrate (1-50 gU/l) and HF(0,1 to 0,3M) through an Al 2 O 3 collumn. The plutonium is fixed on Al 2 O 3 whereas the uranyl ions is collected in the efluent. The adsorption of Pu-III, Pu-IV and Pu-VI in the presence of HF was determined and Pu-IV can be almost completely sorbed. The Pu-IV is eluted by reduction to Pu-III in the column using 3 M HNO 3 -0,005M FeSO 4 at 50 0 C as elutrient. This method is very simple and can be applied for separation and purification of plutonium (traces) from uranyl nitrate or others coming solutions from wet chemistry of irradiated fuels [pt

  18. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  19. Sorption/Desorption Interactions of Plutonium with Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, J.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    Plutonium (Pu) release to the environment through nuclear weapon development and the nuclear fuel cycle is an unfortunate legacy of the nuclear age. In part due to public health concerns over the risk of Pu contamination of drinking water, predicting the behavior of Pu in both surface and sub-surface water is a topic of continued interest. Typically it was assumed that Pu mobility in groundwater would be severely restricted, as laboratory adsorption studies commonly show that naturally occurring minerals can effectively remove plutonium from solution. However, evidence for the transport of Pu over significant distances at field sites highlights a relative lack of understanding of the fundamental processes controlling plutonium behavior in natural systems. At several field locations, enhanced mobility is due to Pu association with colloidal particles that serve to increase the transport of sorbed contaminants (Kersting et al., 1999; Santschi et al., 2002, Novikov et al., 2006). The ability for mineral colloids to transport Pu is in part controlled by its oxidation state and the rate of plutonium adsorption to, and desorption from, the mineral surface. Previously we have investigated the adsorption affinity of Pu for montmorillonite colloids, finding affinities to be similar over a wide range of Pu concentrations. In the present study we examine the stability of adsorbed Pu on the mineral surface. Pu(IV) at an initial concentration of 10-10 M was pre-equilibrated with montmorillonite in a background electrolyte at pH values of 4, 6 and 8. Following equilibration, aliquots of the suspensions were placed in a flow cell and Pu-free background electrolyte at the relevant pH was passed through the system. Flow rates were varied in order to investigate the kinetics of desorption and hence gain a mechanistic understanding of the desorption process. The flow cell experiments demonstrate that desorption of Pu from the montmorillonite surface cannot be modeled as a simple

  20. Trans-Uranium Doping Utilization for Increasing Protected Plutonium Proliferation of Small Long Life Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suud, Zaki [Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suzuki, Mitsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Non-proliferation Science and Technology Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Scientific approaches are performed by adopting some methodologies in order to increase a material 'barrier' in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242. Higher difficulties (barrier) or more complex requirement for peaceful use of nuclear materials, material fabrication and handling and isotopic enrichment can be achieved by a higher isotopic barrier. Higher barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), in regard to their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates were used as a parameter for improving the proliferation resistance of plutonium itself. Pu-238 has relatively high intrinsic characteristics of DH (567 W/kg) and SFN rate of 2660 n/g/s can be used for making a plutonium characteristics analysis. Similar characteristics with Pu-238, other even mass number of plutonium isotopes such as Pu-240 and Pu-242 have been shown in regard to SFN values. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2004). The study intends to evaluate the trans-uranium doping effect for increasing protected plutonium proliferation in long-life small reactors. The development of small and medium reactor (SMR) is one of the options which have been adopted by IAEA as future utilization of nuclear energy especially for less developed countries (Kuznetsov, 2008). The preferable feature for small reactors (SMR) is long life operation time without on-site refueling and in the same time, it includes high proliferation resistance feature. The reactor uses MOX fuel as driver fuel for two different core types (inner and outer core) with blanket fuel arrangement. Several trans-uranium doping and some doping rates are evaluated