WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary radiation levels

  1. The effects of low-level ionising radiation on primary explant cultures of rainbow trout Pronephros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olwell, P.; Ni Shuilleabhain, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Cottell, D.C.; Lyng, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has long been known that the haematopoietic tissue of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive tissues. In vitro studies on prawn have also shown that low doses of radiation has an extremely deleterious effect on cells cultured from this animal's blood forming tissues. This raises the question on the relative effects of radiation between animals from different species. One of the most important aquatic animals, from both an economic and ecologic point of view, is the fish. With this in mind, primary cultures of the blood forming tissues of rainbow trout were exposed to radiation followed by a morphological comparison between control and irradiated cultures. The cultured cells were characterised as macrophages following incubation with non-specific fluorescent beads and human apoptotic PMN. The cells demonstrated both specific and non-specific phagocytosis, by consuming the non-indigenous bodies, and were classified as phagocytic leucocytes. These cells were found in two morphological forms, stretched and rounded. It was shown that there was a commensurate increase in the number of stretched cells following application of radiation. Radiation was also shown to cause a dose-dependent increase in the amounts of apoptosis and necrosis in cells over time. The phagocytic efficacy of the irradiated leucocytes compared to controls was also investigated. (author)

  2. Average Nuclear Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56,57FE from Primary (Gamma)-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Garrett, P.E.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.; Younes, W.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental primary γ-ray spectrum vs. excitation-energy bin (P(E x , E γ ) matrix) in a light-ion reaction is obtained for 56,57 Fe isotopes using a subtraction method. By factorizing the P(E x , E γ ) matrix according to the Axel-Brink hypothesis the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function (RSF) in 56,57 Fe are extracted simultaneously. A step structure is observed in the level density for both isotopes, and is interpreted as the breaking of Cooper pairs. The RSFs for 56,57 Fe reveal an anomalous enhancement at low γ-ray energies

  3. Some Comparisons of Measured and Predicted Primary Radiation Levels in the Aagesta Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E; Sandlin, R; Krell, Aa

    1968-05-15

    Neutron fluxes and gamma exposure rates in the primary shields of the Aagesta nuclear plant have been measured and the results compared with values predicted during shield design, and with values obtained later by the NRN bulk shielding code. The input data for the problems are given. The radial predictions are conservative by a factor of not more than 2 close to the reactor and by an unknown, higher factor further out. The conservatism is explainable by the differences between the true local conditions and core power distributions and those assumed in the predictions. The axial flux levels based on streaming calculations are found to agree quite well with the estimated values. The conservatism here is not so large and it seems to be necessary to be very careful when handling streaming problems. The experience gained shows that a power plant is less suitable for studying the accuracy of the shield design codes as such, but the practical results from the combined application of massive shield codes and void streaming predictions to complicated problems give information about the true degree of conservatism present.

  4. Primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    The term cosmic radiation means the charged particle flux that reaches the earth from outside its magnetosphere with energies above the solar wind energy of a few keV. There are two sources of flux. Sporadically the sun produces such particles, generally within the energy range 1--200 MeV, and these solar cosmic rays arrive at the earth for a period ranging from hours to days. There may be a small, rather constant flux from the sun also, but the bulk of the steady flux originates outside the earth's orbit. Although some have conjectured that part of this latter flux may be accelerated in the outer portions of the solar system where the outward flowing interplanetary medium meets the interstellar medium, it is generally thought that most or all of it arises in unique systems such as supernovae, and is distributed throughout the galaxy. These galactic particles range in energy from a few MeV to at least 10 13 MeV and consist primarily of protons with significant numbers of heavier nuclei, positrons and electrons. They are supposed to fill our galaxy, or at least the disc, more or less uniformly. However, the flux with energies below a few GeV that reaches earth's orbit is modulated by the interplanetary medium so that the number at earth varies inversely with solar activity and is always somewhat below the interstellar flux. A discussion is presented of primary galactic radiation at earth, its modulation by solar activity, and its interaction with the geomagnetic field. (U.S.)

  5. Corrosion product behaviour in the Loviisa nuclear power plant primary coolant: measures taken to lower radiation levels by modified shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernstroem, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The primary circuit chemistry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant differs in some respects from the concepts commonly used in PWRs. In general, Loviisa 1, which is now in its sixth cycle, and Loviisa 2, which is in its second refuelling and maintenance shutdown (October 1982), are very clean compared with several other PWRs and it seems to be possible to keep the radiation levels low and even reduce them by using correct chemistry during operation; the shutdown conditions seem to have great influence on this matter. These modified shutdown conditions and their influence on radiation levels, dose rates and radwaste buildup are discussed. (author)

  6. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  7. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment......, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era....

  8. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  9. US Army primary radiation standards complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.C. [Radiation Standards and Dosimetry Laboratory, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.

  10. Radiation Levels around the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Calviani, M; Nordt, A

    2013-01-01

    This work discuss on the radiation levels measured around the LHC machine during the 2012 operational year. The doses and particle fluences are measured primarily by RadMon detectors – about 300 RadMons are installed around the accelerator – and by thermoluminescent detectors. In addition, BLMs, IG5/PMI ionisation chambers as well as FGCs can be used for corresponding cumulated dose evaluations. The probability of SEE depends directly on the high-energy hadron (HEH) fluence, so this is the main parameter that is calculated based on RadMons counts.

  11. Radiation levels in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately after news of the accident at Chernobyl became available on 28 April, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was asked by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for an appraisal of the radiation situation on the basis of which advice would be given to embassy staff, residents in affected countries and prospective travellers. The first Swedish measurements, external gamma dose rates and, later, concentrations of atmospheric and ground radioactivity, were used to estimate the quantity of radioactivity released by means of NRPB's accident consequence code (1), MARC. Our first predictions of 29 April indicated a substantial release of the order of 10 17 - 10 18 Bq, which was expected to lead to tens of early radiation-induced deaths in the area around the site. On the basis of NRPB's recommended Emergency Reference Levels (ERL's), it was thought that there would be a need for evacuation out to 20 to 30 km and for temporary food restrictions out to a few hundred kilometres from the site. FCO accordingly decided to evacuate students from Kiev and Minsk and to advise people not to travel to the western Soviet Union or to north-east Poland unless absolutely necessary

  12. Radiation therapy for primary orbital lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Cliff K.S.; Lin Hsiusan; Rao Devineni, V.; Smith, Morton

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of tumor size, grade, thoroughness of staging workup, and radiation dose on disease control, radiation-related complications, and incidence of systemic progression of primary orbital lymphoma is analyzed. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with Stage I primary orbital lymphoma were treated from August 1976 through August 1991 at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. Staging workups included physical examination, chest x-ray, complete blood count (CBC), liver function test, and computerized tomography (CT) scan of the orbit, abdomen, and pelvis. Nineteen patients had bone marrow biopsy. The histological types based on the National Cancer Institute working formulation were 9 low-grade and 11 intermediate-grade, including five lymphocytic lymphomas of intermediate differentiation. The extension of disease and the volume of tumor were evaluated by CT scan of the orbit. The most commonly used radiation therapy technique was single anterior direct field with 4 MV or 6 MV photons. Lens was shielded or not treated in eight patients. Dose ranged from 20 to 43.2 Gy. Thirteen of 20 patients received 30 Gy. Minimum follow-up was 24 months (median, 4 years). Results: Local control was achieved in all 20 patients. One patient with lymphocytic lymphoma with intermediate differentiation developed disseminated disease. Actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) was 100% and 90% at 2 and 5 years, respectively. No retinopathy was observed. Cataracts were noted in seven patients at 1 to 10 years following irradiation (median, 2 years). Three patients developed lacrimal function disorder, however, no corneal ulceration occurred. Conclusions: Thirty Gy in 15 fractions appears to be a sufficient dose for local control with acceptable morbidity, especially for low-grade, as well as certain types of intermediate-grade lymphomas, such as diffuse small cleaved cell and lymphocytic lymphoma of intermediate differentiation. Systemic dissemination is minimal, provided local

  13. Radiation therapy for primary orbital lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Cliff K.S.; Hsiusan, Lin; Rao Devineni, V; Smith, Morton

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: The influence of tumor size, grade, thoroughness of staging workup, and radiation dose on disease control, radiation-related complications, and incidence of systemic progression of primary orbital lymphoma is analyzed. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with Stage I primary orbital lymphoma were treated from August 1976 through August 1991 at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. Staging workups included physical examination, chest x-ray, complete blood count (CBC), liver function test, and computerized tomography (CT) scan of the orbit, abdomen, and pelvis. Nineteen patients had bone marrow biopsy. The histological types based on the National Cancer Institute working formulation were 9 low-grade and 11 intermediate-grade, including five lymphocytic lymphomas of intermediate differentiation. The extension of disease and the volume of tumor were evaluated by CT scan of the orbit. The most commonly used radiation therapy technique was single anterior direct field with 4 MV or 6 MV photons. Lens was shielded or not treated in eight patients. Dose ranged from 20 to 43.2 Gy. Thirteen of 20 patients received 30 Gy. Minimum follow-up was 24 months (median, 4 years). Results: Local control was achieved in all 20 patients. One patient with lymphocytic lymphoma with intermediate differentiation developed disseminated disease. Actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) was 100% and 90% at 2 and 5 years, respectively. No retinopathy was observed. Cataracts were noted in seven patients at 1 to 10 years following irradiation (median, 2 years). Three patients developed lacrimal function disorder, however, no corneal ulceration occurred. Conclusions: Thirty Gy in 15 fractions appears to be a sufficient dose for local control with acceptable morbidity, especially for low-grade, as well as certain types of intermediate-grade lymphomas, such as diffuse small cleaved cell and lymphocytic lymphoma of intermediate differentiation. Systemic dissemination is minimal, provided local

  14. Split energy level radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an energy discriminating radiation detector comprising: (a) a first element comprising a first material of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of a first energy range; (b) a second element comprising a second material different in kind from the first material and of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of second energy range extending higher than the first energy range. The element is positioned to receive radiation which has penetrated through a portion of the first element; and (c) a filter of penetrative radiation interposed between the first and second elements

  15. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  16. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  17. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  18. UV radiation and primary production in the Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Krishnakumari, L.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    at 683 nm), scalar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), computed primary production (pp), diffuse attenuation coefficient, and UVB (308 and 320 nm) and UVA (340 and 380 nm) radiation and ocean temperature all measured as a function...

  19. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  20. Course of radiation protection: technical level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

  1. Background radiation levels and standards for protection from ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farai, I.

    1999-01-01

    Apart from the amount of radiation which a worker may receive while he performs his work, he is also exposed to radiation because of the nature of his environment. In other words, all individuals are subject to some irradiation even though they may not work with radioactive substances. This source of radiation exposure is often referred to as background radiation. In most environments, it is low-level and can be grouped into two natural and man-made. Background radiation provides the basis on which allowable exposure limits for workers are drawn

  2. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  4. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  5. About the principles of radiation level normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper highlights the impact being made by the radiation level normalization principles upon the social and economic indicators. The newly introduced radiation safety standards - 97 are taken as an example. It is emphasized that it is necessary to use a sound approach while defining radiation protection standards, taking into consideration economic and social factors existing in Ukraine at the moment. Based on the concept of the natural radiation background and available results of the epidemiological surveys, the dose limits are proposed for the radiation protection standards. The paper gives a description of the dose limitation system recommended by the International Committee for Radiation Protection. The paper highlights a negative impact of the line non threshold concept, lack of special knowledge in the medical service and mass media to make decisions to protect people who suffered from the Chernobyl accident

  6. Level gauge using neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for determining the level of a solid or liquid material in a container comprises: a vertical guide within or alongside the container; a sensor positioned within the guide; means for moving the sensor along the guide; and means for monitoring the position of the sensor. The sensor comprises a source of fast neutrons, a detector for thermal neutrons, and a body of a neutron moderating material in close proximity to the detector. Thermal neutrons produced by fast neutron irradiation of the solid or liquid material, or thermal neutrons produced by irradiation of the neutron-moderating material by fast or epithermal neutrons reflected by the solid or liquid material, are detected when the sensor is positioned at or below the level of the material in the container

  7. SGR-76 gamma radiation level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubinskij-Nadezhdin, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a gamma-radiation level indicator is described; the instrument is part of a mobile radiometric laboratory (MRL). The design of the instrument permits gamma-radiation dose rates recording at 0.2-200 R/hr, and signals on gamma-background levels. The instrument has two separate threshold levels of signalling actuation. The light signalling at the first level is precautionary, and the sound signalling at the second level indicates the necessity of taking a decision as to whether or not the MRL can remain in the gamma-radiation field. Halogenic counters operating in a current mode are used as detectors. The basic error in recording the dose rate amounts to +-25%. Overall dimensions of the instrument 150x280x100 mm; weight less than 2.5 kg

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  9. Radiobiologic effects at low radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the effects of low radiation doses on mammals. Data from the 1972 report on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation issued by the Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council are discussed. It was concluded that there are certain radiosensitive systems in which low doses of radiation may cause degenerative effects, including gametogenic epithelium, lens of the eye, and developing embryos. Despite extensive investigation of genetic effects, including chromosomal effects, neither the amount of change that will be caused by very low levels of irradiation nor the degree of associated detriment is known

  10. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  11. Primary water chemistry improvement for radiation exposure reduction at Japanese PWR Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Eiichi [Omiya Technical Institute, Saitama-ken (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation exposure during the refueling outages at Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plants has been gradually decreased through continuous efforts keeping the radiation dose rates at relatively low level. The improvement of primary water chemistry in respect to reduction of the radiation sources appears as one of the most important contributions to the achieved results and can be classified by the plant operation conditions as follows

  12. Primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent following radiation for medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.G.; Das Narla, L.; Ferraro, E.

    1998-01-01

    Primary ovarian leiomyosarcomas are rare neoplasms of the ovary, particularly in the pediatric population. Their occurrence following radiation therapy for previous malignancy has important implications. We present a case of primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent following therapy for medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  13. Radiation therapy for primary spinal cord tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, B.; Grujicic, D.; Jovanovic, D.; Djuric, L.; Mijatovic, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of radiation therapy in management of primary spinal cord tumors in adults. Records of 21 patients with primary spinal cord tumors treated with radiation therapy after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Histologic examination showed two diffuse and 10 localized ependymomas, six low-grade gliomas, and three malignant gliomas. Surgery consisted of gross tumor resection in six patients, subtotal resection in three patients, and biopsy in 12 patients. Three patients also received chemotherapy. Radiation dose range from 45 to 55 Cy

  14. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  15. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  16. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  17. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  18. Radiation therapy of primary vaginal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtoli, L; Santoni, R [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1980-01-01

    In a series of 22 patients with primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina (stage I through IVa), a radical irradiation was planned in 18 and a palliative in the remaining 4 patients. The 5-year survival rate, in the radically irradiated patients, was 10/18 for all stages, and 8/13 for patients of stage I. A vaginal boost irradiation did not seem to improve the results of external irradiation in patients of stage I. Severe adverse effects did not occur.

  19. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  20. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  1. Ionizing radiation: levels and effects. Volume I. Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This is the sixth substantive report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. It reviews the levels of radiation received from all sources to which man is exposed and, among the effects of ionizing radiation, it considers the genetic effects, the effects on the immune response and the induction of malignancies in animals and man. These are not the only effects of ionizing radiation. The acute consequences of massive amounts of radiation that may be received accidentally or during nuclear warfare are not reviewed here (the short discussion of this subject in the 1962 report is still largely valid, at least as an introduction), nor are the effects on the nervous system and the induction of chromosome anomalies in somatic cells, which were both considered by the Committee in its 1969 report. Unlike previous reports of the Committee, the present report is submitted to the General Assembly without the technical annexes in which the evidence considered by the Committee is discussed in detail and in which the bases for the Committee's conclusions, which are stated in the report, are fully documented. However, the annexes are being made available at the same time as the report in a separate publication, issued in two volumes and the Committee wishes to draw the attention of the General Assembly to the fact that the separation of the report from the annexes is for convenience only and that major importance attaches to the scientific evidence given in the annexes.

  2. Low-level radiation: The cancer controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to early studies it would be safe to assume there are no late effects of radiation apart from cancer, no lasting selective effects of the early deaths of A-bomb victims, and no cancer risk at low dose levels (below 20 rad). The nuclear establishment had good reason to believe that a potentially dangerous situation had been completely defused, and optimists were still free to regard daily exposure to background radiation as a benign influence. For several years the only indication to the contrary was the Oxford survey's finding on prenatal X-rays. But today we face the possibility that there are other late effects of radiation besides cancer; and the possibility that the selection effects of the two nuclear explosions are still reflected in death rates among survivors and are the reason why no cancer effects have been found at low dose levels. If these possibilities are confirmed, we may one day realize how fortunate it was that the Oxford survey findings put a brake on the enthusiasms of nuclear power advocates. Otherwise, we might never have pressed for direct studies of the effects of low doses of radiation. 7 refs

  3. Investigation of the Work Motivation Levels of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Hatice Kadioglu; Yilmaz, Perihan

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the work motivation levels of primary school teachers working in primary school institutions located in Istanbul province, Kucukcekmece district. The descriptive survey model was used in this study. The population of the study consists of primary school teachers and primary school administrators working in state…

  4. Effectiveness of counseling at primary health facilities: Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of counseling at primary health facilities: Level of knowledge of antenatal attendee and their ... Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of counseling on HIV done in primary health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Low-level radiation and cancer deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that although the proportion of cancer deaths among males is somewhat higher for Hanford employees with recorded occupational radiation exposure compared with males in the general population of the State of Washington, there is no indication that radiation is the cause of this difference. Statistics are given for mean doses received and for deaths from cancer and other causes for male employees. It is shown that for each year the mean dose level of those who died from cancer is not significantly different from the mean of those who died from other causes. The mean dose level for the majority of those who died in a specific year is lower than the mean for the survivors in the year of death, in the year preceding the year of death, or in the two years preceding the year of death. This is true whether the mean was for those dying from cancer or from other causes. These relationships are similar for female exposed employees and agree with other similar studies. The latest analysis on longevity of exposed male Hanford employees vs those nonexposed and the out-of-plant controls from date of hire to April 1974 are considered and show no firm indication of any lasting adverse health effects among employees attributable to occupational exposure to radiation within permissible limits. (U.K.)

  6. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  7. Radiation Gene-expression Signatures in Primary Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Luigi; Bravatà, Valentina; Cammarata, Francesco P; Russo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Maria C; Forte, Giusi I

    2018-05-01

    In breast cancer (BC) care, radiation therapy (RT) is an efficient treatment to control localized tumor. Radiobiological research is needed to understand molecular differences that affect radiosensitivity of different tumor subtypes and the response variability. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiling (GEP) in primary BC cells following irradiation with doses of 9 Gy and 23 Gy delivered by intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in order to define gene signatures of response to high doses of ionizing radiation. We performed GEP by cDNA microarrays and evaluated cell survival after IOERT treatment in primary BC cell cultures. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate candidate genes. We showed, for the first time, a 4-gene and a 6-gene signature, as new molecular biomarkers, in two primary BC cell cultures after exposure at 9 Gy and 23 Gy respectively, for which we observed a significantly high survival rate. Gene signatures activated by different doses of ionizing radiation may predict response to RT and contribute to defining a personalized biological-driven treatment plan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. The Role Of Sevoflurane And Ionising Radiation On THE Level Of Primary DNA Damage Measured In Blood And Different Organs Of Swiss Albino Mice By THE Alkaline Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Milic, M.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Halovanovic, S.; Borojevic, N.; Orsolic, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is general anaesthetic suitable for short surgical procedures due to its quick induction of anaesthesia, maintaining spontaneous breathing frequency and hemodynamic stability of patients. However, it can directly trigger the formation of peroxynitrite, significantly increase intracellular levels of H2O2, peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils 1h after the treatment; lowering the levels of intracellular glutathione, and increase radiosensitivity of cells also exposed to ionising radiation (IR). We wanted to evaluate the level of sinergistic effect and possible radiosensitivity DNA damage in blood, and different organs of Swiss albino mice after exposure to both sevoflurane (2.4 percent, 50:50) and the 1Gy gamma-ray radiation generally used in diagnostic purposes after 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours from the combined treatment with alkaline comet assay. Combined exposure to sevoflurane and IR has demonstrated synergistic effect. Due to metabolising of the sevoflurane, there was different sensitivity between blood, liver, kidney and brain cells. (author).

  9. Approaches to teaching primary level mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Long

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore approaches to curriculum in the primary school in order to map and manage the omissions implicit in the current unfolding of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for mathematics. The focus of school-based research has been on curriculum coverage and cognitive depth. To address the challenges of teaching mathematics from the perspective of the learner, we ask whether the learners engage with the subject in such a way that they build foundations for more advanced mathematics. We firstly discuss three approaches that inform the teaching of mathematics in the primary school and which may be taken singly or in conjunction into organising the curriculum: the topics approach, the process approach, and the conceptual fields approach. Each of the approaches is described and evaluated by presenting both their advantages and disadvantages. We then expand on the conceptual fields approach by means of an illustrative example. The planning of an instructional design integrates both a topics and a process approach into a conceptual fields approach. To address conceptual depth within this approach, we draw on five dimensions required for understanding a mathematical concept. In conclusion, we reflect on an approach to curriculum development that draws on the integrated theory of conceptual fields to support teachers and learners in the quest for improved teaching and learning.

  10. Elective Nodal Irradiation and Patterns of Failure in Head and Neck Cancer After Primary Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Julie; Gothelf, Anita B; Håkansson, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    on recurrence in the retropharyngeal region and level IB. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2005 to 2012, 942 patients with oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, laryngeal or oral cavity carcinomas were curatively treated with primary radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 34 months, and 77% of the patients...... underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy. The retropharyngeal region was only routinely included in cases of involvement of the posterior pharynx wall and level IB only in cases of involvement of the oral cavity. In patients with regional recurrence, the anatomic site of the recurrence was assessed...... likely to develop recurrence in distant sites. CONCLUSIONS: Retropharyngeal or level IB recurrence after primary HNC radiation therapy is rare. Thus, inclusion of these regions in the elective treatment volumes should be limited to patients with involvement of the posterior pharyngeal wall or oral cavity....

  11. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  12. Radiation therapy for primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Shiojima, Kazumi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Yuko; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    Eight patients with undifferentiated carcinoma of the esophagus were treated by radiation therapy. Loco-regional control was easily achieved by radiation therapy alone and no loco-regional recurrence was observed for six patients treated with total dose of more than 30 Gy. However four patients developed distant metastases and died of tumor. Median survival was 3.5 months with a range of 0 to 48 months. Only one patient is alive with no evidence of tumor for 48 months. Combination chemotherapy should be recommended for primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the esophagus because of having a high incidence of distant metastases. (author)

  13. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2013-07-01

    The annual report 2011 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B; Current data and their evaluation: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. The Appendix includes Explanations of terms, radiation doses and related units, external and internal radiation exposure, stochastic and deterministic radiation effects, genetic radiation effects, induction of malignant neoplasm, risk assessment, physical units and glossary, laws, ordinances, guidelines, recommendations and other regulations concerning radiation protection, list of selected radionuclides.

  14. Primary radiation damage and disturbance in cell divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Yun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.; Nili, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Survived cells from a homogeneous population exposed to ionizing radiation form various colonies of different sizes and morphology on a solid nutrient medium, which appear at different time intervals after irradiation. Such a phenomenon agrees well with the modern theory of microdosimetry and classical hit-and-target models of radiobiology. According to the hit-principle, individual cells exposed to the same dose of radiation are damaged in different manners. It means that the survived cells can differ in the content of sublethal damage (hits) produced by the energy absorbed into the cell and which is not enough to give rise to effective radiation damage which is responsible for cell killing or inactivation. In diploid yeast cells, the growth rate of cells from 250 colonies of various sizes appeared at different time intervals after irradiation with 600 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60 Co isotopic source was analyzed. The survival rate after irradiation was 20%. Based on the analyses results, it was possible to categorize the clones grown from irradiated cells according to the number of sub-lesions from 1 to 4. The clones with various numbers of sub-lesions were shown to be different in their viability, radiosensitivity, sensitivity to environmental conditions, and the frequency of recombination and respiratory deficient mutations. Cells from unstable clones exhibited an enhanced radiosensitivity, and an increased portion of morphologically changed cells, nonviable cells and respiration mutants, as well. The degree of expression of the foregoing effects was higher if the number of primary sublethal lesions was greater in the originally irradiated cell. Disturbance in cell division can be characterized by cell inactivation or incorrect distribution of mitochondria between daughter cells. Thus, the suggested methodology of identification of cells with a definite number of primary sublethal lesions will promote further elucidation of the nature of primary radiation

  15. The hazards of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, R.

    1979-01-01

    Safety standards are questioned, particularly in relation to the risk of inducing cancer at low doses of radiation. Statements are made on the following topics: incidence of leukaemia among children around reactors, general aging effect due to radiation, leukaemia among radiation workers in a shipyard repairing nuclear submarines, official withdrawal of funds from research workers in the field of radiation hazards, discrepancies between different measurements of radiation near nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  16. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  17. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  18. The mechanism for the primary biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Vsevolod M; Stepanov, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    The primary biological response of living organisms to the passage of fast charged particles is traditionally believed to be dominated by the chemical reactions of the radical products from the radiolysis of cellular water (OH, H, e aq - , O 2 - , H 2 O 2 ) and by the bioradicals that they produce (and which can also result from the direct electronic activation of biomolecules). This understanding has provided insight into how ionizing radiations affect biological systems and, most importantly, what radioprotection and radiosensibilizing effects are produced by chemical compounds introduced into an organism. However, a number of key radiobiological facts remain unexplained by the current theory, stimulating a search for other biologically active factors that may be triggered by radiation. This review examines a fact that is usually ignored in discussing the biological impact of ionizing radiation: the local increase in acidity in the water solution along the track of a charged particle. The acidity in the track is very different from its value for cellular water in a living organism. Biological processes are well-known to be highly sensitive to changes in the environmental acidity. It seems that the biological impact of ionizing radiations is dominated not by the water radiolysis products (mostly radicals) listed above but particles of a different nature, hydroxonium ions H 3 O + , where the term hydroxonium refer to protonated water molecules. This modification of the mechanism of primary radiobiological effects is in good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the extremal dependence of the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of radiations on their ionizing energy losses is accounted for in quantitative terms, as is the increase in the RBE in the relativistic energy range. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Results of primary radiation therapy in early vocal cord cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.A.; Sarkar, S.; Mehta, M.S.; Marfatia, P.T.; Choudhary, A.J.; Mehta, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of 74 patients treated by primary radiation therapy with curative intent at the Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1980 and December 1984 are reported. Thirty three (44.6%) were classified as TlaNO, twenty five (33.8%) as TlbNO, ten (13.5%) as T2NO and six(8.1%) as TisNO. The 5-year actuarial survival was 92% and disease-free survival was 85%. Thirteen patients (17.5%) failed locally, seven (53.8%) of whom were salvaged by surgery. Radiation side-effects were minimal and there were no long term complications. Anterior commissure involvement did not affect the local recurrence rates. (author). 19 refs., 1 tabs

  20. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  1. Radiation sources, radiation environment and risk level at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The overall information about ionizing radiation sources, which form radiation environment and risk at Dubna, is introduced. Systematization of the measurement results is performed on the basis of the effective dose and losses of life expectancy. The contribution of different sources to total harm of Dubna inhabitants has been revealed. JINR sources carry in ∼ 4% from the total effective dose of natural and medicine radiation sources; the harm from them is much less than the harm from cigarette smoking. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  2. Radiation doses and possible radiation effects of low-level, chronic radiation in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.; Franks, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of radiation doses in soil and vegetation in Pu-contaminated areas at the Nevada Test Site with the objective of investigating low-level, low-energy gamma radiation (with some beta radiation) effects at the cytological or morphological level in native shrubs. In this preliminary investigation, the exposure doses to shrubs at the approximate height of stem apical meristems were estimated from 35 to 140 R for a ten-year period. The gamma exposure dose estimated for the same period was 20.7 percent +- 6.4 percent of that recorded by the dosimeters used in several kinds of field instrument surveys. Hence, a survey instrument reading made at about 25 cm in the tops of shrubs should indicate about 1 / 5 the dosimeter-measured exposures. No cytology has yet been undertaken because of the drought since last winter. (auth)

  3. Low-level radiation: a high-level concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, C.

    1979-01-01

    The role of DOE in radiation health effects research is discussed. The possibility of conflict of interest is presented. The Mancuso episode is cited as evidence. The roles of several agencies (EPA, NRC, and OSHA) in establishing safe limits of radiation exposure are discussed

  4. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  5. Assessment of dose level of ionizing radiation in army scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Hamid, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy radiation. Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine. Any human activity of nuclear technologies should be linked to the foundation of scientific methodology and baseline radiation culture to avoid risk of radiation and should be working with radioactive materials and expertise to understand, control practices in order to avoid risks that could cause harm to human and environment. The study was conducted in warehouses and building of Sudan air force Khartoum basic air force during September 2010. The goal of this study to estimate the radiation dose and measurement of radioactive contamination of aircraft scrap equipment and increase the culture of radiological safety as well as the concept of radiation protection. The results showed that there is no pollution observed in the contents of the aircraft and the spire part stores outside, levels of radiation dose for the all contents of the aircraft and spire part within the excitable level, except temperature sensors estimated radiation dose about 43 μSv/h outside of the shielding and 12 μSv/h inside the shielding that exceeded the internationally recommended dose level. One of the most important of the identification of eighteen (18) radiation sources used in temperature and fuel level sensors. These are separated from the scrap, collected and stored in safe place. (Author)

  6. Health aspects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    A brief description of natural background radiation is given. To understand the relationship between doses and effects the magnitude and distribution over time are stressed. The derivation of radiation protection standards and corresponding risks are discussed. The risks to the occupational worker and to the public from nuclear power are placed in context of risks in other industries and from alternate energy sources, including conservation. (author)

  7. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  8. The Assessment of Primary DNA Damage in Medical Personnel Occupationally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    2003-01-01

    In physico-chemical interaction with cellular DNA ionizing radiation produces a variety of primary lesions, such as single-strand breaks (SSB), alkali-labile sites, double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks, and damage to purine and pyrimidine bases. The effects of low-level exposure to ionising radiation are of concern to large number of people, including workers receiving radiation exposure on the job. It is very important to estimate absorbed doses from individuals occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for carrying out radioprotection procedures and restrict the hazards to human health. A wide range of methods is presently used for the detection of early biological effects of DNA-damaging agents in environmental and occupational settings. Currently, unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, in particularly dicentrics, are the most fully developed biological indicators of ionizing radiation exposure. This methodology usually complements data obtained by physical dosimetry. As a routine, it is used whenever the individual dosimeter shows an exposure to penetrating radiation above its limit of detection. One of the advantages of cytogenetic dosimetry is that this biological dosimeter can be assessed at any moment whereas physical dosimeters are not always present in the subject. During the last years, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay has gained widespread acceptance for genotoxicity testing. In molecular epidemiology studies DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay is utilized as a biomarker of exposure. The comet assay permits the detection of primary DNA damage and the study of repair kinetics at the level of single cells. The aim of the present study was to assess and quantificate the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and corresponding unexposed control subjects. As a sensitive biomarker of exposure the

  9. Nuclear power and low level radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1979-03-01

    Even in the future, nuclear power is expected to contribute less than 1/10th of the present total population exposure to man-made radiation. By the best estimates available, the current health risks of nuclear power generation appear to be much less than those associated with the major alternative sources of energy, with the exception of natural gas which is about equally safe. Uncertainties concerning the radiation risks from nuclear power, from medical x-rays and from the effects of reduced ventillation to conserve heat appear to be less than those associated with estimates of risks from the use of coal and various other sources of energy. This is in part because of the large amount of effort devoted to studies of radiation effects. The benefits in terms of current life expectancy associated with any of the conventional or unconventional methods of power production appear to greatly outweigh the associated current health hazards. (author)

  10. A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiao-jun; Tian, Chong-bin; Zhang, Qin-fu; Liu, Cheng; Ding, Li

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

  11. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  12. Primary radiation therapy for early breast cancer: the experience at the joint center for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.R.; Botnick, L.; Bloomer, W.D.; Chaffey, J.T.; Hellman, S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of primary radiation therapy in 176 consecutive patients with clinical State I and II carcinoma of the breast were reviewed. Median follow-up time was 47 months. The overall breast relapse rate was 7%. Patients undergoing interstitial implantation had a significantly lower breast relapse rate (1%) than patients not undergoing implantation (11%). Breast relapse was more common in patients undergoing incisional or needle biopsy (17%), compared to patients treated after excisional biopsy (5%). In patients undergoing excisional biopsy, but not interstitial implantation, breast relapse was related to external beam dose. Twelve percent of the patients who received less than 1600 ret dose relapsed in the breast, compared to none of the 19 patients who received more than 1700 ret dose. These results imply that supplemental irradiation to the primary tumor area is required following excisional biopsy of a primary breast cancer when 4500-5000 rad is delivered to the entire breast

  13. Proposal to integrate the service on radiation hygiene at the primary health care services for workers exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana; Lopez Pumar, Georgina; Gonzalez Amil, Melva

    1998-01-01

    The National Health System implemented in the last few years a new pattern of primary attention for workers by creating doctors offices in work centers. At the same time, the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP) carries the medical surveillance of the staff exposed to ionizing radiation. This work proposes a program to integrate the consulting room on radiation hygiene to primary health care services for workers that work with ionizing radiation sources, aiming to ameliorate and improve them

  14. Radiation damage at the molecular level: Nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Munoz, A.; Lagares, J. I.; Nunez, L.; Garcia, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main practical use of the model is its use as a tool of nanodosimetry which basically consists in characterizing the effect of radiation on nano volumes (comparable to the DNA of volumes) in terms of link breaks and molecular dissociations. (Author)

  15. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 ± 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255±213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22±0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62±2,44 mGy

  16. Evidence for beneficial low level radiation effects and radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Low doses in the mGy range cause a dual effect on cellular DNA. One effect concerns a relatively low probability of DNA damage per energy deposition event and it increases proportional with dose, with possible bystander effects operating. This damage at background radiation exposure is orders of magnitudes lower than that from endogenous sources, such as ROS. The other effect at comparable doses brings an easily obeservable adaptive protection against DNA damage from any, mainly endogenous sources, depending on cell type, species, and metabolism. Protective responses express adaptive responses to metabolic perturbations and also mimic oxygen stress responses. Adaptive protection operates in terms of DNA damage prevention and repair, and of immune stimulation. It develops with a delay of hours, may last for days to months, and increasingly disappears at doses beyond about 100 to 200 mGy. Radiation-induced apoptosis and terminal cell differentiation occurs also at higher doses and adds to protection by reducing genomic instability and the number of mutated cells in tissues. At low doses, damage reduction by adaptive protection against damage from endogenous sources predictably outweighs radiogenic damage induction. The analysis of the consequences of the particular low-dose scenario shows that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favor of a threshold or hormesis. This is consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer. The LNT hypothesis should be abandoned and be replaced by a hypothesis that is scientifically justified. The appropriate model should include terms for both linear and non-linear response probabilities. Maintaining the LNT-hypothesis as basis for radiation protection causes unressonable fear and expenses. (author)

  17. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  18. Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive literature indicates that minute doses of ionizing radiation benefit animal growth and development, fecundity, health and longevity. Specific improvements appear in neurologic function, growth rate and survival of young, wound healing, immune competence, and resistance to infection, radiation morbidity, and tumor induction and growth. Decreased mortality from these debilitating factors results in increased average life span following exposure to minute doses of ionizing radiation. The above phenomena suggest the possibility that ionizing radiation may be essential for life. Limited data with protozoa suggest that reproduction rates decrease when they are maintained in subambient radiation environments. This may be interpreted to be a radiation deficiency. Evidence must now be obtained to determine whether or not ionizing radiation is essential for growth, development, nutrient utilization, fecundity, health and longevity of higher animals. Whether or not ionizing radiation is found to be essential for these physiologic functions, the evidence reviewed indicates that the optimal amount of this ubiquitous agent is imperceptibly above ambient levels. (author)

  19. Cosmic radiation doses at flight level altitudes of airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, E.; Petr, I.

    1985-01-01

    Changes are discussed in flux density of cosmic radiation particles with time as are the origin of cosmic radiation, the level of cosmic radiation near the Earth's surface, and the determination of cosmic radiation doses in airliners. Doses and dose rates are given measured on different flight routes. In spite of the fact that the flight duration at an altitude of about 10 km makes for about 80% of the total flight time, the overall radiation burden of the crews at 1000 flight hours a year is roughly double that of the rest of the population. (J.C.)

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Human Skin Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Packard, Ann T.; Kramer, Gwen F.; Gaffney, David K.; Moos, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Although skin is usually exposed during human exposures to ionizing radiation, there have been no thorough examinations of the transcriptional response of skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to radiation. The transcriptional response of quiescent primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes exposed to from 10 cGy to 5 Gy and collected 4 h after treatment was examined. RNA was isolated and examined by microarray analysis for changes in the levels of gene expression. Exposure to ionizing radiation altered the expression of 279 genes across both cell types. Changes in RNA expression could be arranged into three main categories: (1) changes in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts, (2) changes in fibroblasts but not in keratinocytes, and (3) changes in both. All of these changes were primarily of p53 target genes. Similar radiation-induced changes were induced in immortalized fibroblasts or keratinocytes. In separate experiments, protein was collected and analyzed by Western blotting for expression of proteins observed in microarray experiments to be overexpressed at the mRNA level. Both Q-PCR and Western blot analysis experiments validated these transcription changes. Our results are consistent with changes in the expression of p53 target genes as indicating the magnitude of cell responses to ionizing radiation. PMID:19580510

  1. Serum heme oxygenase-1 levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ayse Nur; Laloglu, Esra; Ozkaya, Alev Lazoglu; Yilmaz, Emsal Pınar Topdagi

    2017-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea effects the life-quality of women negatively. The aim of this study was to evaluate heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) activity together with malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. A total of 28 nulliparous women with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. On the first day of menstruation, all patients underwent ultrasound examination to exclude pelvic pathology and the visual analogue scale was applied to patients. Patient's visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, age, body mass index (BMI), menstrual cycle length (day), length of bleeding (day) were recorded. In the same day, fasting blood samples were taken from each patient for biochemical analysis. Serum MDA, NO and HO1 levels were found to be higher in women with primary dysmenorrhea compared to healthy controls (p = 0.012, p = 0.009, p dysmenorrhea. Antioxidant support might be helpful to reduce pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea.

  2. Health effects of low-level radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have attempted to assess the carcinogenic risk induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Such studies are difficult to carry out because the incidence of radiation induced cancers is of only a few per cent, even following relativity large doses, and because there is no way to distinguish radiation induced cancer from the background of natural human cancers; moreover these surveys are exposed to many biases due to relatively small sizes of the populations studied and the difficulties of finding an appropriate control group, of estimating the absorbed doses and of collecting the data. A few national or international expert committees have analysed the available data and evaluated the carcinogenic effects. Their estimations of the risk, are similar and allow one to quantify the carcinogenic risk for doses above 100 rads. The risks of lower doses must be determined by extrapolation from human data at high doses. This extrapolation requires the knowledge of the dose-effect relationship. A linear extrapolation is most common and probably leads to a conservative estimate of the risk. A linear-quadratic function is probably more realistic and in better accordance with most scientific data. However the validity of its use for the estimation of carcinogenic risk is still debated. In experimental animals, the influence of dose-rate is important and some data suggest that this is the same for the carcinogenic effect in human beings. The genetic effects are probably less important than was feared a few years ago. The most important recent observation is the absence of any significant genetic effect in the progeny of the survivors of the A. bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This allows a conservative estimate of the maximum genetic risk for human beings [fr

  3. Intermediate bands versus levels in non-radiative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, Antonio; Marti, Antonio; Antolin, Elisa; Tablero, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    There is a practical interest in developing semiconductors with levels situated within their band gap while preventing the non-radiative recombination that these levels promote. In this paper, the physical causes of this non-radiative recombination are analyzed and the increase in the density of the impurities responsible for the mid-gap levels to the point of forming bands is suggested as the means of suppressing the recombination. Simple models supporting this recommendation and helping in its quantification are presented

  4. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  5. Experience of water chemistry and radiation levels in Swedish BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars, R.; Elkert, J.

    1981-01-01

    From the BWR operational experience in Sweden it has been found that the occupational radiation exposures have been comparatively low in an international comparison. One main reason for the favourable conditions is the good water chemistry performance. This paper deals at first with the design considerations of water chemistry and materials selection. Next, the experience of water chemistry and radiation levels are provided. Finally, some methods to further reduce the radiation sources are discussed. (author)

  6. A hybrid model of primary radiation damage in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, S.I.; Dremov, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper offers a hybrid model which combines molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo (MD+MC) methods to describe primary radiation damage in crystals, caused by particles whose energies are no higher than several tens of keV. The particles are tracked in accord with equations of motion with account for pair interaction. The model also considers particle interaction with the mean-field potential (MFP) of the crystal. Only particles involved in cascading are tracked. Equations of motion for these particles include dissipative forces which describe energy exchange between cascade particles and electrons. New particles - the atoms of the crystal in the cascade region - have stochastic parameters (phase coordinates); they are sampled by the Monte Carlo method from the distribution that describes the classic canonical ensemble of non-interacting particles subjected to the external MFP. The introduction of particle interaction with the MFP helps avoid difficulties related to crystal stability and the choice of an adequate interparticle interaction potential in the traditional MD methods. Our technique is many times as fast as the traditional MD methods because we consider only particles which are involved in cascading and apply special methods to speedup the calculation of forces by accounting for the short-range pair potential used

  7. An overview of radiation protection at national level in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Greek radiation protection Regulations were revised extensively and harmonized with the relevant Euratom Directives in 1991, covering almost all applications of ionizing radiation. According to the low in force, Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. Among others is responsible: for evaluating the environmental radiation, for introducing emergency plans to responsible Ministries to cope with radiation accidents or increased radioactivity levels, for issuing safety regulation concerning the operation employing ionizing radiation, performing inceptions to all installations or laboratories where radioisotopes or radiation producing machines are employed including all medical applications and issuing the certificate of compliance with the radiation protection regulations. GAEC is the governmental licensing authority for import, export, possession, use, transport and disposal of radioactive materials including fissile materials, and is also responsible for providing training and education to scientists and technical personnel on radiation protection and operates a two years postgraduate course in Medical radiation Physics in collaboration with three Greek Universities, leading to an M Sc degree.The achievements, initiatives and perceptivities of GAEC in the fields of its responsibility are discussed. Statistical data concerning the application of ionising radiation in Greece during the last five years are also presented (author)

  8. Environmental levels of microwave radiation around a satellite earth station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Bangay, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the background to claims of possible adverse health effects arising from exposure to environmental levels of microwave radiation around satellite earth stations. Results of a recent survey of the environmental levels of microwave radiation around two 32 metre diameter satellite communications antennas owned and operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission (OTC) of Australia are presented. From the measurements obtained in this survey it can be concluded that the environmental levels of microwave radiation around the OTC and similar satellite facilities do not pose a health risk to persons in the vicinity

  9. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  10. Learning About Bird Species on the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    Animal species identification is often emphasized as a basic prerequisite for an understanding of ecology because ecological interactions are based on interactions between species at least as it is taught on the school level. Therefore, training identification skills or using identification books seems a worthwhile task in biology education, and should already start on the primary level. On the primary level, however, complex interactions could not be taught but pupils are often interested in basic knowledge about species. We developed a hands-on, group-based and self-determined learning phase organized in workstations. About 138 pupils (2nd-4th graders) participated in this study. The two groups received an identification treatment with six different bird species. These were presented either as soft toys or as taxidermy specimen. Both groups scored similar prior and after the treatment (posttest 1) and with a delay of 6-8 weeks (posttest 2). More complex general linear modeling revealed a significant influence of prior knowledge, treatment and of grade (2nd, 3rd or 4th grade) on the first posttest while in the retention test gender differences emerged. We suggest that soft toys may be of equal value for teaching species identification on the primary level compared to natural taxidermic specimen, especially when considering pricing, insensitivity to handling, and contamination with agents used for preservation.

  11. Genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, D.

    1988-01-01

    The author outlines the evidence for genetic effects. The incidence of congenital abnormalities, stillbirths and child deaths has been examined in 70,000 pregnancies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compared with pregnancies in an unirradiated control group. No difference was detected in incidence of congenital abnormalities of stillbirths, but there was a small insignificant increase in child deaths when both parents were exposed. The number of children born with chromosome aberrations was slightly higher, but insignificant in the exposed group compared with controls. However, surveys of congenital malformations in children of radiologists and in children of Hanford workers suggest a genetic effect of radiation. Absolute and relative methods of calculating risks and the ICRP risk factor is also briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, D.E. [ed.

    1988-06-10

    The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

  13. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  14. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed

  15. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  16. Radiation levels from computer monitor screens within Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of possible presence of soft X-ray levels from Computer Screens at distances of 0.5m and 1.0m was carried out within Benue State University, Makurdi, using ten different monitor models. Radiation measurement was carried out using a portable digital radiation meter, INSPECTOR 06250 (SE international Inc.

  17. PWR type reactor equipped with a primary circuit loop water level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1990-01-01

    The time of lowering a water level to less than the position of high temperature side pipeway nozzle has been rather delayed because of the swelling of mixed water level due to heat generation of the reactor core. Further, there has been a certain restriction for the installation, maintenance and adjustment of a water level gauge since it is at a position under high radiation exposure. Then, a differential pressure type water level gauge with temperature compensation is disposed at a portion below a water level gauge of a pressurizer and between the steam generator exit plenum and the lower end of the loop seal. Further, a similar water level system is disposed to all of the loops of the primary circulation circuits. In a case that the amount of water contained in a reactor container should decreased upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents caused by small rupture and stoppage of primary circuit pumps, lowering of the water level preceding to the lowering of the water level in the reactor core is detected to ensure the amount of water. Since they are disposed to all of the loops and ensure the excess margin, reliability for the detection of the amount of contained water can be improved by averaging time for the data of the water level and averaging the entire systems, even when there are vibrations in the fluid or pressure in the primary circuit. (N.H.)

  18. Examining a link between SPEs and ground level radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have previously found a correlation between solar proton events (SPEs) and congenital malformations (CMs). A similar correlation has also been found between long term solar variability and CMs. We examine the ionizing radiation dose from these events as well as the largest events on record to determine whether these events are capable of producing these effects. We show that the total ionizing radiation dose (consisting of neutrons and muons) at ground level is insufficient for production of the observed increases in CM rate under the current paradigm regarding ionizing radiation from muons and neutrons. Current research on the subject shows that our assumptions regarding muonic ionizing radiation may be underestimating their biologic effect. We recommend further experimentation regarding the radiation dose due to muons, as this may prove to be a more substantial contribution to our radiation environment than previously assumed.

  19. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three ... Soil contains small quantities of radioactive elements along with their progeny. .... assessment for soil samples from Kestanbol.

  20. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  1. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  2. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  3. Decoding sound level in the marmoset primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wensheng; Marongelli, Ellisha N; Watkins, Paul V; Barbour, Dennis L

    2017-10-01

    Neurons that respond favorably to a particular sound level have been observed throughout the central auditory system, becoming steadily more common at higher processing areas. One theory about the role of these level-tuned or nonmonotonic neurons is the level-invariant encoding of sounds. To investigate this theory, we simulated various subpopulations of neurons by drawing from real primary auditory cortex (A1) neuron responses and surveyed their performance in forming different sound level representations. Pure nonmonotonic subpopulations did not provide the best level-invariant decoding; instead, mixtures of monotonic and nonmonotonic neurons provided the most accurate decoding. For level-fidelity decoding, the inclusion of nonmonotonic neurons slightly improved or did not change decoding accuracy until they constituted a high proportion. These results indicate that nonmonotonic neurons fill an encoding role complementary to, rather than alternate to, monotonic neurons. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neurons with nonmonotonic rate-level functions are unique to the central auditory system. These level-tuned neurons have been proposed to account for invariant sound perception across sound levels. Through systematic simulations based on real neuron responses, this study shows that neuron populations perform sound encoding optimally when containing both monotonic and nonmonotonic neurons. The results indicate that instead of working independently, nonmonotonic neurons complement the function of monotonic neurons in different sound-encoding contexts. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Environmental gamma radiation levels around various DAE research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takale, R.A.; Swarnakar, M.; Shetty, P.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the gamma radiation levels of four research centres viz. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata; Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore; and an industry Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Vashi. BARC is India's premier nuclear research facility and is a multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development (R and D). IGCAR, Kalpakkam is engaged in scientific research and advanced engineering programme towards the development of Fast Breeder Reactor technology. VECC Kolkata is dedicated to carry out frontier R and D in the fields of Accelerator Science and Technology, Nuclear Science (Theoretical and Experimental), and Material Science etc. RRCAT, Indore has rapidly grown into a premier institute for R and D in lasers, accelerators and their applications. BRIT, Vashi unit is involved in production, development, and supply of radioisotope based products and provision of isotope applications, radiation processing, radio analytical services etc. With an objective to keep a watch on the prevailing environmental background gamma radiation level around all the DAE installations, routine monitoring programme are being carried out using the Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs). TLDs provide the simple, inexpensive and precise measurement of small, integrated, external gamma radiation dose rate. The general practice of this programme is to observe the outdoor gamma radiation levels. This paper summarizes the methodology and gamma radiation levels of four research centres viz. BARC, IGCAR, VECC, RRCAT and an industry BRIT, Vashi

  5. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  6. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  7. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  8. The Radiation Levels for Household Goods Made in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Park, Doo Won; Lee, Wan No; Choi, Sang Do; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-01-01

    The environmental radiation based on a natural and artificial radiation always exists in the environment. The natural radiation includes cosmic ray coming into the atmosphere from outer space, radiation emitted from the earth's crust or soil, radiation by the radon in the air and its progenies. These natural radiation comes from various buildings like a house and an apartment, agricultural and stock breeding products like rice and milk, and a body, etc. The artificial radiation emanates from a nuclear power plant, a radioisotope facility, a radioactive waste disposal site, a medical or research facility treating a radioactive material, a radiation generation device for an industry, TV, a microwave oven, appliances like a fluorescent clock, an airport security table, etc. Among the various kinds of radioactive nuclides that existed in the earth's crust at the time of the earth's formation about 4,000 million years ago, all the short half life nuclides decayed and the long half life nuclides remain amid the nuclides of a half life with more than 100 million years and their progenies now. In fact, the natural radiation level is determined by the nuclides of the Thorium series which have K-40 (half life 1.25 billion years), Th-232 (half life 14.5 billion years) as a parent nuclide, the nuclides of the uranium series which have U-238 (half life 4.5 billon years) as a parent nuclide, and the cosmic ray like photon and muon. These nuclides are distributed in the soil, sea water, construction material and body with different concentrations. Different radiation dose rates are presented in different regions due to the different concentrations of the radioactive minerals included at the materials. Actually, Brazil and India reveal a relatively high natural radiation level

  9. How much can be learned from populations exposed to low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-05-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Many of the problems in analyzing and interpreting data on populations exposed to low levels of radiation are well illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant. The conclusion drawn is that the amount that can be learned from the Hanford population, and other populations exposed to low levels of radiation, is extremely limited. The data are not adequate to determine reliable estimates of risks, or to investigate the appropriateness of various models. Although there are problems in using data from populations exposed at high levels to estimate risks of low level exposure to radiation, the problems in obtaining such estimates directly are even more severe. Thus data from populations such as the Japanese A-bomb survivors and the British ankylosing spondylitis patients must continue to serve as our primary source of information on radiation effects. 27 references, 3 tables

  10. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  11. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The report contains information on the natural (background) radiation exposure (chapter II), the natural radiation exposure as influenced by anthropogenic effects (chapter III), the anthropogenic radiation exposure (chapter IV), and the radiation doses to the environment and the population emanating from the Chernobyl fallout (chapter V). The natural radiation exposure is specified referring to the contributions from cosmic and terrestrial background radiation and intake of natural radioactive substances. Changes of the natural environment resulting from anthropogenic effects (technology applications) inducing an increase in concentration of natural radioactive substances accordingly increase the anthropogenic radiation exposure. Indoor air radon concentration in buildings for instance is one typical example of anthropogenic increase of concentration of natural radioactivity, primarily caused by the mining industry or by various materials processing activities, which may cause an increase in the average radiation dose to the population. Measurements so far show that indoor air concentration of radon exceeds a level of 200 Bq/m 3 in less than 2% of the residential buildings; the EUropean Commission therefore recommends to use this concentration value as a maximum value for new residential buildings. Higher concentrations are primarily measured in areas with relevant geological conditions and abundance of radon, or eg. in mining areas. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Analysis of radiation level on dinosaur fossil in Zigong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changshu; Liang Shuzhi; Fan Zhengnian.

    1995-01-01

    Study on radiation level of dinosaur fossil and environment in conservation zone in Zigong, Sichuan has been done. The results showed that the γ radiation dose and radioactivity strength of 232 Th and 40 K in dinosaur fossil, soil and rock in the conservation zone were within the limits of radioactive background value in Zigong. Radioactivity strength of 238 U, 226 Ra in dinosaur fossil were 26.6 and 29.2 times higher than the rock of same layer respectively

  13. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San

    1999-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  14. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-03-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10/sup -5//y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10/sup -5//y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10/sup -5//y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10/sup -5//y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one.

  15. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10 -5 /y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10 -5 /y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10 -5 /y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10 -5 /y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one. (author)

  16. Evaluating natural radiation level by existing airborne radioactive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingkao, Hu; Changqing, Han; Jiangqi, Fang; Zhengxin, Shen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, founded in the middle of 1950s, is a unique unit specialized in uranium exploration by airborne radioactive survey in China. Large numbers of airborne data of radioactivity and abundant experience have been accumulated for more than 40 years. All-round detailed investigation of environmental radiation levels in our country will not be completed in the near future. Thus, at present it is considered to evaluate natural radiation levels using the existing radioactive data. This paper introduces the results of analysis and study comparing airborne radioactive data for radiation environmental evaluation obtained from survey area in Gansu, China, in the 2001 with the measurement results by ground gamma ray radiation dose-rate instrument for environment. The air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 30% at radiation fields with a definite area, and the air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 60% at outcrop of granite. In 6km long profile that has various circumstances, such as desert, Gobi, farmland and residential area, minimum of air absorbed dose rate is 47nGy/h at an altitude of 1 meter above the soil plane, maximum is 68nGy/h. The inter-comparison errors are usually less than 20%, and maximum is 25.38%. This shows that it is feasible to obtain natural radiation levels rapidly if we could use the existing radioactive data adequately and make some correction, such as geology factor

  17. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen

  18. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  19. Radiation exposure in the young level 1 trauma patient: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Michael B; Bellaire, Laura L; Moore, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular and powerful tool for clinicians managing trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, but the ramifications of increasing radiation burden on individual patients are not insignificant. This study examines a continuous series of 337 patients less than 40 years old admitted to a level 1 trauma center during a 4-month period. Primary outcome measures included number of scans; effective dose of radiation from radiographs and CT scans, respectively; and total effective dose from both sources over patients' hospital stays. Several variables, including hospital length of stay, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score, correlated with greater radiation exposure. Blunt trauma victims were more prone to higher doses than those with penetrating or combined penetrating and blunt trauma. Location and mechanism of injury were also found to correlate with radiation exposure. Trauma patients as a group are exposed to high levels of radiation from X-rays and CT scans, and CT scans contribute a very high proportion (91.3% ± 11.7%) of that radiation. Certain subgroups of patients are at a particularly high risk of exposure, and greater attention to cumulative radiation dose should be paid to patients with the above mentioned risk factors.

  20. Measurement uncertainty in broadband radiofrequency radiation level measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in the measurement of broadband radio frequency radiation, in this paper we propose a new approach based on the experience of the authors of the paper with measurements of radiofrequency electric field levels conducted in residential areas of Belgrade and over 35 municipalities in Serbia. The main objective of the paper is to present practical solutions in the evaluation of broadband measurement uncertainty for the in-situ RF radiation levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  1. The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on primary producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone layer in stratosphere is thinning and consequently UV-B radiation on the Earth surface is increasing. Although there is a small portion of UV-B radiation in the solar radiation, it has strong influence on organisms. Targets of UV-B radiation and protective mechanisms in primary producers are described. In the framework of the international project we studied the effect of UV-B radiation on blue-greens, algae, mosses, lichens and vascular plants on the National Institute of Biology

  2. INCA project for investigation of primary cosmic radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Erlykin, A.D.; Zhdanov, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific purposes of the INCA project and application of the ionization-neutron calorimeter for direct measurements of the cosmic rays spectrum and composition in the knee area and the primary electrons spectrum by 10 14 - 10 13 eV are discussed. The new effective method for the primary electrons and protons separation with the complex rejection coefficient of 10 -5 - 10 -6 is proposed for studying the primary electrons spectrum by E e > 1 TeV. The experimental and calculation data are in good agreement [ru

  3. Radiation hormesis: an outcome of exposure to low level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a benign environmental agent at background levels. Human population is always exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. Important sources are cosmic rays which come from outer space and from the surface of the sun, terrestrial radionuclides which occur in the earths crust in various geological formations in soils, rocks, building materials, plants, water, food, air and in the human body itself. With the increasing use of radiation in health facilities, scientific research, industry and agriculture, the study of impact of low-level ionizing radiation on environment and possible health effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. As regards the effects, it is established fact that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health, there exists, however, a substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (LLIR). In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports on stimulation by low-dose irradiation and recent data supporting radiation hormesis. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to the Indian population. This overview summarizes various reports

  4. Time course of cerebellar catalase levels after neonatal ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Meglio, A.; Caceres, L.; Zieher, L.M.; Guelman, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Reactive oxygen species are physiologically generated as a consequence of aerobic respiration, but this generation is increased in response to external stimuli, including ionizing radiation. The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption rate, its high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidant defences. An important compound of this defence system is the antioxidant enzyme catalase, an heme protein that removes hydrogen peroxide from the cell by catalyzing its conversion to water. The aim of the present work was to study if catalase is susceptible to oxidative stress generated by ionizing radiation on the cerebellum. Neonatal rats were irradiated with 5 Gy of X rays and the levels of catalase were measured at 15, 30 and 60 days of age. Results show that there is a decrease in the activity of catalase in irradiated cerebellum at 15 (% respect the control, 65.6 ± 14.8), 30 (51.35± 5.8%), and 60 days (9.3 ± 0.34%). Catalase activity at 15 and 30 days has shown to be positively correlated with the radiation-induced decrease in tissue's weight, while at 60 days there is an extra decrease. It would be suggested that, at long term, radiation exposure might induce, in addition to cerebellar atrophy, the oxidation of the radiosensitive heme group of the enzyme, leading to its inactivation. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme catalase has shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  6. The primary processes by impact of ionizing radiations with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znamirovschi, V.; Mastan, I.; Cozar, O.

    1976-01-01

    The problem concerning primary processes in radiolysis of water is discussed. The results on the excitation and ionization of water molecule, dissociation of the parent-molecular ion of water and dissociation of excited molecule of water are presented. (author)

  7. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  8. Experimental evaluation of radiator control based on primary supply temperature for district heating substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; Deventer, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We compared a new radiator system control approach with traditional control. → This is an experimental verification of previous simulation results. → We examine changes in delta-T and indoor comfort. → The indoor comfort were not affected by the introduction of alt. radiator control. → The alternative control method can contribute to an increased delta-T. -- Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate whether the primary supply temperature in district heating networks can be used to control radiator systems in buildings connected to district heating; with the purpose of increasing the ΔT. The primary supply temperature in district heating systems can mostly be described as a function of outdoor temperature; similarly, the radiator supply temperature in houses, offices and industries can also be described as a function of outdoor temperature. To calibrate the radiator control system to produce an ideally optimal radiator supply temperature that produces a maximized ΔT across the substation, the relationship between the primary supply temperature and outdoor temperature must be known. However, even if the relation is known there is always a deviation between the expected primary supply temperature and the actual temperature of the received distribution media. This deviation makes the radiator control system incapable of controlling the radiator supply temperature to a point that would generate a maximized ΔT. Published simulation results show that it is possible and advantageous to utilize the primary supply temperature for radiator system control. In this paper, the simulation results are experimentally verified through implementation of the control method in a real district heating substation. The primary supply temperature is measured by the heat-meter and is shared with the radiator control system; thus no additional temperature sensors were needed to perform the experiments. However additional meters were installed for surveillance purposes

  9. Primary beam ionizing radiation for patients during coronary cineangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Silva, Ana Maria; Ugalde, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston

    2001-01-01

    Current cardiology practice incorporates hemodynamic and angiographic studies as normal procedures. Clinical actions have to be taken in interventionist cardiology that demand prolonged exposure times to radiation, which implies submitting patients to quantitatively significant doses. This work is a preliminary phase for clinical studies involving long procedures in hemodynamic and electrophysiological interventionist cardiology to show the magnitude of the radiation doses received by the patients after a proper diagnosis. The aim is to improve the patient's radiological protection as well as that of the staff involved. The study group consisted of 18 patients who underwent coronary angiography procedures with Siemens Angioskop D equipment and a Siemens Polidoros 80 generator. Four TLD Crystal detectors were used for the patient's dosimetry, which were located in the dorsal region along the left para scapular line, on the mid line of the thyroid region and a detector on the mid point between the umbilical zone and the pubis symphysis. For procedure times of 14±4.3 min., with fluoroscope times of 3.6±2.5 min., connection techniques of 87±15 kV. and 126±24 mA, the radiations recorded in the left inter scapular and right inter scapular regions were 215±199 mGy (1-710 mGy range) and 255±212 mGy ( 22 - 791mGy range ). The radiations in the pubic and thyroid regions were 0.23±0.07 mGy and 3.62±2.44 mGy, respectively (CO)

  10. ATM, radiation, and the risk of second primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Concannon, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking. This review considers these questions in the context of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Heterozygous carriers of loss of function mutations in ATM that are A-T causing, are at increased risk of breast cancer. However, examination of a range of genetic variants, both rare and common, across multiple cancers, suggests that ATM may have additional effects on cancer risk that are allele-dependent. In the case of CBC, selected common alleles at ATM are associated with a reduced incidence of CBC, while other rare and predicted deleterious variants may act jointly with radiation exposure to increase risk. Further studies that characterize germline and somatic ATM mutations in breast cancer and relate the detected genetic changes to functional outcomes, particularly with regard to radiation responses, are needed to gain a complete picture of the complex relationship between ATM, radiation and breast cancer.

  11. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  12. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  14. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  15. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  16. Vessel used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Glover, J.S.; Shephard, B.P.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns the vessels used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels. These vessels prove to be particularly useful in analyses of the kind where a radioactive element or compound is separated into two phases and the radioactivity of one phase is determined. Such a vessel used in the counting of radiation includes an organic plastic substance tube appreciably cylindrical in shape whose upper end is open whilst the lower end is closed and integral with it, and an anti-radiation shield in metal or in metal reinforced plastic located at the lower end of the tube and extending along the wall of the tube up to a given height. The vessel contains a reaction area of 1 to 10 ml for holding fluid reagents [fr

  17. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sihui; Zhang Jiaxian

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province are presented, 290 measuring points of 25 x 25 km-grid were set uniformly up all over the province, with 385 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 60.8, 58.5 and 60.9 nGy ·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 55.3 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighed average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 94.5 and 93.2 x 10 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 27.8 and 26.3 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 31.8 and 30.4 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside building is 121.0 and 120.7 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 92.8 and 88.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.24, 0.52 and 0.76 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.2, 2.5 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  18. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuncheng; Wu Chengxiang; Zhang Juling; Zhao Defeng

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province are presented. 221 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 555 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1)The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 53.5, 58.5 and 54.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 58.4 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 85.2 and 78.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 28.6 and 28.1 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 32.4 and 32.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 109.7 and 112.8 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 84.8 and 91.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.26, 0.48 and 0.73 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 0.8 x 10 4 , 1.6 x 10 4 and 2.4 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  19. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Wang Chengbao.

    1993-01-01

    The methods and results of in investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu Province are presented. 182 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set up uniformly all over the province, with 236 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 50.3, 50.6 and 50.4 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 47.1 nGy · h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 89.7 and 89.2 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 26.0 and 25.8 nGy · h -1 , and outside buildings is 29.2 and 29.1 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 115.1 and 115.5 nGy · h -1 , outside buildings is 79.5 and 79.7 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.23, 0.48 and 0.71 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 3.0, 1.5 and 4.5 x 10 4 man · Sv, respectively

  20. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Li Jiyin

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province are presented. 359 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 433 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 62.0, 63.0 and 61.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 63.0 nGy · h -1 ; (3)The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 100.0 and 98.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 32.0 and 31.0 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 37.0 and 36.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 130.0 and 131.0 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 130.0 and 130.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6)The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.55, 0.28 and 0.83 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.63, 0.83 and 2.46 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  1. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingqiu; Chen Shuping; Jiang Shan; Zhu Xingsheng; Huang Jiangbin; Wu Chuanyong; Wang Weining

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui Province in 1987 are presented. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.67, 5.62 and 5.55 x 10 -8 Gy· -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 5.38 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 9.59 and 9.36 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 2.64 and 2.62 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , and outside buildings is 2.95 and 2.94 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.23 and 11.99 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.62 and 8.49 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.51, 0.24, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 2.5, 1.2 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  2. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Opalka, Lukas [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-07

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  3. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granja, Carlos; Opalka, Lukas; Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus; Jakubek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  4. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  5. Radiation diagnosis of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipov, V.Sh.

    2001-01-01

    Results of combined examination of patients for the purpose of diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are presented. Combined examination consisted of the following techniques: ultrasonography, routine X-ray contrast study of upper section of digestive system, relaxation duodenography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, computerized tomography, endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography. Peculiarities in X-ray PSC semiotics were revealed. It is shown that the combined examination and X-ray semiotics of the disease is of great significance for PSC preoperational diagnosis [ru

  6. Low level radiation: how low can you get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1990-01-01

    Information stored on the world's largest data bank concerning the health of nuclear industry workers is to be handed over to researchers at Birmingham University by the US Department of Energy. The data bank contains detailed information on 300,000 nuclear employees, going back to the 1940s. Such a large sample size will allow the results of a previous study conducted on workers in the US nuclear industry to be verified. That study was concluded in 1978 and showed that the risk estimates set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were between 10 and 30 times too low. The current ICRP estimate allows workers up to 50mSv of exposure to low level radiation per year. Risk estimates have been derived from data relating to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However in those cases the radiation doses were relatively high but over a short period. In the nuclear industry the doses are lower but are long term and this may account for the apparent anomalies such as the incidence of leukaemia amongst children whose fathers have worked in the nuclear industry compared with that for the children whose fathers received radiation doses from the atomic bombings. It is expected the study will show that low-level radiation is more damaging than has previously been thought. (author)

  7. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Lynn, E-mail: lmillion@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  8. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Somatic and genetic effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Although the biological effects of ionizing radiation are probably better known than those of any other physical or chemical agent in the environment, our information about such effects has come from observations at doses and dose rates which are orders of magnitude higher than natural background environmental radiation levels. Whether, therefore biological effects occur in response to such low levels can be estimated only by extrapolation, based on assumptions about the dose-effect relationship and the mechanisms of the effects in question. Present knowledge suggests the possibility that several types of biological effects may result from low-level irradiation. The induction of heritable genetic changes in germ cells and carcinogenic changes in somatic cells are considered to be the most important from the standpoint of their potential threat to health. On the basis of existing data, it is possible to make only tentative upper limit estimates of the risks of these effects at low doses. The estimates imply that the frequency of such effects attributable to exposure at natural background radiation levels would constitute only a small fraction of their natural incidence. 148 references

  10. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  11. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in inner mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenyuan; Du Xuelin; Zhang Baozhong; Fu Su; Chen Jun; Zhang Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The scheme, quality assurance measure, and results for environmental natural penetrating radiation level investigation in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was reported. Over the whole Region area of more than 1.18 million km 2 , 1018 net grid measuring points were selected with grid spacing of 25 x 25 km. The range of natural environmental terrestrial γ-radiation air absorbed dose rate over fields was (0.96-18.62) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the range of γ-radiatoin dose rate over road was (1.07-26.08) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the mean was 5.92 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of γ-radiation dose rate in buildings was (3.82-18.94) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor air absorbed dose rate caused by ionization compnents of cosmic rays was (3.12-5.55) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , while indoor range was (2.60-4.66) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor natural penetrating radiation dose rate was (8.31-11.26) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , indoor range was (11.20-14.67) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; annual average individual effective dose equivalent and annual collective effective dose equivalent caused by natural penetrating radiatoin were 0.84 mSv and 1.61 x 10 4 man·Sv respectively. The georgaphical distribution of terrestrial γ-radiation dose rate within all region was reprted, the increase of environmental terrestial γ-radiation caused by human activity was also pointed. This ought to be paid enough attention to

  12. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  13. Education on radiation risk in primary and middle schools in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    The (ionizing) radiation appears in the text of social studies in primary and middle school curriculums. The radiation is almost not involved in the text of science. Consequently, pupils know only the examples of disasters caused by the excessive radiation and have no chance to learn real natures and characters of the radiation after the compulsory education course. This situation means difficulties to give a lesson on the radiation risk. Erupting volcanoes, earthquakes and lightning are similar in danger of the excessive radiations. However, few pupils have a supernatural threat for these phenomena that ancient people do, because they have the adequate knowledge for theses after primary and middle school curriculums. This situation is a full of contrast to the case of the radiation on the major sensitivity that they have. The point is to let pupils learn that the radiation is one of the natural phenomena like heat and electricity, those exist before a birth of human being. Natural ionizing radiation sources are recommended for the first teaching material. Pupils know that the radiation is one of commonplace events, then. Radiation is one of the universe elements. Consequently, they will know that human being is evolving with the radiation exposures. The general perception on safety and danger is a kind of antinomy in Japan. A person who is following antinomy accepts only zero risk. Preschool educations will be needed to grow out of an antinomy concept on safety and danger, and to recognize the reality. A comprehensive knowledge should be provided with a full balance for the perception of risk. For an example, prejudices against HIV patients still remain in Japan, due to many belated campaigns on weak infection. People remember danger, and they do not remember the fact that is not dangerous. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. Education on radiation risk in primary and middle schools in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The (ionizing) radiation appears in the text of social studies in primary and middle school curriculums. The radiation is almost not involved in the text of science. Consequently, pupils know only the examples of disasters caused by the excessive radiation and have no chance to learn real natures and characters of the radiation after the compulsory education course. This situation means difficulties to give a lesson on the radiation risk. Erupting volcanoes, earthquakes and lightning are similar in danger of the excessive radiations. However, few pupils have a supernatural threat for these phenomena that ancient people do, because they have the adequate knowledge for theses after primary and middle school curriculums. This situation is a full of contrast to the case of the radiation on the major sensitivity that they have. The point is to let pupils learn that the radiation is one of the natural phenomena like heat and electricity, those exist before a birth of human being. Natural ionizing radiation sources are recommended for the first teaching material. Pupils know that the radiation is one of commonplace events, then. Radiation is one of the universe elements. Consequently, they will know that human being is evolving with the radiation exposures. The general perception on safety and danger is a kind of antinomy in Japan. A person who is following antinomy accepts only zero risk. Preschool educations will be needed to grow out of an antinomy concept on safety and danger, and to recognize the reality. A comprehensive knowledge should be provided with a full balance for the perception of risk. For an example, prejudices against HIV patients still remain in Japan, due to many belated campaigns on weak infection. People remember danger, and they do not remember the fact that is not dangerous. (Y. Tanaka)

  15. Efficacy of RADPAD® protection drape in reducing radiation exposure to the primary operator during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divyesh; Ramsewak, Adesh; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of RADPAD® (a sterile, lead-free drape) has been demonstrated to reduce the scatter radiation to the primary operator during fluoroscopic procedures. However, the use of the RADPAD® during TAVI procedures has not been studied. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now an established treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are deemed inoperable or at high risk for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Consequently the radiation exposure to the patient and the interventional team from this procedure has become a matter of interest and importance. Methods to reduce radiation exposure to the interventional team during this procedure should be actively investigated. In this single center prospective study, we determined the radiation dose during this procedure and the efficacy of RADPAD® in reducing the radiation dose to the primary operator. Fifty consecutive patients due to undergo elective TAVI procedures were identified. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo the procedure with or without the use of a RADPAD® drape. There were 25 patients in each group and dosimetry was performed at the left eye level of the primary operator. The dosimeter was commenced at the start of the procedure, and the dose was recorded immediately after the end of the procedure. Fluoroscopy times and DAP were also recorded prospectively. Twenty-five patients underwent transfemoral TAVI using a RADPAD® and 25 with no-RADPAD®. The mean primary operator radiation dose was significantly lower in the RADPAD group at 14.8 mSv vs. 24.3 mSv in the no-RADPAD group (P=0.008). There was no significant difference in fluoroscopy times or dose-area products between the two patient groups. The dose to the primary operator relative to fluoroscopy time (RADPAD: slope=0.325; no RADPAD: slope=1.148; analysis of covariance F=7.47, P=0.009) and dose area product (RADPAD: slope=0.0007; no RADPAD: slope=0.002; analysis of covariance F=7

  16. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zengxin; Zhang Wenying; Zheng Rukuan; Wei Shujun; Ding Huiqiu

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the methods and results of investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing. There were 83 measurement points selected, which were located at the vertexes of 1 x 1 km square meshes and uniformly distributed over the urban district. 173 net grid measuring points selected with grid spacing of 10 x 10 km and uniformly distributed over the suburban district. Another 131 more densely distributed points were added over some special areas. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field is 56.2, 56.4 and 50.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. The γ radiation dose rate is higher in west and north area than in southeast area. (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over roads was 49.3 nGy · h -1 . (3) The point weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose inside buildings was 83.5 and 77.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. (4) The weighted average of air absorbed dose rate from the ionizing components of cosmic rays (except for neutron) over point number and population was respectively 29.0 and 27.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, and 32.3 and 30.8 nGy · h -1 outdoors. (5) The point and population-weighted means of natural penetrating radiation dose rate (the contribution from neutron is not included) are 112.8 and 104.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, respectively; 88.7 and 81.3 nGy · h -1 outdoors, respectively. (6) The annual effective dose equivalent per capital people natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.43, 0.25 and 0.68 mSv respectively, and the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 4.0, 2.3 and 6.3 x 10 3 man · Sv, respectively

  17. Legal aspects of radiation protection at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazian, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review is made of the respective activities of the various international organizations concerned with radiation protection at the legal level. These organizations are either non-governmental (I.C.R.P., I.C.R.U.) or governmental in which case they can act at the world (U.N., I.A.E.A., I.L.O., W.H.O.) or regional level (N.E.A., EURATOM, COMECOM). The legal impact of the recommendations or directives they issue is specified [fr

  18. Genetic damage from low-level and natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1988-01-01

    Relevant predictions that have been made of possible low level biological effects on man are reviewed, and the estimate of genetic damage is discussed. It is concluded that in spite of a number of attempts, no clear-cut case of effects in human populations of radiation at natural levels has been demonstrated. The stability of genetic material is dynamic, with damage, repair and selection running as continuous processes. Genetic materials are well protected and are conservative in the extreme, not least because evolution by genetic adaptation is an expensive process: Substitution of one allele A 1 by another A 2 means the death of the whole A 1 population

  19. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  20. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  1. Second primary tumor and radiation induced neoplasma in the uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Narimatsu, Naoto; Kanemoto, Toshitaka

    1984-01-01

    This report is concerned with multiple primary cancers developing in invasive uterine cancer. Second primary tumors were recorded 27 women with a total of 30 non-uterine cancer (exception of radiation-induced cancer). 17 patients of radiation-induced neoplasm were observed (Rectal cancer 4, soft part sarcoma 4, cancer of urinary bladder 3, bone tumor 3, uterin cancer 2 and cancer of Vulva 1). One case is 4 legions (corpus, sigma, thymoma and stomach), 2 cases are 3 lesions (uterine cervix, stomach and maxillay siuis: uterine cervix, thyroidal gland and radiation-induced soft part sarcoma). Only 5 of these 17 patients were known irradiated dose (50 Gy--55 Gy), however others unknown. The mean latent periods of 17 cases of radiation induced neoplasms are 19.4 years. 16 patients of late second cancers of the cervix appearing from 11 to 36 years (average 19.5 years) after initial radiotherapy were recorded. (author)

  2. Effective radiation therapy on two cases of primary Ewing's sarcoma of the rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Kazue; Ajimu, Akira; Ishida, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Hombo, Zenichiro; Amamoto, Yuhei.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of primary Ewing's sarcoma of the rib are reported, in which radiation therapy was quite effective. Case 1 was an 18-year-old female who had had an operation and radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the left 7th rib. She was referred to our hospital after a recurrent tumor was found. Radiation therapy (tumor dose 46.2 Gy) and chemotherapy were given. The tumor disappeared and there has been no relapse for 1 year and 3 months after the treatment. Case 2 was a 2-year-old-infant. Radiation therapy (tumor dose 74 Gy) was given for primary Ewing's sarcoma of the left 6th rib. The tumor became small and was successfully removed at operation. There has been no relapse or distant metastasis for 8 months following the operation. We emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary treatment in case 1 and the usefulness of preoperative radiotherapy in case 2. (author)

  3. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  4. Environments with elevated radiation levels from natural radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Some areas in the world have elevated levels of radioactive substances in the environment forming elevated radiation areas (ERAs) where public potential annual effective doses can exceed even the dose limit of radiation workers. Such radioactive substances are either terrestrial natural radioactivity added naturally in the soil or natural and/or man-made radioactivity from human activities added into the environment. If radioactivity is added naturally, elevated natural radiation areas (ENRAs) are formed. Based on the classification criteria introduced by the author, such regions are divided into static and dynamic areas. They are also classified in accordance with their level of potential effective dose to the public. Some main ENRAs are classified. Highlights are presented of the results of activity studies carried out in selected areas. The concepts discussed can also be applied to areas formed by human activities. The author suggests some guidelines for future studies, regulatory control and decision making, bearing in mind the need for harmonization of policies for regulatory control and remedial actions at sites to protect the public from environmental chronic exposures. (author)

  5. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Deliang; Wang Shuming; Yang Huanfeng

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei Province from 1985 to 1987 are presented. 285 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the porvince, with 204 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.59, 5.51 and 5.31 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 3.05 and 2.80 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 3.38 and 3.11 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.44 and 11.97 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.50, 0.25, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effectiv dose equivalent is 2.7, 1.3 and 4.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  6. Radiation therapy in recurrence of carcinoma of the uterine cervix after primary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment results in terms of the survival and failure patterns subsequent to radiation therapy in recurrent cervical cancer, following primary surgery. Between January 1990 and December 1999, 27 patients, with recurrent cervical cancer following primary surgery, were subsequently treated with radiation in the Department of Radiation Oncology, at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Their median age was 48, ranging from 31 to 70 years old. With regard to the initial FIGO stage on presentation, 20 and 7 patients were stages I and II, respectively. Twenty three patients had squamous ceH carcinomas and 4 had adenocarcinomas. The time interval from the primary surgery to the recurrence ranged from 2 to 90 months with a median of 29 months. The recurrent sites were the vaginal cuff alone, the pelvic cavity and combined recurrence in 14, 9 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiation was performed, with external and vaginal intracavitary radiation in 13 patients, external radiation alone in 13 and vaginal intracavitary radiation alone in another one. The median follow-up period was 55 months, ranging from 6 to 128 months. The five year disease free survival (5y DFS) and five year overall survival (5y OS) rates were 68.2 and 71.9%, respectively. There was a marginal statistically significant difference in the 5y DFS in relation to the recurrent site (5y DFS, 85.7% in vaginal cuff recurrence alone, 53.3% in pelvic cavity recurrence, p=0.09). There was no difference in the survival according to the time interval between the primary surgery and a recurrence. There was only a 7% local failure rate in the patients with a vaginal cuff recurrence. The major failure patterns were local failure in the patients with pelvic cavity recurrence, and distant failure in the patients with a combined recurrence. There were no complications above grade 3 after the radiation therapy. Radiation therapy was safe and effective treatment for a

  7. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  8. Evaluation of the radiation levels in different surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos, M.C.P. da; Almeida, A. de; Belluci, A.D.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    The exposure of a medical team to radiation during surgical procedures evidently depends on the duration and difficulties of the particular procedure. We have made a dosimetric study of the average equivalent doses received by the surgical teams during 10 different surgical procedures over a period of one month. Our results demonstrate that the levels of ionizing radiation that the members of the teams receive typically do not surpass the limits stipulated for the following surgical procedures: nefrolithotomy, percutaneous ureterolithomy, ureteroscoy connected with removal of stones in the inferior third of the ureter, osteosynthesis of the tibial plateau together with a articular toalet and minireconstruction of the knee. For compound surgical procedures, for example, osteosynthesis of a femur fracture together with biopsy of an exposed femur or percutaneous nefrolithotomy (complex cases), the dose limits have been surpassed owing to the additional fluoroscopy needed in those p rocedures. (author) [pt

  9. Evaluation of vitamin D levels in children with primary epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almis, Habip; Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Caliskan, Muhammed Nebi; Turgut, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D 3] values and incidences of primary epistaxis among children. A total of 42 cases and 55 matched controls were included in our study. The study group and control group were well matched for age and gender. Age, gender, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with reference to the international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), and 25(OH)D 3, parathormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) values were recorded for each participant. Serum 25(OH) D values were found to be statistically significantly (P = 0.03) lower in children with primary epistaxis than in the healthy control group. Our study also revealed that 25(OH) D values were considerably (P epistaxis and upper respiratory tract infections (RTI) than in the group with primary epistaxis without upper RTI. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that 25(OH)D 3 epistaxis. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that 25(OH)D 3 epistaxis. Many studies have revealed that vitamin D is a preventive and therapeutic agent for inflammation and infection, thereby providing benefits for children with primary epistaxis. In line with this, our study suggested that a patient's vitamin D status could also be important for the prevention of childhood primary epistaxis, although further studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  11. Identification of entry-level competencies for associate degree radiographers as perceived by primary role definers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify those competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when they assume employment as entry-level practitioners. A second purpose of the study was to rank order the identified competencies within the role delineations recognized by the Essentials and Guidelines of an Accredited Educational Program for the Radiographer. These role delineations include: radiation protection, exercise discretion and judgment, emergency and life saving techniques, patient care and interpersonal communication, and role as professional member. A third purpose of the study was to examine the degree of consensus on role definition of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers as perceived by primary role definers (such as employers, employees, and educators), and by other selected variables: age, sex, length of experience in radiologic technology, level of formal education, and place of employment. A major finding of this study was that respondents did not differ significantly in their ranking of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when the responses were analyzed according to position, age, sex, length of experience, level of education, or place of employment. Another important finding was that respondents considered all of the 63 competencies as important and needed by Associate Degree Radiographers upon initial employment.A major conclusion and recommendation of this study, in view of the high agreement on the rank ordering of competencies, was that these competencies should be included in a competency-based education model. It was further recommended that a three-way system of communication between employers, employees, and educators be considered in order to pool resources and to increase understanding of each position group's contribution and influence on entry-level Associate Degree Radiographers

  12. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.

  13. Monte-Carlo study on primary knock-on atom energy spectrum produced by neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Yongkang; Deng Yongjun; Ma Jimin

    2012-01-01

    Computational method on energy distribution of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced by neutron radiation was built in the paper. Based on the DBCN card in MCNP, reaction position, reaction type and energy transfer between neutrons and atoms were recorded. According to statistic of these data, energy and space distributions of PKAs were obtained. The method resolves preferably randomicity of random number and efficiency of random sampling computation. The results show small statistical fluctuation and well statistical. Three-dimensional figure of energy and space distribution of PKAs were obtained, which would be important to evaluate radiation capability of materials and study radiation damage by neutrons. (authors)

  14. Comparison of Reading Levels of Pharmacy Students and Reading Level of Primary Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy H Ficzere

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have

  15. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  16. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2010-12-01

    The annual report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2009 consists of two parts. Part A: General information: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B includes current data and their evaluation for natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation.

  17. Radiation and man - evaluation of biological and environmental low level radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.

    1977-01-01

    The harmful effects of acute radiation cannot be resolved by statistical means and require clearer knowledge of mechanisms of action and much wider collection of human experience before any definite sound stand can be taken. Much information has accumulated from animal experiments, and still the interpretations are not always clearcut, but for human experience it is only the occasional accident which can give a direct answer. Some of the phenomena attributed to low dose radiation are summarized. There are regions of radiation exposure about which we have only limited positive knowledge, an all low-dose risk estimates have been based on effects observed at relatively high doses. Much information has been gathered which does not support the severity of former basic principles, especially our knowledge of mechanisms of repair existing in most cells as natural defence against the damages caused by radiation as well as by many chemicals which act as mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. Understanding these mechanism, their scope of action and their availability to a damaged cell and organism will lead towards modification of the acceptable permissible exposures, in some cases towards severity, but in most cases towards leniency and higher values. For the evaluation of the effects of low level low dose-rate radiations, whether external, or from internal deposition of isotopes, only late somatic and genetic effects should be considered. (B.G.)

  18. Young Scientists Explore Insects. Book 2 Primary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains suggestions for students to investigate the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on nine easily recognized insects: bees, beetles, lady bugs, lightning bugs, ants, mosquitoes,…

  19. [Staffing levels in medical radiation physics in radiation therapy in Germany. Summary of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetz, Hans-Karl; Eipper, Hermann Hans; Gfirtner, Hans; Schneider, Peter; Welker, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    To get a general idea of the actual staffing level situation in medical radiation physics in 1999 a survey was carried out by the task-group "Personalbedarf" of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik (DGMP) among all DGMP-members who are active in this field. Main components for equipment and activities are defined in Report 8 and 10 of DGMP for staffing requirements in medical radiation physics. 322 forms were sent out, 173 of them have been evaluated. From the answers regarding equipment and activities numbers for staff are calculated by the methods given in Report 8 and 10 for this spot check target and compared with effective staffing levels. The data of the spot check are then extrapolated on total Germany. The result is a calculated deficit of 865 medical physicists for the whole physics staff, 166 of them in radiation therapy. From the age distribution of DGMP-members and the calculated deficit resulted a training capacity of about 100 medical physicists at all per year (19 in radiation therapy) if the deficit shall be cut back in 10 years.

  20. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  1. Ecological effects of exposure to enhanced levels of ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation of plants and animals can result in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as triggers of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ essentially from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. Considerable differences in ecology and niches occupied by different species lead to substantial differences in doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by species, even when they all are present in the same environment at the same time. This is especially evident for contamination with α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination can be considered an ecological factor that is able to modify the resistance in natural populations. However, there are radioecological situations when elevated radioresistance does not evolve or persist. The complexity and non-linearity of the structure and functioning of ecosystems can lead to unexpected consequences of stress effects, which would appear harmless if they were assessed within the narrower context of organism-based traditional radioecology. Therefore, the use of ecological knowledge is essential for understanding responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integration of basic ecological principles in the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for predicting radiation effects under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine [PTM]; the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics [PHS]). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures

  3. More on direct estimates of low-level radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    In an epidemiologic study of mortality at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found no evidence of excess deaths due to leukemia or other cancers among workers exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. In a subsequent analysis, Bross and Driscoll identified excess lung cancer mortality in PNS workers with lifetime radiation dose of 1 rem or greater and with more than 15 years' latency since first radiation exposure. Although that observation may be important and is currently being examined through case-control analyses, it must be recognized that Bross and Driscoll extracted their observation from matrices of over 4,000 data cells apparently by recombination of innumerable possible permutations of dosage and latency intervals. For that reason, their finding can be regarded as no more than a suggestion for further study. It certainly does not represent a proper scientific conclusion. Bross and Driscoll's analysis illustrates the hazard of performing multiple statistical comparisons on complex data sets in the absence of a priori hypotheses

  4. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  5. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  6. Ionizing radiation increases primary cilia incidence and induces multiciliation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, A.; Diaz-Garcia, D.; Bezrouk, A.; Čížková, D.; Havelek, R.; Vávrová, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Řezáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2015), s. 943-953 ISSN 1065-6995 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell line * ionizing radiation * multiple cilia * myoblast * primary cilium * serum starvation stress Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2015

  7. Radiation exposure rate and liquid level measurement inside a high level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Yue, S.; Thekkevarriam, A.

    2007-01-01

    An instrument based on an inexpensive, small silicon diode has been developed and used to measure, for the first time, the gamma radiation exposure rate profile inside a 6.4 mm diameter reentrant thermo-well tube, immersed in the highly radioactive liquid solution in an HLLW storage tank. The measurement agrees with previous calculations of exposure rate, and provides confirmation for safe and effective radiation work plans and material selection for investigations and remediation of the storage tank facility. The measured radiation exposure rate profile is also used to confirm that the position of tank internal structures have not changed because of aging and corrosion, and to obtain, within a few mm, the level of liquid inside the tank. (author)

  8. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix. (author)

  9. Measurement and calculation of radiation sources in the primary cooling system of JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Iizawa, K.; Ohtani, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Horie, J.; Handa, H.

    1987-01-01

    Production and transfer of radiation sources in the primary cooling system are important consideration in the LMFBR plant from the viewpoint of radiation protection and shielding design. These items were evaluated with calculations and/or measurements in the Japanese experimental fast reactor JOYO. In this study, calculations were made with the DOT3.5 0 two-dimensional discrete ordinate transport code to determine the neutron flux and production rate distributions of radiation sources in the reactor vessel. Using the DOT results, the behavior in primary coolant sodium of the CP (radioactive corrosion products) which were released from the reactor structural material was also calculationally analyzed with the PSYCHE code developed by PNC. These analytical results were compared with the measured results to get the verification of analysis methods and to estimate the accuracy of calculations

  10. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Beneath Snowpack Using Snowpack Radiative Transfer Modeling and Global Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Peterson, M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Sufficient photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetrates snow for plants to grow beneath snowpack during late winter or early spring in tundra ecosystems. During the spring in this ecosystem, the snowpack creates an environment with higher humidity and less variable and milder temperatures than on the snow-free land. Under these conditions, the amount of PAR available is likely to be the limiting factor for plant growth. Current methods for determining net primary productivity (NPP) of tundra ecosystems do not account for this plant growth beneath snowpack, apparently resulting in underestimating plant production there. We are currently in the process of estimating the magnitude of this early growth beneath snow for tundra ecosystems. Our method includes a radiative transfer model that simulates diffuse and direct PAR penetrating snowpack based on downwelling PAR values and snow depth data from global satellite databases. These PAR levels are convolved with plant growth for vegetation that thrives beneath snowpacks, such as lichen. We expect to present the net primary production for Cladonia species (a common Arctic lichen) that has the capability of photosynthesizing at low temperatures beneath snowpack. This method may also be used to study photosynthesis beneath snowpacks in other hardy plants. Lichens are used here as they are common in snow-covered regions, flourish under snowpack, and provide an important food source for tundra herbivores (e.g. caribou). In addition, lichens are common in arctic-alpine environments and our results can be applied to these ecosystems as well. Finally, the NPP of lichen beneath snowpack is relatively well understood compared to other plants, making it ideal vegetation for this first effort at estimating the potential importance of photosynthesis at large scales. We are examining other candidate plants for their photosynthetic potential beneath snowpack at this time; however, little research has been done on this topic. We

  11. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  12. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2014; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The annual report 2014 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following topics: (1) Actual data and their evaluation: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial environmental radioactivity, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. (2) Fundamentals and general information: legal basis and explanations, basic information on natural environmental radioactivity, basic information on artificial radioactivity in the environment, basic information on occupational radiation exposure, basic information on radiation exposures from medical applications, basic information on the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, basic information on non-ionizing radiation. (3) Tables.

  13. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  15. A panchayat level primary-care approach for adolescent services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Sunitha, R M; Prasanna, G L; Russell, P S

    2012-01-01

    To develop a model for providing community adolescent care services in the primary care setting Need assessment was done among adolescents and perceived problems of adolescents were studied using qualitative and quantitative methods. Based on the results of these studies, a Family Life Education (FLE) module was prepared. Awareness programs were organized for all stakeholders in the community on adolescent issues. All anganwadi workers in the panchayat were trained to take interactive sessions for all the adolescents in the panchayat using the FLE module. Ward based Teen Clubs were formed in all the 13 wards of the Panchayat separately for boys and girls and FLE classes were given to them through anganwadi workers. An Adolescent Clinic was set up to provide necessary medical and counseling facilities. Adolescent Health Card was distributed to all Teen Club members and those who attended the adolescent clinics. The present approach stresses the need and feasibility of adolescent-centered, community-based interventions. The authors' experience showed that before starting any adolescent program, community awareness generation about the need and content of the program is very important for its success. The experience of this model has made it possible to up-scale the program to seven districts of southern Kerala as a service model. The experiences of the program gave a realistic picture of the needs and problems of adolescents and a simple feasible model for providing services to adolescents in the primary care setting that can be easily replicated in other parts of India.

  16. Bystander-mediated genomic instability after high LET radiation in murine primary haemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Deborah A.; Moore, Stephen R.; Macdonald, Denise A.; Smyth, Sharon H.; Clapham, Peter; Kadhim, Munira A.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between irradiated and unirradiated (bystander) cells can result in responses in unirradiated cells that are similar to responses in their irradiated counterparts. The purpose of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that bystander responses will be similarly induced in primary murine stem cells under different cell culture conditions. The experimental systems used here, co-culture and media transfer, are similar in that they both restrict communication between irradiated and bystander cells to media borne factors, but are distinct in that with the media transfer technique, cells can only communicate after irradiation, and with co-culture, cells can communication before, during and after irradiation. In this set of parallel experiments, cell type, biological endpoint, and radiation quality and dose, were kept constant. In both experimental systems, clonogenic survival was significantly decreased in all groups, whether irradiated or bystander, suggesting a substantial contribution of bystander effects (BE) to cell killing. Genomic instability (GI) was induced under all radiation and bystander conditions in both experiments, including a situation where unirradiated cells were incubated with media that had been conditioned for 24 h with irradiated cells. The appearance of delayed aberrations (genomic instability) 10-13 population doublings after irradiation was similar to the level of initial chromosomal damage, suggesting that the bystander factor is able to induce chromosomal alterations soon after irradiation. Whether these early alterations are related to those observed at later timepoints remains unknown. These results suggest that genomic instability may be significantly induced in a bystander cell population whether or not cells communicate during irradiation

  17. Role of Definitive Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary in the Abdomen and Pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Jhingran, Anuja; Eifel, Patricia J.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) in the abdomen and pelvis is a heterogeneous group of cancers with no standard treatment. Considered by many to be incurable, these patients are often treated with chemotherapy alone. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CUP in the abdomen and pelvis. Patients and Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 37 patients with CUP treated with radiation therapy for disease located in the soft tissues and/or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent chemotherapy, either before or concurrent with radiation therapy. Patients were selected for radiation therapy on the basis of histologic type, disease extent, and prior therapy response. Twenty patients underwent definitive radiation therapy (defined as radiation therapy targeting all known disease sites with at least 45 Gy) and 17 patients underwent palliative radiation therapy. Only 6 patients had surgical resection of their disease. Patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the endpoints of local disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity incidence were analyzed. Results: The 2-year PFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 32% and 57%, respectively. However, in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, the rates were 48% and 76%, and 7 patients lived more than 3 years after treatment with no evidence of disease progression. Nevertheless, radiation-associated toxicity was significant in this cohort, as 40% experienced Grade 2 or higher late toxicities. Conclusions: The use of definitive radiation therapy should be considered in selected patients with CUP in the soft tissues or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis.

  18. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavukcu, Emel [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary γ rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary γ-ray spectrum represents the γ-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary γ-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary γ-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei 56Fe and 57Fe. The experimental level densities in 56Fe and 57Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for 56Fe and 57Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in 56Fe and 57Fe have surprisingly high values at low γ-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low γ-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  19. Primary health services at district level in South Africa: a critique of the primary health care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dookie Sunitha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhetoric of primary health care philosophy in the district health system is widely cited as a fundamental component of the health transformation process in post-apartheid South Africa. Despite South Africa’s progress and attempts at implementing primary health care, various factors still limit its success. Discussion Inconsistencies and poor understanding of primary care and primary health care raises unrealistic expectations in service delivery and health outcomes, and blame is apportioned when expectations are not met. It is important for all health practitioners to consider the contextual influences on health and ill-health and to recognise the role of the underlying determinants of ill-health, namely, social, economic and environmental influences. The primary health care approach provides a strong framework for this delivery but it is not widely applied. There is a need for renewed political and policy commitments toward quality primary health care delivery, re-orientation of health care workers, integration of primary health care activities into other community-based development, improved management skills and effective coordination at all levels of the health system. There should also be optimal capacity building, and skills development in problem-solving, communication, networking and community participation. Summary A well-functioning district health system is required for the re-engineering of primary health care. This strategy requires a strong leadership, a strengthening of the current district heath system and a greater emphasis on health promotion, prevention, and community participation and empowerment.

  20. New study sees greater low-level radiation threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new analysis of Energy Department medical records has found higher than expected cancer rates among workers at DOE's Hanford nuclear weapons plant, suggesting occupational exposure to low-level radiation may be more dangerous than previously thought. The study, released Tuesday by the Philadelphia-based Three Mile Island Public Health Fund, is important not only because of its controversial conclusions, but also because it represents the first independent review of DOE's long-secret worker medical records. The new study done by Stewart and Kneale looked at Hanford worker health records dating up to 1986 - part of a huge trove of data withheld by DOE from independent researchers until two years ago. In their re-analysis of the Hanford worker records, Stewart and Kneale found increased cancer rates among older workers who were over 40 years of age when exposed. And they said that increased susceptibility of older people to radiation-induced cancer was not reflected in the highly influential Japanese atomic bomb studies because people over 50 years of age were open-quotes grossly under-representedclose quotes in the A-bomb analyses, possibly because many bomb victims suffered early deaths from high doses

  1. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks fro low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Controversy continues in the radiation protection literature on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls (if any) should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The assumption made and the way it is applied can have far-reaching effects, not only on the scale of regulatory compliance required but also on public perception of risk, and therefore on the technological choices made by society. It is important therefore that decisions reached concerning the regulation of low doses of ionizing radiation derive from rational arguments and are perceived to have an ethical basis. It is also important that such decisions are neither portrayed nor perceived as resolving the scientific uncertainties: rather, they serve merely to facilitate the implementation of appropriate measures to ensure safety. At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on this matter. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting on 14 November 2005. Its salient features are as follows: There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls; Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers; The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. The paper will

  2. Learning about Bird Species on the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Animal species identification is often emphasized as a basic prerequisite for an understanding of ecology because ecological interactions are based on interactions between species at least as it is taught on the school level. Therefore, training identification skills or using identification books seems a worthwhile task in biology education, and…

  3. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  4. Performance of ionization chambers in X radiation beams, radioprotection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana C.M.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Narrow beams, radioprotection level, were implanted in an X ray system, based on ISO 4037-1, as recommended by IAEA (SRS 16). Energy dependency tests were carried out and short-term stability in ionization chambers for use in radiation protection of trademark Physikalisch-Technische Werkstaetten (PTW), 32002 and 23361 models. The ionization chambers were studied with regard to short-term stability within the program of quality control of the laboratory, with a 90 Sr + 90 Y. The results of the short-term stability test were compared with the recommendations of IEC 60731, respect to dosemeters used in radiotherapy, since this standard presents the more restrictive limits with regard to the behaviour of ionization chambers. All cameras showed results within the limits recommended by this standard. With respect to the energy dependency of the response, the model Chamber 32002 presented a maximum dependence of only 2.7%, and the model Chamber 23361, 4.5%

  5. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  6. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don, Higson; Ches, Mason; Andrew, McEwan; Peter, Burns; Riaz, Akber; Ron, Cameron; Pamela, Sykes; Joe, Young

    2006-01-01

    At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)

  7. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  8. Monitoring of external background radiation level in Asa dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An external background ionizing radiation study has been carried out within the Asa Dam Industrial Layout of Ilorin in Kwara State. The study was carried out in 5 stations within the industrial area using two Digilert Nuclear Radiation Monitors. The study has revealed that the external background ionizing radiation is ...

  9. Thermal modeling of radiation and convection sections of primary reformer of ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Baheri, Ehsan

    2007-01-01

    The primary reformer is basically a furnace containing burners and tubes packed with supported nickel catalyst. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Accordingly, selection of primary reformer operating parameters has an important influence on reduction of operating costs and increasing the reactor performance (conversion efficiency). In this paper, the radiation and convection sections of primary reformer are investigated. The effects of key parameters on reformer performance are studied and the related developed software program is presented. The stirred-reactor furnace model which was used to simulate the radiation section of primary reformer was found to make substantially correct predictions of the overall heat transfer process in the furnace. Comparison of the numerical data obtained from the simulation program with the measured data collected from primary reformer of Razi petrochemical plant showed a mean difference of 0.23% in estimating produced hydrogen mole fraction, as well as 1.7% and 7.25% in computing the outlet temperature of process fluids and induced draft fan (ID) speed, respectively

  10. Radiation leakage monitoring method and device from primary to secondary coolant systems in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Masataka.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention monitors radiation leaked from any one of primary cooling systems to secondary cooling systems in a plurality of steam generators. That is, radiation monitoring means each corresponding to steam each generators are disposed to the upstream of a position where main steam pipes are joined. With such a constitution, since the detection object of each of radiation monitoring means is secondary coolants before mixing with secondary coolants of other secondary loops or dilution, lowering of detection accuracy can be avoided. Except for the abnormal case, that is, a case neither of radiation leakage nor of background change, the device is adapted as a convenient measuring system only with calculation performance. Once abnormality occurs, a loop having a value exceeding a standard value is identified by a single channel analyzer function. The amount of radiation leakage from the steam generator belonging to the specified loop is monitored quantitatively by a multichannel analyzer function. According to the method of the present invention, since specific spectrum analysis is conducted upon occurrence of abnormality, presence of radiation leakage and the scale thereof can be judged rapidly. (I.S.)

  11. Grazing rates of Calanus finmarchicus on Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under different levels of ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Fields

    Full Text Available UVB alters photosynthetic rate, fatty acid profiles and morphological characteristics of phytoplankton. Copepods, important grazers of primary production, select algal cells based upon their size, morphological traits, nutritional status, and motility. We investigated the grazing rates of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under 3 levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR only (4 kJ-m(-2/day, and PAR supplemented with UVR radiation at two intensities (24 kJ-m(-2/day and 48 kJ-m(-2/day. There was no significant difference in grazing rates between the PAR only treatment and the lower UVR treatment. However, grazing rates were significantly (∼66% higher for copepods feeding on cells treated with the higher level of UVR. These results suggest that a short-term increase in UVR exposure results in a significant increase in the grazing rate of copepods and, thereby, potentially alters the flow rate of organic matter through this component of the ecosystem.

  12. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  13. Radiation Protection Aspects of Primary Water Chemistry and Source-term Management Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990's, occupational exposures in nuclear power plant has strongly decreased, outlining efforts achieved by worldwide nuclear operators in order to reach and maintain occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) in accordance with international recommendations and national regulations. These efforts have focused on both technical and organisational aspects. According to many radiation protection experts, one of the key features to reach this goal is the management of the primary system water chemistry and the ability to avoid dissemination of radioactivity within the system. It outlines the importance for radiation protection staff to work closely with chemistry staff (as well as operation staff) and thus to have sufficient knowledge to understand the links between chemistry and the generation of radiation field. This report was prepared with the primary objective to provide such knowledge to 'non-chemist'. The publication primarily focuses on three topics dealing with water chemistry, source term management and remediation techniques. One key objective of the report is to provide current knowledge regarding these topics and to address clearly related radiation protection issues. In that mind, the report prepared by the EGWC was also reviewed by radiation protection experts. In order to address various designs, PWRs, VVERs, PHWRs and BWRs are addressed within the document. Additionally, available information addressing current operating units and lessons learnt is outlined with choices that have been made for the design of new plants. Chapter 3 of this report addresses current practices regarding primary chemistry management for different designs, 'how to limit activity in the primary circuit and to minimise contamination'. General information is provided regarding activation, corrosion and transport of activated materials in the primary circuit (background on radiation field generation). Primary chemistry aspects that

  14. Collimation system for a laboratory of primary and secondary ionizing radiation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.R.; David, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a cooperation plan between the LNMRI/IRD and the LCR/UERJ, for the a primary calibration at the IRD and a secondary laboratory at the LCR, both calibrated for mammographic beams which will be part a Calibration National Network. For the mounting of the primary laboratory, the first step was to install two additional collimators in order to guarantee that the beam area over the ionization chamber to satisfy the calibration international standards. So, the collimators were constructed obeying the geometric rules, the first being of conic format and the second of the cylindrical format, therefore avoiding the effects of the scattering radiation on the edges. By using this collimation system it was possible to verify the uniformity of the radiation field incident the ionization chamber to be over 98% of the total area, guaranteeing better precision of the measurement

  15. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm(-2).

  16. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahham, A.; Hammash, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm -2 , from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm -2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm -2 . The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm -2 . The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ∼62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm -2 . (authors)

  17. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  18. External radiation levels in installations of nuclear technology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletta, Paulo Guilherme M.; Filipetto, Joao; Wakabayashi, Tetsuaki; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2005-01-01

    The radiological protection is a basic activity of nuclear technology center so that can carry through its activities with security, having to be planned and executed with total effectiveness. One of the basic tools of the radiological protection is the adoption of monitoring programs, that have as objective generality to evaluate the radiological conditions of the workstation and to assure that these conditions are acceptable safe for the displayed individuals, either workers or members of the public, as established in the basic norms of radiological protection. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN, first institution in Brazil, created in 1952 to entirely dedicate the related works to the nuclear area, to own 39 building, of which they are kept the Triga Reactor, Irradiation Gamma Laboratory, Reject Laboratory, Calibration Dosemeters Laboratory and others. In such installations, radioactive materials are produced, handled, processed and stored, being necessary the levels of external radiation ambient monitoring. As part of the radioprotection plan, monitoring 63 points on strategically located in the external areas to the building of CDTN, using characterized and calibrated thermoluminescence dosemeters. This work describes the dose distribution of the points, the doses evaluation procedure and the 4 results carried through between 2001 and 2004. The data demonstrate the attendance to the level of security established in the basic norm, what it contributed for the operation licensing of to the IBAMA. (author)

  19. Variation in U.V. primary fluorescence-intensity of vital cells depending on 60Co γ-radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1978-01-01

    Using impulse-cytofluorophotometry in the ultra-violet spectral region it has been shown on vital, unstained Ehrlich ascites tumour cells that the primary fluorescence intensity of this tumour was on day 11 after transplantation 20 per cent higher than on day 8. Storage of the vital cells for 25 min at 20 0 C had no effect on this result. When the cells were exposed to 60 Co γ-radiation on day 6, a new stable fluorescence level was established after 20 hours. Measurements of the primary fluorescence intensity depending on dose have shown a significant rise starting from 75 rad at 48 hours after irradiation. The fluorescence intensity rose by 42.5 per cent of the control value at 3000 rad, but only by 31.5 per cent on exposure to 4000 rad. (author)

  20. Analysis of nodal coverage utilizing image guided radiation therapy for primary gynecologic tumor volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Faisal [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Sarkar, Vikren; Gaffney, David K.; Salter, Bill [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation dose delivered to pelvic lymph nodes, if daily Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) was implemented with treatment shifts based on the primary site (primary clinical target volume [CTV]). Our secondary goal was to compare dosimetric coverage with patient outcomes. Materials and methods: A total of 10 female patients with gynecologic malignancies were evaluated retrospectively after completion of definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to their pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor site. IGRT consisted of daily kilovoltage computed tomography (CT)-on-rails imaging fused with initial planning scans for position verification. The initial plan was created using Varian's Eclipse treatment planning software. Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 45 Gy (range: 37.5 to 50 Gy) to the primary volume and 45 Gy (range: 45 to 64.8 Gy) to nodal structures. One IGRT scan per week was randomly selected from each patient's treatment course and re-planned on the Eclipse treatment planning station. CTVs were recreated by fusion on the IGRT image series, and the patient's treatment plan was applied to the new image set to calculate delivered dose. We evaluated the minimum, maximum, and 95% dose coverage for primary and nodal structures. Reconstructed primary tumor volumes were recreated within 4.7% of initial planning volume (0.9% to 8.6%), and reconstructed nodal volumes were recreated to within 2.9% of initial planning volume (0.01% to 5.5%). Results: Dosimetric parameters averaged less than 10% (range: 1% to 9%) of the original planned dose (45 Gy) for primary and nodal volumes on all patients (n = 10). For all patients, ≥99.3% of the primary tumor volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose (V95%) and the average minimum dose was 96.1% of the prescribed dose. In evaluating nodal CTV coverage, ≥ 99.8% of the volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose and the average minimum dose was 93%. In

  1. Radiation Treatment for Primary Adenocarcinoma of Bartholin Gland- A Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Yong; Whang, In Soon

    1989-01-01

    A patient with primary adenocarcinoma of Bartholin gland is reported and the literatures relevant to this disease reviewed. Not only this disease is very rare but also primary carcinomas of Bartholin gland are misdiagnosed as cysts or abscesses in half of the cases, leading to considerable delay in diagnosis. And so, It was wasted long time before definitive therapy. However, because of a different clinical behavior, cancer of the Bartholin gland should be distinguished from other vulvar carcinomas. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the most common. Virtually all histologic types of Bartholin gland carcinoma metastasize to lymph node, bone, lung and liver in distant sites. The authors data and a review of the literature support the concept that radical vulvectomy with or without bilateral inguina1-femoral lymphadenectomy is required. On the other hand, except primary radiation treatment for small or medium sized cancers, the results obtained by radiation therapy in carcinoma of the vulva including Bartholin gland are generally discouraging. A role for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy suggests because of high incidence of positive inguinal-femoral lymph nodes. In the near time, natural history and biological behavior of Bartholin gland cancer must be disclosed in detail. And also optimal treatment modality and prognostic factors shall be determine

  2. Stabilization of primary mobile radiation defects in MgF{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, V.M. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lisitsyna, L.A. [State University of Architecture and Building, pl. Solyanaya 2, Tomsk 634003 (Russian Federation); Popov, A.I., E-mail: popov@ill.fr [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Kotomin, E.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Abuova, F.U.; Akilbekov, A. [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 3 Munaitpasova Str., Astana (Kazakhstan); Maier, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-radiative decay of the electronic excitations (excitons) into point defects (F–H pairs of Frenkel defects) is main radiation damage mechanism in many ionic (halide) solids. Typical time scale of the relaxation of the electronic excitation into a primary, short-lived defect pair is about 1–50 ps with the quantum yield up to 0.2–0.8. However, only a small fraction of these primary defects are spatially separated and survive after transformation into stable, long-lived defects. The survival probability (or stable defect accumulation efficiency) can differ by orders of magnitude, dependent on the material type; e.g. ∼10% in alkali halides with f.c.c. or b.c.c. structure, 0.1% in rutile MgF{sub 2} and <0.001% in fluorides MeF{sub 2} (Me: Ca, Sr, Ba). The key factor determining accumulation of stable radiation defects is stabilization of primary defects, first of all, highly mobile hole H centers, through their transformation into more complex immobile defects. In this talk, we present the results of theoretical calculations of the migration energies of the F and H centers in poorely studied MgF{sub 2} crystals with a focus on the H center stabilization in the form of the interstitial F{sub 2} molecules which is supported by presented experimental data.

  3. Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the eyelid. Tumor control and visual function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Odagiri, K.; Kasuya, T.; Minagawa, Y.; Kaizu, H.; Mukai, Y.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Maegawa, J. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Kaneko, A. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Surgical excision remains the standard and most reliable curative treatment for eyelid carcinoma, but frequently causes functional and cosmetic impairment of the eyelid. We therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of radiation therapy in eyelid carcinoma. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid underwent radiation therapy. Sebaceous carcinoma was histologically confirmed in 16 patients, squamous cell carcinoma in 6, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. A total dose of 50-66.6 Gy (median, 60 Gy) was delivered to tumor sites in 18-37 fractions (median, 30 fractions). Results: All but 3 of the 23 patients had survived at a median follow-up period of 49 months. The overall survival and local progression-free rates were 87% and 93% at 2 years, and 80% and 93% at 5 years, respectively. Although radiation-induced cataracts developed in 3 patients, visual acuity in the other patients was relatively well preserved. There were no other therapy-related toxicities of grade 3 or greater. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is safe and effective for patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid. It appears to contribute to prolonged survival as a result of good tumor control, and it also facilitates functional and cosmetic preservation of the eyelid. (orig.)

  4. Variation in well-head gamma radiation levels at the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was generally observed that the level of radiation around the well heads is less than 20x 10-12mSv/hr, which is in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency\\'s standard on ionizing radiation background level. Keywords: Radiation, crude oil, radionuclide, contaminant, exposure. Nigerian Journal of Physics ...

  5. High LET radiation shows no major cellular and functional effects on primary cardiomyocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heselich, Anja; Frieß, Johannes L.; Ritter, Sylvia; Benz, Naja P.; Layer, Paul G.; Thielemann, Christiane

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation causes adverse effects on various mammalian tissues. However, there is little information on the biological effects of heavy ion radiation on the heart. In order to fill this gap, we systematically examined DNA-damage induction and repair, as well as proliferation and apoptosis in avian cardiomyocyte cultures irradiated with heavy ions such as titanium and iron, relevant for manned space-flight, and carbon ions, as used for radiotherapy. Further, and to our knowledge for the first time, we analyzed the effect of heavy ion radiation on the electrophysiology of primary cardiomyocytes derived from chicken embryos using the non-invasive microelectrode array (MEA) technology. As electrophysiological endpoints beat rate and field action potential duration were analyzed. The cultures clearly exhibited the capacity to repair induced DNA damage almost completely within 24 h, even at doses of 7 Gy, and almost completely recovered from radiation-induced changes in proliferative behavior. Interestingly, no significant effects on apoptosis could be detected. Especially the functionality of primary cardiac cells exhibited a surprisingly high robustness against heavy ion radiation, even at doses of up to 7 Gy. In contrast to our previous study with X-rays the beat rate remained more or less unaffected after heavy ion radiation, independently of beam quality. The only change we could observe was an increase of the field action potential duration of up to 30% after titanium irradiation, diminishing within the following three days. This potentially pathological observation may be an indication that heavy ion irradiation at high doses could bear a long-term risk for cardiovascular disease induction.

  6. Estimation of the Contribution of Primary and Secondary Radiation to a Pinhole Volume from a Water Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Kelum-A.-A.; Joyce, Malcolm-J.; Taylor, Graeme-C.

    2013-06-01

    The imaging of mixed radiation fields with organic liquid scintillation detectors became feasible as a result of recent advances in digital pulse-shape discrimination methods. The use of a liquid scintillator has significant benefits over other techniques for imaging radiation environments as the acquired data can be analysed to provide separate information about the gamma and neutron emissions from a source (or sources) in a single scan in near real-time. This method has significant potential for the location of radioactive sources in radiation environments in the nuclear industry, nuclear decommissioning and homeland security applications. A further application of the mixed-field imaging system would be to detect, locate and study the secondary radiation produced during proton therapy. Proton therapy uses a particle accelerator to target a tumour within the body with a beam of protons. The presence of materials in the beam path as well as the patient, leads to the production of secondary particles such as neutrons and gamma rays. In this paper the contribution of scattered and secondary radiation from a water phantom to a pinhole volume, as a result of three neutron sources and two gamma sources, is separately estimated using the PTRAC particle tracking option available in MCNP. A spherical tally volume, 2 cm in diameter, was placed equidistantly from a radioactive source and 30*30*15 cm 3 water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to investigate the level of primary and secondary radiation contributing to the pinhole volume from interactions in the phantom. This can be used as a simple method to visualise the results expected from the mixed-field imaging system. The results have shown that the percentage of neutrons reflected from the phantom with energies above 1 MeV goes up with mean energy of the source. (authors)

  7. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation areas its potential contribution to evaluating risk of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Nair, R.K.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Mizuno, Shoich

    2008-01-01

    The health effect of low-level ionizing radiation is yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. Its evaluation requires epidemiological studies of scale-large cohorts (ICRP 99, 2005) such of atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation (HBR) areas are also expected to make a significant contribution toward this end. Among several HBR areas in the world, Yangjiang, Guangdong Province in China, Karunagappally in Kerala State of India, Manawalakurichi and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu of India, and Ramsar in Iran are important areas where epidemiological studies are possible, because of their relatively high background radiation levels and large population sizes. (author)

  8. Global levels of radiation exposure: Latest international findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the world's population has recently been reviewed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR has reconfirmed that the normal operation of all peaceful nuclear installations contributes insignificantly to the global exposure to radiation. Even taking into account all the nuclear accidents to date (including Chernobyl), the additional exposure would be equivalent to only about 20 days of natural exposure. Military uses of nuclear energy have committed the world to most of the radiation exposure caused by human activities

  9. Investigation of the relationship between knowledge concerning radiation and the level of anxiety toward radiation in student nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the medical fields, the use of radiation is indispensable in diagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and various other areas. On the other hand, great anxiety is often felt due to the misunderstanding of radiation, and this anxiety is seen in not only patients but also nurses. In this study, a questionnaire survey about knowledge of radiation and the level of anxiety was carried out in student nurses for three years from 2005 to 2007. The questionnaire included the level of anxiety about radiation and 12 basic question items concerning radiation. The results showed that the student with poor knowledge about radiation showed high anxiety. After a series of lectures concerning radiation, the acquisition of knowledge and a decrease in anxiety were observed in the students. However, it was still shown that people with scarce knowledge concerning radiation still had high anxiety at the end of the lectures. In conclusion, it was shown that education about radiation is necessary to decrease anxiety about radiation among nurses in medical care. (author)

  10. Measurement of the natural radiation background level of Riyadh City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident

  11. Investigating the Relationship among the Level of Mobbing Experience, Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels of Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okçu, Veysel; Çetin, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the level of mobbing experienced by primary and secondary school teachers and to determine how and to what extent this affects their job satisfaction and burnout levels. This research used a relational survey model. As a result of the study, it has been determined that there is a negative and medium-level…

  12. Importance of ECP in the prediction of radiation fields in PWR and VVER primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Jacesko, S.L.; Macdonald, Digby D.; Salter-Williams, M.

    2002-01-01

    A model has been developed for predicting mass and activity transport in the primary coolant circuits of PWRs and VVERs with the objective of demonstrating and quantifying the importance of the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in determining the impact of both processes on reactor operation. The model initially employs a radiolysis/mixed potential code to calculate the ECP at four locations (core, hot leg, steam generator, cold leg) and the ECP is then used to estimate the local magnetite solubility. The solubility is then averaged around the loop to yield the ''background'' solubility. Comparison of the background solubility with the local solubility determines whether precipitation or dissolution will occur at any given point in the circuit under any given set of conditions. It is further assumed that the concentration of 59 Co in the coolant is given by the isotopic fraction of this species compared with iron averaged over all materials and weighted by the respective wetted areas. Activation of 59 Co to 60 Co is assumed to occur in the coolant phase by fast, epithermal, and thermal neutron capture. The calculated activity is then used to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish relationships between activity at any given location and the operating properties of the reactor, including coolant pH, ECP, temperature, power level, etc. The model predicts that during shut down, magnetite (and hence 59 Co) migrates to the core, where it is irradiated and activated, particularly during subsequent start-up. During start-up, the magnetite (and hence 60 Co) migrates from the core to out-of-core surfaces where it establishes the radiation fields. (authors)

  13. Current status of research on radiation hormesis in the immune system after low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    The paper highlights the chief results of experimental studies recently carried out in the author's laboratory on the stimulatory effects of low level radiation on immunity. The intercellular relationship within the immune system after whole-body irradiation (WBI) with low doses of X- and gamma-rays was briefly outlined with the emphasis on the potential effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on the helper T cells which was thought to occupy a pivotal position in the process of immuno-stimulation. Data suggesting the facilitation by LDR of the signal transduction process within the T cells were presented. Some hypotheses prevailing in the literature for the explanation of the stimulatory effect of LDR were critically evaluated. Existing experimental data both from the literature and from the author's laboratory were analysed giving no strong support to the speculation of either the preferential deletion of the radiosensitive suppressor T subset or the increased apoptosis of the T cell 'precursors' in the thymus leading to secondary immunologic augmentation by low doses which stimulate immune functions. The possible influence of systemic changes, especially those in the neuroendocrine regulation, on the T cell potentiation following LDR was suggested. Finally the biological implications of the hermetic effects of LDR were discussed

  14. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The report is intended as information for the German Bundestag and Bundesrat as well as for the general population interested in issues of radiological protection. The information presented in the report shows that in 1996, the radiation dose to the population was low and amounted to an average of 4 millisievert (mSv), with 60% contributed by natural radiation sources, and 40% by artificial sources. The major natural source was the radioactive gas radon in buildings. Anthropogenic radiation exposure almost exclusively resulted from application of radioactive substances and ionizing radiation in the medical field, for diagnostic purposes. There still is a potential for reducing radiation doses due to these applications. In the reporting year, there were 340 000 persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Only 15% of these received a dose different from zero, the average dose was 1.8 mSv. The data show that the anthropogenic radiation exposure emanating from the uses of atomic energy or applications of ionizing radiation in technology is very low. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Value of senior level exercises in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, Howard; Landry, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) maintains the National Exercise Program (NEP) as one of the mechanisms to evaluate the preparation of the U.S. government (USG) to execute the full range of capabilities and responsibilities. The NEP is a national, interagency-wide program that prioritizes, focuses, and coordinates national security and homeland security preparedness-related exercise activities. Results from these exercises provide information that informs the policy process and ultimately improves the government's preparedness posture. Exercises are the primary tool available for evaluating the capability to perform in a crisis or emergency. The principal focus of the NEP is a program of capabilities-based exercises designed for the participation of heads of Federal Departments and Agencies and other top officials to examine and evaluate emerging national-level policy issues. TOPOFF (referring to 'Top Officials') is a national, biennial domestic counter terrorism exercise series consisting of a two-year planning endeavor, involving experts at all levels of government and the private sector. The TOPOFF 4 Full Scale Exercise (FSE), focused on radiological dispersal devices (RDD), was conducted in October 2007. The TOPOFF series of exercises are an important component of national preparedness, helping to build an integrated federal, state, territorial, local, and private sector capability to prevent terrorist attacks, and rapidly and effectively respond to, and recover from, any terrorist attack or major disaster that does occur. The full-scale exercises offer agencies and jurisdictions a way to test their plans and skills in a real-time, realistic environment and to gain the in-depth knowledge that only experience can provide. Participants also exercise prevention and intelligence gathering functions, which are critical to preventing terrorist attacks. Lessons learned from these exercises provide valuable insights to guide future planning for

  16. Assessment of the English literacy level of patients in primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of patients in primary health care services in Tshwane, Gauteng province: Part 2. ... levels of primary health care patients using the Learning Ability Battery (LAB) ... Data were collected by means of a self-report whereby the participants had ...

  17. Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for cancer of the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Junichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Takeda, Masamune; Takagi, Minoru.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (s.c.c.) of the oral region including lip, oral cavity and oropharynx were analyzed. Out of 1,197 patients with s.c.c. treated with radiation during about 30 years from 1955 to 1983 June, 56 patients (4.7 %) were regarded as double or multiple cancer. The multiple cancer (s.c.c.) was observed frequently in the multicentric zone such as hypopharynx, esophagus and bronchus as well as in other sites of the oral cavity; 67.7 % (42 out of 62 sites). Frequency of synchronous double cancers was increased in recent ten years; 47.1 % (16/34). Careful examination to the above mentioned multicentric zone leads to early detection of secondary cancer and could be expected cure of the disease. Although possibility of radiation-induced cancer could not be ruled out as for 17 patients with late recurrence (more than 8 years), different histologic diagnosis from s.c.c. was obtained in only one (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Therefore, it was difficult to discriminate radiation-induced cancer from late recurrence in the present study. (author)

  18. Multiple chromosome aberrations among newborns from high level natural radiation area and normal level natural radiation area of south west coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soren, D.C.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cord blood samples were collected in heparin vials and microculture techniques employed to obtain good metaphase chromosome spreads. In cytogenetic studies on newborns cells with multiple aberrations were recorded in 57 from a total of 27285 newborns (1266972 cells). Of these 17294 newborns (964140 cells) were from High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) and 9991 newborns (302832 cells) from Normal Level Natural Radiation Area (NLNRA). Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in 38 and 19 newborns from High and Normal Level Natural Radiation Area respectively. On an average one cell with multiple aberrations was observed among 479 newborns. Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in newborns from HLNRA as well as NLNRA in both males and females. Gender difference of newborns, maternal age group and background radiation levels did not seem to have any influence in the occurrence of Multiple chromosome aberrations

  19. Luminiscent emission of molecular levels excited by ionizant radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Ramis, M.

    1977-01-01

    The emission spectra and the time dependence of scintillations produced by alpha particles, gamma rays and ultraviolet light in some organic compounds crystals and liquids solutions normally used as radiation detectors has been studied. (author) [es

  20. Natural radiation level and doses to population in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air 1 m above the ground from natural radiation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Anhui Province were surveyed. One measurement was made in every area of 90 km 2 . The absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation range from 54 to 90 nGy.h -1 with an average of 70 nGy.h -1 . The ratios of indoors-to-outdoors and of roads-to-outdoors are 1.5 and 0.9 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from external radiation is 0.68-1.05 mSv. The population-weighted average values for mountain area, plain, hilly land, and the Changjiang River basin as well as the annual collective effective dose equivalent were calculated

  1. Dosimetric methodology and reference system for diagnostic level X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Several methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were developed and established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. These established radiation qualities are recommended by international standards. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. A reference system was proposed using two identical ionization chambers developed at IPEN. They differ only by the collecting electrode material, one of aluminium and the other of graphite. The different energetic dependence of the chamber's response provided a ratio related to the tube potential. The variation of only 0.28%, from 14.3 to 111 keV, on the energetic dependence of the graphite electrode chamber, provided the possibility of air kerma rate determination in the studied radiation beams. (author)

  2. Primary processes in radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(2-phenylbutadiene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Kato, Kazuo; Okamura, Seizo.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(2-phenylbutadiene)(PPB) in ethylene dichloride solution was studied in vacuum at 303 K. The G value of the crosslinking was estimated to be about 7.2. In order to detect the reaction intermediates under irradiation, optical absorption spectra in rigid matrices and ESR spectra in bulk were measured. The absorption spectra due to radical cation of PPB and due to α,α-disubstituted benzyl cation were observed in butyl chloride glass. ESR spectra owing to polyenyl type radical was found in the irradiated specimens of PPB and Diels-Alder type dimer of 2-phenylbutadiene. The primary processes in radiation-induced crosslinking of PPB were discussed on the basis of the results obtained. (author)

  3. Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the female urethra: a survey over 25 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weghaupt, K.; Gerstner, G.J.; Kucera, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-two patients with primary carcinoma of the female urethra were treated with a combined radiation therapy (high-dose intracavitary vaginal radium and external beam). Treatment was strictly individualized, but an administered tumor dose of 5500-7000 rad (55-70 Gy) was always attempted. Forty-two patients (67.7%) had tumors of the anterior urethra, and in 20 women (32.3%) the posterior urethra was involved. In 19 patients (30.6%) the clinical diagnosis of lymph node involvement was made. The overall 5-year-survival rate was 64.5%. Patients with anterior urethral carcinoma had a higher 5-year-survival rate (71.4%) than patients with posterior carcinoma (50.0%). The favorable results underline the substantial role of radiation therapy for this malignancy.

  4. Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the female urethra: a survey over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weghaupt, K.; Gerstner, G.J.; Kucera, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-two patients with primary carcinoma of the female urethra were treated with a combined radiation therapy (high-dose intracavitary vaginal radium and external beam). Treatment was strictly individualized, but an administered tumor dose of 5500-7000 rad (55-70 Gy) was always attempted. Forty-two patients (67.7%) had tumors of the anterior urethra, and in 20 women (32.3%) the posterior urethra was involved. In 19 patients (30.6%) the clinical diagnosis of lymph node involvement was made. The overall 5-year-survival rate was 64.5%. Patients with anterior urethral carcinoma had a higher 5-year-survival rate (71.4%) than patients with posterior carcinoma (50.0%). The favorable results underline the substantial role of radiation therapy for this malignancy

  5. Doses of low level ionizing radiation; a misunderstood risk, however unavoidable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment given by international organizations and associations to the problems of radiation exposures, and the recommendations and norms for calculating risks of low level radiation are analysed. It is shown that there are not zero risks for nuclear energy, and emphasis is given to the risks of natural radiation from environment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on circulating microparticles levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiar, A.; Al-Massarani, Gh.; Najjar, F.; Aljapawe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause disruption of cytoskeleton. Cytoskeleton disorganization results in circulating microvesicles (MVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the exposure to low-radiation and MVs levels in the peripheral blood of individuals working in radiation technology field.(author)

  7. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  8. Radiation Dose Contribution To The Worker Health Level At Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, Indro

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of internal and external radiation doses received for radiation and non-radiation workers of P2TBDU have been done. In the period of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999 there were no significant increasing level of radiation doses received that was 0.55 mSv and highest received radiation dose was 2.66% from dose limit value. Increasing of healthy difference on the same period was 5.76%. Increasing of healthy difference no cause by increasing of radiation dose received but maybe the food consumption design

  9. assessment of the english literacy level of patients in primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-07

    Sep 7, 2010 ... The English literacy level of primary health care patients in Tshwane .... It is therefore important to use appropriate literacy assessment tools to .... Participants were given the following instruction: ..... One of the disadvantages.

  10. Comparison of primary radiation versus robotic surgery plus adjuvant radiation in high-risk prostate cancer: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimranjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare robotic-prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy (RPRAT versus primary RT for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for the HRPCa patients treated in our institution between 2000 and 2010. One hundred and twenty-three patients with high-risk disease were identified. The Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test were used to compare local control and distant failure rates between the two treatment modalities. For prostate-specific antigen comparisons between groups, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months (range: 3-138 months. Local control, biochemical recurrence rate, distant metastasis, toxicity, and disease-free survival were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Primary RT is an excellent treatment option in patients with HRPCa, is equally effective and less expensive treatment compared with RPRAT. A prospective randomized study is required to guide treatment for patients with HRPCa.

  11. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear in the last ten years that, in the UK, the scientific measurement and appraisal of human health risks, including pollution, are in the hands of the Government and establishment controlled organisations. In the area of drug-related illness, drug side-effects and medicine safety, profits are routinely put before health. The Chernobyl catastrophe, the greatest single pollution event ever, saw the Government responding with warnings which were too little and too late. Water and milk had been drunk, contaminated animals had been sold and eaten. Recently we have come within a hair's breadth of an ozone hole over Europe at a time when a General Election was in progress. Nothing was said: what information that was available came from the United Nations, from NASA, anywhere but from the UK Government. A recently leaked CEGB document shows levels of radioisotopic pollution in the Trawsfynydd lake to be different (and much higher) than those admitted to by Nuclear Electric pic and published by the Welsh Office. Details of the enormous release of radiation to the environment following the Windscale reactor fire in 1957 have only recently become available. At the time people could have been warned but were not. It is no longer possible to believe what we are told. Or what we are not told. Subtle and serious hazards to human health may exist and be unknown to us. To those who read this and perhaps follow up some of the references, it may seem a difficult task to choose between the few heretical voices and the massive nuclear industry megaphone. I have often been asked a variation of the following question: 'If scientists cannot agree amongst themselves on the effects of radiation, how are mere laymen expected to choose in this complicated and difficult area?' And so radiobiology has become like a religion. You believe or you do not. Radiation causes cancer at low dose or it does not. This is not a necessary state of affairs. Enough data is now

  12. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, C C

    1994-07-01

    It has become increasingly clear in the last ten years that, in the UK, the scientific measurement and appraisal of human health risks, including pollution, are in the hands of the Government and establishment controlled organisations. In the area of drug-related illness, drug side-effects and medicine safety, profits are routinely put before health. The Chernobyl catastrophe, the greatest single pollution event ever, saw the Government responding with warnings which were too little and too late. Water and milk had been drunk, contaminated animals had been sold and eaten. Recently we have come within a hair's breadth of an ozone hole over Europe at a time when a General Election was in progress. Nothing was said: what information that was available came from the United Nations, from NASA, anywhere but from the UK Government. A recently leaked CEGB document shows levels of radioisotopic pollution in the Trawsfynydd lake to be different (and much higher) than those admitted to by Nuclear Electric pic and published by the Welsh Office. Details of the enormous release of radiation to the environment following the Windscale reactor fire in 1957 have only recently become available. At the time people could have been warned but were not. It is no longer possible to believe what we are told. Or what we are not told. Subtle and serious hazards to human health may exist and be unknown to us. To those who read this and perhaps follow up some of the references, it may seem a difficult task to choose between the few heretical voices and the massive nuclear industry megaphone. I have often been asked a variation of the following question: 'If scientists cannot agree amongst themselves on the effects of radiation, how are mere laymen expected to choose in this complicated and difficult area?' And so radiobiology has become like a religion. You believe or you do not. Radiation causes cancer at low dose or it does not. This is not a necessary state of affairs. Enough data is now

  13. The incidence of other primary cancers in patients with an oral cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kiminari; Koseki, Yonoshin; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    From January 1980 through April 1990, a total of 317 patients with an oral cancer were treated with radiation therapy at Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Twenty-seven (8.5%) of these 317 patients had other primary cancers. For statistical purposes, the expected number of other primary cancers was estimated by multiplying the age-sex specific incidence rates among Osaka residents with the Person-year at risk figures, based on the Osaka Prefectural Cancer Registry. The observed/expected [0/E] ratios were 16.00 (p<0.01) for the esophagus and 28.42 (p<0.01) for the oropharynx. The present study suggested the necessity of following up oral cancer patients, especially those who have had carcinoma of the mouth floor, in order to enable the early diagnosis of upper digestive tract cancer. (author)

  14. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials

  15. Low-level radiation effects on immune cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinodan, T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR) on murine immune cells. Previously, it had been reported that LDR enhances the proliferative activity of T cells in vitro and delays the growth of transplantable immunogenic tumors in vivo. This suggests that LDR eliminates immune suppressor cells, which downregulates immune response and/or adoptively upregulates the responsiveness of immune effector cells. It had also been reported that human lymphocytes become refractive to high dose radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations by pretreating mitotically active lymphocytes in vitro with very low doses of ionizing radiation, and the adaptive effect can be abrogated by cycloheximide. This suggests that protein synthesis is required for lymphocytes to respond adoptively to LDR

  16. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  17. Verification test for radiation reduction effect and material integrity on PWR primary system by zinc injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H.; Nagata, T.; Yamada, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (Japan); Kasahara, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Nishimura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc injection is known to be an effective method for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of a PWR. There is a need to verify the effect of Zn injection operation on radiation source reduction and materials integrity of PWR primary circuit. In order to confirm the effectiveness of Zn injection, verification test as a national program sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was started in 1995 for 7-year program, and will be finished by the end of March in 2002. This program consists of irradiation test and material integrity test. Irradiation test as an In-Pile-Test managed by AEAT Plc(UK) was performed using the LVR-15 reactor of NRI Rez in Check Republic. Furthermore, Out-of-Pile-Test using film adding unit was also performed to obtain supplemental data for In-Pile-Test at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. Material Integrity test was planned to perform constant load test, constant strain test and corrosion test at the same time using large scale Loop and slow strain extension rate testing (SSRT) at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. In this paper, the results of the verification test for Zinc program at present are discussed. (authors)

  18. Phase behavior and radiation effects in high level waste class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-02-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that detailed and reproducible data can be obtained for complex waste glasses. For the major glass composition examined, thermal treatment was shown to cause formation of several crystalline phases which contribute to an increased leachability. Although not discussed in detail here, Zn 2 SiO 4 formation results in microcracking due to a thermal expansion mismatch with the glass matrix, and SrMoO 4 has a higher leachability than the glass matrix. The temperature dependence describing equilibrium concentrations of these two phases and a qualitative understanding of ingrowth kinetics have been established, hence conditions necessary to eliminate their formation during processing and early storage, are known. Radiation damage effects, when extrapolated to long times, suggest energy storage of approximately 50 cal/gram and either positive or negative density changes occur (depending on the glass composition) in the 1 percent range. No radiation damage-related changes of serious concern have been found for homogeneous glasses by 244 Cm doping experiments now approaching a simulated damage time of approximately 10 3 years (for UO 2 fuel wastes). More work is needed concerning heterogeneous damage which will occur in devitrified glasses. As a final point, the complications with respect to understanding behavior of polyphase systems with respect to either radiation damage or leaching behavior, are self evident. Homogeneous glasses with improved leach resistance, and thermal and radiation stability are clear objectives for future glass development

  19. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  20. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  1. Long term results of primary radiation therapy for squamous cancer of the base of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, LB; Lee, H; Kraus, DH; Zelefsky, M; Strong, EW; Pfister, DG; Raben, A; Shah, J; White, C; Carper, E; Portenoy, R

    1996-01-01

    From 1981-1995, 68 patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the base of tongue were managed with primary radiation therapy, with neck dissection added for those who presented with palpable lymph node metastases. Ages ranged from 35-77 (median 55). There were 59 males and 9 females. T Stage was: T1-17, T2-32, T3-17, T4-2. Fifty-eight patients (85%) presented with nodal metastases. Treatment generally involved external beam radiation (EBRT) to the primary site and upper neck (54 Gy), low neck (50 Gy), additional EBRT to area of nodal involvement to 60 Gy, followed (2-4 weeks later) by brachytherapy boost (20-30 Gy) to the base of tongue using Iridium-192. The implant was done at the same anesthesia as the neck dissection, and all patients had temporary tracheostomy. Follow-up ranges from 1-151 months (median 36 months). Nine patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial 5 and 10-year local control is 88% and 88%, regional control is 96% and 96%, distant metastasis free survival is 91% and 76%, disease free survival is 80% and 67%, and overall survival is 86% and 52%, respectively. After EBRT, 78% of dissected necks were pathologically negative. Complications occurred in 16%. A detailed quality of life (QOL) assessment has been completed on the first 36 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and median follow-up of 5 years. This included a Performance Status Assessment, socio-demographic and economic questionnaire, a multidimensional QOL assessment measuring emotional, physical, social and functional well-being, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. This data will be presented. The overwhelming majority of patients were able to maintain their pre-diagnosis earning potential, employment status, speaking ability and ability to eat in public. However, a variety of symptoms such as xerostomia, swallowing difficulty, decreased energy, changes in taste and dietary restrictions were observed. Our data shows that primary radiation therapy produces

  2. Radiation studies on the microflora in a High-level radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation sensitivities of microflora in the air environment of the irradiation room of the 60 CO industrial irradiation facility of NCRRT was studied. The isolated microflora was identified to be the Gram positive micrococci, and the gram positive bacilli: coagulans and laterosporous. The study of the dose-survival counts dependence of the colonies showed the existance of the combination of at least two groups of micro-organisms with different sensitivities to radiation. The value of the radiation resistant group was found to be 2.2 10kGy. A method is presented to estimate the amount of each group in the initial culture. A study of the dependence of radiation lethality on the dose rate of radiation on the aerobic dry microbes showed no significant effect in the dose-rate range from 330 down to 44 Gy.min

  3. English Vocabulary Acquisition of Bilingual Learners at the Primary and Secondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsward, Ruja; Boonprasitt, Donrutai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports research findings of English vocabulary acquisition of bilingual learners at the levels of Primary 6 and Secondary 3 at Satit Bilingual School of Rangsit University. The purpose was to find out the extent to which learners at these levels have acquired English vocabulary to communicate their ideas about themselves and their…

  4. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  5. Development of a parallel plate ion chamber for radiation protection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Landi, Mauricio; Moralles, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    A new parallel plate vented ion chamber is proposed in this paper. The application of this chamber was primarily intended to the measurement of stray radiation in interventional procedures, but the energy response of about 2.6%, which was obtained in the first prototype, on the range from 40 to 150 kV using ISO 4037-1 narrow qualities, provided the possibility of a wide modality application on radiation protection. Primary studies with Maxwell 2D electromagnetic field simulator revealed an optimized model regarding effective volume and saturation voltage levels, which conferred to the ion chamber a dual entrance window feature. The development of this ion chamber has the main contribution of Monte Carlo calculations as a support tool to the establishment of the effective volume of the chamber and determination of the best materials for housing mounting and conductive elements, such as guard rings, electrode, and windows. Even the composition of the conductive layers, which would be neglected due to their very small thicknesses (about 35 μm), had important influence on the results and could be better understood with Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System (MCNP) simulations. (author)

  6. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ferrer, Jorge M. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Yongbaek [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. David [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Bawendi, Moungi G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

  7. Explaining the absence of Co-58 radiation fields around CANDU reactor primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields from Co-58 are rarely detected in CANDU plants. For example, Ge(Li) surveys of the Inconel 600 steam generators at some CANDU plants may show radiation attributed to Co-58 only early in plant life, and most artefacts removed from the primary circuit later in plant operation show no Co-58 present. However, Pressurized Water Reactor plants experience relatively large fields from Co-58 on their isothermal piping, e.g., steam generator channel head, and steam generators tube sampling programs do show deposits in the tubes with significant Co-58 compared to other radionuclides such as Co-60. CANDU reactors have high concentrations of dissolved iron due to the extensive use of carbon steel for the isothermal piping, e.g., feeders, headers, and steam generator channel heads. A dissolved iron transport diagram that was proposed recently for the primary circuit of CANDU plants has been validated by comparison of predicted deposit weights with plant deposit data from various components. One feature of the diagram is dissolved iron precipitation inside the steam generators tubes. An hypothesis is advanced here in which precipitating dissolved iron is proposed to occlude dissolved nickel. This removal mechanism may prevent the solubility of dissolved nickel from being exceeded anywhere around the primary circuit. In particular, this mechanism could avoid NiO precipitation in the core and the generation of large quantities of Co-58. Using this mechanism along with the known solubility behaviour of NiO with temperature, a dissolved nickel transport diagram has been proposed for CANDU plants. (authors)

  8. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  9. Practice-level quality improvement interventions in primary care: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Ryan; Stokes, Tim; Marshall, Tom

    2015-11-01

    To present an overview of effective interventions for quality improvement in primary care at the practice level utilising existing systematic reviews. Quality improvement in primary care involves a range of approaches from the system-level to patient-level improvement. One key setting in which quality improvement needs to occur is at the level of the basic unit of primary care--the individual general practice. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners to have access to an overview of the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions available in this setting. A tertiary evidence synthesis was conducted (a review of systematic reviews). A systematic approach was used to identify and summarise published literature relevant to understanding primary-care quality improvement at the practice level. Quality assessment was via the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for systematic reviews, with data extraction identifying evidence of effect for the examined interventions. Included reviews had to be relevant to quality improvement at the practice level and relevant to the UK primary-care context. Reviews were excluded if describing system-level interventions. A range of measures across care structure, process and outcomes were defined and interpreted across the quality improvement interventions. Audit and feedback, computerised advice, point-of-care reminders, practice facilitation, educational outreach and processes for patient review and follow-up all demonstrated evidence of a quality improvement effect. Evidence of an improvement effect was higher where baseline performance was low and was particularly demonstrated across process measures and measures related to prescribing. Evidence was not sufficient to suggest that multifaceted approaches were more effective than single interventions. Evidence exists for a range of quality improvement interventions at the primary-care practice level. More research is required to determine the use and impact of quality

  10. Primary processes in radiation chemistry. LET (Linear Energy Transfer) effect in water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trupin-Wasselin, V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on aqueous solutions leads to water ionization and then to the formation of radical species and molecular products (e - aq , H . , OH . , H 2 O 2 , H 2 ). It has been shown that the stopping power, characterized by the LET value (Linear Energy Transfer) becomes different when the nature of the ionizing radiations is different. Few data are nowadays available for high LET radiations such as protons and high energy heavy ions. These particles have been used to better understand the primary processes in radiation chemistry. The yield of a chemical dosimeter (the Fricke dosimeter) and those of the hydrogen peroxide have been determined for different LET. The effect of the dose rate on the Fricke dosimeter yield and on the H 2 O 2 yield has been studied too. When the dose rate increases, an increase of the molecular products yield is observed. At very high dose rate, this yield decreases on account of the attack of the molecular products by radicals. The H 2 O 2 yield in alkaline medium decreases when the pH reaches 12. This decrease can be explained by a slowing down of the H 2 O 2 formation velocity in alkaline medium. Superoxide radical has also been studied in this work. A new detection method: the time-resolved chemiluminescence has been perfected for this radical. This technique is more sensitive than the absorption spectroscopy. Experiments with heavy ions have allowed to determine the O 2 .- yield directly in the irradiation cell. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation code. (O.M.)

  11. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  12. Significance of serum endostatin levels in patients with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qunxin; Ling Chunhua; Ji Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum level of endostatin and the clinical pathophysiological characteristics in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: The serum levels of endostatin were detected in 48 patients with primary lung cancer and 50 patients with benign pulmonary diseases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: Serum endostatin level in patients with primary lung cancer was significantly higher than it in patients with benign pulmonary diseases (P<0.01). It was higher in adenocarcinoma group than that in squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma group (P<0.05). The level of serum endostatin in lung cancer with TNM stage III + IV was higher than that in patients in stage I + II (P<0.01). And it was also higher in patients suffering from lung cancer with metastasis than that in patients with no metastasis (P<0.05). However, there was not a significant relation between serum endostatin level the location of the tumor and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Serum endostatin level in expressed higher in patients with primary lung cancer. There is significant relationship between serum endostatin level, histological classification, TNM stage and metastasis of lung cancer. (authors)

  13. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  14. Radiation-induced bilateral cystic frontal lobe necroses demonstrating a fluid-blood level; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineura, Katsuyoshi; Sasajima, Toshio; Kowada, Masayoshi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ogawa, Toshihide

    1992-02-01

    A 41-year-old male developed radiation-induced bilateral cystic frontal lobe necroses after irradiation for an olfactory neuroblastoma. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the lesions, one containing a fluid-blood level on CT scans and niveau formation on MR images. It was proved to be a coagulated hematoma within the cyst at surgery. Such a fluid-blood level in a radiation-induced cyst has never been reported, although hemorrhage frequently accompanies delayed radiation necrosis. Positron emission tomography with multiple tracers may be useful in differentiating cerebral radiation necrosis from tumor recurrence, because of absence of abnormal tracer accumulation. (author).

  15. Experience in the development and practical use of working control levels for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of development and practical use of working control levels (WCL) of radiation safety in the Gorky region, is discussed. WCL are introduced by ''Radiation Safety Guides'' (RSG-76) and have great practical importance. Regional control levels of radiation safety are determined for certain types of operations implying radioactive hazard and differentiated according to the types of sources applied and types of operation. Dose rates, radioactive contamination of operating surfaces, skin, air and waste water are subject to normalization. Limits of individual radiation doses specified according to operation categories are included. 10 tables of regional WCL indices are developed [ru

  16. Resistance of Feather-Associated Bacteria to Intermediate Levels of Ionizing Radiation near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario Xavier; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Genevaux, Pierre; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Heeb, Philipp

    2016-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has been shown to produce negative effects on organisms, although little is known about its ecological and evolutionary effects. As a study model, we isolated bacteria associated with feathers from barn swallows Hirundo rustica from three study areas around Chernobyl differing in background ionizing radiation levels and one control study site in Denmark. Each bacterial community was exposed to four different γ radiation doses ranging from 0.46 to 3.96 kGy to test whether chronic exposure to radiation had selected for resistant bacterial strains. Experimental radiation duration had an increasingly overall negative effect on the survival of all bacterial communities. After exposure to γ radiation, bacteria isolated from the site with intermediate background radiation levels survived better and produced more colonies than the bacterial communities from other study sites with higher or lower background radiation levels. Long-term effects of radiation in natural populations might be an important selective pressure on traits of bacteria that facilitate survival in certain environments. Our findings indicate the importance of further studies to understand the proximate mechanisms acting to buffer the negative effects of ionizing radiation in natural populations.

  17. Review of the controversy on risks from low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.

    2001-01-01

    The need for regulation of low levels of radiation exposure, and the estimation of risks from such exposures, are based on the assumption that risk is proportional to dose without a threshold, the 'linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis'. This assumption is not supported by scientific data. There is no clear evidence of harm from low levels of exposure, up to at least 20 mSv (acute dose) or total dose rates of at least 50 mSv per year. Even allowing for reasonable extrapolation from radiation levels at which harmful effects have been observed, the LNT assumption should not be used to estimate risks from doses less than 100 mSv. Laboratory and epidemiological evidence, and evolutionary expectations of biological effects from low level radiation, suggest that beneficial health effects (sometimes called 'radiation hormesis') are at least as likely as harmful effects from such exposures. Controversy on this matter strikes at the basis of radiation protection practice

  18. Overview of the hazards of low-level exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritenour, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter the authors are concerned with low-level radiation, doses of ionizing radiations that are ten to thousands of times smaller than those required to contract ARS. Low-level radiation may be defined as an absorbed dose of 10 rem or less delivered over a short period of time. A larger dose delivered over a long period of time, for instance, 50 rem in 10 years, may also be considered low level. The definition is purposely loose so as to cover a wide variety of sources of radiation exposure, such as natural background (100 mrem/year) occupational exposures (<5 rem/year), and medical applications, such as diagnostic radiography (<1 rem). Low-level radiation exposure does not produce ARS. The health effects that may be of concern in regard to low-level radiation are its long-term sequelae. Studies of survivors of high-level radiation exposure (both human and laboratory animals) have indicated that there are three health effects that should be examined at low levels of exposure: induction of cancer, birth abnormalities (from irradiation in utero), and genetic effects. No other long-term effects of low-level exposure have been conclusively demonstrated in animals or humans

  19. Determination of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels from Cell Phones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    associated with the technology, as well as enable epidemiologists in .... max,av battery level, signal reception level, and phone ... across the world against the continued adoption of ICNIRP's .... important factor in our safe exploitation of EM.

  20. Exposing primary rat retina cell cultures to γ-rays: An in vitro model for evaluating radiation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddini, Lucia; Balduzzi, Maria; Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Patrono, Clarice; Matteucci, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Retinal tissue can receive incidental γ-rays exposure during radiotherapy either of tumors of the eye and optic nerve or of head-and-neck tumors, and during medical diagnostic procedures. Healthy retina is therefore at risk of suffering radiation-related side effects and the knowledge of pathophysiological response of retinal cells to ionizing radiations could be useful to design possible strategies of prevention and management of radiotoxicity. In this study, we have exploited an in vitro model (primary rat retinal cell culture) to study an array of biological effects induced on retinal neurons by γ-rays. Most of the different cell types present in retinal tissue - either of the neuronal or glial lineages - are preserved in primary rat retinal cultures. Similar to the retina in situ, neuronal cells undergo in vitro a maturational development shown by the formation of polarized neuritic trees and operating synapses. Since 2 Gy is the incidental dose received by the healthy retina per fraction when the standard treatment is delivered to the brain, retina cell cultures have been exposed to 1 or 2 Gy of γ-rays at different level of neuronal differentiation in vitro: days in vitro (DIV)2 or DIV8. At DIV9, retinal cultures were analyzed in terms of viability, apoptosis and characterized by immunocytochemistry to identify alterations in neuronal differentiation. After irradiation at DIV2, MTT assay revealed an evident loss of cell viability and βIII-tubulin immunostaining highlighted a marked neuritic damage, indicating that survived neurons showed an impaired differentiation. Differentiated cultures (DIV8) appeared to be more resistant with respect to undifferentiated, DIV2 cultures, both in terms of cell viability and differentiation. Apoptosis evaluated with TUNEL assay showed that irradiation at both DIV2 and DIV8 induced a significant increase in the apoptotic rate. To further investigate the effects of γ-rays on retinal neurons, we evaluated the

  1. Radiation levels at CERN's injectors and their impact on electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)649218; Brugger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices operating in hostile radiation environments, such as those found close to high-energy particle accelerators, can suffer from different types of radiation induced failures. At CERN, the mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain can give rise to both stochastic and cumulative effects causing radiation induced failures of exposed electronics and materials, thus directly impacting components and system lifetimes, as well as maintenance requirements. With its original focus on the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project has been successfully implementing mitigation actions in order to avoid accelerator downtime due to radiation induced failures on active electronics. In a next step, the emphasis is put on CERN's injector chain, collecting the respective available information about radiation levels, the definition of additional monitoring requirements and a critical analysis of present and future equipment installations. T...

  2. Ionizing radiation: levels and effects. Volume II. Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The genetic effects of ionizing radiation were last reviewed comprehensively by the Committee in its 1966 report (575), whereas the particular problem of the induction of chromosome aberrations by irradiation of human somatic cells was reviewed in the Committee's 1969 report (576). The present review will consider the further experimental data that have been obtained since these reports. Of the recent advances in human genetics, those concerning the occurrence and transmission of translocations have particular relevance to the problem of estimating risks, and will be discussed in the last section of this review.

  3. Radiation protection knowledge in the undergraduate level for physics students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos-Baraja, J. M.; Sanchez-Carmona, G.; Hernando-Gonzalez, I.; Cid-Galache, A.; Castillo-Belmonte, A. del; Barrio-Lazo, F. J.; Pereda-Barroeta, N.; Iniguez de la Torre, M. P.; Barquero-Sanz, R.; Lopez-Lara-Martin, F.

    2004-01-01

    Medical physics knowledge and the ionising radiations use with medical purposes are a matter of growing interest among students will be titled in physics University degree. To familiarize to students of Physics University degree with this field is considered important so much so that they relate part of that learned in the curriculum ruled as to show them a possible unknown professional field for many. To detect necessities in this field it is carried out an evaluation of knowledge that it help to program activities with those that to satisfy formative necessities in this field. (Author) 17 refs

  4. Induction of genetic instability in ρ53 in primary cultures of normal human urothelium exposed low-dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Harney, J.; Gamble, S.; Arrand, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that primary explant cultures of human urothelium exposed to low doses of gamma radiation subsequently exhibit a high level of stable P53 but it was not clear from those studies whether this protein stabilisation occurred through epigenetic events or as a result of mutation. In these experiments, primary urothelium cultures from five different patients were exposed to 0.5 and 5 Gy γ- radiation from a 60 Cobalt source and allowed to grow for 7- 10 division cycles to allow development of any radiation-induced, non lethal changes in the urothelial cells. C-myc, Bcl-2, and stable P53 protein expression was found to be elevated in cultures following both radiation doses. Following 0.5 Gy exposure, the cultures also developed multiple distinct 'foci' of rapidly-dividing cells which strongly over-expressed P53. These grew on a background of morphologically normal cells. When such foci were selectively analysed for their p53 mutation status by PCR-SSCPE, there was evidence that they contained cells which had developed changes to thr p53 gene post-irradiation. These changes appeared to occur more frequently in focal cells than in cells of normal morphological appearance in the same culture. DNA sequence analysis of the p53 gene in 0.5 Gy-induced foci displayed frame shift mutations in some cases. These results may have mechanistic importance given the controversy regarding low-dose radiation effects and p53-related genomic instability. (authors)

  5. Importance of healthcare utilization and multimorbidity level in choosing a primary care provider in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik; Halling, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -test, correlations, and logistic regression modelling in four separate models. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The population (151 731) and all healthcare in Blekinge in 2007. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Actively or passively listed in primary care, registered on 31 December 2007. RESULTS: Number of consultations (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1...... data (OR 2.11, 95% CI 2.08-2.15 and OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.11-2.17, respectively) than using data from all healthcare. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were correlated and had similar associations with active listing in primary care. Modelling number of consultations, multimorbidity level...

  6. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A.; Genis S, R.

    1998-01-01

    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions (γ, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  7. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation field level in the vicinity of Damascus international airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the electromagnetic radiation exposure of Damascus international airport workers.Different kinds of electromagnetic wave sources exist in the vicinity of the airport, for example, mobile phone base stations. It was found that the exposure level in all studied points (offices, halls, traffic control tour, etc) is lower than the international restriction levels. Few recommendations were given for some work situation or places where the measured electromagnetic radiation levels were relatively high.(author)

  8. A STUDY ON PLASMA 25 - HYDROXY VITAMIN D LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinandana Gowda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor in many chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, auto immune disease and tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine serum 25 - hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with primary hypertension. This study also attempts to demonstrate an inverse co - relation between vitamin D levels and primary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: 30 patients who are primary hype rtensive were selected, their vitamin D levels measured and the vitamin D levels were compared to age and sex matched non hypertensive controls. STATISTICAL METHODS: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study . ANOVA test and Chi - square test was applied for quantitative and qualitative data respectively to find significant associations between two variables. RESULTS: It is seen from this study that serum vitamin D levels was lower in hypertensive patients when compared to non - hypertensive controls. Hypertensive patients had lower levels of vitamin D with vitamin D status of deficiency in 50% of the cases and insufficiency in 43.3% of the cases and normal levels in 6.7% of the cases. Non hypertensive controls sho wed vitamin D status of normal in 66.7% of controls and insufficiency in 33.3% of the controls without deficiency. Age of the cases, duration of hypertension, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure inversely correlated to vitamin D levels. Bo dy mass index, diet of the patient, alcohol consumption, number of anti - hypertensive drugs, drug compliance, family history of hypertension and fundus status did not correlate to vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observations of the study, Vitami n D is an independent risk factor that is associated with primary or essential hypertension. The level of vitamin D also correlated inversely to age, duration of

  9. Primary radiation damage characterization of α-iron under irradiation temperature for various PKA energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Qurat-ul-ain; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2018-04-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced microstructural defects in body-centered cubic (BCC) iron is of major interest to those using advanced steel under extreme conditions in nuclear reactors. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were implemented to examine the primary radiation damage in BCC iron with displacement cascades of energy 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 keV at temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 K. Statistical analysis of eight MD simulations of collision cascades were carried out along each [110], [112], [111] and a high index [135] direction and the temperature dependence of the surviving number of point defects and the in-cascade clustering of vacancies and interstitials were studied. The peak time and the corresponding number of defects increase with increasing irradiation temperature and primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy. However, the final number of surviving point defects decreases with increasing lattice temperature. This is associated with the increase of thermal spike at high PKA energy and its long timespan at higher temperatures. Defect production efficiency (i.e., surviving MD defects, per Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements) also showed a continuous decrease with the increasing irradiation temperature and PKA energy. The number of interstitial clusters increases with both irradiation temperature and PKA energy. However, the increase in the number of vacancy clusters with PKA energy is minimal-to-constant and decreases as the irradiation temperature increases. Similarly, the probability and cluster size distribution for larger interstitials increase with temperature, whereas only smaller size vacancy clusters were observed at higher temperatures.

  10. Estimation of natural radiation background level and population dose in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe in general the natural radiation background level in China, and based on available data present an estimated annual effective dose equivalent of the population to natural radiation that is some 2.3 mSv, of which about 0.54 mSv is from original γ radiation and about 0.8 mSv from radon and its short-lived daughters

  11. Resistance of Feather-Associated Bacteria to Intermediate Levels of Ionizing Radiation near Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Gonz?lez, Mario Xavier; Czirj?k, G?bor ?rp?d; Genevaux, Pierre; M?ller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Heeb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been shown to produce negative effects on organisms, although little is known about its ecological and evolutionary effects. As a study model, we isolated bacteria associated with feathers from barn swallows Hirundo rustica from three study areas around Chernobyl differing in background ionizing radiation levels and one control study site in Denmark. Each bacterial community was exposed to four different ? radiation doses ranging from 0.46 to 3.96 kGy to test whether ch...

  12. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

  13. Efficiency in the use of radiation and primary productivity on forage resources in eastern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, S.; Paruelo, J.; Ayala, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP) is one of the most important ecosystem attributes, and the main control of stock density on grasslands. Traditionally it has been estimated from based on periodical biomass harvest. Spectral information allows estimating ANPP at low cost and in real time over large areas. This requires the calibration of models that relate spectral information and field estimates of ANPP, quantifying a key factor in this relationship: the conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass (Radiation Use Efficiency: RUE). In this work, we combined field ANPP estimates with data from satellite imagery and weather stations to estimate EUR and generate models to estimate ANPP in real time in natural grasslands with and without legumes overseeding, of the Sierras y Lomadas del Este region. RUE was 0.24 g MS/MJ for natural grassland, while sowed grassland EUR was approximately twice, depending on the system analyzed. ANPP models explained 70 and 58% of the variance of the data (p <0.001), with prediction r2 of 0,67 and 0.55 (p <0.001), to natural grasslands with and without legumes overseeding, respectively

  14. Primary processes of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of aromatic olefins studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Boes, J.; Helmstreit, W.; Mehnert, R.

    1982-01-01

    By pulse radiolysis of solutions of aromatic olefins (styrene, 1-methylstyrene, 1,1-diphenylethylene) in non-polar solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, n-butylchloride) the mechanism and kinetics of primary processes of radiation-induced cationic polymerization were investigated. In cyclohexane, radical cations of the olefins are generated by charge transfer from solvent cations. These cations dimerize in a diffusion-controlled reaction. The next step of chain-growth is slower by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. In carbon tetrachloride and in n-butyl chloride growing olefin cations are produced by a reaction of radical cations with solvent as well as by addition of solvent carbonium ions to the monomer. In strongly acidic aqueous solution of olefins radical cations produced indirectly from hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals dimerize and react in a subsequent step by deprotonation forming non-saturated dimer radicals. The reaction mechanism established shows that in the case of radiation-induced cationic polymerization it is not possible to define a uniform first step of the chain reaction. (author)

  15. Primary processes of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of aromatic olefins studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Boes, J.; Helmstreit, W.; Mehnert, R.

    1981-01-01

    By pulse radiolysis of solutions of aromatic olefins (styrene, 1-methylstyrene, 1,1-diphenylethylene) in nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, n-butyl chloride) the mechanism and kinetics of primary processes of radiation-induced cationic polymerization were investigated. In cyclohexane, radical cations of the olefins are generated by charge transfer from solvent cations (k about 10 11 l mol -1 s -1 ). These cations dimerize in a diffusion-controlled reaction (k approximately 10 10 l mol -1 s -1 ). The next step of chain-growth is slower by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, in carbon tetrachloride and in n-butyl chloride growing olefin cations are produced by a reaction of the radical cations with the solvent as well as by addition of solvent carbonium ions to the monomer. In strongly acidic aqueous solution of olefins radical cations produced indirectly from hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals dimerize and react in a subsequent step by deprotonation forming non-saturated dimer radicals. The established reaction mechanism shows that in the case of radiation-induced cationic polymerization it is not possible to define a uniform first step of the chain reaction. (author)

  16. Epidemiological studies on the effects of low-level ionizing radiation on cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of low-level ionizing radiation are yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. If so, the hazard identification of ionizing radiation should he conducted separately for low- and high-level ionizing radiation; the hazard identification of low-level radiation is yet to be completed. What makes hazard identification of ionizing radiation difficult, particularly in the case of carcinogenic effect, is the difficulty in distinguishing radiation-induced cancer from other cancers with respect to clinicopathological features and molecular biological characteristics. Actually, it is suspected that radiation-induced carcinogenesis involves mechanisms not specific for radiation, such as oxidative stress. Excess risk per dose in medium-high dose ranges can be extrapolated to a low-dose range if dose-response can be described by the linear-non-threshold model. The cancer risk data of atomic-bomb survivors describes leukemia risk with a linear-quadratic (LQ) model and solid-cancer risk with linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The LQ model for leukemia and the LNT model for solid cancer correspond to the two-hit model and the one-hit model, respectively. Although the one-hit model is an unlikely dose-response for carcinogenesis, there is no convincing epidemiological evidence supporting the LQ model or non-threshold model for solid cancer. It should be pointed out, however, even if the true dose response is non-linear various noises involved in epidemiological data may mask the truth. In this paper, the potential contribution of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers and residents in high background radiation areas will be discussed. (author)

  17. [Risk factors and burnout levels in Primary Care nurses: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Monsalve-Reyes, Carolina S; San Luis-Costas, Concepción; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Aguayo-Estremera, Raimundo; Cañadas-de la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the risk factors and levels of burnout in Primary Care nurses. A systematic review was performed. CINAHL, CUIDEN, LILACS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were consulted. Search equations were 'burnout AND community health nursing' and 'burnout AND primary care nursing'. The search was performed in October 2015. The final sample was n=12 studies. Quantitative primary studies that used Maslach Burnout Inventory for burnout assessment in Primary Care nurses were included without restriction by publication date. The main variables were the mean and standard deviation of the three burnout dimensions, high, medium and low prevalence rates of each dimension, and socio-demographic, occupational and psychological variables that potentially influence burnout level. Studies show high prevalence rates, generally between 23% and 31%, of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence rates of high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment show heterogeneity, varying between 8%-32% and 4%-92% of the sample, respectively. Studies show that older nurses with more seniority, anxiety and depression, among other variables, have higher burnout levels, while nurses with higher salary, high job satisfaction, organisational support, and good self-concept have less burnout. High emotional exhaustion is the main affected dimension of burnout in Primary Care nursing. There is heterogeneity in depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Burnout must be prevented in these professionals, by increasing protective factors and monitoring its appearance in those with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Mamede, Marcelo; Silveira, Mariana de Castro; Aguiar, Polyanna; Real, Raphaela Vila, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the level of ambient radiation in a PET/CT center. Materials and methods: previously selected and calibrated TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters were utilized to measure room radiation levels. During 32 days, the detectors were placed in several strategically selected points inside the PET/CT center and in adjacent buildings. After the exposure period the dosimeters were collected and processed to determine the radiation level. Results: in none of the points selected for measurements the values exceeded the radiation dose threshold for controlled area (5 mSv/ year) or free area (0.5 mSv/year) as recommended by the Brazilian regulations. Conclusion: in the present study the authors demonstrated that the whole shielding system is appropriate and, consequently, the workers are exposed to doses below the threshold established by Brazilian standards, provided the radiation protection standards are followed. (author)

  19. Ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; de Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos; Mamede, Marcelo; Silveira, Mariana de Castro; Aguiar, Polyanna; Real, Raphaela Vila; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of ambient radiation in a PET/CT center. Materials and Methods Previously selected and calibrated TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters were utilized to measure room radiation levels. During 32 days, the detectors were placed in several strategically selected points inside the PET/CT center and in adjacent buildings. After the exposure period the dosimeters were collected and processed to determine the radiation level. Results In none of the points selected for measurements the values exceeded the radiation dose threshold for controlled area (5 mSv/year) or free area (0.5 mSv/year) as recommended by the Brazilian regulations. Conclusion In the present study the authors demonstrated that the whole shielding system is appropriate and, consequently, the workers are exposed to doses below the threshold established by Brazilian standards, provided the radiation protection standards are followed. PMID:25798004

  20. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  1. Comparison of endotoxin levels found in primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Endo, Marcos S; Martinho, Frederico C

    2012-08-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the levels of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [LPSs]) found in primary and secondary endodontic infections with apical periodontitis by correlating LPS contents with clinical/radiographic findings. In addition, the presence of target gram-negative anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. Samples were taken from 15 root canals with primary infections and 15 with secondary infections by using paper points. The limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to quantify endotoxins, and the polymerase chain reaction technique (16S rDNA) was used for bacterial investigation. Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canal samples collected from primary (15/15) and secondary (15/15) infections with median values of 7.49 EU/mL and 3.96 EU/mL, respectively (P asymptomatic teeth with primary infections (P 3 mm) (P < .05). Prevotella nigrescens (10/15, 4/15), Fusobacterium nucleatum (5/15, 1/15), Treponema denticola (3/15, 1/15), and Treponema socranskii (5/15, 1/15) were detected in teeth with primary and secondary infections, respectively. P. endodontalis was present only in teeth with primary infections (5/15). Teeth with primary endodontic infections had higher contents of endotoxins and a more complex gram-negative bacterial community than teeth with secondary infections. Moreover, the levels of endotoxins were related to the severity of bone destruction in periapical tissues as well as the development of clinical features in teeth with primary infections. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  3. The analysis of radiation levels for daily supplies made in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.R. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Tech., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The radiation levels were measured and assessed for samples around a living environment such as building materials and industrial products for which civil complaint had been filed to have radioactivity in Korea. The dose rates for more than one hundred samples from the goods in a living environment were compared with those of the background. The sample's radiation level ranged from 0.095 μSv/h to 0.162 μSv/h, which are within the range of the laboratory background level from 0.090 μSv/h to 0.174 μSv/h. It was thought the radiation level of the goods for which the civil complaint was given had not particular difference from the environmental radiation level in Korea in spite of deviations for some samples. (author)

  4. Quality control methodology and implementation of X-radiation standards beams, mammography level, following the standard IEC 61267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo de Lima

    2010-01-01

    In this work it was developed and applied a quality control program of the X radiation system (160 kV, constant potential, target of tungsten) of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN(LCI) in the energy range relative to mammography beams (from 25 kV to 35 kV). The X radiation standards beams, level mammography, using molybdenum and aluminum as additional filtration, were established after the application of this quality control program following national and international recommendations. The reference ionization chamber has traceability to PTB and was regularly submitted to quality control tests for evaluation and analysis of its performance. The radiation qualities emerging from the X-radiation assembly (RQR-M), based on a phantom made up of an aluminum added filter (RQA-M), narrow beam condition (RQN-M) and broad beam condition (RQB-M), following the recommendations of the international standard IEC 61267 (2005) and the IAEA code of practice, TRS 457 (2007) were established. For the implantation of RQN-M and RQB-M radiation qualities, two mammography phantoms were developed. The half-value layers found are those presented by the German primary laboratory PTB, and varied from 0.35 to 1.21 mm Al. The air kerma rates were obtained for all the 15 implanted qualities. (author)

  5. Primary lymphoma of brain: results of management of a modern cohort with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laperriere, Normand J.; Cerezo, Laura; Milosevic, Michael F.; Wong, C. Shun; Patterson, Bruce; Panzarella, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with primary lymphoma of brain managed with radiation therapy between 1979 and 1988. Methods and materials: A retrospective review was undertaken of 49 patients referred to Princess Margaret Hospital. There were 25 males and 24 females. Median age was 60 years, with a range of 17-80 years. Tumors were located supratentorially in 35, infratentorially in 10, and both in 4 patients. Single masses were demonstrated on CT brain in 36, and multiple lesions in 13 patients. Cranial irradiation was given in 48, and 11 patients received chemotherapy. All patients in this series were immunocompetent. Results: Over a follow-up range of 3-11 years of surviving patients, with a median of 6 years, (40(49)) patients have died. Overall median survival was 1.4 years (17 months) and 5-year actuarial survival was 26%. Statistical analysis revealed the following significant factors: Karnofsky performance status (KPS), age, and distribution pattern of disease on presenting CT brain. Five-year actuarial survival for patients with a KPS > 60 or 60, 5-year actuarial survival was 42% and 9%, respectively (P = 0.03); for patients with solitary or multiple lesions, 5-year actuarial survival was 30% and 15%, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusions: We conclude that Karnofsky performance status, age, and distribution pattern on pretreatment CT of brain are significant prognostic factors in primary lymphoma of brain, and that new approaches need to be developed for these patients

  6. Neoadjuvant radiation in primary extremity liposarcoma: correlation of MRI features with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortman, Jeremy R. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Shinagare, Atul B.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Tirumani, Harika [Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hornick, Jason L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate MRI features of response of primary extremity liposarcoma (LPS) to neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) with histopathologic correlation. In this IRB-approved study including 125 patients with extremity LPS treated with neoadjuvant RT from 2000 to 2013, MRI of the primary tumour in 18 patients (5 pleomorphic LPS, 13 myxoid LPS) before and after RT were reviewed by two radiologists by consensus. Histopathology of the surgical specimens was reviewed by a pathologist with expertise in sarcomas. In the pleomorphic LPS cohort, 3/5 tumours increased in size; 3/5 decreased in enhancing component; and 3/5 increased in peritumoral oedema, intratumoral haemorrhage, and necrosis. In the myxoid LPS cohort, 12/13 tumours decreased in size, 8/13 decreased in enhancing component, and 5/13 increased in internal fat following RT. Histopathology showed ≥50 % residual tumour in 1/5 pleomorphic LPS and 2/13 myxoid LPS. Hyalinization/necrosis of ≥75 % was noted in 4/5 pleomorphic LPS and 11/13 myxoid LPS. Cytodifferentiation was noted in 1/5 pleomorphic and 9/13 myxoid LPS. While pleomorphic LPS showed an increase in size, peritumoral oedema, intratumoral haemorrhage, and necrosis on MRI following neoadjuvant RT, myxoid LPS showed a decrease in size and enhancement with an increase in internal fat. (orig.)

  7. Prognostic threshold levels of NT-proBNP testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Schou, M.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Chronic heart failure (HF) is a common condition with a poor prognosis. As delayed diagnosis and treatment of HF patients in primary care can be detrimental, risk-stratified waiting lists for echocardiography might optimize resource utilization. We investigated whether a prognostic threshold...... level of the cardiac peptide, NT-proBNP, could be identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2003-2005, 5875 primary care patients with suspected HF (median age 73 years) had NT-proBNP analysed in the Copenhagen area. Eighteen percent died and 20% had a cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization (median follow....../mL) was associated with an 80% (95% CI: 20-190, P = 0.01) increased mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, previous hospitalization, CV diseases, and chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified prognostic threshold levels for mortality and CV hospitalization for NT-proBNP in primary care patients suspected...

  8. Operator dependency of the radiation exposure in cardiac interventions: feasibility of ultra low dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emre Ozpelit, Mehmet; Ercan, Ertugrul; Pekel, Nihat; Tengiz, Istemihan; Yilmaz, Akar; Ozpelit, Ebru; Ozyurtlu, Ferhat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mean radiation exposure in invasive cardiology varies greatly between different centres and interventionists. The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the EURATOM Council stipulate that, despite reference values, 'All medical exposure for radiodiagnostic purposes shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). The purpose of this study is to establish the effects of the routine application of ALARA principles and to determine operator and procedure impact on radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. Materials and methods: A total of 240 consecutive cardiac interventional procedures were analysed. Five operators performed the procedures, two of whom were working in accordance with ALARA principles (Group 1 operators) with the remaining three working in a standard manner (Group 2 operators). Radiation exposure levels of these two groups were compared. Results: Total fluoroscopy time and the number of radiographic runs were similar between groups. However, dose area product and cumulative dose were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared with Group 2. Radiation levels of Group 1 were far below even the reference levels in the literature, thus representing an ultra-low-dose radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. Conclusion: By use of simple radiation reducing techniques, ultra-low-dose radiation exposure is feasible in interventional cardiology. Achievability of such levels depends greatly on operator awareness, desire, knowledge and experience of radiation protection. (authors)

  9. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry

  10. What happens at very low levels of radiation exposure ? Are the low dose exposures beneficial ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Dalji

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation is naturally present in our environment and has been since the birth of this planet. The human population is constantly exposed to low levels of natural background radiation, primarily from environmental sources, and to higher levels from occupational sources, medical therapy, and other human-mediated events. Radiation is one of the best-investigated hazardous agents. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection consideration are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain t hreshold a n appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Sendromes, ARS) occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels. Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. For this reason, a stochastic effect is called a Linear or Zero-Threshold (LNT) Dose-Response Effect. There is a stochastic correlation between the number of cases of cancers or genetic defects developed inside a population and the dose received by the population at relatively large levels of radiation. These changes in gene activation seem to be able to modify the response of cells to subsequent radiation exposure, termed the a daptive response

  11. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam; Cineangiografia coronaria y radiacion ionizante a pacientes. Analisis en haz primario y secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun, Carlos [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 {+-} 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255{+-}213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22{+-}0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62{+-}2,44 mGy.

  12. School Effectiveness at Primary Level of Education in Relation to Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Manas Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head…

  13. Extraction of level density and γ strength function from primary γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new iterative procedure to extract the level density and the γ strength function from primary γ spectra for energies close up to the neutron binding energy. The procedure is tested on simulated spectra and on data from the 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reaction

  14. Development of Communicative Tolerance among Teachers of Primary and Senior Level of the General Education School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarenkov, Yury P.; Baranova, Nataly A.; Sidorova, Anna D.; Mitiukov, Nicholas W.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the influence of the level of development of communicative tolerance on the effectiveness of the teaching and educational activity of primary and senior schoolteachers. In the article the concepts of psychophysiological and communicative tolerance are separated. The psychological content of communicative…

  15. Model ecosystem approach to estimate community level effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahiro, Doi; Nobuyuki, Tanaka; Shoichi, Fuma; Nobuyoshi, Ishii; Hiroshi, Takeda; Zenichiro, Kawabata [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Mathematical computer model is developed to simulate the population dynamics and dynamic mass budgets of the microbial community realized as a self sustainable aquatic ecological system in the tube. Autotrophic algae, heterotrophic protozoa and sapro-trophic bacteria live symbiotically with inter-species' interactions as predator-prey relationship, competition for the common resource, autolysis of detritus and detritus-grazing food chain, etc. The simulation model is the individual-based parallel model, built in the demographic stochasticity, environmental stochasticity by dividing the aquatic environment into patches. Validity of the model is checked by the multifaceted data of the microcosm experiments. In the analysis, intrinsic parameters of umbrella endpoints (lethality, morbidity, reproductive growth, mutation) are manipulated at the individual level, and tried to find the population level, community level and ecosystem level disorders of ecologically crucial parameters (e.g. intrinsic growth rate, carrying capacity, variation, etc.) that related to the probability of population extinction. (author)

  16. Model ecosystem approach to estimate community level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahiro, Doi; Nobuyuki, Tanaka; Shoichi, Fuma; Nobuyoshi, Ishii; Hiroshi, Takeda; Zenichiro, Kawabata

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical computer model is developed to simulate the population dynamics and dynamic mass budgets of the microbial community realized as a self sustainable aquatic ecological system in the tube. Autotrophic algae, heterotrophic protozoa and sapro-trophic bacteria live symbiotically with inter-species' interactions as predator-prey relationship, competition for the common resource, autolysis of detritus and detritus-grazing food chain, etc. The simulation model is the individual-based parallel model, built in the demographic stochasticity, environmental stochasticity by dividing the aquatic environment into patches. Validity of the model is checked by the multifaceted data of the microcosm experiments. In the analysis, intrinsic parameters of umbrella endpoints (lethality, morbidity, reproductive growth, mutation) are manipulated at the individual level, and tried to find the population level, community level and ecosystem level disorders of ecologically crucial parameters (e.g. intrinsic growth rate, carrying capacity, variation, etc.) that related to the probability of population extinction. (author)

  17. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  18. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation: results of a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianen, Miranda E M C; Schilstra, Cornelis; Beetz, Ivo; Muijs, Christina T; Chouvalova, Olga; Burlage, Fred R; Doornaert, Patricia; Koken, Phil W; Leemans, C René; Rinkel, Rico N P M; de Bruijn, Marieke J; de Bock, G H; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Slotman, Ben J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Bijl, Hendrik P; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop predictive models for RISD after curative (chemo) radiotherapy ((CH) RT). The study population consisted of 354 consecutive head and neck cancer patients treated with (CH) RT. The primary endpoint was grade 2 or more swallowing dysfunction according to the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring criteria at 6 months after (CH) RT. The secondary endpoints were patient-rated swallowing complaints as assessed with the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire. To select the most predictive variables a multivariate logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping was used. At 6 months after (CH) RT the bootstrapping procedure revealed that a model based on the mean dose to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) and mean dose to the supraglottic larynx was most predictive. For the secondary endpoints different predictive models were found: for problems with swallowing liquids the most predictive factors were the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx and radiation technique (3D-CRT versus IMRT). For problems with swallowing soft food the mean dose to the middle PCM, age (18-65 versus >65 years), tumour site (naso/oropharynx versus other sites) and radiation technique (3D-CRT versus IMRT) were the most predictive factors. For problems with swallowing solid food the most predictive factors were the mean dose to the superior PCM, the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx and age (18-65 versus >65 years). And for choking when swallowing the V60 of the oesophageal inlet muscle and the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx were the most predictive factors. Physician-rated and patient-rated RISD in head and neck cancer patients treated with (CH) RT cannot be predicted with univariate relationships between the

  19. Radiation and health: low-level-ionizing radiation exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies is presented. An in-depth analysis of reports available suggests that the possible beneficial outcomes of exposure to LLIR are: increased Growth rate, Development, Neurogenesis, Memory, Fecundity (Fertility), Immunity (Resistance to diseases due to large doses of radiation) and Lifespan (Longevity) Decreased Cancer deaths, Cardiovascular deaths, Respiratory deaths, Neonatal deaths, Sterility, Infection, Premature deaths. The findings also suggest that the LNT theory is overly stated for assessing carcinogenic risks at low doses. It is not scientifically justified and should be banned as it creates radio phobia thereby blocking the efforts to supply reliable, environmentally friendly nuclear energy and important medical therapies. There is no need for anyone to live in fear of serious health consequences from the radioactivity that comes out from nuclear installations and exposures in the range of background radiation. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to Indian population

  20. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  1. Radiation hormesis. Stimulatory effects of low level ionizing radiation on plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Shigenobu; Masui, Hisashi; Yoshida, Shigeo; Murata, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Recently, the study for radiation hormesis has been executed against animals and plants; subharmful doses of radiation may evoke a stimulatory response in any organism. We executed irradiating experiments of dry seeds with fusion (D-T) neutron, fission neutron, cobalt-60 gamma-ray and investigated existence of the radiation hormesis effects by measuring germination, the length of a stalk and the total weight of a seed leaf on the 7th day after starting cultivation. And we estimated radiation hormesis effects by relative effectiveness, the ratio of the mean value of measurement subjects for the irradiated group to that of non-irradiated group. In relation to Raphanus sativus, the hormesis effects on seed leaf growth from irradiated seeds have only turned up in seed groups irradiated by the fusion (D-T) neutron. We have confirmed that absorbed dose range which revealed the effects is from 1 cGy to 10 Gy and the increasing rate is from 5 percent to 25 percent against a control group. (author)

  2. Quality of Life of Patients with Spinal Metastasis from Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: A Longitudinal Study of Surgical Management Combined with Postoperative Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifei; He, Shaohui; Liu, Tielong; Yang, Xinghai; Zhao, Jian; Yu, Hongyu; Feng, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-10-04

    Patients with spinal metastasis from cancer of unknown primary origin have limited life expectancy and poor quality of life. Surgery and radiation therapy remain the main treatment options, but, to our knowledge, there are limited data concerning quality-of-life improvement after surgery and radiation therapy and even fewer data on whether surgical intervention would affect quality of life. Patients were enrolled between January 2009 and January 2014 at the Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The quality of life of 2 patient groups (one group that underwent surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy and one group that underwent radiation therapy only) was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire during a 6-month period. A subgroup analysis of quality of life was performed to compare different surgical strategies in the surgical group. A total of 287 patients, including 191 patients in the group that underwent surgery and 96 patients in the group that underwent radiation therapy only, were enrolled in the prospective study; 177 patients completed all 5 checkpoints and 110 patients had died by the final checkpoint. The surgery group had significantly higher adjusted quality-of-life scores than the radiation therapy group in each domain of the FACT-G questionnaire (all p quality of life in patients with spinal metastasis from cancer of unknown primary origin in the 6-month assessment. In terms of surgical strategies, circumferential decompression seems better than laminectomy alone in quality-of-life improvement. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    . These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...... requires the fundamental mechanistic modelling of each individual process step. Therefore, a framework is presented for the modelling and control of the continuous primary drying step based on non-contact IR radiation. The IR radiation emitted by the radiator filaments passes through various materials...

  4. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H 2 O 2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H 2 O 2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H 2 O 2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. (author)

  5. Assessment of environmental gamma radiation levels at locations having different source characteristics using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Takale, R.A.; Shetty, P.G.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are the major contributor to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation received by the population (UNSCEAR, 1993). The dose in environment thus depends largely on natural radiation than manmade or artificially produced radiation. In the last few decades, there is a growing concern all over the world about radiation and their exposure to population. Thus, it is a necessity to conduct frequent radiological environmental surveillance in order to assess population exposure accurately. Recently, application of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) has been extended to the measurement of mixed radiation field as encountered in the environment. The advantages of passive TL dosimeters for environmental monitoring are that they are small, cheap and do not require power supply during application. The passive TL dosimeters play an important role to provide data on natural background radiation and to determine the contribution to the dose to public from man-made sources. In the present study, three different sites were chosen to compare environmental gamma radiation levels in different scenarios. Kaiga has been chosen as site 1, where four unit of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) of 220 MWe each are in operation. Site 2 is chosen at natural high background radiation area (NHBRA) of Kerala and Vishakhapatnam was chosen as site 3, which is situated at a normal background area. The objective of the study is to illustrate the effect, if any, of an operating nuclear power reactor on environmental gamma radiation levels

  6. Algorithms and programs for processing of satellite data on ozone layer and UV radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkovskij, N.B.; Ivanyukovich, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Some algorithms and programs for automatic retrieving and processing ozone layer satellite data are discussed. These techniques are used for reliable short-term UV-radiation levels forecasting. (authors)

  7. Scientific view of low-level radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The average number of diagnostic x-ray procedures per year in the United States equals the total population and results in an annual collective effective dose equivalent of about 9 million person-rem. Possible deleterious effects include (a) genetic consequences, the risks of which can be assessed only from animal studies; (b) carcinogenesis, which can be assessed from survivors of nuclear bombings and patients exposed for medical reasons; and (c) effects on the developing embryo or fetus. For stochastic endpoints such as cancer and genetic anomalies, it is estimated that the current practice of radiology in the United States increases spontaneous frequency by less than 1%. No single procedure is likely to produce harm to the conceptus, but an accumulation of procedures in a pregnant woman could be hazardous during the sensitive period of 8-15 weeks after conception, with microcephaly and mental retardation the most likely deleterious effects. The balance of risk versus benefit in diagnostic radiology is heavily weighted toward benefit, but the risks are there, and constant efforts are needed to reduce radiation doses to the minimum necessary

  8. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybovic, Michala; Halkett, Georgia K.; Banati, Richard B.; Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour

  9. Calculations of radiation levels during reactor operations for safeguard inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhy, M.

    1996-01-01

    When an internal core spent fuel storage is used in the shield tank to accommodate a large number of spent fuel baskets, physical calculations are performed to determine the number of these spent fuel elements which can be accommodated and still maintain the gamma activity outside under the permissible limit. The corresponding reactor power level is determined. The radioactivity calculations are performed for this internal storage at different axial levels to avoid the criticality of the reactor core. Transport theory is used in calculations based on collision probability for multi group cell calculations. Diffusion theory is used in three dimensions in the core calculations. The nuclear fuel history is traced and radioactive decay is calculated, since reactor fission products are very sensitive to power level. The radioactivity is calculated with a developed formula based on fuel basket loading integrity. (author)

  10. Radiation levels in milk and meat in Ireland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Kevin; Hannan, John

    1986-01-01

    The island of Ireland has no nuclear energy industry and national power requirements are met by a combination of peat, gas and imported oil. We are acutely conscious of the proximity of nuclear installations on the West Coast of Britain and much effort is expended on monitoring the marine environment, particularly seaweed, fish and sediment. The Nuclear Energy Board is a government appointed body charged with the responsibility of regulating the use of radioactive materials in Irish hospitals laboratories and industry and with monitoring the radioactivity of food and in the air. It is very well recognised in Ireland that our reputation for clean food is crucial for our economic development and recent events have ensured increased emphasis on food monitoring for levels of radioactivity. Since the Chernobyl accident and with increased awareness of the vulnerability of our agriculture industry to airborne contamination, the resources of the Nuclear Energy Board has been stretched to the limit and there is an increased level of co-operative work with the physics department of the universities. University College Dublin Physics Department have monitored the milk used in the greater Dublin area since Chernobyl and it's in this area I wish to report. The sampling techniques were based on a random sampling of milk over a wide area and a detailed sampling on a daily basis of milk from the University Farm which is situated about 12 kilometers from Dublin, and have continued to date. Results: In the random milk supply the level of I131 and Cs137 rose from a background level of approx. 2-3bq/litre to approx. 300 bq/litre shortly after the plume reached Ireland on May 2nd 1986. One sample with 400 bq/litre I131 was observed. These levels fell rapidly over the next 2 weeks and settled down to levels of about 10-20 bq/litre. On the University Farm there was a difference between the levels in the morning and evening milk production as illustrated, probably due to the time

  11. Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Four examples of the interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (a) genetic effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (b) cancer at Rocky Flats, (c) childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah, and (d) cancer among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Aggregation of data, adjustment for age, and other problems related to the determination of health effects of low-level radiation are discussed. Troublesome issues related to post hoc analysis are considered

  12. [Internal Exposure Levels of PAHs of Primary School Students in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Su-kun; Liu, Shan; Ren, Ming-zhong; Li, Jie; Shi, Xiao-xia

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the internal exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in primary school students of Guangzhou, the research collected urine of 78 and 86 primary school students from two primary schools in the summer of 2014, one school located in the ordinary residential area and the other in the industrial area. The contents of 10 kinds of OH-PAHs were tested by the rapid liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of total OH-PAHs in primary school students in the residential zone ranged from 0.83 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 80.63 µmol · mol⁻¹, while those in industrial area ranged from 1.06 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 72.47 µmol · mol⁻¹. The geometric average concentrations were 6.18 µmol · mol⁻¹ and 6.47 µmol · mol⁻¹, respectively, and there was no statistical significance between them (P > 0.05). Comparison of the exposure levels of different components of PAHs in the two areas found that all the OH-PAHs had no significant difference except for the levels of 1- OHP (P transportation emissions.

  13. An evaluation of primary school students' views about noise levels in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Bulunuz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective education and teaching requires keeping classroom noise levels within specific limits. The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ views about the noise level in school, its effects, and control of it at two primary schools (one public school and one private school located in a district of Bursa - within the scope of the TÜBİTAK 1001 project numbered 114K738. The research sample consists of 432 third and fourth graders, 223 of whom are from the public school and 209 of whom are from the private school. To collect data, a 20-question survey was administered to the students, and noise measurements were carried out in the schools. According to the findings obtained from the analysis of the answers from the student questionnaire, the students think that the noise level is high especially during break times. In parallel with the student views, the average noise level at break time during recess was found to be 74.56 dBA at the private primary school and 82.18 dBA at the public primary school. These values are much higher than the limits prescribed in the Regulation on Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise in Turkey (RAMEN European Union Harmonization Laws. The research findings show that this important problem must be dealt with urgently, and substantive efforts and activities must be launched to reduce high noise levels in schools.

  14. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  15. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 170,171Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Becker, J.A.; Berstein, L.A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Level densities and radiative strength functions in 171 Yb and 170 Yb nuclei have been measured with the 171 Yb( 3 He, 3 He(prime) γ) 171 Yb and 171 Yb( 3 He, αγ) 170 Yb reactions. A simultaneous determination of the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function was made. The present data adds to and is consistent with previous results for several other rare earth nuclei. The method will be briefly reviewed and the result from the analysis will be presented. The radiative strength function for 171 Yb is compared to previously published work.

  16. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Wunderink, Wouter; Os, Rob M. van; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Brandwijk, Rene P.; Verhoef, Cornelis; IJzermans, Jan N.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides a high local control rate for primary and metastatic liver tumors. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of this treatment on the patient's quality of life. This is the first report of quality of life associated with liver SBRT. Methods and Materials: From October 2002 to March 2007, a total of 28 patients not suitable for other local treatments and with Karnofsky performance status of at least 80% were entered in a Phase I-II study of SBRT for liver tumors. Quality of life was a secondary end point. Two generic quality of life instruments were investigated, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and EuroQoL-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS), in addition to a disease-specific questionnaire, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C-30). Points of measurement were directly before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Mean scores and SDs were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired-samples t-test and Student t-test. Results: The calculated EQ-5D index, EQ-5D VAS and QLQ C-30 global health status showed that mean quality of life of the patient group was not significantly influenced by treatment with SBRT; if anything, a tendency toward improvement was found. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy combines a high local control rate, by delivering a high dose per fraction, with no significant change in quality of life. Multicenter studies including larger numbers of patients are recommended and under development

  17. Radiation dose from solar flares at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K.

    1979-01-01

    Wdowczyk and Wolfendale (Nature, 268, 510, 1977) concluded that a very large solar flare producing exposure of 10 4 rad at ground level (lethal to almost any organism) has a possible frequency of once per 10 5 -10 8 yr. In the work reported similar results were obtained using a more elaborate model. Flares occuring from February 1956 to August 1972 were analyzed. The flare size distribution above the earth's atmosphere, and neutron flux, dose and dose equivalent at ground level at the latitude of Deep River, Canada, were calculated. The probable frequency of flares delivering various doses are given. Doses larger than 100 rad which have significant somatic effects on man and other animals may be delivered once in 10 6 years. The probability of 10 4 rad was found to be 10 -8 /yr. These calculations apply only to high geomagnetic latitudes. Field reversals during which the geomagnetic field is much weaker than current values total about 10% of the past 4 million years. This suggests that a very large flare delivering a large dose worldwide at ground level cannot be ruled out. (author)

  18. Investigation on the acceptance level of radiation exposure. Comparison of Chinese and Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Katoh, Kazuaki

    1999-01-01

    Safety standards must be determined with the contract between a society and the person concerned, i.e. the agreement in a social community. Individual understandings on the (ionizing) radiation should be proper and uniform as far as possible, just in the case. The individual acceptable radiation dose level of a constituent of a community is one of the key roles for radiation managements and also coping with radiofobia (persons who have hatred and/or allergic syndromes for the radiation). The authors have obtained information by means of questionnaires on the acceptable dose levels of the radiation for 2 groups in a community, the one is a medical science group and the other is a science-technology group in both countries, China and Japan. The annual natural radiation dose etc. are described with inquiries to preclude meaningless responses. The levels of the acceptable radiation dose are different in individuals and show wide distributions. The gap between the two acceptable dose levels for a person is narrow, i.e. the one is the minimum radiation dose that a person rejects with dread and the other is the maximum dose that a person does not have any anxiety. The Japanese science-technology group shows the significant higher dose than that of the Chinese science-technology group. The Chinese medical science group shows the significant higher dose than that of the Chinese science-technology group. The Japanese medical science group does not show the statistically significant difference from the Japanese science-technology group. A perception for the radiation exposure and safety is unexpectedly scattered from person to person even though among the high-level intellectual groups mentioned above. There is no difference on this scattering between the Japan and China. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Radiation therapy for primary breast lymphoma in male gynecomastia: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Hata, Masaharu; Mochizuki, Takao; Ogawa, Kogi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Takekawa, Yoshinori; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Abe, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Primary breast lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and usually affects women, although a few cases have been reported in men. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, or a combination of both, are frequently administered for treatment of primary breast lymphoma, as local control by surgical resection is poor. No standard therapy has been established, and the optimal radiation dose and irradiation field for male patients are unknown. The present report describes a 75-year-old man with bilateral cirrhosis-induced gynecomastia who was diagnosed with primary breast lymphoma; specifically, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Because of his hepatic dysfunction, he was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy was followed by eight cycles of rituximab monotherapy. Clinical response was good, with no signs of relapse. Clinicians may benefit from knowledge regarding effective treatment of primary breast lymphoma in male patients, which has been rarely reported owing to the low incidence of this condition. The outcome in the present case may help to establish effective treatment guidelines in similar cases.

  20. Reconstitution of active telomerase in primary human foreskin fibroblasts : effects on proliferative characteristics and response to ionizing radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, H.H.; Waarde-Verhagen, M.A.W.H. van; Assen-Bolt, A.J. van; Rodemann, H.P.; Prowse, K.R.; Linskens, M.H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere shortening has been proposed to trigger senescence, and since most primary cells do not express active telomerase, reactivation of telomerase activity was proposed as a safe and non-transforming way of immortalizing cells. However, to study radiation responses, it is as yet unclear

  1. Randomized study of control of the primary tumor and survival using preoperative radiation, radiation alone, or surgery alone in head and beck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, B.; Charyulu, K.; Chandler, J.R.; Sudarsanam, A.; Garciga, C.

    1979-01-01

    Fifty-five selected patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck regions were studied in a randomized, prospective manner. The three treatment categories were primary radiation (Gp R), primary surgery (Gp S), and preoperative radiation of 4000 rads in four weeks (Gp R/S). The local control rates for the 44 evaluable patients with a two-year minimum followup were 24%, 39%, and 43%, respectively. Further treatment attempts in patients failing initial therapy yielded local control rates of 35%, 39%, and 43% for Gp R, Gp S, and Gp R/S, respectively. None of the local control rates nor the corresponding survival curves were significantly different at P < 0.10. However, the group sizes were sufficiently small that true differences might not have been detected. Postoperative complications were higher in the primary radiation failures subsequently operated upon compared to the primary surgery group (P = 0.07). A table is included in which the types of postoperative complications are listed and enumerated according to treatment regime

  2. Hospital burden of road traffic injury: major concern in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Faruque, M; Svanström, L; Rahman, F

    2010-04-01

    To assess the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh, and its economic impact on affected families. Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in February and March 2001. To estimate the burden of RTI patients and the length of stay in hospital, the discharge records of primary and secondary level hospitals were used as data sources. Records from 16 district hospitals and 45 Upazila health complexes (subdistrict level hospitals), selected at random, were included in this study. A direct interview method was adopted to estimate the patient costs of RTI; this involved interviewing patients or their attendants. In this study, patient costs included money spent by the patient for medicine, transport, food and lodging (including attendants). Approximately 33% of the beds in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh were occupied by injury-related patients, and more than 19% of the injury patients had been injured in a road traffic accident. People aged 18-45 years were the major victims of RTI, and constituted 70% of the total RTI-related admissions in primary and secondary level hospitals. More than two-thirds of RTI patients were male. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.7 days, and the average patient cost for each RTI patient was US$86 (5834 BDT). RTI is a major cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh, and represents an economic and social burden for the family and the nation. A national strategy and road safety programme need to be developed to reduce the hospital burden and minimize the economic and social impact. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low level radiation: how does the linear without threshold model provide the safety of Canadian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The linear without threshold model is a model of risk used worldwide by the most of health organisms of nuclear regulation in order to establish dose limits for workers and public. It is in the heart of the approach adopted by the Canadian commission of nuclear safety (C.C.S.N.) in matter of radiation protection. The linear without threshold model presumes reasonably it exists a direct link between radiation exposure and cancer rate. It does not exist scientific evidence that chronicle exposure to radiation doses under 100 milli sievert (mSv) leads harmful effects on health. Several scientific reports highlighted scientific evidences that seem indicate a low level of radiation is less harmful than the linear without threshold predicts. As the linear without threshold model presumes that any radiation exposure brings risks, the ALARA principle obliges the licensees to get the radiation exposure at the lowest reasonably achievable level, social and economical factors taken into account. ALARA principle constitutes a basic principle in the C.C.S.N. approach in matter of radiation protection; On the radiation protection plan, C.C.S.N. gets a careful approach that allows to provide health and safety of Canadian people and the protection of their environment. (N.C.)

  4. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes

  5. Low-Level Radiation: Are Chemical Officers Adequately Trained

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-17

    1,000,000 Smoking 1 pack of cigarettes/day ( polonium - 210 ) 8,000 200,000 per 1,000,000 Sleeping next to one’s partner 2 50 per 1,000,000 * LNT. The...treating cancer, food and material irradiation, gamma radiography, and industrial measurement gauges. Half-life is 5.27 years. Decay. The process by...Cosmic rays (at sea level) 30 1,100 per 1,000,000 Cosmic rays (Denver at 5000 ft elevation) 55 2,000 per 1,000,000 Human body (from food we eat

  6. Environmental radiation levels in and around Kalpakkam during 1983-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Mehta, N.K.; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Viswambharan, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the environmental radiation monitoring around the Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station carried out routinely on quarterly integrating cycles using thermoluminescent dosimeters, are presented and analysed, for the five year period 1983-87. As the first reactor attained criticality in July 1983 and the second unit in August 1985 the results are compared with the previously published values for the period 1980-82. Only at two locations viz. the Micro-met laboratory situated at 800 meters from the station and the main gate located at the 1.6 km exclusion zone boundary, a possible indication of increases in the environmental radiation level associated with the power reactor operations could be discerned. However these were found to be statistically insignificant. The whole terrain is characterised by somewhat high levels of terrestrial radiations with quite wide temporal fluctuations which easily mask the small increases if any in the radiation levels, contributed by the reactors. Places located farther away from the power station and away from the monazite-bearing beaches, yielded an annual average background level of 117 ± 29 mR as against the value of 125 ± 24 mR obtained during the preoperational period of 1980-82. A declining general trend in the radiation levels is seen at many locations and this is thought to be associated with significant reduction in the 137 Cs fallout component of the environmental radiation. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  8. Patient radiation doses and reference levels in pediatric interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Geryes, Bouchra; Lachaux, Julie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brunelle, Francis [Hopital Universitaire Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Bak, Adeline; Ozanne, Augustin; Saliou, Guillaume [Hopital Bicetre, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Naggara, Olivier [Hopital Universitaire Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, INSERM S894, DHU Neurovasculaire, Paris (France); Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR894, Paris (France)

    2017-09-15

    To describe, in a multicentric paediatric population, reference levels (RLs) for three interventional radiological procedures. From January 2012 to March 2015, children scheduled for an interventional radiological procedure in two French tertiary centres were retrospectively included and divided into four groups according to age: children younger than 2 years (A1), aged 2-7 years (A5), 8-12 years (A10) and 13-18 years (A15). Three procedures were identified: cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) embolization, and head and neck superficial vascular malformation (SVM) percutaneous sclerotherapy. Demographic and dosimetric data, including dose area product (DAP), were collected. 550 procedures were included. For DSA (162 procedures), the proposed RL values in DAP were 4, 18, 12 and 32 Gy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. For bAVM embolization (258 procedures), values were 33, 70, 105 and 88 Gy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. For SVM sclerotherapy (130 procedures), values were 350, 790, 490 and 248 mGy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. Consecutive data were available to permit a proposal of reference levels for three major paediatric interventional radiology procedures. (orig.)

  9. [Blood serum level of primary bile acids in cattle, horses, swine and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, F; Szaniszló, F; Pethes, G

    1991-02-01

    The levels of the two primary bile acids, cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), were determined by radioimmunoassay in cattle, horse, pig and dog serum. The mean serum cholic acid (SCA) and deoxycholic acid (SCDCA) levels of cows varied with their reproductive status, being 7.8 (+/- 3.3) and 1.5 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l in dry cows, 17.8 (+/- 6.9) and 2.3 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l in freshly calved dams, and 15.8 (+/- 5.7) and 2.3 (+/- 0.8) mumol/l, respectively, in lactating cows. The SCA level found in the immediate prepartal period and also on the day of calving corresponded to those found during the dry period, then, they tended to rise 2 days after calving and attained the peak characteristic for freshly calved dams on day 3 or 4 post partum. Feed consumption had no influence on the serum levels of primary bile acids, and circadian variations of SCA and SCDCA were also negligible. Suckling calves had much lower SCA levels (2.3 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l before feeding than cows. This initial concentration rose to 10.3 (+/- 2.9) mumol/l 1 h after feeding and returned to 5.0 (+/- 2.1) mumol/l 3 h later. Like cows, horses showed no appreciate difference between pre- and post-feeding levels of SCA (2.2 (+/- 1.2) mumol/l) and SCDCA (1.1 (+/- 0.3) mumol/l). Unlike bovines, pigs and dogs showed a considerable increase in the serum levels of the primary bile acids after feeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...... a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...

  11. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer Games and Their Impact on Creativity of Primary Level Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is about being sensitive to dilemmas, losses, problems, and existing errors, making propositions about and examining such issues, which finally leads to innovative findings. On the other hand, it seems that games are important in this process; since they can improve creativity of the individuals. Thus, this research pays attention to the question that whether computer games affect creativity of students at primary level in schools or not? Moreover, in this study, students of 3 main districts of Tehran municipality were studied. Based on the available data of the ministry, there were 51740 students studying in these three districts. Thus, 381 students were randomly selected as the research sample. Findings revealed that all computer games, i.e. puzzle, intellectual, and enigma, affect creativity of students at primary level in schools to different extents.

  13. Benefit of Consolidative Radiation Therapy for Primary Bone Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Randa; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rodriguez, Alma [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shihadeh, Ferial; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Arzu, Isadora; Reed, Valerie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Oki, Yasuhiro; Westin, Jason R.; Fayad, Luis E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina, E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) differ according to the site of presentation. With effective chemotherapy, the need for consolidative radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. We investigated the influence of primary bone presentation and receipt of consolidative RT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL. Methods and Materials: We identified 102 patients with primary bone DLBCL treated consecutively from 1988 through 2013 and extracted clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics from the medical records. Survival outcomes were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with factors affecting survival determined by log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done with a Cox regression model. Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 16-87 years). The most common site of presentation was in the long bones. Sixty-five patients (63%) received R-CHOP–based chemotherapy, and 74 (72%) received rituximab. RT was given to 67 patients (66%), 47 with stage I to II and 20 with stage III to IV disease. The median RT dose was 44 Gy (range, 24.5-50 Gy). At a median follow-up time of 82 months, the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 80% and 82%, respectively. Receipt of RT was associated with improved 5-year PFS (88% RT vs 63% no RT, P=.0069) and OS (91% vs 68%, P=.0064). On multivariate analysis, the addition of RT significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.14, P=.014) with a trend toward an OS benefit (HR=0.30, P=.053). No significant difference in PFS or OS was found between patients treated with 30 to 35 Gy versus ≥36 Gy (P=.71 PFS and P=.31 OS). Conclusion: Patients with primary bone lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy followed by RT can have excellent outcomes. The use of consolidative RT was associated with significant benefits in both PFS and OS.

  14. Benefit of Consolidative Radiation Therapy for Primary Bone Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Randa; Allen, Pamela K.; Rodriguez, Alma; Shihadeh, Ferial; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Arzu, Isadora; Reed, Valerie K.; Oki, Yasuhiro; Westin, Jason R.; Fayad, Luis E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) differ according to the site of presentation. With effective chemotherapy, the need for consolidative radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. We investigated the influence of primary bone presentation and receipt of consolidative RT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL. Methods and Materials: We identified 102 patients with primary bone DLBCL treated consecutively from 1988 through 2013 and extracted clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics from the medical records. Survival outcomes were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with factors affecting survival determined by log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done with a Cox regression model. Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 16-87 years). The most common site of presentation was in the long bones. Sixty-five patients (63%) received R-CHOP–based chemotherapy, and 74 (72%) received rituximab. RT was given to 67 patients (66%), 47 with stage I to II and 20 with stage III to IV disease. The median RT dose was 44 Gy (range, 24.5-50 Gy). At a median follow-up time of 82 months, the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 80% and 82%, respectively. Receipt of RT was associated with improved 5-year PFS (88% RT vs 63% no RT, P=.0069) and OS (91% vs 68%, P=.0064). On multivariate analysis, the addition of RT significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.14, P=.014) with a trend toward an OS benefit (HR=0.30, P=.053). No significant difference in PFS or OS was found between patients treated with 30 to 35 Gy versus ≥36 Gy (P=.71 PFS and P=.31 OS). Conclusion: Patients with primary bone lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy followed by RT can have excellent outcomes. The use of consolidative RT was associated with significant benefits in both PFS and OS

  15. Effects of primary recoil (PKA) energy spectrum on radiation damage in fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Tadao; Iwase, Akihiro

    1997-10-01

    Irradiation effects by different energetic particles such as electrons, various ions and neutrons are compared in fcc metals, particularly in Cu and Ni. It is discussed on the statistical consideration that the logarithm of the so-called PKA median energy, log T 1/2 , is a good representative to characterize the primary recoil (i.e. PKA) energy spectrum with the resultant defect production. For the irradiations of electrons, various ions and neutrons to Cu and Ni, fundamental physical quantities such as the fraction of stage I recovery, the defect production cross sections and the radiation annealing cross sections can be well scaled as a function of log T 1/2 , if the effects of the electron excitation caused by irradiating ions are excluded. Namely, all data of the respective physical quantity lie on a single continuous curve as a function of log T 1/2 . This characteristic curve is utilized to predict the damage accumulation (i.e. defect concentration) as a function of dpa in Cu and Ni with the PKA median energy as a parameter. (author)

  16. Effects of primary recoil (PKA) energy spectrum on radiation damage in fcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Tadao; Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    Irradiation effects by different energetic particles such as electrons, various ions and neutrons are compared in fcc metals, particularly in Cu and Ni. It is discussed on the statistical consideration that the logarithm of the so-called PKA median energy, log T{sub 1/2}, is a good representative to characterize the primary recoil (i.e. PKA) energy spectrum with the resultant defect production. For the irradiations of electrons, various ions and neutrons to Cu and Ni, fundamental physical quantities such as the fraction of stage I recovery, the defect production cross sections and the radiation annealing cross sections can be well scaled as a function of log T{sub 1/2}, if the effects of the electron excitation caused by irradiating ions are excluded. Namely, all data of the respective physical quantity lie on a single continuous curve as a function of log T{sub 1/2}. This characteristic curve is utilized to predict the damage accumulation (i.e. defect concentration) as a function of dpa in Cu and Ni with the PKA median energy as a parameter. (author)

  17. Effect of homologous impurities on primary radiation defect accumulation in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, S.A.; Gavrilov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of the effect of anion and cation homologous impurities on the primary radiation-induced defect accumulation, the transient absorption of H and F centers was studied in KCl and KBr crystals. Pulse electron accelerator technique was used. Pure and doped crystals were investigated. It was obtained that the cation homologue Na in the concentration range from 0 to 0.5 m. % in 10 -8 -10 -6 s post-irradiation time has no effect on the defect accumulation efficiency at low temperature and increases the latter at high temperature. At large post-irradiation time and at high temperatures the rise of efficiency at low Na concentration and decrease of it at high Na concentrations were observed. The conclusion was made that Na does not affect the generation process. The anion homologous impurities (I and Br) lead to a significant increase of the accumulation efficiency due to the formation of more stable F-H pair at self-trapped exciton decay on anion impurities compared with that formed in perfect lattice. Some assumptions are advanced to explain the effect [ru

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on rates and size distribution of primary production by Lake Erie phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiriart, V.P.; Greenberg, B.M.; Guildford, S.J.; Smith, R.E.H.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly UVB (297-320 nm), on phytoplankton primary production in Lake Erie was investigated during the spring and summer of 1997. Radiocarbon incorporation and size-selective filtration was used to trace total production and its distribution among particulate and dissolved pools. On average, 1-h exposures produced half the UVB-dependent inhibition of total production realized in 8-h exposures, indicating rapid kinetics of photoinhibition. Cumulative UVB-dependent photoinhibition averaged 36% in 8-h simulated surface exposures. The efficiency of photoinhibition was greater for N-deficient than N-replete communities, but was not related to phytoplankton light history, P limitation, or the dominant genera. The proportion of recently fixed carbon occurring in the dissolved pool after 8-h exposures was significantly greater in higher-UVB treatments, whereas the share in picoplankton (<2 μm) was significantly lower. Significant UVB-dependent inhibition of total production was limited on average to relatively severe exposures, but the rapid kinetics of inhibition and the apparent effects on the allocation of carbon suggest it may be important to the lake's food web. Differences in optical properties and thermal stratification patterns suggested that the relatively turbid west basin was potentially more susceptible to UVR photoinhibition than the more transparent east or central basins. (author)

  19. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  20. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok.

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs

  1. The Knowledge Level of Hypertension Patients for Drug Therapy in the Primary Health Care of Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananditia R. Pramestutie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a persistent blood pressure in which systolic pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic pressure ≥90 mmHg. The knowledge that should be owned by patients with hypertension is the meaning, causes, symptoms and treatment of hypertension. This knowledge is important to support the success of hypertension therapy. The aim of this research was to determine the knowledge level of hypertension patients about their drug therapy in the primary health care of Malang. This research used observational study methods. The selection of the patients and the primary health care was done using non-random sampling technique (purposive sampling. The subject who meet the inclusion criteria were involved. The result of this study revealed that the patients with hypertension who have a sufficient level of knowledge were 69 respondents (72,63%. Patients who have a good criteria were 26 respondents (27,3763%. There is no patient with low level of knowledge in this research. The conclusion from this study is most patients with hypertension in Primary Health Care Malang have enough knowledge about their treatment.

  2. Epidemiological studies in the high and normal level radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    High and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala give unique opportunities to estimate the risk, if any, of chronic low dose exposure by direct epidemiological studies on human beings. Studies in the area are being carried out by Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in collaboration with Departments of Health and Family Welfare/Social Welfare of the Government of Kerala and local post graduate colleges. To assess the role of chronic low dose exposure in the induction/transmission of chromosomal alterations across generations, hospital based cytogenetic studies on newborns was carried out to estimate and compare the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and karyotypes anomalies in the high (areas with radiation dose of more than 1.50 mGy/year) and normal (areas with radiation dose of 1.50 mR/year or less) level radiation areas. A total of 1,267,788 metaphases from 27,295 (9,64,390 cells from 17,298 newborns of high and 3,03,398 cells from 9,997 newborns of normal level radiation areas) newborns was screened

  3. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueland, Svein; Groenlie Guren, Marianne; Rune Olsen, Dag; Poulsen, Jan Peter; Magne Tveit, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose:To determine the effect of curative radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) on the sex hormone levels in male rectal cancer patients. Materials and methods:Twenty-five male rectal cancer patients (mean age 65 years), receiving pelvic radiation therapy (2 Gyx23-25 fractions in 5 weeks) were included. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were determined before start of treatment, at the 10th and 25th fractions, and 4-6 weeks after completed radiotherapy. The testicular dose was determined by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results:Five weeks of radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) resulted in a 100% increase in serum FSH, a 70% increase in LH, and a 25% reduction in testosterone levels. After treatment, 35% of the patients had serum testosterone levels below lower limit of reference. The mean radiation dose to the testicles was 8.4 Gy. A reduction in testosterone values was observed already after a mean dose of 3.3 Gy (10th fraction). Conclusion:Radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) for rectal cancer resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH and LH and a significant decrease in testosterone levels, indicating that sex hormone production is sensitive to radiation exposure in patients with a mean age of 65 years

  4. Guidelines on radiation exposure levels for emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document provides guidelines for establishing occupational exposure levels for undertaking actions in emergency situations resulting from a nuclear accident. There are three categories of exposed persons identifiable in relation to the circumstances under which they receive exposures resulting from an accident: (i) emergency workers exposed while undertaking urgent corrective actions; (ii) workers exposed while undertaking subsequent remedial actions, including countermeasures to protect the public; (iii) persons living in an environment contaminated by a nuclear accident. Although no dose limit can be easily stated for the first category, doses should be kept below 0.5 Sv. For the second category, normal dose limits would apply with a maximum of 0.05 Sv in a given year; however, in some circumstances where a few key experts are required doses up to 0.1 Sv could be permitted. For the third category the approach to be taken is to apply the ICRP's concept of dose constraint - a fraction of the worker's dose limit, but above the public dose limit. (L.L.) (6 refs., tab.)

  5. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  6. National Physical Education Standards: Level of Physical Fitness Male Student Primary School in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hashim; Mohd. Sani Madon; Nur Haziyanti Mohd Khalid; Nelfianty binti Mohd Rashid; Sadzali bin Hassan; Yusop bin Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the level of physical fitness in the development of the National Standards of Physical Education. The study was conducted on 279 primary school boys age 10 years (n = 79), 11 years (n = 94) and 12 years (n = 106) in five randomly selected schools in the state of Perak. FITNESSGRAM was used to test the level of physical fitness among subjects. This includes trunk lift, 90 degree push-ups, modified pull-up, back saver sit and reach and PACER. ANOVA analysis showed a s...

  7. Changes in Plasma Prolactin and Growth Hormone Level and Visual Problem after radiation Therapy(RT) of Pituitary Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Bahk, Yong Whee; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Joon Ki; Song, Jin Un

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of pituitary adenoma, 13 males and 11 females with the age ranging from 11 to 65 years, received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area with 6MV linear accelerator during past 25 months at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Of 24 case of RT, 20 were postoperative and 4 primary. To evaluate the effect of RT, we analyzed the alteration of the endocrinological tests, neurologic abnormalities, major clinical symptoms, endocrinological changes and improvement in visual problems after RT. The results were as follows ; 1. Major clinical symptoms were headache, visual defects, diabetes insipidus, hypogonadisms and general weakness in decreasing order of frequency. 2. All but the one with Nelson syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turcica with an invasive tumor mass around supra and para-sellar area. 3. Endocrinological classifications of the patient were 11 prolactinoma, 4 growth hormonesecreting tumors, 3 ACTH-secreting tumors consisting of one Cushing disease and two Nelson syndrome, and 6 nonfunctioning tumors. 4. Eleven of 14 patients, visual problems were improved after treatment but remaining 3 were unchanged. 5. Seven of 11 prolactinomas returned to normal hormonal level after postoperative and primary RT and 3 patients are being treated with bromocriptine (BMCP) but on lost case. 6. Two of 4 growth hormone-secreting tumor returned to normal level after RT but the remaining 2 are being treated with BMCP, as well

  8. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of "1"8F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  9. Assessment of background gamma radiation levels around Tummalapalle uranium mining and processing facility, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Dhumale, M.R.; Molla, Samim; Rao, K.B.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sahu, S.K.

    2018-01-01

    Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in the world. The dose received by the population in a region comprises of (i) external gamma radiation dose due to cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides; (ii) inhalation dose due to radon, thoron and their progeny, and (iii) ingestion dose due to the intake of radionuclides through the consumption of food, milk, water, etc. In this study, background gamma radiation level around Tummalapalle uranium mining and processing site was estimated by using radiation survey meter and deploying environmental TLDs. The generated data can be served as baseline for this area for future comparison for prolonged operation of the plant, for the upcoming adjacent projects and during decommissioning phase of the mine, mill and tailings pond

  10. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  11. Discrete level schemes and their gamma radiation branching ratios (CENPL-DLS). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Zhang Limin; Zhou Chunmei; Sun Zhengjun

    1994-01-01

    The DLS data file, which is a sub-library (version 1) of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter Library (CENPL), consists of data and information of discrete levels and gamma radiations. The data and information of this data file are translated from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The transforming code from ENSDF to DLS was written. In the DLS data file, there are the data on discrete levels with determinate energy and their gamma radiations. At present, this file contains the data of 79456 levels and 100411 gammas for 1908 nuclides

  12. Natural radiation external exposures levels in Chilean Sub-Antarctic and country stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 gamma exposures levels, at 1,5 m above the soil are being investigated using TLD detectors. A network of 12 stations have been established from ARICA (18 deg 20' S latitude) in Northern Chile to YELCHO (64 deg 52' S latitude) in Antartic territory. One year monitoring period was used at Antartic stations and a four months period in the country. The main subject of this study is to assess the average background radiation levels along the territory which is relevant to get a reference level and specially an estimate of the average natural radiation contribution to the population dose in Southern Chile

  13. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Huub J L; van der Kraan, Peter M; Rijnberg, Willard J; Buma, Pieter; Schreurs, B Willem

    2010-12-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference in cytokine levels between one and six hours postoperatively. Samples from the drainage system in 30 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement were collected at one and six hours after closure of the wound. Levels of several cytokines were measured in the drainage fluids. A significant elevation of almost all cytokines was observed between the sample after one hour and six hours postoperatively. We found a strong correlation between the different pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-6 to IL-10 ratio were also raised, showing a pro-inflammatory predominance. Levels were much higher than those previously shown in serum.

  14. 1991 implementation of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) administrative radiation exposure levels: Experiences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Baumann, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) radiation exposure levels were implemented on January 1, 1991, by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a prime US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor, located in Richland, Washington. This paper describes the radiation exposure levels which were implemented and the associated experiences and lessons learned. The issue of a report from the Committee on Biological Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiation in 1989 prompted DOE to re-evaluate its position on radiation exposure limits and the resulting doses received by occupational radiation workers. DOE requested that all it's contractors determine the impacts to operations from reduced radiation exposure levels

  15. Low level ionizing radiation and human mortality: multi-regional epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, R.J.; Bowers, E.J.; Spence, D.E.; Zemel, B.S.; Clelland, A.B.; Clelland, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of relationships involving environmental chemicals, background radiation, and mortality rates for diseases of the heart and several cancer categories are presented. Bivariate correlation coefficients between radiation and mortality rate were significantly negative for cancer of the lung and respiratory organs, cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, cancer of the digestive organs and peritoneum, total cancer and diseases of the heart. Only the correlation coefficient between background radiation and leukemia-aleukemia was positive, and that not significantly positive. Initial multivariate statistical studies support the bivariate results in that all significant regression terms that represent background radiation have been negative. Background radiation level was not a significant predictor for leukemia-aleukemia mortality rate when examined without regard to age. This preliminary work suggests that any health effects of background radiation on the diseases studied do not exceed in magnitude those of environmental chemicals. It also suggests that models implying important long-term deleterious effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on humans may be invalid. (author)

  16. Study of Radiation Shielding Analysis for Low-Intermediate Level Waste Transport Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Song, Yangsoo; Kim, Sukhoon; Ko, Jaehoon [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In Korea, it is planed to transport Low-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) from each nuclear power plant site to Kyongju LILW repository after 2009. Transport through the sea using ship is one of the most prospective ways of LILW transport for current situation in Korea. There are domestic and international regulations for radiation dose limit for radioactive material transport. In this article, radiation shielding analysis for LILW transport ship is performed using 3-D computer simulation code, MCNP. As a result, the thickness and materials for radiation shielding walls next to cargo in the LILW transport ship are determined.

  17. Epidemiological methods of assessing risks from low level occupational exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissland, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The resolution of radiation-attributable malignancies from the background of malignancies which are responsible for about 20% of all deaths in the Western world, presents a formidable challenge to epidemiological methods. Some of the major difficulties facing those with the task of estimating the risks associated with exposure to low level ionising radiation are discussed, particularly in the context of radiological protection. Some of the studies currently in progress are summarised and suggestions are made for other work which may help to contribute to a better understanding of the quantitative aspects of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  18. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  19. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  20. Approaches to assign security levels for radioactive substances and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.V.; Petrovskij, N.P.; Pinchuk, G.N.; Telkov, S.N.; Kuzin, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The article contains analyzed provisions on categorization of radioactive substances and radiation sources according to the extent of their potential danger. Above provisions are used in the IAEA documents and in Russian regulatory documents for differentiation of regulatory requirements to physical security. It is demonstrated that with the account of possible threats of violators, rules of physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive substances should be amended as regards the approaches to assign their categories and security levels [ru

  1. Effects of low-level radiation on biologic systems: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Hoditschek, B.

    1980-12-01

    This review presents an organized survey of scientific literature dealing with the biologic effects of low-level radiation. It includes brief discussions of topics of particular interest, a listing of useful review articles, an extensive bibliography, and listings of sources that can be used to update this document in the future. The topics discussed include experimental studies, the linear hypothesis, medical effects, occupational effects, effects of exposure to naturally occurring radiation, consumer products, and laws and regulations

  2. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  3. Biological effects of low-level ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Early in this century it was recognized that large doses of ionizing radiation could injure almost any tissue in the body, but small doses were generally thought to be harmless. By the middle of the century however it came to be suspected that even the smallest doses of ionizing radiation to the gonads might increase the risk of hereditary disease in subsequently-conceived offspring. Since then the hypothesis that carcinogenic and teratogenic effects also have no threshold has been adopted for purposes of radiological protection. It is estimated nevertheless that the risks that may be associated with natural background levels of ionizing irradiation are too small to be detectable. Hence validation of such risk estimates will depend on further elucidation of the dose-effect relationships and mechanisms of the effects in question, through studies at higher dose levels. In contrast to the situation with ionizing radiation, exposure to natural background levels of ultraviolet radiation has been implicated definitively in the etiology of skin cancers in fair-skinned individuals. Persons with inherited effects in DNA repair capacity are particularly susceptible. Non-ionizing radiations of other types can also affect health at high dose levels, but whether they can cause injury at low levels of exposure is not known

  4. The correlation between osteopontin level and radiation response of malignant gliomas at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaniah Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is an endogenous molecular marker for tumor hypoxia, and hypoxia is one of the factors that determine the aggressiveness of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between osteopontin levels and radiation response in malignant glioma. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15 malignant glioma patients who underwent radiation therapy from July 2004 to May 2015 at the RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Osteopontin levels were measured from paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercial ELISA kit. Tumor volume was calculated using computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, based on three-dimensional volume measurements. Tumor response was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-radiation tumor volumes using CT scan and MRI images. The mean osteopontin level was 0.49 ± 0.45 ng/mL and the mean percentage change in tumor volume was 8.59 ± 54.22%, with a 60% enlargement in tumor volume. A progressive disease was found in 26.7% of patients. There was a weak but insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.39, p = 0.146 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response. In contrast, there was a strong but insignificant positive correlation (r = +0.68, p = 0.219 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response in the patient group that used the chemosensitizer temozolamide.

  5. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Jayant Sastri [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simpson, Rand [Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  6. Prediction of soot and thermal radiation in a model gas turbine combustor burning kerosene fuel spray at different swirl levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Prakash; Patra, Jitendra; Datta, Amitava; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya

    2016-05-01

    Combustion of kerosene fuel spray has been numerically simulated in a laboratory scale combustor geometry to predict soot and the effects of thermal radiation at different swirl levels of primary air flow. The two-phase motion in the combustor is simulated using an Eulerian-Lagragian formulation considering the stochastic separated flow model. The Favre-averaged governing equations are solved for the gas phase with the turbulent quantities simulated by realisable k-ɛ model. The injection of the fuel is considered through a pressure swirl atomiser and the combustion is simulated by a laminar flamelet model with detailed kinetics of kerosene combustion. Soot formation in the flame is predicted using an empirical model with the model parameters adjusted for kerosene fuel. Contributions of gas phase and soot towards thermal radiation have been considered to predict the incident heat flux on the combustor wall and fuel injector. Swirl in the primary flow significantly influences the flow and flame structures in the combustor. The stronger recirculation at high swirl draws more air into the flame region, reduces the flame length and peak flame temperature and also brings the soot laden zone closer to the inlet plane. As a result, the radiative heat flux on the peripheral wall decreases at high swirl and also shifts closer to the inlet plane. However, increased swirl increases the combustor wall temperature due to radial spreading of the flame. The high incident radiative heat flux and the high surface temperature make the fuel injector a critical item in the combustor. The injector peak temperature increases with the increase in swirl flow mainly because the flame is located closer to the inlet plane. On the other hand, a more uniform temperature distribution in the exhaust gas can be attained at the combustor exit at high swirl condition.

  7. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  8. Predictive analysis of the radiation exposure for the primary cooling system of the rated power operation of MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Hasegawa, Masanori; Maegawa, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are main source of personal radiation exposure during maintenance without fuel-failure accident in the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plants. In order to establish the techniques of radiation dose estimation for personnel, program system 'DORE' has been developed. The DORE system is constructed by PSYCHE code and QAD code system. The density of each deposited CP of primary coolant system in MONJU was estimated by using the PSYCHE. Moreover, the QAD-CGGP2R code is applied to dose rate calculations for the primary coolant system in MONJU. The dose rate around primary piping system was visualized using AVS software. The predicted values were estimated to be saturated at 2-3 mSv/h in twenty years after the start of operation, and the dose rate reaches 4 mSv/h in domains near the IHX and the cold-leg piping. It has been assumed that the main radiation source is 54 Mn in the IHX, primary pump and cold-leg piping region. On the other hand, it was indicated that the contribution to dose rate of the 60 Co accounted for approximately 23% in the hot-leg piping region. (author)

  9. Structural and contextual dimensions of Iranian primary health care system at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health system in Iran, while organizational structure of the primary health care system has remained the same as thirty years ago. This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian primary health care system at local level. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Local level of primary health care system in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value structural dimensions. Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health system in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the system.

  10. Investigating the effect of empowerment aspects on the competence level and success of primary school principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rezazadeh Bahadoran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of empowerment aspects on the competence level and success of the primary school principals in Pakdasht city in Iran. This research is a descriptive-survey method and in terms purpose is practical. The statistical population of this study consisted of principals of the primary schools in Pakdasht city. The total number of primary school principals in this city is 135 people (75 male schools and 60 female schools. As data gathering tool, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. In order to analyze the validity of the questionnaire in this study, the Content Validation Method was used in which the questionnaires were first examined by the experts and the necessary corrections were made. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and AMOS software. The results show that competence and effectiveness aspects affect competence and success of principals of the Pakdasht elementary schools. Autonomy affects the competence level of elementary school principals in Pakdasht city but does not affect principals' success. Meaningfulness aspect did not affect principals’ competency however it is effective on principals’ success in Pakdasht elementary schools. Trust aspect was not effective on the Pakdasht elementary schools principals’ competence and success.

  11. Effect of sublethal levels of ionizing radiation on a predator-prey interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    The predator-prey interaction studied was that between the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in an artificial test environment. Experiments were first conducted to determine the 50% lethal dose at 30 days of the minnow. Three different dose rates were used to test the effect of dose rate on the 50% lethal dose value. After the 50% lethal dose was determined the predator-prey interaction experiment was conducted using 30% of the 50% lethal dose as the highest radiation dose, this dose being considered the upper limit to sublethal radiation levels. A 4 x 4 Latin square design was chosen for the experiment, with four treatment levels (control plus three radiation levels) and four replicates. In each test 10 prey minnow were offered to one predator bass and the number of prey left after 14 days was the parameter of interest. A predator-prey interaction experiment using a single high level of radiation and two types of controls as conducted to ascertain the ability of the test environment to detect changes in the predator-prey interaction. The two types of controls were irradiated prey not exposed to predation and non-irradiated prey exposed to predation. An experiment was also conducted to test the correlation between the physical activity patterns of minnow and different doses of radiation. At a dose rate of 37.8 rad/min the 50% lethal dose at 30 days for minnow was found to be 2650 rad. It was found that dose rate had a strong influence on the 50% lethal dose. In the predator-prey interaction test it was found that the 14-day survival rate of prey was unaffected by sublethal levels of ionizing radiation. No significant correlation was detected between the physical activity patterns of minnow and radiation dose

  12. Importance of contouring the cervical spine levels in initial intensity-modulated radiation therapy radiation for head and neck cancers: Implications for re-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Bhupesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the maximum differential cervical spinal (C-spine cord dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plans of patients undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The C-spine of ten head and neck cancer patients that were planned using IMRT and each cervical vertebral body and the right and left sides was contoured by splitting the cord in the center. Dose-volume histograms (DVH and maximum point doses were obtained for each contour and compared. Results: The dose to the cord varied with the location of the primary tumor but such variation was not consistently seen. This report provides information that is critical for planning reirradiation treatments. We recommend that contouring of the C-spine cord with IMRT should include outlining of each cervical cord level and identification of the right and the left sides of the cord on each plan.

  13. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  14. Elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Diamond

    Full Text Available Primary graft dysfunction (PGD is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD.We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40% and 47 non-PGD subjects (59% received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03. The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02; there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (p = 0.9.Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

  15. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  16. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  17. Effects of chronic low level radiation in the population residing in the high level natural radiation area in Kerala, India: employing heritable DNA mutation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Koya, P K M; Seshadri, M

    2013-03-18

    To study the effect of chronic low level radiation, 4040 meiosis were screened at eight microsatellite and five minisatellite (2485 and 1555 meiosis respectively) marker loci in people residing in high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala. Variants in the repeat length of allele were considered as mutants. Mutation rates (expressed as the number of mutations observed in the total number of meiosis) were 6.4×10(-3) (16/2485) and 2.6×10(-3) (4/1555) at microsatellite and minisatellite respectively. The germline microsatellite mutation frequency of father was 1.78 times higher at 7.52×10(-3) (8/1064) compared to 4.22×10(-3) (6/1421) of mother (P=0.292, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). The paternal and maternal mutation rates at minisatellite loci were more or less similar at 2.78×10(-3) (2/719) and 2.39×10(-3) (2/836), respectively (P=1.0, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). Higher but statistically non-significant microsatellite mutation frequency was observed in HLNRA compared to NLNRA (7.25×10(-3) vs 3.64×10(-3); P=0.547). The apparent increase in the mutation rate of microsatellite loci with the increase in radiation dose was also not statistically significant. All the four minisatellite mutation observed were from HLNRA (1198 meiosis) and no mutation was observed among 357 meiosis screened from NLNRA families. All the markers used in the present study were in the non-coding region and hence mutations in these regions may not cause adverse health effects, but the study is important in understanding the effect of chronic low level radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in some district of Karnataka State, India - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is a form of energy that can be travelled through the medium in the form of waves or particles. The heat, sound and light are different forms of radiations that peoples can feel or see but there are other kinds of radiations that human senses cannot detect. Indeed we are constantly receiving such invisible radiation from the sky, earth crust, air, food and even our own body. Such radiations can be divided into ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Our environment contains natural radionuclides in variable amounts. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. Karnataka state has 30 districts and having 74,051 sq m area and it is having various geological formations. The Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, these cover around 60% of the area of the state and it consists of gneisses, granite and charnockite rocks. Some of the minerals found in this region are dolomite, lime stone, gabbro, quartzite, pyroxenite, manganese and iron ore and metabasalt. In addition the proposed uranium mining region is also present in Googi region of Yadagiri district. In many places Iron and manganese mining activities, crushing and quarrying activities are continuously going on. It is expected that such mining and extraction activities can enhance the natural radiation level in the environment. Hence there is a need to estimate the environmental radiation levels in the habitats of these areas. Our research group along with many researches in the Karnataka state initiated systematic study on the dose received by the population in some district of different environmental matrixes and more data are reported in Karnataka state, which have been reviewed and compiled in this paper. (author)

  19. Behaviour of radiation fields in the Spanish PWR by the changes in coolant chemistry and primary system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovet, R.; Fernandez Lillo, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Spanish PWR Owners Group established a program to evaluate the behavior of ex-core radiation fields and discriminate the effects of changes in coolant chemistry and primary system materials. Data from Vandellos, Asco, Almaraz and Trillo NPPs were analyzed Vandellos 2 was chosen as the lead plant and its data were thoroughly studied. The dose-rates evolution could be explained at each plant as a consequence of this sucessful program.Actions derived from the developed knowledge on this field have produced the stabilization or even reduction of radiation fields at these plants

  20. Epidemiological survey of radiation workers. Risk of leukemia and solid cancer by low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    An interim report on the epidemiological survey of cohort involving radiation workers in the nuclear power plants in Japan was introduced. It consists of eight chapters such as introduction, the objects of mortality rate survey from death causes and creating a cohort, the method of tracking the life and death, analytical methods of mortality rate, analytical results, confounded effects of life style, discussion: contrast the report on the mortality rate of solid cancer except leukemia in Japan and other countries and the conclusions. The subjects of mortality rate of the forth survey were about 277,000 workers including from the first to the third survey. In a prospective cohort study, 203,904 workers were screened for analytical study, and they included 14,224 deaths (5,711 from malignant neoplasm, 6,310 from nonmalignant neoplasm and 1,995 from extrinsic death). The analytical results were shown by three types of death caused from leukemia, malignant neoplasm except for leukemia and nonmalignant neoplasm. Analytical results of the mortality rate from death caused in third and forth study, change of analytical results from the first to the forth observation period were illustrated. (S.Y.)

  1. Bose-type distribution and primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum from sea-level muon spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Roychowdhury, R K

    1976-01-01

    The recent CERN Intersecting Storage Ring cross section data on the p +p to pi /sup +or-/+X inclusive reactions have been analysed using the Bose-type distribution of the form E(d/sup 3/ sigma )/(d/sup 3/p)=(Axs /sup 1/2/)/(exp( epsilon ( lambda )/T)-1) proposed by Hoang (1973). This formula has been used to derive the cosmic ray primary nucleon spectrum from the sea-level muon spectrum. It is found that the primary spectrum obeys the following relation: N(E/sub p/)dE/sub p /=2.06E/sub p//sup -2.64/dE/sub p/. The result has been compared with the recent experimental data and theoretical predictions given by different authors. (11 refs).

  2. Canada’s response to refugees at the primary health care level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsive primary health care systems and services must be at once complex and nimble. Policy makers may wish to believe that existing health systems effectively care for all populations equally, including refugees. However, we know that refugees may require a health equity approach: an approach where all levels of government, all types of health practitioners, and even the public sector, participate to ensure access to effective primary health care. This article outlines some of Canada’s healthcare responses for refugee populations. We provide field examples and guidelines that demonstrate responses, as well as ongoing inconsistencies and limitations. Refugee-receiving countries such as Australia, the US and Canada all have stories of success in resettlement and health systems. This article will focus on Canada.

  3. Measurement and evaluation of the external radiation level at reactor Kartini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atok Suhartanto; Suparno

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation of external radiation level at reactor Kartini in 2012 has been done. The purpose of this activity is to know the external radiation level as a result of the radioactive or radiation source usage, toward the operational of limit condition. The measurement is using survey meter Inspector 11086, factor of calibration 0.991 mR/h, at 9 locations is: Control room area, Thermal column facilities, Demineralizer, Beamport radiography facilities, bulk shielding Deck, Subcritical facilities, Reactor hall, Deck reactor and on the surface of reactor water tank . The highest room average measurement result in 9 working areas for 12 months continuously are at the reactor tank location is between 13.05±1.09 (xlO -2 mSv/hour) to 16.80±1.40 (x10 -2 mSv/hour), and the lowest measurement result in 1 location (control room) is 0.02±0.005 (x10 -2 mSv/hour) to 0.035±0.009 (x10 -2 mSv/hour). The Kartini reactor is involved in the control area which has potentially contaminated and has radiation exposure at the level of 6 mSv/year. Radiation Protection Officer that work in interval will received radiation exposure dosage of 8.4 mSv/year. This dosage is still below the Below Dosage Value which is recommended by, BAPETEN decree No, 4, 2013 about Protection and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Energy Application at 20 mSv/year. The result of the evaluation above shows that the external radiation which occurred in each area is still below the operational of limit condition that is written on the Kartini reactor safety analysis report, on document number: C7/05/B2/LAK/2010, revision 7. So that the workplace is safe for work monitored. (author)

  4. Are Australasian Genetic Counselors Interested in Private Practice at the Primary Care Level of Health Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Vrunda; Humphreys, Linda; Peterson, Madelyn

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the perceived interest in development of private genetic counseling services in collaboration with primary care physicians in the Australasian setting by online survey of members of the Australasian Society of Genetic Counselors. Four hypothetical private practice models of professional collaboration between genetic counselors and primary care physicians or clinical geneticists were proposed to gauge interest and enthusiasm of ASGC members for this type of professional development. Perceived barriers and facilitators were also evaluated. 78 completed responses were included for analysis. The majority of participants (84.6 %) showed a positive degree of interest and enthusiasm towards potential for clinical work in private practice. All proposed practice models yielded a positive degree of interest from participants. Model 4 (the only model of collaboration with a clinical geneticist rather than primary care physician) was the clearly preferred option (mean = 4.26/5), followed by Model 2 (collaboration with a single primary care practice) (mean = 4.09/5), Model 3 (collaboration with multiple primary care clinics, multidisciplinary clinic or specialty clinic) (mean = 3.77/5) and finally, Model 1 (mean = 3.61/5), which was the most independent model of practice. When participants ranked the options in the order of preference, Model 4 remained the most popular first preference (44.6 %), followed by model 2 (21.6 %), model 3 (18.9 %) and model 1 was again least popular (10.8 %). There was no significant statistical correlation between demographic characteristics (age bracket, years of work experience, current level of work autonomy) and participants' preference for private practice models. Support from clinical genetics colleagues and the professional society was highly rated as a facilitator and, conversely, lack of such support as a significant barrier.

  5. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-01-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  6. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  7. Aspects of research on effects of population exposed to low level radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.

    1992-01-01

    Research works of epidemiology and experimental biology concerning health effects on populations exposed to low level ionizing radiation in China have been reviewed, with emphasis on the studies of mortality of malignancies and prevalence of hereditary diseases in a high background radiation area (HBRA) (radiation level is about three times of the control area of normal background CA), where the inhabitant families have lived for many generations. About one million person-years in HBRA and as many in CA were observed for cancer mortality. Statistical analysis showed that no difference was found either in mortality of all cancers or leukemias between HBRA and CA. The incidence of Down Syndrome in HBRA was within the range of spontaneous incidence and dependent on age of maternity. The characteristics of adaptive response induced by low level irradiation in humans as well as in experimental animal lymphocytes observed in Chinese laboratories are also discussed in this presentation

  8. Radiation level analysis for the port cell of the ITER electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhorst, Bastian, E-mail: bastian.weinhorst@kit.edu [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Strauss, Dirk; Spaeh, Peter; Scherer, Theo [KIT, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leichtle, Dieter [F4E, Analysis & Codes/Technical Support Services, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • First detailed neutronic modelling of the ECHUL port cell with ECHUL equipment (including beam lines with diamond windows, the beam lines mounting box, conduit boxes and rails). • Three different bioshield port plug configurations and two different neutron source configurations are investigated. • Radiation Levels are calculated in the port cell, focusing on the position of the diamond window. • The dose rate in the port cell is below the limit for maintenance in the port cell. • The radiation level at the diamond window is very low and should not influence its performance. - Abstract: The electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher (ECHUL) will be installed in four upper ports of the ITER tokamak thermonuclear fusion reactor. Each ECHUL is able to deposit 8 MW power into the plasma for plasma mode stabilization via microwave beam lines. An essential part of these beam lines are the diamond windows. They are located in the upper port cell behind the bioshield to reduce the radiation levels to a minimum. The paper describes the first detailed neutronic modelling of the ECHUL port cell with ECHUL equipment. The bioshield plug is modelled including passageways for the microwave beam lines, piping and cables looms as well as rails and openings for ventilation. The port cell is equipped with the beam lines including the diamond windows, the beam lines mounting box, conduit boxes and rails. The neutrons are transported into the port cell starting from a surface source in front of the bioshield. Neutronic results are obtained for radiation levels in the port cell at different positions, mainly focusing on the diamond windows position. It is shown that the radiation level is below the limit for maintenance in the port cell. The radiation level at the diamond window is very low and should not influence its performance.

  9. The prognostic role of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing concurrent chemo-radiation for anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Montagnani, Francesco; Arcadipane, Francesca; Casadei, Chiara; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Martini, Stefania; Iorio, Giuseppe Carlo; Scartozzi, Mario; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Cassoni, Paola; Cascinu, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Casadei Gardini, Andrea

    2018-05-02

    Concurrent chemo-radiation (CT-RT) is a standard therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Different clinical and biological factors may potentially affect outcome. We investigated the prognostic role of baseline hemoglobin (Hb) in a cohort of anal cancer patients submitted to CT-RT with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Up to 161 patients with clinical stage T1-T4/N0-N3/M0 were treated. Response was assessed at 6 weeks and thereafter at 3, 6 and 12 months. Two different approaches were used:a)simultaneous integrated boost following RTOG 05-29 indications;b)first sequence of 45Gy/25 fractions to the pelvis followed by 9-14.4 Gy/5-8 fractions to the macroscopic disease. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). On multivariate analysis, pre-treatment Hb level had a significant correlation to OS (HR:0.53;95% CI:0.33-0.87; p = 0.001), but not to PFS (HR:0.78;95% CI:0.53-1.15; p = 0.12) Patients with pre-treatment Hb ≥ 12 g/dl had 5-year PFS and OS of 82.2%, compared to 29.3% and 32.8% for those below the threshold. The likelihood to achieve a complete remission increased by 5.6% for every single-unit (g/dl) increase in baseline Hb level over 11 g/dl. On multivariate analysis, response to treatment had a significant correlation to PFS (incomplete vs complete response - HR:5.43;95% CI:2.75-10.7; p < 0.0001) and OS (HR: 6.96;95% CI:2.96-16.5; p < 0.0001). We showed that baseline Hb level is a strong indicator for poor response to RT-CT in anal cancer patients. A close clinical monitoring for incomplete response to treatment should be advised in patients with low pre-treatment Hb. The hypothesis that the preservation of adequate Hb level during treatment may lead to a better outcome needs prospective evaluation.

  10. Critical review of the Hanford worker studies: cancer risk and low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Current estimates of cancer risks attributable to low-level radiation exposure are extrapolated from effects observed at higher doses. The inherent uncertainties in this approach make direct study of low-dose effects in human populations of great significance. Employees of the Hanford works in Richland, Washington constitute a large group of workers exposed to low-level radiation. The cancer mortality patterns in relation to radiation dose have been discussed by numerous investigators beginning with Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale in 1977 and continuing to the present. These studies and their published critiques are summarized, with an effort to account for discrepant results by careful review of the analytic methods. Detailed consideration is given to exposure definition, classification of health outcomes, latency, the statistical methods employed, and selection biases. From this, it is concluded that (a) total cancers are unrelated to radiation exposure among these workers; (b) multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer show a positive association with radiation dose based upon a few highly exposed cases; and (c) the relationship of radiosensitive cancers in the aggregate to radiation exposure is unresolved. Further study of the temporal course of exposure and latency in a classical cohort analysis of radiosensitive cancers might be informative, with special attention to the possibility of selection for jobs within the cohort

  11. Radiation in complex exposure situations. Assessing health risks at low levels from concomitant exposures to radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from exposures to ionizing radiation are in general the result of complex multi-step reaction chains involving changes and responses on the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. In environmental low dose exposure situations ionizing radiation only contributes a small fraction to the life-long attack on DNA by other exogenous and endogenous genotoxins. Nevertheless, efforts to assess and quantify deleterious effects at low exposure levels are directed mainly towards radiation as a single isolated agent, and rarely towards the concomitant presence of other natural and anthropogenic toxicants. Only these combined exposures may lead to observable health risk effects. In addition they might differ from those expected from simple addition of the individual risks due to interaction. The existing data base on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. Therefore, any risk assessment will have to consider the question whether combined effects, i.e. interaction between two or more agents will influence the health outcome from specific exposure situations in such a way that predictions derived from simple standard exposure situations would have to be revised. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Agents will have to be grouped depending on their physical or chemical mode of action at the molecular and cellular level, to generalize and predict the outcome of combined exposures at low exposure levels and the possibility of interactions. (author)

  12. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  13. Levels of external natural radiation and doses to population in Heilongjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yicheng; He Yongjiang; Wang Lu

    1985-01-01

    The external natural radiation level in Heilongjiang Province was measured by using China-made FD-71 scintillation radiometers and RSS-111 high pressure ionization chambers. The doses of external radiation to population were also calculated. The population-weighted average value of the absorbed dose rate from terrestrial γ-radiation was 7.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for outdoors, and 10.8 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for indoors. The population-weighted average absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic rays was 3.3 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 . The annual population-weighted average effective dose equivalent and the annual collective effective dose equivalent from the environmental γ-radiation were 620 μSv and 20.1 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively. The corresponding figures from cosmic rays were 260 μSv and 8.7 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively

  14. UDS and SCE in lymphocytes of persons occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Altmann, H.

    1983-03-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by 'in vitro' UV-irradiation was investigated in lymphocytes of persons occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (maximum registered radiation dose: 98 mrad/month). For radiation exposures >14 mrad/month, above background level, increased rates of UDS after in vitro UV-irradiation of lymphocytes were found. The bromodeoxyuridine differential chromatid labeling technique was applied to the examination of spontaneous and mytomycin C induced sister chromatid exchanges in the same population. No statistically significant difference could be determined in spontaneously occurring SCEs, while MMC induced SCEs were significantly reduced in persons exposed to radiation doses >14 mrad/month, thus indicating increased repair capability for DNA lesions inflicted by a second insult after protracted low dose irradiation. (Author) [de

  15. Dose limits, constraints, reference levels. What does it mean for radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2016-01-01

    The established concept of radiation protection with its basic principles justification, optimization, and limitation has proved its value and is going to be continued. In its deeper meaning, however, the concept is rather subtle and complex. Furthermore, in some aspects there remain some breaches or inconsistencies. This is just true for the terms dose limit, reference lever, and constraint that are tightly associated with the radiation protection principles. In order to guarantee the ability of radiation protection in whole extent, the subtle differences of meaning have to be communicated. There is a permanent need to defend the conceptual function of these terms against deliberate or undeliberate misinterpretations. Reference levels are definitely not the same as dose limits and they may not be misused as such. Any attempt to misinterpret fundamental radiation protection principles for selfish purposes should discouraged vigorously.

  16. A possible methodological approach to setting up control level of radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatajkin, E.V.; Abramov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical formalization of the concept of control levels (CL) which enables one to obtain CL numerical values of controllable parameters required for rapid control purposes is described. The initial data for the assessment of environmental radioactivity are the controllable parameter values that is practical characteristic of controllable radiation factor showing technically measurable or calculation value. The controllable parameters can be divided into two classes depending on the degree of radiation effect on a man: possessing additivity properties (dosimetric class) and non-possessing (radiation class, which comprises the results of control of medium alteration dynamics, equipment operation safety, completeness of protection measures performance). The CL calculation formulas with account for requirements of radiation safety standards (RSS-76) are presented

  17. Problem on primary radiation filtration effect on form of coupling equations during X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrent'ev, Yu.G.; Kuznetsova, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified method for x-ray fluorescence analysis is given. It is shown that the system of coupling equations with constant coefficients and with the number of equations equal to the number of unknown elements allows to obtain the same accuracy of the analysis as with the considerably more complex equations with variable coefficients which take into account the filtration of the primary radiation in a direct way. The system can even be more simplified by using linear equations with constant coefficients. In order to test these systems and to compare them with known coupling equations experimental data for the determination of zirconium and niobium from 16 artificial preparations with fillers of variable composition are presented. The calculation of the absorption of the secondary as well as the primary radiation by means of the proposed equations with constant coefficients is sufficiently good

  18. Cytogenetic and hematological studies in the workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Honarjoo, M.; Rajab pour, M.; Zahadat, A.; Ahmad pour, M.J.; Asghari, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: This study was aimed at detecting both the incidence of chromosomal aberrations and changes in the hematological parameters as biomarkers of possible radiation injury among workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation and detecting the dose-effect relationship. Methods: Samples of peripheral blood were collected from 38 male industrial radiographers exposed to ionizing radiation for 1-16 years and from 24 age- and sex-matched healthy blood donors without radiation history served as control group. All radiation workers were routinely monitored with film badge. Cytogenetic analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes assessed by the conventional chromosome aberration assay and at least 200 metaphases for each person were scored. The collected blood samples were analyzed for hematological assay using an automatic analyzer Sysmex KX-21, where 14 different parameters were computerized. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the frequencies of the unstable aberrations and hematological parameters between test and control groups. Dose-effect relationship and the influence of age and duration of employment was tested by regression analysis. Results and conclusion: The mean frequencies of dicentric and acentric chromosome aberrations were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P< 0.0005). No correlation between chromosomal aberrations and physical dose and age was observed in the exposed group. Also there is no clear relation between chromosome damage and duration of exposure. However, the increase in chromosome aberrations in the exposed group was not followed by a corresponding hematological depression. The average values of hematological indices were within the reference levels and did not show any significant differences with control group. A tendency of decreasing the absolute lymphocyte count within the referential levels was the only hematological effect in radiation

  19. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Bornman, J.F.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  20. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Low-level radiation: a review of current estimates of hazards to human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1977-12-01

    Mankind has always lived with low levels of ionizing radiation from natural sources. This ionizing radiation may induce cancers in irradiated persons and genetic defects in the descendents of irradiated persons. The internationally accepted estimates of risks suggest that the numbers of cancers and genetic defects induced in the general population by natural background radiation are not more than about 1% of the numbers of cancers and genetic defects normally present in the general population. The added risks to the general public due to any prospective nuclear power program are minute compared to those from background radiation. At the maximum permissible levels of radiation exposures for occupational workers, the predicted number of fatal cancers induced would lead to a reduction in average life-span from 73.0 years to about 72.7 years. Since occupational exposures are usually much less than maximum permissible levels, the risks are correspondingly reduced. These occupational risks are comparable to those in most other industries and occupations. Some areas of uncertainty in the accepted risk estimates are discussed in detail in this review. (author)

  2. A conceptual framework for managing radiation dose to patients in diagnostic radiology using reference dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. (authors)

  3. Primary management of esophageal carcinoma with radiation therapy and surgery and correlation of failure pattern based on autopsy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.; Goertz, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a study of forty-seven patients with esophageal carcinoma who were treated definitively with radiation therapy (n = 18) and radical surgery (n = 18) or received palliative treatment (n = 11) at the Medical College of Virginia between 1967 and 1982. The average intervals between diagnosis and death were 5, 7, and 4 months, respectively. Autopsy revealed that 80% with radiation therapy and 50% in the surgery group had persistent local-regional disease. Eleven of 36 had adrenal metastasis and eight of 36 had a second primary in the head, neck, lung or prostate. The data show a significant incidence of persistent disease in spite of negative surgical margins. Additional treatment with chemotherapy or postoperative radiation therapy should be considered

  4. Environmental radiation levels around Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad during 1981-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Navnit; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Kathuria, S.P.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents environmental radiation monitoring results around Nuclear Ffuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad for the period, 1981-'88. During 1981-'83 only indoor radiations were monitored at 12 locations in the region of about 15 km. radius around NFC plant. However, during 1984-'88 both indoor and outdoor monitoring was done in a standardised manner at 8 locations. In this routine monitoring programme, environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in quarterly integrating cycles. The average outdoor natural radiation level around NFC during 1984-'88 is found to be 227 ± 34 (σ) mR/y, which is the highest among the various sites in the country where DAE units are located. Such a high level of natural background radiation in and around Hyderabad is due to granitic terrains which normally have significant amounts of primordial radioactivity. The indoor to outdoor radiation ratio is found to be 1.35 ± 0.1 (σ). Application of this ratio on all the available indoor radiation monitoring results of 1981-'88 gives an estimate of 230 ± 26 mR/y as the average outdoor radiation level, and this is in very close agreement with the directly measured value mentioned earlier. The temporal variations seen in the quarterly results of each location have been tested for Normal and Log-Normal distributions and found to yield satisfactory correlations, although the plots reveal slight skewness; the latter however, could not be attributed to the NFC operations. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  5. Teaching science and technology at primary school level: Theoretical and practical considerations for primary school teachers' professional training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Asma, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of starting science and technology education at a young age and at the consequential importance of providing primary school teachers with enough professional background to be able to effectively incorporate science and technology into their teaching. We will

  6. A survey on evaluation function for contaminations and doses in the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto; Shiraishi, Kunio; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Endo, Akira; Sanada, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Kazushige; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Takada, Chie; Momose, Takumaro; Hoshi, Masaharu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2009-01-01

    The questionnaire on evaluation function for contaminations and doses was sent to the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals in Japan by the network council for physical dosimetry in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) designated as the tertiary hospital. The recovery percentage from the 88 hospitals was 70%. It turned out that six primary hospitals in 37 hospitals did not have even the basic instruments on radiation measurement such as GM counter and personal dosimeter. 64% of the secondary hospitals have the whole body counter, but its operation frequency including exercise was considerably low. It is thought that the main cause originates in a chronic manpower shortage and the budget shortfall seen by all the primary and the secondary hospitals. And also peculiar difficulty of correspondence to the radiation emergency medical treatment and the few experience might promote the problem. Thus the anxiety of the site staff had been appeared to the result of the questionnaire survey in shape like the opinion and the demand, etc. It will be necessary to advance the enhancement of training and to make the manual for the contaminations and the doses evaluation in the hospitals. (author)

  7. Validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis in setting radiation protection regulations for the inhabitants in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Atefi, M.; Razi, Z.; Mortazavi Gh

    2010-01-01

    Some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, have long been known as inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation. Despite the fact that the health effects of high doses of ionizing radiation are well documented, biological effects of above the background levels of natural radiation are still controversial and the validity of the LNT hypothesis in this area, has been criticized by many investigators around the world. The study of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation in areas such as Ramsar, help scientists to investigate the biological effects without the need for extrapolating the observations either from high doses of radiation to low dose region or from laboratory animals to humans. Considering the importance of these studies, National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority has started an integrative research project on the health effects of long-term exposure to high levels of natural radiation. This paper reviews findings of the studies conducted on the plants and humans living or laboratory animals kept in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar. In human studies, different end points such as DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, blood cells and immunological alterations are discussed. This review comes to the conclusion that no reproducible detrimental health effect has been reported so far. In this paper the validity of LNT hypothesis in the assessment of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation is discussed. (author)

  8. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Jennifer D., E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reiner, Anne S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bernstein, Leslie [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States); John, Esther M. [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Mellemkjaer, Lene [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knight, Julia A. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shore, Roy E. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  9. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don, Higson; Ches, Mason; Andrew, McEwan; Peter, Burns; Riaz, Akber; Ron, Cameron; Pamela, Sykes; Joe, Young [Australasian Radiation Protection Society (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)

  10. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  11. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  12. Changes in Levels of Math Anxiety in Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz Hidalgo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various investigations study high levels of math anxiety of preservice teachers and possible strategies to reduce them. Assuming that the training methodology influences these levels, we analyzed the evolution of mathematics anxiety of undergraduates in Primary Education of the University of Granada, due to the use of manipulatives in the classroom math practices. We perform an exploratory and descriptive, by using a questionnaire that measures the level of anxiety of 227 students. Eight of them were selected and monitored by audio recordings and interviews. The mean level of anxiety puts undergraduates at an average level of math anxiety. The subjects expressed the perception that practical sessions allow a reduction of mathematics anxiety, suggesting that this reduction is due to the use of a different traditional methodology.Since we detect a favorable evolution in math anxiety manifested as subjects become more involved in cooperative working and with manipulatives, we conjecture that working with this type of active methodology has strengthened its security to their performance in mathematics.

  13. Large bowel cancer: Indications for and results of radiation as primary or adjuvant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.; Rich, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The intent of this chapter is to develop a logical approach to the use of radiation with large bowel cancer. Incidence and areas of failure after operation alone are outlined by site and stage with implications for adjuvant therapy. Results of series utilizing radiation are presented, and the potential for the future is discussed

  14. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  15. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general

  16. How to achieve optimal organization of primary care service delivery at system level: lessons from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelone, Ferruccio; Kringos, Dionne S; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; De Belvis, Antonio G; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-09-01

    To measure the relative efficiency of primary care (PC) in turning their structures into services delivery and turning their services delivery into quality outcomes. Cross-sectional study based on the dataset of the Primary Healthcare Activity Monitor for Europe project. Two Data Envelopment models were run to compare the relative technical efficiency. A sensitivity analysis of the resulting efficiency scores was performed. PC systems in 22 European countries in 2009/2010. Model 1 included data on PC governance, workforce development and economic conditions as inputs and access, coordination, continuity and comprehensiveness of care as outputs. Model 2 included the previous process dimensions as inputs and quality indicators as outputs. There is relatively reasonable efficiency in all countries at delivering as many as possible PC processes at a given level of PC structure. It is particularly important to invest in economic conditions to achieve an efficient structure-process balance. Only five countries have fully efficient PC systems in turning their services delivery into high quality outcomes, using a similar combination of access, continuity and comprehensiveness, although they differ on the adoption of coordination of services. There is a large variation in efficiency levels obtained by countries with inefficient PC in turning their services delivery into quality outcomes. Maximizing the individual functions of PC without taking into account the coherence within the health-care system is not sufficient from a policymaker's point of view when aiming to achieve efficiency.

  17. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  18. Quantification of growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of promising cotton cultivars at varying nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajid, A.; Ahmad, A.; Khaliq, T.; Alam, S.; Hussaun, A.; Hussain, K.; Naseem, W.; Usman, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Cotton cultivars response to different doses of nitrogen for radiation interception, canopy development, growth and seed yield were studied in 2006. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split arrangement under the climatic conditions of Bahawalpur. Data on seed yield, total dry matter (TDM), leaf area index (LAI), fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), accumulated radiation interception during the growth season (Sa) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) were taken into account. TDM pattern showed sigmoid growth curve for both cultivars and nitrogen levels and showed strong relationship (R2 = 0.98) with the accumulated intercepted radiation (Sa) for the season. Mean maximum value of fraction of incident PAR (Fi) remained 90% at 120 days after sowing (DAS) harvest due to maximum crop canopy development. Cultivar NIAB-111 produced 0.81 g m/sup -2/ of TDM for each MJ of accumulated PAR and nitrogen at the rate of 185 kg ha/sup -1/ statistically proved to be better in converting radiation into dry matter production. (author)

  19. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This volume presents the collations tables of a six volume comparative epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose. Data are collated for the effects observed in the following irradiated groups:- Preconception irradiation, intra-uterine irradiation, childhood irradiation, adult irradiation. (UK).

  20. Determining the Knowledge Level of Pre-Service Teachers' on Radioactivity and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N. Remziye

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the basic knowledge levels of teacher candidates' from different branches regarding the subjects of radiation and radioactivity. 42 variables were determined in relation to the specified titles. In the preparation stage of determining the variables, all the related programs were examined, and attention was paid to include…

  1. The influence of low-level radiation on nucleolus activity of cyprinidae embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The number and sizes of nucleoli in embryos of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to low-level radiation at a dose-rate of 10 μ Gy/h and down were larger than those on non-irradiated controls

  2. Individuals with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Have Elevated Levels of Biomarkers for Apoptosis but Not Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Howard C; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Deppe, Ross; Bybee, Phelan; Comerford, Megan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Ghabril, Marwan; Chalasani, Naga

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis from accumulation of bile salts may play an important role in the disease progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of the current study was to measure serum markers of hepatocyte apoptosis (cytokeratin-18 fragments--K18) and necrosis (high-mobility group protein B1--HMGB1) in adults with PSC and examine the relationship with disease severity. We measured serum levels of K18 and HMGB1 in well-phenotyped PSC (N = 37) and 39 control subjects (N = 39). Severity of PSC was assessed biochemically, histologically, and PSC Mayo risk score. Quantification of hepatocyte apoptosis was performed using TUNEL assay. The mean age of the study cohort was 49.7 ± 13.3 years and comprised of 67% men and 93% Caucasian. Serum K18 levels were significantly higher in the PSC patients compared to control (217.4 ± 78.1 vs. 157.0 ± 58.2 U/L, p = 0.001). However, HMGB1 levels were not different between the two groups (5.38 ± 2.99 vs. 6.28 ± 2.85 ng/mL, p = 0.15). Within the PSC group, K18 levels significantly correlated with AST (r = 0.5, p = 0.002), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.5, p = 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.61, p ≤ 0.001), and albumin (r = -0.4, p = 0.02). Serum K18 levels also correlated with the level of apoptosis present on the liver biopsy (r = 0.8, p ≤ 0.001) and Mayo risk score (r = 0.4, p = 0.015). Serum K18 but not HMGB1 levels were increased in PSC and associated with severity of underlying liver disease and the degree of hepatocyte apoptosis.

  3. Association of increased levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar, Tahira Sultan, Faisal A Almobarak, Hatem Kalantan, Saleh A Al-Obeidan, Khaled K Abu-Amero Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC death is a key feature of glaucoma. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can induce RGC apoptosis and play a critical role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the possible role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, we investigated the association between plasma levels of TNF-α and POAG or its clinical indices in comparison to non-glaucomatous controls. Patients and methods: In a case–control retrospective cohort of 51 POAG cases and 88 controls, plasma TNF-α levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on an automated ELISA analyzer. Results: Mean TNF-α level was significantly elevated in POAG cases (1.88 ± 2.17 pg/mL than the controls (0.93 ± 1.49 pg/mL; p = 0.003. The overall dose–response trend was significant (Χ2 = 6.12, df = 2; p = 0.047. No statistical difference was seen in age, gender and systemic disease distribution. A modest negative and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and number of antiglaucoma medications, an important clinical index of POAG severity. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of POAG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level and not by age and sex. Conclusion: High systemic level of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, is associated with POAG; however, its possible use as a biomarker for early glaucoma diagnosis and/or disease severity needs further investigation. Keywords: apoptosis, biomarker, cytokines, ELISA, inflammation, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress

  4. Electromagnetic Radiation Disturbed the Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at the Proteomics Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Yang, Chuanjun; Yu, Hui; Tian, Shen; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiyi; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-11

    Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa under Electromagnetic Radiation (1.8 GHz, 40 V/m) was studied by using the proteomics. A total of 30 differentially expressed proteins, including 15 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated proteins, were obtained in this study. The differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in the photosynthesis pathway, in which the protein expression levels of photosystems II cytochrome b559 α subunit, cytochrome C550, PsbY, and F-type ATP synthase (a, b) decreased. Our results indicated that electromagnetic radiation altered the photosynthesis-related protein expression levels, and aimed at the function of photosynthetic pigments, photosystems II potential activity, photosynthetic electron transport process, and photosynthetic phosphorylation process of M. aeruginosa. Based on the above evidence, that photoreaction system may be deduced as a target of electromagnetic radiation on the photosynthesis in cyanobacteria; the photoreaction system of cyanobacteria is a hypothetical "shared target effector" that responds to light and electromagnetic radiation; moreover, electromagnetic radiation does not act on the functional proteins themselves but their expression processes.

  5. A guide to radiation and radioactivity levels near high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    An estimate of likely radiation and radioactivity levels is needed at the design stage of an accelerator for deciding the radiation safety features to be incorporated in the infrastructure of the machine and for predicting where radiation damage possibilities will have to be taken into account. Both these aspects can have a significant influence on the machine layout and cost. Failure to make a reasonable assessment at the right time may have far reaching consequences for future costs. The purpose of this guide is to bring together basic data and methods that have been found useful in assessing radiation situations around accelerators and to provide a practical means of arriving at the radiation and induced radioactivity levels that could occur under a wide variety of circumstances. An attempt is made to present the information in a direct and unambiguous way with sufficient confidence that the necessity for large safety factors is avoided. In many cases assumptions and simplifications have been made and reliance placed on extrapolating from experimental data into regions where the basic physics is too complicated to make meaningful absolute calculations. Wherever possible such extrapolations have been tied to real or otherwise acceptable data originating from independent sources. (Author)

  6. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  7. Are we at risk from level radiation - DNA repair capacity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.; Kol, R.; Heimer, Y.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new biochemical method, based on determination of DNA repair capability, which will enable predetermination of radiation sensitivity and further - an indication of inherent sensitivity which may be expressed only in the future when a cell will be faced with a situation in which its repair capacity will have to function to its full capability was developed. Cells are treated with trioxalen (trimethylpsoralen, TMP) and near ultraviolet light (NUV), bringing about an almost complete cessation of semiconservative DNA synthesis, 99.5 to 99.8 % inhibition. This method enabled the accurate measurement of incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA following assaults by radiation or chemicals, indicating that repair synthesis is occurring. The method has been found suitable for the following cells: human fibroblasts, human breast cancer cells, chinese hamster V-79 cells, human lymphocytes. Since the method is applicable also for lymphocytes, it will enable carrying out a world-wide interlaboratory comparative study in which the range of 'repair capacity' of 'normal healthy' humans will be established. Individuals showing no repair capacity will not be permitted to be exposed to any level of radiation above natural background. These are the persons 'at risk' from radiation, while the general public, showing normal repair capacity may be considered safe from the effects of low-level radiations. (B.G.)

  8. Evaluation of cytogenetic damage in nuclear medicine personnel occupationally exposed to low-level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Poropat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite intensive research over the last few decades, there still remains considerable uncertainty as to the genetic impact of ionising radiation on human populations, particularly at low levels. The aim of this study was to provide data on genetic hazards associated with occupational exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments. The assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of medical staff was performed using the chromosome aberration (CA) test. Exposed subjects showed significantly higher frequencies of CA than controls. There were significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage within the exposed population, indicating differences in genome sensitivity. Age and gender were not confounding factors, while smoking enhanced the levels of DNA damage only in control subjects. The present study suggests that chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments causes genotoxic damage. Therefore, to avoid potential genotoxic effects, the exposed medical personnel should minimise radiation exposure wherever possible. Our results also point to the significance of biological indicators providing information about the actual risk to the radiation exposed individuals.(author)

  9. Low level radiation testing of micro-electronic components. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farren, J.; Stephen, J.H.; Mapper, D.; Sanderson, T.K.; Hardman, M.

    1984-05-01

    A review of the existing literature has been carried out, dealing with the current technology relating to low level radiation testing of microelectronic devices, as used in space satellite systems. After consideration of the space radiation environment, the general effects of cosmic radiation on MOSFET structures and other MOS devices have been assessed. The important aspect of annealing phenomena in relation to gamma-ray induced damage has also been reviewed in detail. The experimental and theoretical aspects of radiation testing have been assessed, with particular reference to the Harwell LORAD low level irradiation test facility. In addition, a review of modern dosimetry methods has been carried out, with specific regard to the problems of accurately measuring low radiation fields (1 to 10 R/hour) over periods of many months. Finally, a detailed account of the proposed experimental programme to be carried out in the LORAD facility is presented, and aspects of the experimental set-up discussed. The particular types of test circuits to be studied are dealt with, and full consideration is given to the various CMOS memory devices of special interest in the ESA space satellite programme. (author)

  10. Does exposure to very high levels of natural radiation induce hematological alterations in humans?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It has long been known that total body exposure to moderate doses decrease the number of circulating erythrocytes, platelets, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. However, data on hematopoietic effects of exposure to very low doses of ionizing radiation in humans are scarce. Recently it has been reported that hematological parameters have significant positive associations with the radiation dose received by residents lived near a nuclear power plant. Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has some inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation studied so far. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy y -1 and the highest recorded external gamma dose rates are about 130 mGy y -1 . In this study, hematological parameters such as counts of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, and MPV were measured in the inhabitants. The results of this study indicated that there was no any statistically significant alteration in hematological parameters of the inhabitants of very high background radiation areas of Ramsar compared to those of a neighboring control area

  11. Analysis of cosmetic results following primary radiation therapy for stages I and II carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Svensson, G.; Hellman, S.

    1979-01-01

    In 31 cases of Stages I or II carcinoma of the breast treated by primary radiation therapy, the cosmetic results were analyzed with regard to the details of treatment. Three principal treatment factors were identified which influenced the cosmetic outcome: (1) the extent and location of the biopsy procedure; (2) the time/dose factors of the radiation therapy; and (3) the technique of the radiation therapy. Cosmetic results were lessened when the biopsy procedure included a wide resection of adjacent breast tissue or when the biopsy scar was obvious. Increasing doses of external beam radiation were associated with greater degrees of retraction and fibrosis of the treated breast. All 6 patients who received 6000 rad by external beam had significant retraction, and fibrosis while patients who received 5000 rad rarely showed significant changes. Local boost doses by interstitial implantation did not diminsh the cosmetic outcome. All patients were treated using supervoltage equipment without bolus and skin changes secondary to treatment were infrequent. Seventeen patients developed localized areas of fibrosis and skin changes at the matchline between adjacent radiation fields. Recommendations are made for improved cosmetic results based on these findings

  12. Serotonin levels in aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon-Moreno, V; Melo, P; Mendes-Pinto, M M; Alves, C J; Garcia-Medina, J J; Vinuesa-Silva, I; Moreno-Nadal, M A; Pinazo-Duran, M D

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by a high intraocular pressure (IOP), alterations in optic nerve head, and loss of visual field that could lead to bilateral blindness. Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that is synthesized from hydroxylation of tryptophan and acts by three ways, dissemination, metabolism, and reuptake in synaptic cleft through specific systems of the membrane. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the 5-HT and 5-HIAA (5-hydroxiindolacetic acid) levels in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed a case-control study, and the patients recruited were classified into two groups, 1) 30 patients with POAG (GG) and 2) 30 patients with cataracts (CG), who acted as the controls. Aqueous humor samples of each patient were obtained by paracentesis at the beginning of the surgical procedures. 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. There were no statistical differences between age (71.3 +/- 7.2 years in GG, 73.5 +/- 9.0 years in CG; p=0.2581) or gender (sex ratio 0.765 in GG and 0.667 in CG). 5-HT levels were lower in GG, but this difference was not significant (p=0.820). We observed a statistically significant higher level of 5-HIAA in GG (p=0.001). The 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) were higher in GG than in CG (pCG patients.

  13. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm{sup 3} for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm{sup 3} for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  14. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm 3 for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm 3 for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  15. The need for the use of high-level radiation in water treatment and in waste-water (sewage) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    After excellent conventional primary, followed by the best possible conventional aerobic secondary and then chemical disinfection, significant quantities of contaminants are still present in sewage, especially pathogenic organisms and toxic or toxicity-causing long-chain-molecular forms. These contaminants are generally encountered in waste-waters with a seldom predictable, almost totally random frequency. Many of these chemical forms enter re-use situations where they can become toxic to man, or to wildlife, even in concentrations of a few parts per thousand million. It has been amply demonstrated that the long-held contention is no longer valid that dilution of these contaminants to an innocuous level is easily attained by their release into large bodies of water such as lakes, oceans and rivers. At the same time, a great deal of energy is required when using known techniques in highly reliable systems for removing or rendering innocuous a large portion of these contaminants. In the light of this new (to some people) information describing a much larger, more complex set of conditions which must be considered in effective water pollution elimination, high-level radiation becomes very attractive. There is a great need for high-level radiation in water treatment or waste-water treatment where the ultimate goal is a safe, clean, non-environmentally degrading, safely re-usable quality of water. Gamma radiation, used under the right circumstances, is the most reliable, most cost-effective, most generally efficient technique in the tertiary stages. With the addition of select chemicals to increase the number of ionizations realized and/or to capitalize upon surface charge phenomena, its effectiveness can be even further expanded. (author)

  16. High level harmonic radiation: atto-second impulse generation, application to coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacev, Milutin

    2003-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is dedicated to the characterization and optimization of the unique properties of high order harmonic generation in a rare gas: high brilliance, short pulse duration (femtosecond to atto-second, 1 as = 10"-"1"8 s and good mutual coherence. In the first part of this work, we concentrate on the exploitation of a scaling law using a high-energy laser loosely focused inside an extended gaseous medium. For the first time, the generated harmonic energy exceeds the 1 μJ level per laser pulse using the fifteenth harmonic order at a wavelength of 53 nm. The conversion efficiency reaches 4.10"-"5, which results from the combination of a strong dipolar response and a good phase matching within a generating volume that is extended by self guiding of the generating laser pulse. In the second part, our interest is devoted to the temporal profile of the harmonic emission and its atto-second structure. We first demonstrate the feasibility of a spatial/spectral selection of the contributions associated to the two main electronic trajectories, allowing thereby the generation of regular atto-second pulse trains. We then characterize such a pulse train by the measurement of the relative phases of consecutive harmonics. Finally, we describe an original technique for the temporal confinement of the harmonic emission by manipulating the ellipticity of the generating laser beam. In the third part, our interest is dedicated to the mutual coherence properties of the harmonic emission. We first demonstrate the precise control of the relative phase of the harmonic pulses by multiple beam interference in the XUV. This frequency-domain interferometry using four phase-locked temporally separated pulses shows an extreme sensitivity to the relative phase of the pulses on an atto-second time scale. We then measure the first order autocorrelation trace of the harmonic beam thanks to the generation of two harmonic sources mutually coherent and spatially separated

  17. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  19. Systemic effects of ionizing radiation at the proteome and metabolome levels in the blood of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the influence of inflammation and radiation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Karol; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Blood is the most common replacement tissue used to study systemic responses of organisms to different types of pathological conditions and environmental insults. Local irradiation during cancer radiotherapy induces whole body responses that can be observed at the blood proteome and metabolome levels. Hence, comparative blood proteomics and metabolomics are emerging approaches used in the discovery of radiation biomarkers. These techniques enable the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of molecules and the identification of sets of components that can discriminate different physiological states of the human body. Radiation-induced changes are affected by the dose and volume of irradiated tissues; hence, the molecular composition of blood is a hypothetical source of biomarkers for dose assessment and the prediction and monitoring of systemic responses to radiation. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence regarding molecular responses to ionizing radiation detected at the level of the human blood proteome and metabolome. It focuses on patients exposed to radiation during cancer radiotherapy and emphasizes effects related to radiation-induced toxicity and inflammation. Systemic responses to radiation detected at the blood proteome and metabolome levels are primarily related to the intensity of radiation-induced toxicity, including inflammatory responses. Thus, several inflammation-associated molecules can be used to monitor or even predict radiation-induced toxicity. However, these abundant molecular features have a rather limited applicability as universal biomarkers for dose assessment, reflecting the individual predisposition of the immune system and tissue-specific mechanisms involved in radiation-induced damage.

  20. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  1. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedland, Stephen J., E-mail: steve.freedland@duke.edu [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Gerber, Leah [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S. [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Stone, Steven [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  2. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Gerber, Leah; Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Salama, Joseph K.; Stone, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy

  3. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author).

  4. Radioactivity levels in Indian coal and some technologically enhanced exposure to natural radiation environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1988-01-01

    The summary of results of gamma-spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity levels in coal from mines, coal, fly-ash, slag and soil samples from thermal power plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologic ally enhanced exposures to natural radiation. Brief description of sampling and measurement procedure is given. Radiation dose to the population from coal fired power plants for electricity generation have been calculated using the model developed by UNSCEAR and ORNL reports with correction for local population density. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author)

  6. Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the ''healthy worker effect,'' calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed

  7. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  8. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO 4 :Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  9. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra Pratap, E-mail: bpsingh0783@gmail.com; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepak; Punia, Monika; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10{sup −3} and 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10{sup −3} and 2.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10{sup −3} and 8.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from

  10. Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Fukasawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4% were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents’ radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors

  11. Detection of the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin-Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    By definition, the direct effect is referred to interaction between photon and DNA molecule, whereas the indirect effect is mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiolysis and subsequent reaction. It has been reported that ROS produced after exposure to IR can react with cellular materials such as DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. ROS is free radicals such as the superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and the non-radical hydrogen peroxide. Cells generate ROS during aerobic metabolism. Excessive production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, genetic alteration and even cell death. It has been reported that ROS plays a critical role in radiation-induced cell injury. Thus, it is of great interest to determine the radiation-induced ROS level. Many kinds of methods to detect the level of ROS have been developed so far. There were random changes of fluorescence intensity in the treatment after irradiation. This result meant that this protocol was not appropriate for determination of radiation-induced ROS. On the other hand, the fluorescence intensity was increased in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation. Conclusions can be drawn from the experimental results of this study. In order to properly measure the ROS level in the cells exposed to ionizing radiation, the cells should be treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation.

  12. Assessment of radiation-induced second cancer risks in proton therapy and IMRT for organs inside the primary radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganetti, Harald; Athar, Basit S.; Moteabbed, Maryam; Adams, Judith A.; Schneider, Uwe; Yock, Torunn I.

    2012-10-01

    There is clinical evidence that second malignancies in radiation therapy occur mainly within the beam path, i.e. in the medium or high-dose region. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk for developing a radiation-induced tumor within the treated volume and to compare this risk for proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Instead of using data for specific patients we have created a representative scenario. Fully contoured age- and gender-specific whole body phantoms (4 year and 14 year old) were uploaded into a treatment planning system and tumor volumes were contoured based on patients treated for optic glioma and vertebral body Ewing's sarcoma. Treatment plans for IMRT and proton therapy treatments were generated. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for developing a second malignancy were calculated using a risk model considering cell kill, mutation, repopulation, as well as inhomogeneous organ doses. For standard fractionation schemes, the LAR for developing a second malignancy from radiation therapy alone was found to be up to 2.7% for a 4 year old optic glioma patient treated with IMRT considering a soft-tissue carcinoma risk model only. Sarcoma risks were found to be below 1% in all cases. For a 14 year old, risks were found to be about a factor of 2 lower. For Ewing's sarcoma cases the risks based on a sarcoma model were typically higher than the carcinoma risks, i.e. LAR up to 1.3% for soft-tissue sarcoma. In all cases, the risk from proton therapy turned out to be lower by at least a factor of 2 and up to a factor of 10. This is mainly due to lower total energy deposited in the patient when using proton beams. However, the comparison of a three-field and four-field proton plan also shows that the distribution of the dose, i.e. the particular treatment plan, plays a role. When using different fractionation schemes, the estimated risks roughly scale with the total dose difference in%. In conclusion, proton therapy can

  13. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren, R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Study of the contamination level in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomit, J.-M.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to work out a model which allows to predict the contamination level in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor (PWR). We assume that the passage of fission products from fuel (UO 2 ) to water takes place in two stages: a) the fission products created in the fuel diffuse and go out into the gap; b) owing to failure of clad, fission products stored in the gap diffuse into the water. A migration constant will correspond to each of these stages (ν(C) for fuel and ν(J) for gap). We have designed two models: - an empiric model in which constants ν(C) and ν(J) are adjusted from experiments CYRANO and BOUFFON carried out by the CEA; - a theoretical model to describe the physical mechanisms of migration inside the fuel. This leads us to introduce trapping and resolution probabilities. This models lead to a theoretical definition of ν(C). We have undertaken a second qualification of the empiric model using code PROFIP 3. Application to the Tihange reactor enabled us to get a good estimation of activity in the primary circuit and the number of failed rods during the first cycle [fr

  15. School Effectiveness at Primary Level of Education in Relation to Classroom Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Panigrahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head Master and Teachers’ performance and Students’ performance; to find out the relationship between the school effectiveness and classroom teaching. The descriptive survey method was used to carry out this study. A Total number of 27 more-effective and 35 less-effective primary schools were included in the sample of the present study. And also all principals of selected schools and from each school 2 teachers were selected to know their classroom teaching in the classroom situation. The selection of teachers was based on their teaching the classes (III, IV and V, to investigate their participation in school activities. The findings of the present study on school effectiveness and classroom teaching find adequate support from similar or related studies. Thus, the above discussion reflects that there is no simple combination of factors, which can produce effective school. The study has, however, revealed that school effectiveness has emerged as related to classroom teaching.

  16. Risk estimation and decision making: the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Presented is a background for an understanding of the potential health effects in populations exposed to low-level radiation. Discussed is the knowledge about the health effects of low-level radiation. Comments on how the risks of radiation-induced cancer and genetically-related ill-health in man may be estimated, the sources of the scientific and epidemiological data, the dose-response models used, and the uncertainties which limit precise estimates of excess risks from radiation. Also discussed are the implications of numerical risk estimation for radiation protection and decision-making for public health policy

  17. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  18. Primary surgery results in no survival benefit compared to primary radiation for oropharyngeal cancer patients stratified by high-risk human papilloma virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybak, Stein; Ljøkjel, Borghild; Haave, Hilde; Karlsdottir, Àsa; Vintermyr, Olav K; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We changed the primary oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treatment recommendation from primary radiation therapy (RT) to tumor surgery and neck dissection, followed by RT around the year 2000 with apparently improved survival. However, high-risk human papilloma virus (hr-HPV)-16-caused OPSCCs have increased during this period. Furthermore, hr-HPV+ OPSCC carry a better prognosis than hr-HPV-negative patients. We have, therefore, evaluated the 5-year survival in the period from 1992 to 1999 versus 2000 to 2008 stratified by hr-HPV tumor infection status. Ninety-six OPSCC patients were treated from 1992 to 1999 compared with 136 patients from 2000 to 2008. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DDS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded, while the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores were obtained from some of the cured patients. Thirty-eight (40 %) in the first period and 86 OPSCCs (63 %) in the second period were hr-HPV+. In the first period, 16 versus 62 patients in the last period were treated by neck dissection, primary tumor surgery, and RT. DSS among all the hr-HPV-negative patients in the first period was 51 versus 55 % in the second period, and the corresponding OS was 33 versus 31 %, respectively. The DSS among all the hr-HPV+ patients was 78 % in the first period versus 77 % in the second period, while the OS was 71 versus 69 %, respectively. The HRQoL scores among successfully treated patients were worse following surgery, plus RT than RT only. The hr-HPV-adjusted 5-year survival in OPSCC patients was similar between the two time periods. A decreased HRQoL was associated with surgical therapy, which indicates that hr-HPV+ OPSCC patients may be treated by primary RT followed by major surgery only if RT treatment fails.

  19. Cetuximab, bevacizumab, and irinotecan for patients with primary glioblastoma and progression after radiation therapy and temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate safety and efficacy when combining cetuximab with bevacizumab and irinotecan in patients with recurrent primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Patients were included with recurrent primary GBM and progression within 6 months of ending standard tre...

  20. Investigation on the acceptance level of radiation exposure. Comparison of Chinese and Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Katoh, Kazuaki

    1999-01-01

    Radiation has helped to develop our culture and civilization, both of material and of spiritual, and without doubt it is useful to develop our civilization further and to enrich our future life. On the other hand, we cannot help avoiding to live with some by-product radiation of 'advanced civilization' in addition. Thus we must associate with radiation even if we like it or not. To our understanding, safety standard or criteria of safety control is nothing but a contract of the body concerned with the society. In order to make this contract rigorously, it is required for both sides to have adequately enough knowledge and data on the methodology of treating the matter. In such societies, people's acceptable levels to radiation exposure would not be widely distributed. Unification of the wills of the society is absolutely necessary to establish such a contact or develop the philosophy on radiation safety. Hence, we have tried to investigate the acceptable levels of people to radiation exposure. Two kinds of levels, upper limit of the acceptable dose for instantaneous whole body exposure, Lu, and lowest of the dose caring in mind, Ll, were set for inquiry. In this presentation, some results of our survey to both Chinese and Japanese professionals in the fields of science-technology and medical science are reported. Similarly to the previous study by Katoh, in 1989 or so, the distribution of these two levels were very broad and the band widths between the two levels, Lu and Ll, were quite narrow. The former seems reveal the variety of individual's sense of value. Moreover, it was found that, two levels, Lu and Ll, were significantly higher (p<0.05, p<0.005) in Japanese to in Chinese in science/engineering group, while in medical group, the two levels were higher apparently in Japanese than in Chinese, but no statistically significant difference was observed. Moreover, in medical group, Lu and Ll showed higher values than those in science-technology group for the

  1. Radiation dose of aircrews during a solar proton event without ground-level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant enhancement of radiation doses is expected for aircrews during ground-level enhancement (GLE events, while the possible radiation hazard remains an open question during non-GLE solar energetic particle (SEP events. Using a new air-shower simulation driven by the proton flux data obtained from GOES satellites, we show the possibility of significant enhancement of the effective dose rate of up to 4.5 μSv h−1 at a conventional flight altitude of 12 km during the largest SEP event that did not cause a GLE. As a result, a new GOES-driven model is proposed to give an estimate of the contribution from the isotropic component of the radiation dose in the stratosphere during non-GLE SEP events.

  2. Preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels and doses to population in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiliang; He Miaoting; Shu Qi

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels in China with RSS-111 high pressure ionization chamber and estimated doses to population are reported. A total of 2,723 indoor locales throughout China were measured. The results showed that the average absorbed dose rates in air due to gamma radiation for indoors and outdoors were 11.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 7.4 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively, and those due to cosmic rays were 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 3.7 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The annual average effective dose equivalent to population was 919 μSv, including 630 μSv from natural gamma radiation and 289 μSv from cosmic rays

  3. Clearance of material with negligible levels of radioactivity based on the amended German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Bayer, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the modalities for the clearance of relevant materials have been laid down in the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance in a comprehensive form. A distinction is made between unconditional clearance and cases of clearance in which disposal, recycling, and re-use is prescribed. The focus of attention in the case of unconditional clearance consists in special consideration of large volumes of building rubble and excavated soil. Material can only be released from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act, when the radiation-related risk, and correspondingly, also the dose from material issued with clearance, are at negligible levels. In order to facilitate the practical application of clearance, values have been derived on the basis of scenarios which cover all radiation exposures which can reasonably be considered. (orig.) [de

  4. The research on the health effects of low-level radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Professor Don Luckey identified the phenomenon of 'radiation hormesis' and he described it in a paper in the Health Physics Society Journal, in 1982. (He also authored two books on this subject.) CRIEPI initiated a research program on radiation hormesis following this publication to confirm, 'Is it true or not?' After nearly ten years of research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many universities, we are realizing the scientific truth of bio-positive effects caused by low-level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in the following five groups: rejuvenation of cells, such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability; moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes; suppression and therapy of adult diseases, e.g., diabetes and hypertension; suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems, such as lymphocytes; suppression of cancer and radio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. (author)

  5. Historical background and overview of epidemiological studies on the effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Recognition of the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation dates from the early part of this century, when an increased frequency of skin cancer and leukemia was first reported in radiologists. In the interim, systematic epidemiological studies have disclosed additional carcinogenic effects in radiation workers, A-bomb survivors, patients exposed to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation, and other groups. The studies have provided sufficient data on dose-incidence relationships, the distribution of cancer in relation to age at irradiation and time after exposure, and organ-variations in susceptibility to enable attempts at quantitative assessment of the risks of low-level irradiation. Such assessments, although tentative and controversial, have exerted an important influence on developments in radiological protection

  6. Analysis of population dosimetry data in the high level natural radiation areas, Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Jojo, P.J.; Predeep, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, Kerala has huge monazite bearing sand deposits on the west coast thereby having high natural background radiation levels. Extensive studies on the radiation dosimetry as well as effects on the human health are therefore being carried out in the region. We have recently completed a dosimetric survey aimed for epidemiological studies using case control methodology. This study, in collaboration with two local colleges in Kollam, Kerala, was taken up to study the relationship of congenital malformations and radiation exposures, if any. The two conditions that were selected were mental retardation and cleft lip-palate. Stringent selection criteria were set in selecting the cases and suitable controls. A ratio of 1:3 for case:control was selected for getting the optimum statistical significance from the data generated. The paper describes the methodology of dosimetric survey and the analysis of dose data based on case and controls

  7. System-Level Model for OFDM WiMAX Transceiver in Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Alim, O.; Elboghdadly, N.; Ashour, M.M.; Elaskary, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    WiMAX (Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access), an evolving standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networking, works for the l ast mile c onnections for replacing optical fiber technology network but with no need for adding more infra structure within crowded areas. Optical fiber technology is seriously considered for communication and monitoring applications in space and around nuclear reactors. Space and nuclear environments are characterized, in particular, by the presence of ionizing radiation fields. Therefore the influence of radiation on such networks needs to be investigated. This paper has the objective of building a System level model for a WiMAX OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) based transceiver. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). Then analyze, discuss the results based on qualitatively performance evaluation using BER calculations for radiation environment

  8. An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution

  9. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M.; Sergio, L.P.S.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  10. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M. [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Sergio, L.P.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  11. Landscape level influence: aquatic primary production in the Colorado River of Glen and Grand canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, M. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.; Bennett, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Irregular features common to canyon-bound regions intercept solar incidence (photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD: μmol m-2 s-1]) and can affect ecosystem energetics. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is topographically complex, typical of most streams and rivers in the arid southwest. Dam-regulated systems like the Colorado River have reduced sediment loads, and consequently increased water transparency relative to unimpounded rivers; however, sediment supply from tributaries and flow regulation that affects erosion and subsequent sediment transport, interact to create spatial and temporal variation in optical conditions in this river network. Solar incidence and suspended sediment loads regulate the amount of underwater light available for aquatic photosynthesis in this regulated river. Since light availability is depth dependent (Beer's law), benthic algae is often exposed to varying levels of desiccation or reduced light conditions due to daily flow regulation, additional factors that further constrain aquatic primary production. Considerable evidence suggests that the Colorado River food web is now energetically dependent on autotrophic production, an unusual condition since large river foodwebs are typically supported by allochthonous carbon synthesized and transported from terrestrial environments. We developed a mechanistic model to account for these regulating factors to predict how primary production might be affected by observed and alternative flow regimes proposed as part of ongoing adaptive management experimentation. Inputs to our model include empirical data (suspended sediment and temperature), and predictive relationships: 1) solar incidence reaching the water surface (topographic complexity), 2) suspended sediment-light extinction relationships (optical properties), 3) unsteady flow routing model (stage-depth relationship), 4) channel morphology (photosynthetic area), and 5) photosynthetic-irradiant response for dominant algae (Cladophora

  12. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den, Robert B.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Sheng, Zhi; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dougherty, Erin; Marinucchi, Michelle; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Hegarty, Sarah; Hyslop, Terry; Andrews, David W.; Glass, Jon; Friedman, David P.; Green, Michael R.; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m 2 ) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities we