WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary enforcement responsibility

  1. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.221 Records of law enforcement...

  2. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Action Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Enforcement Action Response System collects waste transaction information, and liability determination information. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  3. DOE enforcement program roles and responsibilities: DOE handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Price-Anderson Act provides indemnification to DOE contractors who manage and conduct nuclear activities in the DOE complex. The government acts as an insurer for these contractors against any findings of liability from the nuclear activities of the contractor within the scope of its contract. 10 CFR Part 820 establishes the legal framework for implementing DOE's Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. Integration with other DOE organizations and programs would assure that the enforcement process properly considers the actual or potential safety significance of a violation when determining an appropriate enforcement sanction. Achieving a proactive contractor compliance assurance rather than a heavy enforcement hand, will require a foundation of cooperation and teamwork across DOE organizations. This handbook identifies the areas of interface for the DOE Enforcement Program and provides guidance on roles and responsibilities for the key DOE organizational areas. It complements DOE-HDBK-1087-95 and 1089-95

  4. Radiological response training for law enforcement personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A specialized training course for Nevada's law enforcement personnel has been conducted by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. for the US Department of Energy since February 1981. This course is designed for those persons who are first to arrive at a transportation accident scene. The course provides a basic understanding of radiation protection, the prevention of contamination spread from the accident site, use of radiation detection equipment, and decontamination procedures. The Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office provides the training at no cost to Nevada agencies. Each agency selects its attendees. Details of the course are given

  5. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. Methods We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose “outbreaks.” Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Results Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers’ feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Conclusion Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. PMID:24051061

  6. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R; Bowman, Sarah E; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose "outbreaks." Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers' feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer. 422.6 Section 422.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.6 Responsibilities of...

  8. 43 CFR 422.5 - Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator. 422.5 Section 422.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.5 Responsibilities of...

  9. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  10. Energy regulations require strickter enforcement as response to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Itard, L.C.M.; Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Since a few years the attention for building regulatory systems and enforcement procedures is growing. Various developments in society, politics and the construction industry have influenced changes in the systems of building control in the last 20 years. The influence of climate change and the

  11. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Irwansyah; Gianto; Andi Syahwia

    2016-01-01

    Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development ) and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility ) is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . T...

  12. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  13. 25 CFR 12.1 - Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function? 12.1 Section 12.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.1 Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function? Th...

  14. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . Through Law No. 40 Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company , specifically in Article 74, in response to the action of the business world to social and environmental causes damages to society . But in application / CSR implementation will be undertaken by the company is not maximized with implications for the enforcement of environmental law.

  15. Stated response to increased enforcement density and penalty size for speeding and driving unbelted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössinger, Reinhard; Berger, Wolfgang J

    2012-11-01

    To what extent can traffic offences be reduced through stronger enforcement, higher penalties, and the provision of information to road users? This question was addressed with respect to the offences of "speeding" and "driving unbelted." Data were collected by a telephone survey of admitted speeders, followed by 438 face-to-face stated response interviews. Based on the data collected, separate statistical models were developed for the two offences. The models predict the behavioral effect of increasing enforcement density and/or penalty size as well as the additional effect of providing information to car drivers. All three factors are predicted to be effective in reducing speeding. According to the model, one additional enforcement event per year will cause a driver to reduce his current frequency of speeding by 5%. A penalty increase of 10 Euros is predicted to have the same effect. An announcement of stronger enforcement or higher fines is predicted to have an additional effect on behavior, independent of the actual magnitudes of increase in enforcement or fines. With respect to the use of a seat belt, however, neither an increase in enforcement density nor its announcement is predicted to have a significant effect on driver behavior. An increase in the penalty size is predicted to raise the stated wearing rate, which is already 90% in Austria. It seems that both the fear of punishment and the motivation for driving unbelted are limited, so that there is only a weak tradeoff between the two. This may apply to most traffic offences, with the exception of speeding, which accounts for over 80% of tickets alone, whereas all other offences account for less than 3% each. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  17. H3K36 Methylation Regulates Nutrient Stress Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Enforcing Transcriptional Fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. McDaniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Set2-mediated histone methylation at H3K36 regulates diverse activities, including DNA repair, mRNA splicing, and suppression of inappropriate (cryptic transcription. Although failure of Set2 to suppress cryptic transcription has been linked to decreased lifespan, the extent to which cryptic transcription influences other cellular functions is poorly understood. Here, we uncover a role for H3K36 methylation in the regulation of the nutrient stress response pathway. We found that the transcriptional response to nutrient stress was dysregulated in SET2-deleted (set2Δ cells and was correlated with genome-wide bi-directional cryptic transcription that originated from within gene bodies. Antisense transcripts arising from these cryptic events extended into the promoters of the genes from which they arose and were associated with decreased sense transcription under nutrient stress conditions. These results suggest that Set2-enforced transcriptional fidelity is critical to the proper regulation of inducible and highly regulated transcription programs.

  18. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  19. The Exercise of Responsible Command in the Enforcement of International Criminal Law: A New Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reardon, Warren A

    1997-01-01

    The following article argues that the current regime for the enforcement of international criminal law against alleged war criminals fails to live up to its promises, largely because system participants lack (or refuse to gain...

  20. Primary lymph node responses to mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, J J; Vos, B J

    1977-03-29

    Post-auricular lymph node responses and changes in fresh weight of thymus and spleen of hamsters and mice at 4 and 8 days after primary exposure of both ears to 20 bites by the mosquito Aedes aegypti were studied quantitatively. In both hosts lymph node changes characteristic of the development of cell-mediated immune responses and those which are believed to lead to antibody production occurred, with the emphasis on the latter phenomena. No reactions of thymus and spleen were observed. The responses recorded are considered to be immunologically specific. In hamsters, but not in mice, the responses related to humoral sensitization coincided in time to a large extent with those of the cell-mediated immune processes. The stronger humoral responses in mice were probably in the first place the result of the relatively higher dosages applied.

  1. Enforcement Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — EIS is an automated management information system that tracks the FAA’s enforcement actions on a nationwide basis. EIS is the FAA’s primary database for tracking...

  2. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Zhao, Changhong; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine

    2017-03-03

    Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.

  3. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. The Specificity of Innate Immune Responses Is Enforced by Repression of Interferon Response Elements by NF-κB p50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christine S.; Feldman, Kristyn E.; Lee, James; Verma, Shilpi; Huang, De-Bin; Huynh, Kim; Chang, Mikyoung; Ponomarenko, Julia V.; Sun, Shao-Cong; Benedict, Chris A.; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The specific binding of transcription factors to cognate sequence elements is thought to be critical for the generation of specific gene expression programs. Members of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) transcription factor families bind to the κB site and the IFN response element (IRE), respectively, of target genes, and they are activated in macrophages after exposure to pathogens. However, how these factors produce pathogen-specific inflammatory and immune responses remains poorly understood. Combining top-down and bottom-up systems biology approaches, we have identified the NF-κB p50 homodimer as a regulator of IRF responses. Unbiased genome-wide expression and biochemical and structural analyses revealed that the p50 homodimer repressed a subset of IFN-inducible genes through a previously uncharacterized subclass of guanine-rich IRE (G-IRE) sequences. Mathematical modeling predicted that the p50 homodimer might enforce the stimulus specificity of composite promoters. Indeed, the production of the antiviral regulator IFN-β was rendered stimulus-specific by the binding of the p50 homodimer to the G-IRE–containing IFNβ enhancer to suppress cytotoxic IFN signaling. Specifically, a deficiency in p50 resulted in the inappropriate production of IFN-β in response to bacterial DNA sensed by Toll-like receptor 9. This role for the NF-κB p50 homodimer in enforcing the specificity of the cellular response to pathogens by binding to a subset of IRE sequences alters our understanding of how the NF-κB and IRF signaling systems cooperate to regulate antimicrobial immunity. PMID:21343618

  5. Improving coordinated responses for victims of intimate partner violence: law enforcement compliance with state-mandated intimate partner violence documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-07-01

    New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Response of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to longtime enforced dormancy and time of spring vegetation recommencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Хахула

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying the soft winter wheat response to the duration of enforced winter dormancy and the time of vegetation recommencing, their impact on growth, development and the survival of the crops. It is found that the impact of those factors in the conditions of central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is essential, which is to be taken into consideration when scheduling the measures of spring and summer care over the cultivated crops, in particular, where the spring extra nutrition takes place, pesticides and growth regulators are applied, the spaced planting resowing or partial resowing issues are to be settled down. The ecological effect of spring vegetation recommencing dates does not expose annually, therefore it is not always possible to predict the plant development type, but it is possible, nevertheless, to influence the processes of growth, development and survival of plants throughout spring-summer period and the development of their production capacity by means of introducing the intense technologies, optimization of mineral nutrition and the use of plant growth regulators, protection from rogues, diseases, pests.

  7. Generic Primary Mechanical Response of Viscous Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwirth, S. Peter; Böhmer, Roland; Gainaru, Catalin

    2017-12-01

    Four decades ago a seminal review by Jonscher [Nature (London) 267, 673 (1977), 10.1038/267673a0] revealed that the dielectric response of conducting materials is characterized by a "remarkable universality". Demonstrating that the same response pattern is exhibited also by shear rheological spectra of nonpolymeric viscous liquids, the present contribution connects two branches of condensed matter physics: Concepts developed for charge transport can be employed for the description of mass flow and vice versa. Based on the virtual equivalence of the two dynamics a connection is established between microscopic and macroscopic viscoelastic characteristics of liquids, resembling the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation for conductivity.

  8. Oversight and enforcement at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, I.E., Christopher, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses recent changes to the independent oversight and enforcement programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and applications to criticality safety. DOE's Office of Oversight (Oversight hereafter), in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH), independently evaluates whether management systems ensure adequate protection of the worker, public, and environment. Oversight has adopted a new approach to performing evaluations based on the guiding principles for safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy. The principles Oversight evaluates are line management responsibility for safety and health, comprehensive requirements, and competence commensurate with responsibilities. Recently, the DOE codified the implementation of integrated safety management, further expounding on these basic guiding principles and Oversight's role. The Office of Enforcement and Investigations in EH (Enforcement hereafter) is responsible for enforcement, and relevant documents describe its role. This paper briefly discusses criticality safety aspects of the twin initiatives of Oversight and Enforcement

  9. Why Border Enforcement Backfired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A

    2016-03-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states.

  10. Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Taniguchi, Travis; Aagaard, Brian; Ortiz, Alexa M; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Ridenour, Ty A

    2017-03-17

    Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts. The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency. We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017. We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training. ©Robert D Furberg, Travis Taniguchi, Brian Aagaard, Alexa M Ortiz, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Kristin H Gilchrist, Ty A Ridenour. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 17.03.2017.

  11. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  12. Responses of primary producers to mouth closure in the temporarily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low river inflow conditions during 2009/2010 resulted in the mouth of the Great Brak Estuary remaining closed for almost two years. The low water level in Wolwedans Dam resulted in no annual environmental flow releases being made, causing mouth closure. The response of primary producers to this prolonged period of ...

  13. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  14. Evaluation of a responsible beverage service and enforcement program: Effects on bar patron intoxication and potential impaired driving by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Fisher, Deborah A; Yao, Jie; McKnight, A Scott

    2017-08-18

    Studies of alcohol-related harm (violence, injury, illness) suggest that the most significant risk factors are the amount of alcohol consumed and whether obviously intoxicated patrons continue to be served. This study's objective was to investigate the effects of a responsible beverage service (RBS)/enhanced alcohol enforcement intervention on bars, bar patrons, and impaired driving. Two communities-Monroe County, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio-participated in a demonstration program and evaluation. The intervention applied RBS training, targeted enforcement, and corrective actions by law enforcement to a random sample of 10 identified problem bars in each community compared to 10 matched nonintervention problem bars. Data were collected over 3 waves on bar serving practices, bar patron intoxication, drinking and driving, and other alcohol-related harm from intervention and control bars and treatment and comparison communities. In Monroe County, New York, of the 14 outcome measures analyzed, 7 measures showed statistically significant differences from pre- to postintervention. Six of those measures indicated changes in the desired or positive direction and 2 measures were in the undesired or negative direction. Of note in the positive direction, the percentage of intervention bar patrons who were intoxicated decreased from 44 to 27% and the average blood alcohol concentration of patrons decreased from 0.097 to 0.059 g/dL pre- to postintervention. In Cleveland, Ohio, 6 of the 14 measures showed statistically significant changes pre- to postintervention with 6 in the positive direction and 4 in the negative direction. Of note, the percentage of pseudo-intoxicated patrons denied service in intervention bars increased from 6 to 29%. Of the 14 outcome measures that were analyzed in each community, most indicated positive changes associated with the intervention, but others showed negative associations. About half of the measures showed no significance, the sample sizes

  15. Posts to online news message boards and public discourse surrounding DUI enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M; Wesolowski, Kathryn

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzes posts to online news message boards covering driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement efforts to determine their usefulness for informing traffic safety program planning and public relations efforts aimed at mainstream drinking drivers. A series of Google searches were conducted using keywords designed to capture news stories regarding impaired driving enforcement efforts. For each search, the first 100 Web pages returned were reviewed and articles were included in analysis if they were from an independent news source and contained user comments. Coders captured data on 28 fields for each post, including tone in relation to enforcement, tone of interpersonal communication with other posters, and expressed feelings regarding drinking and driving. Fifty-six news articles covering DUI enforcement efforts met study criteria, with 615 posts. The majority of posts (57%) were neutral on DUI enforcement; 24 percent (148) took a negative tone and 19 percent (115) positive. Posts that discussed checkpoints were 2.6 times more likely to take a negative tone toward enforcement than those that did not. Twenty-one percent of anti-enforcement posts challenged the idea that driving after drinking was necessarily dangerous. Of the 321 posts involving direct communication between posters, 67 percent involved disagreement with another post. Profanity or belittling comments appeared in 10 percent of posts. Public responses to DUI enforcement news articles provide insight into the beliefs and thought processes of those who oppose enforcement efforts or view drinking and driving as no big deal. Primary objections to enforcement focused on civil and personal rights issues, skepticism regarding law enforcement's motives and objectivity, and the belief that drinking driving is not a "real" crime. Online news message boards could be useful in informing campaigns and helping program planners frame media events and press releases to best appeal to the most at

  16. Abnormal language-related oscillatory responses in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kielar

    Full Text Available Patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA may react to linguistic stimuli differently than healthy controls, reflecting degeneration of language networks and engagement of compensatory mechanisms. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to evaluate oscillatory neural responses in sentence comprehension, in patients with PPA and age-matched controls. Participants viewed sentences containing semantically and syntactically anomalous words that evoke distinct oscillatory responses. For age-matched controls, semantic anomalies elicited left-lateralized 8–30 Hz power decreases distributed along ventral brain regions, whereas syntactic anomalies elicited bilateral power decreases in both ventral and dorsal regions. In comparison to controls, patients with PPA showed altered patterns of induced oscillations, characterized by delayed latencies and attenuated amplitude, which were correlated with linguistic impairment measured offline. The recruitment of right hemisphere temporo-parietal areas (also found in controls was correlated with preserved semantic processing abilities, indicating that preserved neural activity in these regions was able to support successful semantic processing. In contrast, syntactic processing was more consistently impaired in PPA, regardless of neural activity patterns, suggesting that this domain of language is particularly vulnerable to the neuronal loss. In addition, we found that delayed peak latencies of oscillatory responses were associated with lower accuracy for detecting semantic anomalies, suggesting that language deficits observed in PPA may be linked to delayed or slowed information processing. Keywords: MEG oscillations, Primary progressive aphasia (PPA, Sentence comprehension

  17. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  18. Frequency response of rectangular plates with free-edge openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced displacement at boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seung Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.

  19. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  1. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...... in the amount of enforcement. The predictions of the game-theoretic model were supported, although the results were not statistically significant in the model of how the police adapt enforcement to changes in the rate of violations....

  2. 28 CFR 1100.29 - The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The roles and responsibilities of federal... OF STATE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Victims of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons § 1100.29 The roles... in persons, and are familiar with the rights, services, and protections such victims are to be...

  3. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  4. Filling the Gap Between NIMS/ICS and the Law Enforcement Initial Response in the Age of the Urban Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    the “crisis typology ” and thus the effectiveness of a given crisis response (p. 250). The intensity of a crisis is increased when multiple problems...alley and opened fire on several police officers who had rushed to the scene; police unit “ Tourist 1 Mobile” reported by radio that “police driver...2009, p. 6; Pradhan & Balachandran, 2009, p. 36). Within seconds, 10 people were killed and 20 injured. Officers in nearby police unit, “ Tourist 1

  5. Enforcement and judicial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Amendments to the enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act generally give the Administrator and the courts broader powers to enforce the substantive provisions of the Act. The changes include wider applicability of civil sanctions, increased criminal penalties, broader emergency powers, broader inspection powers, and increased citizen involvement in enforcement and administrative decisionmaking. Another significant change is the addition of an administrative penalty scheme that would allow EPA to use streamlined procedures to assess administrative penalties of up to $200,000 (or more, in some cases). Furthermore, the Amendments extend the prohibition against entering into government contracts with violators to other facilities owned or operated by the convicted person. This chapter summarizes the statutory enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act. It covers the new civil and criminal enforcement provisions, the new administrative penalty scheme, and the new provisions allowing broader public involvement in enforcement proceedings

  6. Environmental Enforcement Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Current statewide map of the geographic territories of Environmental Enforcement Officers. Part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's...

  7. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  8. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  9. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Addresses § 10.22 Law enforcement offices. Service law enforcement offices and their areas of responsibility follow. Mail should be addressed: “Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law...

  10. Response of the primary piping loop to an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.; Moneim, M.T.A.; Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a method for analyzing the response of the primary piping loop that consists of straight pipes, elbows, and other components connected in series and subject to hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) loads at both ends of the loop. The complete hydrodynamic equations in two-dimensions, that include both the nonlinear convective and viscous dissipation terms are used for the fluid dynamics together with the implicit ICE technique. The external walls of the pipes and components are treated as thin shells in which the analysis accounts for the membrane and bending strength of the wall, elastic-plastic material behavior, as well as large deformation under the effect of transient loading conditions. In the straight pipes, the flow is assumed to be axisymmetric; in the elbow regions, the two dimensions considered are the r and theta directions. The flow in the other components is also assumed to be axisymmetric; the components are modeled as a circular cylinder, in which the radius of the cylinder can be varied to conform with the outside shape of the component and the flow area inside can be changed independently from the outside shape. However, they must remain axially symmetric. The method is applied to a piping loop which consists of six elastic-plastic pipes and five rigid elbows connected in series and subjected to pressure pulses at both ends of the loop

  11. Acute hemodynamic response to vasodilators in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemodynamic effects of high flow oxygen (O2 inhalation, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, intravenous aminophylline (AMN and sublingual nifedipine (NIF were studied in 32 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH. In 30 out of 32 patients the basal ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (Rp/Rs was > 0.5 (mean = 0.77 +/- 0.20. Oxygen caused significant decrease in the mean resistance ratio to 0.68 +/- 0.20 (p = 0.005. ISDN, AMN and NIF caused increase in the resistance ratio to 0.79 +/- 0.26; 0.78 +/- 0.26; and 0.80 +/- 0.23 respectively. O2, ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a fall of Rp/Rs in 21 (65.6%, 10 (31.2%, 10(31.2% and 9(28.1% patients respectively. Thus, of the four drugs tested high flow O2 inhalation resulted in fall of Rp/Rs in two thirds of patients whereas ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a mean rise in Rp/Rs. One third of patients did respond acutely to the latter three drugs. Acute hemodynamic studies are useful before prescribing vasodilators in patients with PPH since more of the commonly used drugs like ISDN, AMN, NIF could have detrimental hemodynamic responses in some patients. However, great caution should be exercised before performing hemodynamic study as the procedure has definite mortality and morbidity.

  12. Financial Reporting Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carsten

    the auditors’ auditing efforts, which are made in conjunction with the impact of the enforcement of auditors and limitations on the auditors’ liability. However, research indicates that strict enforcement is a prerequisite for ensuring compliance with accounting regulations (Hail and Leuz 2006, Daske et al...

  13. Effective enforcement of the forest practices code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The British Columbia Forest Practices Code establishes a scheme to guide and direct forest harvesting and other forest uses in concert with other related acts. The Code is made up of the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act, regulations, standards, and guidebooks. This document provides information on Code enforcement. It reviews the roles of the three provincial resource ministries and the Attorney General in enforcing the code, the various activities undertaken to ensure compliance (including inspections, investigations, and responses to noncompliance), and the role of the public in helping to enforce the Code. The appendix contains a list of Ministry of Forests office locations and telephone numbers.

  14. Constitutionality of enforcement of claims by private enforcement agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodiroga Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is legal status of private enforcement agents in Serbia. The 2011 Serbian Law on Enforcement and Security has introduced private enforcement agents as legal professionals in charge mainly for carrying out of the enforcement. Special enforcement procedure for collection of utilities and similar claims has become exclusive competence of private enforcement agents. Since enforcement procedure has always been regarded as a set of coercive measures against enforcement debtor, it became questionable whether this coercion could be exercised by private enforcement agents. It has been argued by legal scholars that enforcement of civil judgments and other enforcement deeds belongs only to the state authority. The author tackles this issue from the standpoint of decisions of constitutional courts and jurisprudence of European Court of Human Rights.

  15. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  16. Immune response and anamnestic immune response in children after a 3-dose primary hepatitis b vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.F.; Sultan, M.A.; Saleemi, A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response and anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3-dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, docu mented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum anti-HBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with anti-HBs titers =10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti-HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Results: Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58 percent. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82-65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant (p-value 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vaccine was administered to all non-responders, with each registering a statistically significant (p-value 0.00) anamnestic response. Conclusion: The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide

  17. Microglial recruitment, activation, and proliferation in response to primary demyelination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remington, Leah T; Babcock, Alicia A; Zehntner, Simone P

    2007-01-01

    We have characterized the cellular response to demyelination/remyelination in the central nervous system using the toxin cuprizone, which causes reproducible demyelination in the corpus callosum. Microglia were distinguished from macrophages by relative CD45 expression (CD45(dim)) using flow cyto...

  18. Response: Freedom from Pain as a Rawlsian Primary Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Roberts, Adam

    2016-11-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Carl Knight and Andreas Albertsen argue that Rawlsian theories of distributive justice as applied to health and healthcare fail to accommodate both palliative care and the desirability of less painful treatments. The asserted Rawlsian focus on opportunities or capacities, as exemplified in Normal Daniels' developments of John Rawls' theory, results in a normative account of healthcare which is at best only indirectly sensitive to pain and so unable to account for the value of efforts of which the sole purpose is pain reduction. I argue that, far from undermining the Rawlsian project and its application to problems of health, what the authors' argument at most amounts to is a compelling case for the inclusion of freedom from physical pain within its index of primary goods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  20. Favourable response to rituximab by an ocular adnexal primary lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque Valentin-Fernandez, M L; Alvarez Rodríguez, F; Rodríguez Jiménez, I

    2016-11-01

    A 70-year-old woman who presented with an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in lacrimal gland and conjunctiva. Initial treatment with rituximab yielded an immediate good response. Five months later she showed lymphoid proliferation in her contralateral conjunctiva. Although no additional treatment was performed, the patient has been free of systemic symptoms and recurrences. Rituximab is a quite good therapeutic agent in low grade adnexal lymphomas. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary intestinal and thoracic lymphangiectasia: a response to antiplasmin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Joanna E; Cohen, Eyal; Weinstein, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Lymphangiectasia is a congenital or acquired disorder characterized by abnormal, dilated lymphatics with a variable age of presentation. We describe a case of lymphangiectasia with intestinal and pulmonary involvement in an adolescent female, who presented with many of the classic features including chylous pleural effusions, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and a protein-losing enteropathy. She also presented with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding, which is infrequently described. The patient did not improve with bowel rest and a low-fat medium-chain triglyceride diet and had little improvement with octreotide acetate therapy. However, she had a clinical response to antiplasmin therapy, trans-4-aminothylcyclohexamine carboxylic acid (tranexamic acid) in terms of serum albumin and gastrointestinal bleeding. She continues to have exacerbations of her condition, as well as persistent lymphopenia and chronic pleural effusions.

  2. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  3. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  4. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  5. Association between gene expression profile of the primary tumor and chemotherapy response of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savci-Heijink, Cemile Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To better predict the likelihood of response to chemotherapy, we have conducted a study comparing the gene expression patterns of primary tumours with their corresponding response to systemic chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Methods: mRNA expression profiles of breast carcinomas

  6. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  7. Responsibility for Financial Management in Primary Schools: Evidence from an English Local Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Drake, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Financial management in primary schools has changed in the UK with the introduction of the Schools Financial Value Standard (SFVS). There is increasing delegation of financial responsibility to the management team in the school, increasing the role of the head teacher and the governing body as part of overall responsibility for the strategic…

  8. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  9. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department's enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion

  10. Relationship between Ga-67 uptake and radiotherapeutic response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Kotaro; Takase, Shuko; Ohguchi, Manabu; Seki, Hiroyasu; Okimura, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Toshio; Yamamoto, Itaru; Rikimaru, Shigeho.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between Ga-67 uptake and radiotherapeutic response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), Ga-67 uptake of tumor was estimated on 16 patients with untreated primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma). Ga-67 uptake was then compared with the response to radiation therapy (tumor reduction ratio). There was statistically significant inverse correlation between Ga-67 uptake and response to radiation therapy (r=-0.701, p<0.01). The fewer the Ga-67 accumulation in the tumor, the more effective radiotherapy in reducing tumor size. In conclusion, Ga-67 scintigraphy appears to be able to predict the response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) to radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Developing a response to family violence in primary health care: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye

    2016-08-20

    Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective

  12. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Primary cilia modulate Ihh signal transduction in response to hydrostatic loading of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Welter, Jean F; Ballock, R Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary Cilia Modulate IHH Signal Transduction in Response to Hydrostatic Loading of Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Lai; Welter, J, Jean F.; Ballock, R. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. PMID:21930256

  15. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis.

  18. Pesticides and Asbestos Programs and Enforcement Branch Case Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracks the entire life cycle of a regulated site from initial inspection through site response to enforcement actions. Separate site action history is maintained for each statute under which the site is regulated.

  19. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  20. Stable and Enforceable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the great financial crash, the need for new fiscal rules to prevent unsustainable fiscal policies is universally recognised. In practice such rules, including those in the Stability and Growth Pact, have proved to be impossible to enforce. Thus, to avoid unsustainable fiscal policies...... reappearing, and to prevent monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined governments, there is a need for a framework capable of imposing fiscal discipline. This paper considers an intertemporal assignment, where fiscal policy focuses on long-term objectives and monetary policy on short...... which the debt targeting regime should operate. Making these factors explicit would both improve the credibility of planned fiscal policies and reduce risk premia on borrowing costs. We finally show how Europe’s competitiveness pact, and debt restructuring operations, can be used to maximise...

  1. The influence of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, J.; Jokoniuk, P.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in mice irradiated with 300 or 500 R was studied. The immunologic response of the mice to sheep red blood cells used as antigen was assessed at the cellular level (by counting PFC) and humoral level. Injection of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells before irradiation of the mice diminished the immunosuppressive effect of roentgen radiation. Injection of the cells after irradiation accelerated regeneration of immunologic reactivity in the irradiated mice. (author)

  2. How the concept of biochemical response influenced the management of primary biliary cholangitis over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, W. J.; Leeman, M.; Ponsioen, C. I. J.; Boonstra, K.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Wolfhagen, F. H. J.; Kuyvenhoven, J. Ph; Vrolijk, J. M.; Drenth, J. P. H.; Witteman, E. M.; van Nieuwkerk, C. M. J.; van der Spek, B. W.; Witteman, B. J. M.; Erkelens, G. W.; Verhagen, M. A. M. T.; van Tuyl, S. A. C.; Poen, A. C.; Brouwer, J. T.; ter Borg, F.; Koek, G. H.; van Ditzhuijsen, T. J. M.; Hansen, B. E.; van Buuren, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Criteria assessing biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are established risk stratification tools in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We aimed to evaluate to what extent liver tests influenced patient management during a three decade period, and whether this changed over time. 851

  3. Investigating Nigerian Primary School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response System in ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in…

  4. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  5. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  6. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of the primary care team in the rapid response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sevilla Berrios, Ronaldo A; Elmer, Jennifer L; Velagapudi, Venu; Caples, Sean M; Kashyap, Rahul; Jensen, Jeffrey B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of primary service involvement on rapid response team (RRT) evaluations. The study is a combination of retrospective chart review and prospective survey-based evaluation. Data included when and where the activations occurred and the patient's code status, primary service, and ultimate disposition. These data were correlated with survey data from each event. A prospective survey evaluated the primary team's involvement in decision making and the overall subjective quality of the interaction with primary service through a visual analog scale. We analyzed 4408 RRTs retrospectively and an additional 135 prospectively. The primary team's involvement by telephone or in person was associated with significantly more transfers to higher care levels in retrospective (P team involvement, with more frequent changes seen in the retrospective analysis (P = .01). Subjective ratings of communication by the RRT leader were significantly higher when the primary service was involved (P team involvement influences RRT activation processes of care. The RRT role should be an adjunct to, but not a substitute for, an engaged and present primary care team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition......Quotas or permits are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about the basic e ectiveness of quotas due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with signi...

  9. Canada’s response to refugees at the primary health care level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsive primary health care systems and services must be at once complex and nimble. Policy makers may wish to believe that existing health systems effectively care for all populations equally, including refugees. However, we know that refugees may require a health equity approach: an approach where all levels of government, all types of health practitioners, and even the public sector, participate to ensure access to effective primary health care. This article outlines some of Canada’s healthcare responses for refugee populations. We provide field examples and guidelines that demonstrate responses, as well as ongoing inconsistencies and limitations. Refugee-receiving countries such as Australia, the US and Canada all have stories of success in resettlement and health systems. This article will focus on Canada.

  10. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  11. Investigation of the conservatism associated with different combinations between primary and secondary piping responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    This report includes the findings of an investigation of the conservatism associated with different combinations between the primary and secondary stress components for piping systems under dynamic loading, such as in an earthquake event. The primary stresses are induced by piping response to its mass inertia effects. The secondary stresses are induced by relative displacements of piping supports. The study involves an independnent time history analysis of several typical piping models to predict a best estimate of the actual dynamic and pseudo-static pipe responses to an earthquake. These piping systems are also analyzed using the response spectrum method to obtain the maximum primary stress components. Secondary stresses are next calculated by performing a set of static analyses which provide the worst stress condition. The two components are then combined by both SRSS and absolute sum methods as the results are compared with time history solutions. It is found that the SRSS combination of the primary and secondary stress components yield acceptable results provided the secondary stress component is calculated in the most unfavorable phasing relationship among displacements of piping supports

  12. Obesity in primary care: a qualitative synthesis of patient and practitioner perspectives on roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a top-priority global health issue; however, a clear way to address obesity in primary care is not yet in view. To conduct a meta-ethnography of patient and primary care practitioner perspectives of roles and responsibilities in how to address obesity in the UK, to inform evidence-based services that are acceptable to, and appropriate for, patients and practitioners. Qualitative synthesis applying meta-ethnographic methods according to the Noblit and Hare monograph. Database searches in MEDLINE(®), Social Sciences Citation Index(®), CINAHL, and Health Management Information Consortium were limited to 1997-2012 to examine recent perspectives. Full articles of practitioner and/or patient perspectives on obesity services in primary care were reviewed, and included semi-structured or unstructured interviews and focus groups, and participant observations. Nine studies were synthesised with perspectives from patients (n = 105) and practitioners (n = 144). Practitioners believe that patients are responsible for obesity, and that primary care should not help, or is poorly equipped to do so. Patients 'take responsibility' by 'blaming' themselves, but feel that practitioners should demonstrate more leadership. The empowerment of patients to access health services is reliant on the empowerment of practitioners to take an unambiguous position. Primary care has the potential either to perpetuate or counter obesity-related stigma. There needs to be a firm decision as to what role primary care will take in the prevention and treatment of obesity. To remain ambiguous runs the risk of losing patients' confidence and adding to a growing sense of futility. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  13. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  14. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  15. Analysis of primary containment response using an arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungyi, Wang

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes an advanced arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method and its associated computer program, ALICE-II, for calculating the response of liquid metal reactor containment to core energetics. It is a versatile numerical algorithm with more flexibility and efficiency than other methods used to treat reactor containment with complex internals such as internal thin shells, upper internal structures, perforated plates, core-support diagrid, shield baffles, and deflector plates. The algorithm uses a two-dimensional, hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-difference technique to calculate the hydrodynamics and fluid-structure interactions, together with a purely Eulerian finite-difference approach to analyze the free-surface and material interface motions. It has significant advantages in treating complex phenomena such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, multi-dimensional sliding interfaces, flow around corners, highly contorted fluid boundaries, outflow boundary conditions, and coolant spillage. Numerical calculations for the hydrodynamic solutions are separated into three phases. The first phase consists of an explicit Lagrangian calculation. The second phase, which is options, contains an implicit iteration. The third phase, which is also optional, rezones the mesh vertices to prescribed positions. The structural response is computed by a library of elastic-plastic elements formulated in corotational coordinates in conjunction with an explicit time-integration scheme. Interaction between fluid and structure is accounted for by rigorously enforcing the interface boundary conditions. Many sample problems are given to illustrate the code effectiveness. Results demonstrate that these complex fluid-structure interaction problems can be analyzed with the ALICE-II code in a relatively natural and straightforward manner.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Efficacy of obeticholic acid in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfield, Gideon M; Mason, Andrew; Luketic, Velimir; Lindor, Keith; Gordon, Stuart C; Mayo, Marlyn; Kowdley, Kris V; Vincent, Catherine; Bodhenheimer, Henry C; Parés, Albert; Trauner, Michael; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Adorini, Luciano; Sciacca, Cathi; Beecher-Jones, Tessa; Castelloe, Erin; Böhm, Olaf; Shapiro, David

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of obeticholic acid (OCA, α-ethylchenodeoxycholic acid) in a randomized controlled trial of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis who had an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. We performed a double-blind study of 165 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (95% women) and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 1.5- to 10-fold the upper limit of normal. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg doses of OCA or placebo, once daily for 3 months. Patients maintained their existing dose of ursodeoxycholic acid throughout the study. The primary outcome was change in level of ALP from baseline (day 0) until the end of the study (day 85 or early termination). We also performed an open-label extension of the trial in which 78 patients were enrolled and 61 completed the first year. OCA was superior to placebo in achieving the primary end point. Subjects given OCA had statistically significant relative reductions in mean ALP from baseline to the end of the study (P ursodeoxycholic acid. The incidence and severity of pruritus were lowest among patients who received 10 mg/d OCA. Biochemical responses to OCA were maintained in a 12-month open-label extension trial. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00550862. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a risk factor for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Gary; Rozmovits, Linda; Giambrone, Broden

    2011-06-29

    Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps to address the health risks posed by poverty. The consistent

  20. Antitrust Enforcement and Marginal Deterrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: We study antitrust enforcement in which the fine must obey four legal principles: punishments should fit the crime, proportionality, bankruptcy considerations, and minimum fines. We integrate these legal principles into an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model. Bankruptcy considerations

  1. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  2. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare.......Quotas are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about their basic effectiveness due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with significant non...

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Using realist evaluation to assess primary healthcare teams' responses to intimate partner violence in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel; Marchal, Bruno; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Few evaluations have assessed the factors triggering an adequate health care response to intimate partner violence. This article aimed to: 1) describe a realist evaluation carried out in Spain to ascertain why, how and under what circumstances primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence, and 2) discuss the strengths and challenges of its application. We carried out a series of case studies in four steps. First, we developed an initial programme theory (PT1), based on interviews with managers. Second, we refined PT1 into PT2 by testing it in a primary healthcare team that was actively responding to violence. Third, we tested the refined PT2 by incorporating three other cases located in the same region. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and thick descriptions were produced and analysed using a retroduction approach. Fourth, we analysed a total of 15 cases, and identified combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that triggered an adequate response to violence by using qualitative comparative analysis. There were several key mechanisms -the teams' self-efficacy, perceived preparation, women-centred care-, and contextual factors -an enabling team environment and managerial style, the presence of motivated professionals, the use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care- that should be considered to develop adequate primary health-care responses to violence. The full application of this realist evaluation was demanding, but also well suited to explore a complex intervention reflecting the situation in natural settings. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. A microculture method for the generation of primary immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, B L

    1975-11-01

    A microculture method for the generation and study of the primary immune response of murine spleen cells to defined antigens in vitro is described. Many of the variable parameters which occur in culture systems have been studied in an attempt to define the optimal culture conditions for this system. Cultures of 10(6) CBA spleen cells consistently produced an immune response of 300-600 hapten-specific plaque-forming cells after 3 days of incubation with the T cell-independent antigens DNP-POL and NIP-POL. Cultures were set up in Microtest II tissue culture plates in a volume of 0.2 ml of medium containing 10(-4) M 2-mercaptoethanol. The system described has the advantages of being highly efficient and reproducible and utilises small amounts of cells, medium and antigen. It provides a simple, economic and reliable approach for the systematic study of the immune response in vitro.

  8. Electromagnet Response Time Tests on Primary CRDM of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the electromagnetic response characteristics of the electromagnet of a primary control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) used for the reactor scram function. The test measures the electromagnet response time required to release an armature from a stator controlled by a loss of an electromagnetic force on an armature after shorting a power supply to an electromagnet coil. These tests are carried out while changing the electromagnet core material, an assist spring, and an armature holding current. The main factors influencing the test parameters on the response are found to be the armature holding current for holding the armature loads, and the material type of the electromagnet cores. The minimum response time is 0.13 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the S10C material as an armature has a response time of 0.21 seconds. Electromagnet response time characteristics from the test results will be evaluated by comparing the precise moving data of an electromagnet armature through the use of a high-speed camera and a potentiometer in the future

  9. Pupil size directly modulates the feedforward response in human primary visual cortex independently of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombeke, Klaas; Duthoo, Wout; Mueller, Sven C; Hopf, Jens-Max; Boehler, C Nico

    2016-02-15

    Controversy revolves around the question of whether psychological factors like attention and emotion can influence the initial feedforward response in primary visual cortex (V1). Although traditionally, the electrophysiological correlate of this response in humans (the C1 component) has been found to be unaltered by psychological influences, a number of recent studies have described attentional and emotional modulations. Yet, research into psychological effects on the feedforward V1 response has neglected possible direct contributions of concomitant pupil-size modulations, which are known to also occur under various conditions of attentional load and emotional state. Here we tested the hypothesis that such pupil-size differences themselves directly affect the feedforward V1 response. We report data from two complementary experiments, in which we used procedures that modulate pupil size without differences in attentional load or emotion while simultaneously recording pupil-size and EEG data. Our results confirm that pupil size indeed directly influences the feedforward V1 response, showing an inverse relationship between pupil size and early V1 activity. While it is unclear in how far this effect represents a functionally-relevant adaptation, it identifies pupil-size differences as an important modulating factor of the feedforward response of V1 and could hence represent a confounding variable in research investigating the neural influence of psychological factors on early visual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR 42.6 - Enforcement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Enforcement strategy. 42.6 Section 42.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.6 Enforcement strategy. (a) Each Regional Farm Labor... enforcement strategy for each protective statute pursuant to § 42.20(c)(3). The National Committee shall...

  11. The response to Typhi Vi vaccination is compromised in individuals with primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarage, Jeevani; Seneviratne, Suranjith L; Senaratne, Vijitha; Fernando, Amitha; Gunasekera, Kirthi; Gunasena, Bandu; Gurugama, Padmalal; Peiris, Sudath; Parker, Antony R; Harding, Stephen; de Silva, Nilhan Rajiva

    2017-06-01

    Measurement of an individuals ability to respond to polysaccharide antigens is a crucial test to determine adaptive immunity. Currently the response to Pneumovax ® is utilized but with the success of Prevnar ® , measurement of the response to Pneumovax may be challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the response to Typhi Vi vaccination in both children and adult control groups and patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). In the control groups, >95% of the individuals had pre Typhi Vi vaccination concentrations 94% achieving ≥3 fold increase in concentration (FI). The response to Typhi Vi vaccination was significantly lower in both children ( p = 0.006) and adult ( p = 0.002) PID groups when compared to their control groups. 11% and 55% of the children and adult PID groups respectively did not obtain a response >3FI. There were no significant differences between the responses obtained in the children and adult PID groups. When all individuals with PID were separated into those with either hypogammaglobulinemia (HYPO) or common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), both groups had a significantly lower median FI than the control group (19, 95%CI 5-56 vs 59, 95%CI 7-237; p = 0.01 and 1, 95%CI 1-56 vs 32, 95%CI 5-136; p = 0.005). Further, a >3FI differentiated the antibody responses between both the CVID and HYPO groups and their control groups (AUC: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.65-1.00, p = 0.005 and 0.81, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97, p = 0.01). The data suggests that measurement of the response to Typhi Vi vaccination could represent a complementary assay for the assessment of the response to a polysaccharide vaccine.

  12. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  13. Response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow followed by a PPS-activated scram are presented. The experimental results clearly indicate a smooth transition to natural convective flow with a quite modest incore temperature transient. The accompanying calculations using the NATDEMO code agree quite well with the measured temperatures and flow rates throughout the primary system. The only region of the plant where a significant discrepancy between the measurements and calculations occurred was in the IHX. The reasons for this result could not be definitively determined, but it is speculated that the one-dimensional assumptions used in the modeling may not be valid in the IHX during buoyancy driver flows

  14. Local immune response to primary infection and re-infection by Clonorchis sinensis in FVB mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Min; Yu, Hak Sun; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-08-01

    Although Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct, few studies have investigated the local immune response in the liver and bile duct. To investigate the local immune response to C. sinensis, we investigated the activation and recruitment of various immune cells and cytokine levels in the liver and bile duct lymph nodes (BLN) in FVB mice after primary infection and re-infection. Male 4-week-old FVB mice were divided into 6 experimental groups: uninfected controls, primary infection lasting 1week (PI 1w), primary infection lasting 4weeks (PI 4w), praziquantel treatment after PI 4w (Tx), re-infection lasting 1week after Tx (RI 1w), and re-infection lasting 4weeks after Tx (RI 4w). Recovery rates were 80.0% and 73.0% in PI 1w and PI 4w mice, respectively, but significantly decreased during re-infection to 26.6% in RI 1w and 13.3% in RI 4w. This result suggested that the mice were resistant to re-infection. In the liver, Kupffer cells were augmented 70-fold in PI 1w mice (Psinensis-specific IgG1 and IgG2a strongly increased in RI 1w mice. Secretion of C. sinensis-specific IgE reached a plateau at 4weeks after primary infection, and remained elevated in all infected groups. In conclusion, during infection with C. sinensis, Kupffer cells likely act as antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the Th2 cytokine production system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Advancing general practice nursing in Australia: roles and responsibilities of primary healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Riki; Halcomb, Elizabeth; McKenna, Lisa; Zwar, Nicholas; Naccarella, Lucio; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Russell, Grant

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Given increased numbers and enhanced responsibilities of Australian general practice nurses, we aimed to delineate appropriate roles for primary health care organisations (PHCOs) to support this workforce. Methods A two-round online Delphi consensus process was undertaken between January and June 2012, informed by literature review and key informant interviews. Participants were purposively selected and included decision makers from government and professional organisations, educators, researchers and clinicians from five Australian states and territories Results Of 56 invited respondents, 35 (62%) and 31 (55%) responded to the first and second invitation respectively. Participants reached consensus on five key roles for PHCOs in optimising nursing in general practice: (1) matching workforce size and skills to population needs; (2) facilitating leadership opportunities; (3) providing education and educational access; (4) facilitating integration of general practice with other primary care services to support interdisciplinary care; and (5) promoting advanced nursing roles. National concerns, such as limited opportunities for postgraduate education and career progression, were deemed best addressed by national nursing organisations, universities and peak bodies. Conclusions Advancement of nursing in general practice requires system-level support from a range of organisations. PHCOs play a significant role in education and leadership development for nurses and linking national nursing organisations with general practices. What is known about the topic? The role of nurses in Australian general practice has grown in the last decade, yet they face limited career pathways and opportunities for career advancement. Some nations have forged interprofessional primary care teams that use nurses' skills to the full extent of their scope of practice. PHCOs have played important roles in the development of general practice nursing in Australia and internationally

  16. Primary hemochromatosis: anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the cardiac ventricles and their response to phlebotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabestani, A.; Child, J.S.; Henze, E.; Perloff, J.K.; Schon, H.; Figueroa, W.G.; Schelbert, H.R.; Thessomboon, S.

    1984-01-01

    M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography and gated equilibrium blood pool imaging (rest and exercise) were used in 10 patients with primary hemochromatosis to characterize the spectrum of pathophysiologic abnormalities of the cardiac ventricles and to determine the response to chronic therapeutic phlebotomy. Dilated and restrictive cardiomyopathic patterns were identified in 1 patient each, but our data do not permit conclusions on when in the natural history a given pattern becomes overt. On entry into study, 3 patients had normal ventricles and 7 had ventricular abnormalities on echocardiography and blood pool angiography. In 2 of the latter patients, biventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular (LV) mass normalized after phlebotomy; 1 patient achieved a normal LV response to exercise. Of the 4 patients with isolated abnormal LV ejection fraction responses to exercise, the EF normalized in 2 after phlebotomy. In 1 patient, isolated right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction (echocardiographic and radionuclide imaging) normalized after phlebotomy. Thus, primary hemochromatosis can effect LV and RV size and function; clinically occult cardiac involvement can be identified by echocardiography and equilibrium blood pool imaging; therapeutic phlebotomy can ameliorate or reverse the deleterious effects of excess cardiac iron deposition which appears to exert its harm, at least in part, by a mechanism other than irreversible connective tissue replacement

  17. A Simple Network Architecture Accounts for Diverse Reward Time Responses in Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G; Shouval, Harel Z

    2015-09-16

    Many actions performed by animals and humans depend on an ability to learn, estimate, and produce temporal intervals of behavioral relevance. Exemplifying such learning of cued expectancies is the observation of reward-timing activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of rodents, wherein neural responses to visual cues come to predict the time of future reward as behaviorally experienced in the past. These reward-timing responses exhibit significant heterogeneity in at least three qualitatively distinct classes: sustained increase or sustained decrease in firing rate until the time of expected reward, and a class of cells that reach a peak in firing at the expected delay. We elaborate upon our existing model by including inhibitory and excitatory units while imposing simple connectivity rules to demonstrate what role these inhibitory elements and the simple architectures play in sculpting the response dynamics of the network. We find that simply adding inhibition is not sufficient for obtaining the different distinct response classes, and that a broad distribution of inhibitory projections is necessary for obtaining peak-type responses. Furthermore, although changes in connection strength that modulate the effects of inhibition onto excitatory units have a strong impact on the firing rate profile of these peaked responses, the network exhibits robustness in its overall ability to predict the expected time of reward. Finally, we demonstrate how the magnitude of expected reward can be encoded at the expected delay in the network and how peaked responses express this reward expectancy. Heterogeneity in single-neuron responses is a common feature of neuronal systems, although sometimes, in theoretical approaches, it is treated as a nuisance and seldom considered as conveying a different aspect of a signal. In this study, we focus on the heterogeneous responses in the primary visual cortex of rodents trained with a predictable delayed reward time. We describe under what

  18. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods. A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results. Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions. Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels. PMID:26389125

  19. Modulation of Neuronal Responses by Exogenous Attention in Macaque Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Minggui; Yan, Yin; Zhaoping, Li; Li, Wu

    2015-09-30

    Visual perception is influenced by attention deployed voluntarily or triggered involuntarily by salient stimuli. Modulation of visual cortical processing by voluntary or endogenous attention has been extensively studied, but much less is known about how involuntary or exogenous attention affects responses of visual cortical neurons. Using implanted microelectrode arrays, we examined the effects of exogenous attention on neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake monkeys. A bright annular cue was flashed either around the receptive fields of recorded neurons or in the opposite visual field to capture attention. A subsequent grating stimulus probed the cue-induced effects. In a fixation task, when the cue-to-probe stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was visual fields weakened or diminished both the physiological and behavioral cueing effects. Our findings indicate that exogenous attention significantly modulates V1 responses and that the modulation strength depends on both novelty and task relevance of the stimulus. Significance statement: Visual attention can be involuntarily captured by a sudden appearance of a conspicuous object, allowing rapid reactions to unexpected events of significance. The current study discovered a correlate of this effect in monkey primary visual cortex. An abrupt, salient, flash enhanced neuronal responses, and shortened the animal's reaction time, to a subsequent visual probe stimulus at the same location. However, the enhancement of the neural responses diminished after repeated exposures to this flash if the animal was not required to react to the probe. Moreover, a second, simultaneous, flash at another location weakened the neuronal and behavioral effects of the first one. These findings revealed, beyond the observations reported so far, the effects of exogenous attention in the brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513419-11$15.00/0.

  20. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  1. Predicting response to primary chemotherapy: gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Lida; Soule, Sharon E; Badve, Sunil; Baehner, Fredrick L; Baker, Joffre; Cronin, Maureen; Watson, Drew; Liu, Mei-Lan; Sledge, George W; Shak, Steve; Miller, Kathy D

    2007-06-01

    Primary chemotherapy provides an ideal opportunity to correlate gene expression with response to treatment. We used paraffin-embedded core biopsies from a completed phase II trial to identify genes that correlate with response to primary chemotherapy. Patients with newly diagnosed stage II or III breast cancer were treated with sequential doxorubicin 75 mg/M2 q2 wks x 3 and docetaxel 40 mg/M2 weekly x 6; treatment order was randomly assigned. Pretreatment core biopsy samples were interrogated for genes that might correlate with pathologic complete response (pCR). In addition to the individual genes, the correlation of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score with pCR was examined. Of 70 patients enrolled in the parent trial, core biopsies samples with sufficient RNA for gene analyses were available from 45 patients; 9 (20%) had inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Six (14%) patients achieved a pCR. Twenty-two of the 274 candidate genes assessed correlated with pCR (p < 0.05). Genes correlating with pCR could be grouped into three large clusters: angiogenesis-related genes, proliferation related genes, and invasion-related genes. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-related genes and Recurrence Score did not correlate with pCR. In an exploratory analysis we compared gene expression in IBC to non-inflammatory breast cancer; twenty-four (9%) of the genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.05), 5 were upregulated and 19 were downregulated in IBC. Gene expression analysis on core biopsy samples is feasible and identifies candidate genes that correlate with pCR to primary chemotherapy. Gene expression in IBC differs significantly from noninflammatory breast cancer.

  2. Bridging miles to achieve milestones: Corporate social responsibility for primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ruchie

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable Developmental Goals aim to provide "Good health for all". The task though immense ,requires equitable and efficient distribution of health resources to the community, reached predominantly by the Primary Health Centres. Strengthening these centres is essential to attain the goal. Adequate health financing is one of the important determinants for utilizing the optimal potential of these centres . Pooling funds from alternate financing strategies as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds may give impetus and facilitate healthcare affordability to the underserved population. This convergence of vision of corporate funding for "basic health services" may bridge the gap arising out of inadequate funding and facilitate "Good Health for all" in India.

  3. Metabolic responses of primary and transformed cells to intracellular Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gillmaier

    Full Text Available The metabolic response of host cells, in particular of primary mammalian cells, to bacterial infections is poorly understood. Here, we compare the carbon metabolism of primary mouse macrophages and of established J774A.1 cells upon Listeria monocytogenes infection using (13C-labelled glucose or glutamine as carbon tracers. The (13C-profiles of protein-derived amino acids from labelled host cells and intracellular L. monocytogenes identified active metabolic pathways in the different cell types. In the primary cells, infection with live L. monocytogenes increased glycolytic activity and enhanced flux of pyruvate into the TCA cycle via pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, while in J774A.1 cells the already high glycolytic and glutaminolytic activities hardly changed upon infection. The carbon metabolism of intracellular L. monocytogenes was similar in both host cells. Taken together, the data suggest that efficient listerial replication in the cytosol of the host cells mainly depends on the glycolytic activity of the hosts.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Primary health care attributes and responses to intimate partner violence in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Mosquera, Paola; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Otero-García, Laura; García-Quinto, Marta; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    This study provides an overview of the perceptions of primary care professionals on how the current primary health care (PHC) attributes in Spain could influence health-related responses to intimate partner violence (IPV). A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 160 health professionals working in 16 PHC centres in Spain. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Four categories emerged from the interview analysis: those committed to the PHC approach, but with difficulties implementing it; community work relying on voluntarism; multidisciplinary team work or professionals who work together?; and continuity of care hindered by heavy work load. Participants felt that person-centred care as well as other attributes of the PHC approach facilitated detecting IPV and a better response to the problem. However, they also pointed out that the current management of the health system (workload, weak supervision and little feedback, misdistribution of human and material resources, etc.) does not facilitate the sustainability of such an approach. There is a gap between the theoretical attributes of PHC and the "reality" of how these attributes are managed in everyday work, and how this influences IPV care. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  1. Role of Wind Power in Primary Frequency Response of an Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Gevorgian, V.; Ela, E.; Singhvi, V.; Pourbeik, P.

    2013-09-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and system inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.

  2. CD11c controls herpes simplex virus 1 responses to limit virus replication during primary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Chentoufi, Aziz A; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-10-01

    CD11c is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and is one of the main markers for identification of DCs. DCs are the effectors of central innate immune responses, but they also affect acquired immune responses to infection. However, how DCs influence the efficacy of adaptive immunity is poorly understood. Here, we show that CD11c(+) DCs negatively orchestrate both adaptive and innate immunity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular infection. The effectiveness and quantity of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are increased in CD11c-deficient animals. In addition, the levels of CD83, CD11b, alpha interferon (IFN-α), and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, were significantly increased in CD11c-deficient animals. Higher levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, and CD8(+) T cells in the CD11c-deficient mice may have contributed to lower virus replication in the eye and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during the early period of infection than in wild-type mice. However, the absence of CD11c did not influence survival, severity of eye disease, or latency. Our studies provide for the first time evidence that CD11c expression may abrogate the ability to reduce primary virus replication in the eye and TG via higher activities of type 1 interferon and CD8(+) T cell responses.

  3. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfang Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  4. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfang; Wang, Qian; He, Fenfen; Ding, Yanxia; Sun, Qingyan; Hua, Tianmiao; Xi, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR) on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  5. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  6. RNA Disruption and Drug Response in Breast Cancer Primary Systemic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Kenneth; Pritzker, Laura; Generali, Daniele; Bottini, Alberto; Cappelletti, Maria Rosa; Guo, Baoqing; Parissenti, Amadeo; Trudeau, Maureen

    2015-05-01

    As there is now evidence that switching clinical nonresponders early in primary systemic therapy to alternate treatment regimens can enhance survival in some breast cancer patients, the need for a robust intermediate endpoint that can guide treatment response across all tumor subtypes is urgent. Recently, chemotherapy drugs have been shown to induce a decrease in RNA quality in tumor cells from breast cancer biopsies in some patients at midtherapy, and that this has been associated with subsequent achievement of pathological complete response (pCR). The decrease in RNA quality has been shown to be associated with RNA disruption; aberrant RNA bands visualized by RNA electrophoresis have been associated with subsequent tumor cell death. The objectives of these studies are to show that a new assay based on induction of RNA disruption in tumor cells by chemotherapy can stratify at midtherapy, pCR responders from non-pCR responders irrespective of clinical response and to present early evidence that clinically useful RNA disruption can be detected as early as 14 days after initiation of treatment. RNA disruption in tumor cells was quantified by analysis of the RNA electrophoresis banding pattern and expressed as an RNA disruption index (RDI). To develop the RNA disruption assay (RDA), RDI was correlated with clinical outcome (pCR) from the NCIC-CTG MA.22 breast cancer clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00066443). RDA Zones were established by stratifying patients using RDI values into Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 3 included seven out of eight pCR responders, whereas Zone 1 contained no pCR responders. An intermediate zone (Zone 2) was established which contained one pCR. Subsequently, to determine early drug response, RNA disruption was examined by RDI after 14 days exposure to trastuzumab, zoledronic acid, or letrozole + cyclophosphamide ± sorafenib therapy. In MA.22, RDA stratified 23 of 85 patients in Zone 1 as pCR nonresponders, 24 patients in Zone 2, an

  7. Optimal enforcement of competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent theoretical developments in the field of antitrust law enforcement, much still needs to be done in order to prevent collusion and price-fixing in the major indiustries. Although penalties were recently increased considerably and new instruments of cartel deterrence such as

  8. The law enforcement agencies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aygun, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Turkey, the law enforcement agencies are gathered into two main authorities. These are as below. 1. Under the Ministry of Interior: General Commander of Gendarmarie; General Directorate of National Police; General Commandery of Coast Guard; 2. Within the Undersecretariat of Customs there are two main service units to combat smuggling. These are: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement (GDCE) and General Directorate of Customs. The responsible areas of these administrations are legally as below: The region of Gendarmarie: It covers rural areas. In that region, Gendarmarie is responsible, inter alia, combating smuggling; The region of police: General Directorate of National Police has performed its tasks, one of which is to combat smuggling in the city areas; The region of Territorial Waters: Coast Guard is related authority in territorial water for, among other things, fighting smuggling. The region of Customs: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement fulfills in these regions as the authority and responsible law enforcement agent. The main difference between GDCE and other law enforcement agencies are: GDCE is the only Administration whose main aim is to struggle against smuggling; Generally, all units conduct their operations in their responsible region, however, if it is necessary, depending on the case, an operation can be performed jointly only in another region in cooperation with the relevant agent. In that context, as far as General Directorate of Customs Enforcement is concerned, fulfilling an operation in other regions is not a legal necessity. Any units of GDCE can seize and do operation all over Turkey by itself, without any regional limitations from legislation. Organizational Structure of the Customs Administration in Turkey - The principle functions of the General Directorate of Customs are: implementation of customs policies, collection of customs taxes, inspection of passengers and goods, also, investigation of smuggling

  9. Finding solid ground: law enforcement, key populations and their health and rights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrew; Howell, Simon; Müller, Alexandra; Katumba, Munyaradzi; Langen, Bram; Artz, Lillian; Marks, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect. This paper explores how relationship building can create positive outcomes while taking into account the challenges associated with reforming police strategies in relation to key populations, and vice versa. We argue that relationships between law enforcement agencies and key populations need to be re-examined and reconstituted to enable appropriate responses and services. The antagonistic positioning, "othering" and blame assignment frequently seen in interactions between law enforcement officials and key populations can negatively influence both, albeit for different reasons. In addressing these concerns, we argue that mediation based on consensual dialogue is required, and can be harnessed through a process that highlights points of familiarity that are often shared, but not understood, by both parties. Rather than laying blame, we argue that substantive changes need to be owned and executed by all role-players, informed by a common language that is cognisant of differing perspectives. Relational approaches can be used to identify programmes that align goals that are part of law enforcement, human rights and public health despite not always being seen as such. Law enforcement champions and representatives of key populations need to be identified and supported to promote interventions that are mutually reinforcing, and address perceived differences by highlighting commonality. Creating opportunities to share experiences

  10. Incidence of emergency contacts (red responses to Norwegian emergency primary healthcare services in 2007 – a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The municipalities are responsible for the emergency primary health care services in Norway. These services include casualty clinics, primary doctors on-call and local emergency medical communication centres (LEMC. The National centre for emergency primary health care has initiated an enterprise called "The Watchtowers", comprising emergency primary health care districts, to provide routine information (patients' way of contact, level of urgency and first action taken by the out-of-hours services over several years based on a minimal dataset. This will enable monitoring, evaluation and comparison of the respective activities in the emergency primary health care services. The aim of this study was to assess incidence of emergency contacts (potential life-threatening situations, red responses to the emergency primary health care service. Methods A representative sample of Norwegian emergency primary health care districts, "The Watchtowers" recorded all contacts and first action taken during the year of 2007. All the variables were continuously registered in a data program by the attending nurses and sent by email to the National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care at a monthly basis. Results During 2007 the Watchtowers registered 85 288 contacts, of which 1 946 (2.3% were defined as emergency contacts (red responses, corresponding to a rate of 9 per 1 000 inhabitants per year. 65% of the instances were initiated by patient, next of kin or health personnel by calling local emergency medical communication centres or meeting directly at the casualty clinics. In 48% of the red responses, the first action taken was a call-out of doctor and ambulance. On a national basis we can estimate approximately 42 500 red responses per year in the EPH in Norway. Conclusion The emergency primary health care services constitute an important part of the emergency system in Norway. Patients call the LEMC or meet directly at casualty clinics

  11. Net primary productivity and its partitioning in response to precipitation gradient in an alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyue; Quan, Quan; Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Qingping; Niu, Shuli

    2017-11-09

    The dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and its partitioning to the aboveground versus belowground are of fundamental importance to understand carbon cycling and its feedback to climate change. However, the responses of NPP and its partitioning to precipitation gradient are poorly understood. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with six precipitation treatments (1/12 P, 1/4 P, 1/2 P, 3/4 P, P, and 5/4 P, P is annual precipitation) in an alpine meadow to examine aboveground and belowground NPP (ANPP and BNPP) in response to precipitation gradient in 2015 and 2016. We found that changes in precipitation had no significant impact on ANPP or belowground biomass in 2015. Compared with control, only the extremely drought treatment (1/12 P) significantly reduced ANPP by 37.68% and increased BNPP at the depth of 20-40 cm by 80.59% in 2016. Across the gradient, ANPP showed a nonlinear response to precipitation amount in 2016. Neither BNPP nor NPP had significant relationship with precipitation changes. The variance in ANPP were mostly due to forbs production, which was ultimately caused by altering soil water content and soil inorganic nitrogen concentration. The nonlinear precipitation-ANPP relationship indicates that future precipitation changes especially extreme drought will dramatically decrease ANPP and push this ecosystem beyond threshold.

  12. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Human Skin Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Packard, Ann T.; Kramer, Gwen F.; Gaffney, David K.; Moos, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Although skin is usually exposed during human exposures to ionizing radiation, there have been no thorough examinations of the transcriptional response of skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to radiation. The transcriptional response of quiescent primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes exposed to from 10 cGy to 5 Gy and collected 4 h after treatment was examined. RNA was isolated and examined by microarray analysis for changes in the levels of gene expression. Exposure to ionizing radiation altered the expression of 279 genes across both cell types. Changes in RNA expression could be arranged into three main categories: (1) changes in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts, (2) changes in fibroblasts but not in keratinocytes, and (3) changes in both. All of these changes were primarily of p53 target genes. Similar radiation-induced changes were induced in immortalized fibroblasts or keratinocytes. In separate experiments, protein was collected and analyzed by Western blotting for expression of proteins observed in microarray experiments to be overexpressed at the mRNA level. Both Q-PCR and Western blot analysis experiments validated these transcription changes. Our results are consistent with changes in the expression of p53 target genes as indicating the magnitude of cell responses to ionizing radiation. PMID:19580510

  13. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Responsiveness of Lebanon's primary healthcare centers to non-communicable diseases and related healthcare needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassoub, Rami; Hashimi, Suha; Awada, Siham; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Lebanon currently faces a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) that is stressing the population's health and financial well-being. Preventive care is recognized as the optimal health equitable, cost-effective solution. The study aims to assess the responsiveness of primary health care centers (PHCs) to NCD, and identify the needed health arrangements and responsibilities of PHCs, the Ministry Of Public Health and other healthcare system entities, for PHCs to purse a more preventive role against NCD. Single and group interviews were conducted via a semi-structured questionnaire with 10 PHCs from Lebanon's primary health care network that have undergone recent pilot accreditation and are recognized for having quality services and facilities. This manifested administrative aspects and NCD-related services of PHCs and generated information regarding the centers' deficiencies, strengths and areas needing improvement for fulfilling a more preventive role. Administrative features of PHCs varied according to number and type of health personnel employed. Variations and deficiencies within and among PHCs were manifested specifically at the level of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. PHCs identified the pilot accreditation as beneficial at the administrative and clinical levels; however, various financial and non-financial resources, in addition to establishing a strong referral system with secondary care settings and further arrangements with MOPH, are necessary for PHCs to pursue a stronger preventive role. The generated results denote needed changes within the healthcare system's governance, financing and delivery. They involve empowering PHCs and increasing their breadth of services, allocating a greater portion of national budget to health and preventive care, and equipping PHCs with personnel skilled in conducting community-wide preventive activities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Carbone

    Full Text Available The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC. We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  16. Investigating Nigerian primary school teachers’ preparedness to adopt personal response system in ESL classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe Agbatogun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry, computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers’ attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in English as a second language (ESL classroom. Seventeen (17 Nigerian primary school teachers trained on why and how to effectively use Personal Response System (PRS in ESL classrooms was the sample for the study. Data for the study were gathered through the use of Clickers Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ, Teachers’ Computer Literacy Questionnaire (TCLQ and Computer Use Questionnaire (CUQ. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentage, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple regression were used for data analysis at 0.05 significance level. The results show that the teachers’ computer literacy was more in the areas of documents and documentation as well as communication and surfing than in general knowledge and data inquiry. Further findings of the study indicated that general computer knowledge, documents and documentation, communication and surfing, and data inquiry combined to contribute to the prediction of teachers’ attitude towards the integration of PRS. Relatively, documents and documentation dimension was the potent predictor, while data inquiry was not a significant predictor of the outcome variable. Similarly, computer use, computer literacy and academic qualification jointly contributed to the prediction of the teachers’ attitude towards the integration of PRS in ESL classroom. Meanwhile, computer use made the most significant contribution to the prediction of teachers’ attitude towards PRS integration, while academic qualification did not make any significant contribution to the teachers’ attitude

  17. Investigating Nigerian Primary School Teachers’ Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response System in ESL Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe Agbatogun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry, computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers’ attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in English as a second language (ESL classroom. Seventeen (17 Nigerian primary school teachers trained on why and how to effectively use Personal Response System (PRS in ESL classrooms was the sample for the study. Data for the studywere gathered through the use of Clickers Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ, Teachers’ Computer Literacy Questionnaire (TCLQ and Computer Use Questionnaire (CUQ. Descriptive statistics such as simplepercentage, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple regression were used for data analysis at 0.05 significance level.The results show that the teachers’ computer literacy was more in the areas of documents and documentation as well as communication and surfing than in general knowledge and data inquiry. Further findings of the study indicated that general computer knowledge, documents anddocumentation, communication and surfing, and data inquiry combined to contribute to the prediction of teachers’ attitude towards the integration of PRS. Relatively, documents and documentation dimension was the potent predictor, while data inquiry was not a significant predictor of the outcome variable. Similarly, computer use, computer literacy and academic qualification jointly contributed to the prediction of the teachers’ attitude towards the integration of PRS in ESL classroom. Meanwhile, computer use made the most significant contribution to the prediction of teachers’ attitude towards PRS integration, while academic qualification did not make any significantcontribution to the teachers’ attitude

  18. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Mary Anna; Chen, Yuhong; Hughes, Guy A; Weinreb, Robert N; Zabriskie, Norman A; Zhang, Kang; Anholt, Robert R H

    2011-01-01

    The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC). We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  19. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  20. GAMING LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROBLEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and techniques of gaming as they apply to the study of law enforcement problems in general, and to show how gaming may assist in identifying and overcoming some of the major pitfalls in law enforcement planning. (Author)

  1. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Landais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(- genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  2. 20 CFR 655.50 - Enforcement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement process. 655.50 Section 655.50... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... Workers) § 655.50 Enforcement process. (a) Authority of the WHD Administrator. The WHD Administrator shall...

  3. 78 FR 69133 - Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances..., California 94085, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered... Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-27486 Filed 11-15-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  4. 76 FR 76192 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0273] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... licensees, vendors, and contractors), on proposed revisions to the NRC's Enforcement Policy (the Policy) and...

  5. Employee perceptions of protected area law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Robert D. Bixler; William E. Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that criminal activity negatively impacts visitors? recreation experiences in the nation?s parks and forests (Fletcher 1983). To further understand how law enforcement can effectively manage criminal activity in protected areas, this study was designed to describe law enforcement and non-law enforcement rangers? perceptions of a range of law...

  6. 50 CFR 600.740 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement policy. 600.740 Section 600... § 600.740 Enforcement policy. (a) The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides four basic enforcement remedies for... and its catch. (4) Criminal prosecution of the owner or operator for some offenses. It shall be the...

  7. 12 CFR 411.410 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 411.410 Section 411.410 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Penalties and Enforcement § 411.410 Enforcement. The head of each agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that...

  8. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  9. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  10. Attention modulates the responses of simple cells in monkey primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Carrie J; Reid, R Clay

    2005-11-23

    Spatial attention has long been postulated to act as a spotlight that increases the salience of visual stimuli at the attended location. We examined the effects of attention on the receptive fields of simple cells in primary visual cortex (V1) by training macaque monkeys to perform a task with two modes. In the attended mode, the stimuli relevant to the animal's task overlay the receptive field of the neuron being recorded. In the unattended mode, the animal was cued to attend to stimuli outside the receptive field of that neuron. The relevant stimulus, a colored pixel, was briefly presented within a white-noise stimulus, a flickering grid of black and white pixels. The receptive fields of the neurons were mapped by correlating spikes with the white-noise stimulus in both attended and unattended modes. We found that attention could cause significant modulation of the visually evoked response despite an absence of significant effects on the overall firing rates. On further examination of the relationship between the strength of the visual stimulation and the firing rate, we found that attention appears to cause multiplicative scaling of the visually evoked responses of simple cells, demonstrating that attention reaches back to the initial stages of visual cortical processing.

  11. Shock vibration and damage responses of primary auxiliary buildings from aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-daero, Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-303 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Daegi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-daero, Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-303 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Taehyo, E-mail: cepark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses of PABs were performed using both the force-time history method and missile-target interaction method. • The jet fuel was considered by using the added mass modeling method and SPH method, respectively. • The FRS and the structural integrity of the external wall of the PABs against an aircraft impact were analyzed. - Abstract: Safety assessments on nuclear power plants (NPPs) subjected to an aircraft impact (AI) caused by terrorists are pivotal focuses for amelioration of present. To date, most studies have mainly focused on structure responses and the integrity of the containment building at a nuclear island (NI) subjected to AI. However, the safety assessment of internal equipment and components by shock vibration as well as the structure damage induced by AI are also important. In this study, aircraft impact analyses (AIA) of primary auxiliary buildings (PABs) were carried out using both the force–time history method and the missile–target interaction method. For the AIA, the jet fuel was taken into account by using the added mass modeling method and the smooth particles hydrodynamics (SPH) method, respectively. In addition, the floor response spectra (FRS) and the structural integrity of the external wall of the PAB against an AI were analyzed. Finally, the difference in the FRS at the location of the components on both sides of the bay was analyzed.

  12. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  13. Innate immune responses induced by lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid in primary goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Omar; Dong, Xianwen; Roca, Alfred L; Caroli, Anna M; Loor, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC) using Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components are well- characterized in bovine species. The objective of the current study was to characterize the downstream regulation of the inflammatory response induced by Toll-like receptors in primary goat MEC (pgMEC). We performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to measure mRNA levels of 9 genes involved in transcriptional regulation or antibacterial activity: Toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2 ), Toll-like receptor 4 ( TLR4 ), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 ( PTGS2 ), interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 ( IFIT3 ), interferon regulatory factor 3 ( IRF3 ), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 ( MYD88 ), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 ( NFKB1 ), Toll interacting protein ( TOLLIP ), and lactoferrin ( LTF ). Furthermore, we analyzed 7 cytokines involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathways: C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ( CCL2 ), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ( CCL5 ), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 ( CXCL6 ), interleukin 8 ( CXCL8 ), interleukin 1 beta ( IL1B ), interleukin 6 ( IL6 ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha ( TNF ). Stimulation of pgMEC with LPS for 3 h led to an increase in expression of CCL2 , CXCL6 , IL6 , CXCL8 , PTGS2 , IFIT3 , MYD88 , NFKB1 , and TLR4 ( P  < 0.05). Except for IL6 , and PTGS2 , the same genes had greater expression than controls at 6 h post-LPS ( P  < 0.05). Expression of CCL5 , PTGS2 , IFIT3 , NFKB1 , TLR4 , and TOLLIP was greater than controls after 3 h of incubation with LTA ( P  < 0.05). Compared to controls, stimulation with LTA for 6 h led to greater expression of PTGS2 , IFIT3 , NFKB1 , and TOLLIP ( P  < 0.05) whereas the expression of CXCL6 , CXCL8 , and TLR4 was lower ( P  < 0.05). At 3 h incubation with both toxins

  14. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Asymmetric Responses of Primary Productivity to Altered Precipitation Simulated by Land Surface Models across Three Long-term Grassland Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Knapp, A.; Wilcox, K.; Bahn, M.; Smith, M. D.; Ito, A.; Arneth, A.; Harper, A. B.; Ukkola, A.; Paschalis, A.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Reick, C. H.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Reinthaler, D.; Chen, G.; Tian, H.; Helene, G.; Zscheischler, J.; Mao, J.; Ingrisch, J.; Nabel, J.; Pongratz, J.; Boysen, L.; Kautz, M.; Schmitt, M.; Krohn, M.; Zeng, N.; Meir, P.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Hasibeder, R.; Vicca, S.; Sippel, S.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Fatichi, S.; Sitch, S.; Shi, X.; Wang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, Y.; Piao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in precipitation variability including the occurrence of extreme events strongly influence plant growth in grasslands. Field measurements of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in temperate grasslands suggest a positive asymmetric response with wet years resulting in ANPP gains larger than ANPP declines in dry years. Whether land surface models used for historical simulations and future projections of the coupled carbon-water system in grasslands are capable to simulate such non-symmetrical ANPP responses remains an important open research question. In this study, we evaluate the simulated responses of grassland primary productivity to altered precipitation with fourteen land surface models at the three sites of Colorado Shortgrass Steppe (SGS), Konza prairie (KNZ) and Stubai Valley meadow (STU) along a rainfall gradient from dry to wet. Our results suggest that: (i) Gross primary production (GPP), NPP, ANPP and belowground NPP (BNPP) show nonlinear response curves (concave-down) in all the models, but with different curvatures and mean values. In contrast across the sites, primary production increases and then saturates along increasing precipitation with a flattening at the wetter site. (ii) Slopes of spatial relationships between modeled primary production and precipitation are steeper than the temporal slopes (obtained from inter-annual variations). (iii) Asymmetric responses under nominal precipitation range with modeled inter-annual primary production show large uncertainties, and model-ensemble median generally suggests negative asymmetry (greater declines in dry years than increases in wet years) across the three sites. (iv) Primary production at the drier site is predicted to more sensitive to precipitation compared to wetter site, and median sensitivity consistently indicates greater negative impacts of reduced precipitation than positive effects of increased precipitation under extreme conditions. This study implies that most models

  16. The effect of cyclosporin A on the primary immune response to allogeneic red cells in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G N

    1982-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CSA) has been used in an attempt to suppress the primary immune response of HgA(A)-negative rabbits to A-positive red cells. The immune response was assessed by measuring the survival of a small intravenous (i.v.) dose of 51Cr-labelled A-positive cells and by testing the serum of the immunized rabbits for anti-A. In one experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first i.v. injection of A-positive red cells, and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in olive oil was given by mouth for 17-34 days. There was no evidence of impaired alloimmunization compared with the responses in control animals treated with olive oil alone. In a second experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first injection of A-positive muscularly (i.m.), and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in miglyol was given by im.m. injection for 10 days. Six of these rabbits were rendered unresponsive, and the remaining two, who showed impaired survival of the monitoring red cells, produced only low anit-A titres. Seven out of eight controls given i.m. miglyol without CSA responded with good anti-A production. Rabbits that were unresponsive to A-positive red cells responded normally to sheep red blood cells 15 weeks after CSA treatment. Higher serum levels of CSA were found following i.m. administration of the drug but treatment by this route as associated with severe toxicity in some rabbits. PMID:7056563

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma: response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Wilson, P.C.; Sexton, M.J.; Liew, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma (AIDS-PCL) is uncommon. Fourteen cases of presumed AIDS-PCL between 1986 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively in order to characterize the natural history, and the response to radiotherapy. The median age was 38 years (range 24-65). The median interval between seropositive diagnosis of HIV and AIDS-PCL was 28 months (range 5-113). The median duration of symptoms was 2 weeks (range 0.2-12). At presentation, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) was PS1 (2/14 patients), PS2 (6/14) and PS3 (6/14). The symptoms and signs were non-specific and depended on the site and extent of cerebral involvement. There was no characteristic pattern of brain imaging in terms of size, number, location or pattern of contrast enhancement of the cerebral lesions. Nine patients received various fractionation-dose schedules (range 8-50 Gy). Complete and partial responses were seen in 2/9 and 3/9 cases, respectively. Clinical stabilization of neurological symptoms was noted in 3/9 cases and disease progression in 1/9. The median survival times (MST) from presentation for irradiated and non-irradiated patients were 9.3 and 2.1 weeks, respectively (range 0.9-43.1). Although patient selection introduced bias, there appears to be a modest improvement in MST for treated patients. The MST with radiotherapy alone remains poor, but radiotherapy may provide palliation. For some selected patients, a prolonged response is possible. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Communication Error Management in Law Enforcement Interactions : a receiver's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostinga, Miriam; Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments explore the effect of law enforcement officers’ communication errors and their response strategies on a suspect’s trust in the officer; established rapport and hostility; and, the amount and quality of information shared. Students were questioned online by an exam board member about

  19. 36 CFR 905.737-102 - Enforcement proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or 5 CFR part 737 after a final decision by: (1) Prohibiting the individual from making, on behalf of... CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Former Employees-Enforcement § 905.737-102... there is reasonable cause to believe that a former employee has violated 18 U.S.C. 207 or 5 CFR part 737...

  20. Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights – Blessing or Curse? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adhesion of Mauritius to the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It examines the harsh response of the law enforcement institutions and the heavy price that weaker and more vulnerable people have had to pay and queries whether Mauritius implemented the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement ...

  1. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production....

  2. 78 FR 43000 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Proposed Renewal Without Change; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of... primary money laundering concern. This request for comments is being made pursuant to the Paperwork... Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern. Office of Management and Budget Control Number: 1506-0036...

  3. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory commission to licensees with respects to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses

  4. Factors influencing law enforcement decisions to adopt an evidence-based robbery prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, A; Casteel, C; Chronister, T; Nocera, M; Vladutiu, C J; Peek-Asa, C

    2013-12-01

    Homicide is the leading cause of workplace death among small retail and service businesses in the United States. Evidence-based programs have been shown to reduce robbery and robbery-related crimes in small retail businesses; however, reaching small businesses with programs has been difficult. As small businesses typically have no corporate backing or trade affiliation, police departments have been identified as potential vehicles for program dissemination. A national sample of 300 law enforcement agencies was surveyed to identify facilitators and barriers to adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based program. The questionnaire was developed using behavioral theory concepts and administered via telephone. Preliminary findings suggest the primary facilitators to program adoption included organizational capacity factors such as staff buy-in, dedicated personnel and financial support. Competing responsibilities was the primary barrier identified by agencies. Agency size and program complexity were identified as potential predictors of program adoption. Identifying agency and program-specific characteristics that influence program adoption by law enforcement agencies will be valuable for marketing programs to agencies that have the infrastructure to support and sustain program dissemination. Understanding these factors will optimize the reach of evidence-based strategies to small businesses.

  5. Law enforcement attitudes towards naloxone following opioid overdose training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purviance, Donna; Ray, Bradley; Tracy, Abigail; Southard, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Opioid intoxication and overdoses are life-threatening emergencies requiring rapid treatment. One response to this has been to train law enforcement to detect the signs of an opioid overdose and train them to administer naloxone to reverse the effects. Although not a new concept, few studies have attempted to examine this policy. At 4 different locations in Indiana, law enforcement personnel were trained to detect the signs of an opioid-related overdose and how to administer naloxone to reverse the effects of the overdose. Pre and post surveys were administered at each location (N = 97). To examine changes in attitudes following training, the authors included items from the Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale (OOAS), which measures respondents' competency, concerns, and readiness to administer naloxone. Among the full sample, naloxone training resulted in significant increases in competency, concerns, and readiness. Examining changes in attitudes by each location revealed that the training had the greatest effect on competency to administer naloxone and in easing concerns that law enforcement personal might have in administering naloxone. This study adds to others in showing that law enforcement personnel are receptive to naloxone training and that the OOAS is able to capture these attitudes. This study advances this literature by examining pre-post changes across multiple locations. As the distribution of naloxone continues to proliferate, this study and the OOAS may be valuable towards the development of an evidence-based training model for law enforcement.

  6. Critiquing the response to the Ebola epidemic through a Primary Health Care Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Scott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2014/2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic has caused the global public health community to engage in difficult self-reflection. First, it must consider the part it played in relation to an important public health question: why did this epidemic take hold and spread in this unprecedented manner? Second, it must use the lessons learnt to answer the subsequent question: what can be done now to prevent further such outbreaks in the future? These questions remain relevant, even as scientists announce that the Guinea Phase III efficacy vaccine trial shows that rVSV-EBOV (Merck, Sharp & Dohme is highly efficacious in individuals. This is a major breakthrough in the fight against Ebola virus disease (EVD. It does not replace but may be a powerful adjunct to current strategies of EVD management and control. Discussion We contribute to the current self-reflection by presenting an analysis using a Primary Health Care (PHC approach. This approach is appropriate as African countries in the region affected by EVD have recommitted themselves to PHC as a framework for organising health systems and the delivery of health services. The approach suggests that, in an epidemic made complex by weak pre-existing health systems, lack of trust in authorities and mobile populations, a broader approach is required to engage affected communities. In the medium-term health system development with attention to primary level services and community-based programmes to address the major disease burden of malaria, diarrhoeal disease, meningitis, tuberculosis and malnutrition is needed. This requires the development of local management and an investment in human resources for health. Crucially this has to be developed ahead of, and not in parallel with, future outbreaks. In the longer-term a commitment is required to address the underlying social determinants which make these countries so vulnerable, and limit their capacity to respond effectively to, epidemics

  7. Critiquing the response to the Ebola epidemic through a Primary Health Care Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vera; Crawford-Browne, Sarah; Sanders, David

    2016-05-17

    The 2014/2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic has caused the global public health community to engage in difficult self-reflection. First, it must consider the part it played in relation to an important public health question: why did this epidemic take hold and spread in this unprecedented manner? Second, it must use the lessons learnt to answer the subsequent question: what can be done now to prevent further such outbreaks in the future? These questions remain relevant, even as scientists announce that the Guinea Phase III efficacy vaccine trial shows that rVSV-EBOV (Merck, Sharp & Dohme) is highly efficacious in individuals. This is a major breakthrough in the fight against Ebola virus disease (EVD). It does not replace but may be a powerful adjunct to current strategies of EVD management and control. We contribute to the current self-reflection by presenting an analysis using a Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. This approach is appropriate as African countries in the region affected by EVD have recommitted themselves to PHC as a framework for organising health systems and the delivery of health services. The approach suggests that, in an epidemic made complex by weak pre-existing health systems, lack of trust in authorities and mobile populations, a broader approach is required to engage affected communities. In the medium-term health system development with attention to primary level services and community-based programmes to address the major disease burden of malaria, diarrhoeal disease, meningitis, tuberculosis and malnutrition is needed. This requires the development of local management and an investment in human resources for health. Crucially this has to be developed ahead of, and not in parallel with, future outbreaks. In the longer-term a commitment is required to address the underlying social determinants which make these countries so vulnerable, and limit their capacity to respond effectively to, epidemics such as EVD. The PHC approach offers an

  8. Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Gervais, F.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gorbunov, MY

    2002-01-01

    EisenEx�the second in situ iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean�was performed in the Atlantic sector over 3 weeks in November 2000 with the overarching goal to test the hypothesis that primary productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by iron availability in the austral spring. Underwater irradiance, chlorophyll a (Chl a), photochemical efficiency, and primary productivity were measured inside and outside of an iron-enriched patch in order to quantify the response of phytoplan...

  9. The responsibility continuum: never primary, coresident and caregiver--heterogeneity in the African-American grandmother experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rosalyn D; Ensminger, Margaret E; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    This article examines diversity among 542 African-American grandmothers from the Woodlawn Longitudinal Study. Women were categorized on the basis of their household composition, degree of care provided to grandchildren, and status of primary caregiver to grandchildren during lifetime. Overall, 67.7% of the sample engaged in parenting and exchange behaviors at high or moderate levels. Twenty-seven percent of the sample coresided with and provided care to grandchildren, 28% did not coreside but had been primary caregivers in the past, and 45% did not coreside and had never been primarily responsible for a grandchild. Heterogeneity was found among seven grandmother types on economic measures, life events, and grandchild characteristics. Grandmothers with earlier primary responsibility and those currently in homes of three or more generations were associated with poor outcomes. Policy and practice can be informed by additional research on status, context, and timing of assumption of responsibilities for grandchildren.

  10. Medical support for law enforcement-extended operations incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew J; Tang, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As the complexity and frequency of law enforcement-extended operations incidents continue to increase, so do the opportunities for adverse health and well-being impacts on the responding officers. These types of clinical encounters have not been well characterized nor have the medical response strategies which have been developed to effectively manage these encounters been well described. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive epidemiology of the clinical encounters reported during extended law enforcement operations, as well as to describe a best practices approach for their effective management. This study retrospectively examined the clinical encounters of the Maryland State Police (MSP) Tactical Medical Unit (TMU) during law enforcement extended operations incidents lasting 8 or more hours. In addition, a qualitative analysis was performed on clinical data collected by federal law enforcement agencies during their extended operations. Forty-four percent of missions (455/1,047) supported by the MSP TMU lasted 8 or more hours. Twenty-six percent of these missions (117/455) resulted in at least one patient encounter. Nineteen percent of patient chief complaints (45/238) were related to heat illness/ dehydration. Fifteen percent of encounters (36/238) were for musculoskeletal injury/pain. Eight percent of patients (19/238) had nonspecific sick call (minor illness) complaints. The next most common occurring complaints were cold-related injuries, headache, sinus congestion, and wound/laceration, each of which accounted for 7 percent of patients (16/238), respectively. Analysis of federal law enforcement agencies' response to such events yielded similar clinical encounters. A wide range of health problems are reported by extended law enforcement operations personnel. Timely and effective treatment of these problems can help ensure that the broader operations mission is not compromised. An appropriate operational strategy for managing health complaints

  11. Predicting Spike Occurrence and Neuronal Responsiveness from LFPs in Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi, Riccardo; Zippo, Antonio G.; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Local Field Potentials (LFPs) integrate multiple neuronal events like synaptic inputs and intracellular potentials. LFP spatiotemporal features are particularly relevant in view of their applications both in research (e.g. for understanding brain rhythms, inter-areal neural communication and neronal coding) and in the clinics (e.g. for improving invasive Brain-Machine Interface devices). However the relation between LFPs and spikes is complex and not fully understood. As spikes represent the fundamental currency of neuronal communication this gap in knowledge strongly limits our comprehension of neuronal phenomena underlying LFPs. We investigated the LFP-spike relation during tactile stimulation in primary somatosensory (S-I) cortex in the rat. First we quantified how reliably LFPs and spikes code for a stimulus occurrence. Then we used the information obtained from our analyses to design a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFP inputs. The model was endowed with a flexible meta-structure whose exact form, both in parameters and structure, was estimated by using a multi-objective optimization strategy. Our method provided a set of nonlinear simple equations that maximized the match between models and true neurons in terms of spike timings and Peri Stimulus Time Histograms. We found that both LFPs and spikes can code for stimulus occurrence with millisecond precision, showing, however, high variability. Spike patterns were predicted significantly above chance for 75% of the neurons analysed. Crucially, the level of prediction accuracy depended on the reliability in coding for the stimulus occurrence. The best predictions were obtained when both spikes and LFPs were highly responsive to the stimuli. Spike reliability is known to depend on neuron intrinsic properties (i.e. on channel noise) and on spontaneous local network fluctuations. Our results suggest that the latter, measured through the LFP response variability, play a dominant role. PMID:22586452

  12. Looking Past Primary Productivity: Benchmarking System Processes that Drive Ecosystem Level Responses in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. Benchmarking model predictions against data are necessary to assess their ability to replicate observed patterns, but also to identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences. We have implemented a novel benchmarking workflow as part of the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) that is automated, repeatable, and generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Building on the recent Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Model Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project, we used observational data from the FACE experiments to test this flexible, extensible benchmarking approach aimed at providing repeatable tests of model process representation that can be performed quickly and frequently. Model performance assessments are often limited to traditional residual error analysis; however, this can result in a loss of critical information. Models that fail tests of relative measures of fit may still perform well under measures of absolute fit and mathematical similarity. This implies that models that are discounted as poor predictors of ecological productivity may still be capturing important patterns. Conversely, models that have been found to be good predictors of productivity may be hiding error in their sub-process that result in the right answers for the wrong reasons. Our suite of tests have not only highlighted process based sources of uncertainty in model productivity calculations, they have also quantified the patterns and scale of this error. Combining these findings with PEcAn's model sensitivity analysis and variance decomposition strengthen our ability to identify which processes

  13. Variations in Primary Teachers’ Responses and Development during Three Major Science In- Service Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on how different types of teachers responded to in-service aimed at developing investigative-based science education (IBSE in primary schools, and the extent to which they applied their new skills in the classroom. Common items from evaluation questionnaires allowed data to be combined from three major in-service programmes. Using complete data sets from 120 teachers, cluster analysis enabled three teacher types to be identified: a small group of ‘science unsures’, with low attitude scores and little confidence, who showed no response to the innovation; ‘holistic improvers’, who showed the largest improvement in science teaching confidence; and ‘high level, positive progressives’, who were very positive to science teaching throughout and showed gains in confidence in teaching physics and chemistry, as well as in demonstrating the relevance of science to their pupils. Taking account of these teacher types alongside interviews and observations, nine developmental stages in how teachers apply their new expertise in the classroom and the whole school are suggested. Major factorsinfluencing application in the classroom are the teachers’ initial science knowledge and pedagogical expertise, and motivating feedback to teachers when pupils responded positively to the innovation. Assessing teachers’ initial level of subject knowledge and science pedagogical expertise to inform the approach and amount of in-service provision is important. Subsequent mentoring as well as support from the school principal when teachers first try IBSE with pupils promotes successful implementation in the classroom.

  14. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  15. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems’ response to global climate change. China’s ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China’s terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change. PMID:23593325

  16. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  17. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Zhao

    Full Text Available The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN, a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  18. Participation and factors associated with late or non-response to an online survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny-Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Online surveys have several advantages, but a low response rate is common and it is uncertain how results are affected. Response inducement techniques can be used to overcome this problem. The objectives of this study were to describe the percentage of change in the response rate after reminders and to analyse the characteristics associated with non-response and late response based on the survey results, as well as by applying archival and extrapolation techniques. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, an online questionnaire about cancer prevention was sent to a random sample of primary care health professionals (3586 physicians and nurses). Two reminders were sent later. The percentage of change in response rates after reminders, global and by demographic and health care characteristics of participants; and factors associated with non-response and late response were analysed using response rates and odds ratios (ORs). After the reminders, the response rate increased from 22.6% to 32.9% and to 39.4%. Non-response was associated with age [OR: 3.14; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 2.23-4.42 for aged >60 years], gender and functional area. Further, a higher response rate after reminders was observed in professionals with heavier workloads (OR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.08-1.97) and in those who stated a lower relevance of cancer prevention in primary care. After electronic reminders, the response rate increased, especially among professionals with the highest workloads and a minor interest in the survey topic. However, possible bias associated with non-response remains and the factors behind this should be examined in future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adaptive immune responses to booster vaccination against yellow fever virus are much reduced compared to those after primary vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, Michael; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of Yellow Fever occur regularly in endemic areas of Africa and South America frequently leading to mass vaccination campaigns straining the availability of the attenuated Yellow Fever vaccine, YF-17D. The WHO has recently decided to discontinue regular booster-vaccinations since a single...... vaccination is deemed to confer life-long immune protection. Here, we have examined humoral (neutralizing antibody) and cellular (CD8 and CD4 T cell) immune responses in primary and booster vaccinees (the latter spanning 8 to 36 years after primary vaccination). After primary vaccination, we observed strong...... cellular immune responses with T cell activation peaking ≈2 weeks and subsiding to background levels ≈ 4 weeks post-vaccination. The number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells declined over the following years. In >90% of vaccinees, in vitro expandable T cells could still be detected >10 years post-vaccination...

  20. Clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo for treatment of head lice in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Tempark, Therdpong; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-04-01

    Help eradicate or at least alleviating head lice in a primary school with malathion shampoo and to study clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo. All students were examined by using a fine-toothed lice comb to help detect live lice. Direct visual examination and the collection of nits for microscopic examination were performed to differentiate viable nits from empty nits. Diagnosis of head lice was made by the presence of lice. All students that had lice and/or nits were treated with malathion shampoo. Malathion shampoo was also provided for all family members. Pediculocidal efficacy was by the presence or absence of live lice. Blood for red blood cell cholinesterase activity was drawn in 32 volunteers before treatment and after the second treatment. At the first visit, 629 students were examined and 48 students had live head lice. The infestation rate was 13% in girls and 1.3% in boys. The cure rate was 93% after the first treatment. The reported side effects were nausea, a burning sensation, and irritation that was found in five (4%), 10 (7%) and three (2%) students respectively. The mean of RBC cholinesterase activity before and after two applications showed significant changes (p = 0.03). It was -7.5 +/- 4.1% reduction from the initial, but all were in the normal range. There was no report of clinical manifestation of malathion toxicity. Malathion shampoo is safe and effective in the treatment of head lice. There is significant skin absorption so a scalp examination for head lice should be done before subsequent application to avoid unnecessary exposure.

  1. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  2. Signs of impaired immunoregulation and enhanced effector T-cell responses in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakiela, B; Iwaniec, T; Plutecka, H; Celinska-Lowenhoff, M; Dziedzina, S; Musial, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is characterized by a deficiency in immunoregulatory pathways, a phenomenon recently implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Serum levels of immunoregulatory (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-β1) and proinflammatory (e.g., IL-17A) cytokines were measured in PAPS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with secondary APS (SAPS), or without APS, and in healthy controls (n = 40 in each group). In a subgroup of PAPS patients we also compared phenotype and function (flow cytometry) of regulatory T-cells (Treg) and cytokine production by effector T-cells. Our major finding was decreased levels of TGF-β1 in PAPS and SAPS as compared to SLE without APS and controls. TGF-β1 was the lowest in PAPS patients showing high levels of aPL IgG with significant negative correlation with the titer. SLE patients were characterized by lower serum levels of IL-2 and increased IL-17A, as compared to the other groups. The numbers of circulating Treg cells and their phenotype (e.g., FoxP3 isoforms) were not disturbed in PAPS. However, surface expression of latency associated peptide (binds TGF-β) in activated FoxP3 + cells and in vitro production of TGF-β1 were decreased in PAPS patients with high titers of aPL IgG. Moreover, frequencies of cytokine producing effector T-helper cells (including Th17) were significantly elevated in this group. PAPS patients with high titers of aPL IgG antibodies were characterized by decreased systemic levels of TGF-β1 and its impaired production in vitro, suggesting impaired immunoregulation and enhanced adaptive autoimmune responses leading to the production of aPL antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  4. Reconstitution of active telomerase in primary human foreskin fibroblasts : effects on proliferative characteristics and response to ionizing radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, H.H.; Waarde-Verhagen, M.A.W.H. van; Assen-Bolt, A.J. van; Rodemann, H.P.; Prowse, K.R.; Linskens, M.H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere shortening has been proposed to trigger senescence, and since most primary cells do not express active telomerase, reactivation of telomerase activity was proposed as a safe and non-transforming way of immortalizing cells. However, to study radiation responses, it is as yet unclear

  5. Enforcement and Compliance History Online | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  6. OSHA Enforcement, Industrial Compliance and Workplace Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ann P. Bartel; Lacy Glenn Thomas

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a three-equation simultaneous model of OSHA enforcement behavior, industrial compliance and workplace injuries. The enforcement equation is based on the assumption that OSHA acts as a political institution that gains support through the transfer of wealth from firms to employees; the empirical results are largely consistent with this notion. Contrary to previous work, we find that OSHA enforcement efforts have, indeed, had a statistically significant impact on in...

  7. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those…

  8. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  12. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...

  13. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...

  14. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  15. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  18. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  19. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  20. Dynamics of Neural Responses in Ferret Primary Auditory Cortex: I. Spectro-Temporal Response Field Characterization by Dynamic Ripple Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z; Klein, David J; Shamma, Shihab A

    1999-01-01

    .... It is calculated here from the responses to elementary 'ripples,' a family of sounds with drifting, sinusoidal, spectral envelopes - the complex spectrotemporal envelope of any broadband, dynamic...

  1. Government Expectations and the Role of Law Enforcement in a Biological Incident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demme, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    ...) that include responsibilities for law enforcement. Yet, police officers are unaccustomed to working with biological agents or responding to biological incidents, and have little if any experience in this area...

  2. Notification: Audit of EPA's Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's Law Enforcement Availability Pay Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY18-0075, November 30, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's (OCEFT's) law enforcement availability pay (LEAP) reporting.

  3. Distributed Enforcement of Service Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern service-oriented systems are often built by reusing, and composing together, existing services distributed over the Internet. Service choreography is a possible form of service composition whose goal is to specify the interactions among participant services from a global perspective. In this paper, we formalize a method for the distributed and automated enforcement of service choreographies, and prove its correctness with respect to the realization of the specified choreography. The formalized method is implemented as part of a model-based tool chain released to support the development of choreography-based systems within the EU CHOReOS project. We illustrate our method at work on a distributed social proximity network scenario.

  4. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilcox, K. R.; Shi, Z.; Gherardi, L. A.; Lemoine, N. P.; Koerner, S. E.; Hoover, D. L.; Bork, E.; Byrne, K. M.; Cahill, J.; Collins, S. L.; Evans, S.M.; Gilgen, Anna K.; Holub, Petr; Jiang, L.; Knapp, A. K.; LeCain, D.; Liang, J.; Garcia-Palacios, P.; Penuelas, J.; Pockman, W. T.; Smith, M. D.; Sun, S.; White, S. R.; Yahdjian, L.; Zhu, K.; Luo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2017), s. 4376-4385 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : net primary productivity * terrestrial ecosystems * temperate grassland * biomass allocation * plant-communities * tallgrass prairie * climate extremes * use efficiency * united-states * global-change * aboveground net primary productivity * belowground net primary productivity * biomass allocation * climate change * grasslands * meta-analysis * root biomass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 8.502, year: 2016

  5. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliative glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We sought to identify differences in the following measures of the ocular response analyser (ORA between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and exfoliative glaucoma (EXG patients: Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg. We also sought to relate these ORA measures with central corneal thickness (CCT. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 162 individuals (46 EXG patients, 66 POAG patients and 50 healthy subjects without any ocular and systemic disease. ORA measurements were performed, and a minimum of three readings were obtained from each test subject. Groups were compared according to their ORA parameters. Results: The mean CH levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 7.6 ± 2.1, 9.1 ± 1.9 and 9.6 ± 1.7 mmHg, respectively. CH was significantly lower in the EXG patients compared to the other groups (P < 0.001.The mean CRF levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 9.0 ± 2.0, 10.1 ± 1.7 and 9.8 ± 1.8mmHg, respectively. CRF levels in the eyes of the EXG patients were significantly lower compared to those of either the POAG patients (P = 0.005 or the healthy subjects (P = 0.03, but there was no significant difference in CRF levels between the POAG patients and the healthy subjects (P = 0.59. There was a significant positive correlation between CH and CCT in the EXG patients and healthy subjects (P < 0.001, but this correlation was not present in the POAG patients (P = 0.70. Conclusions: In this study, CH and CRF were found to be significantly reduced in the eyes of EXG patients compared to both the POAG patients and healthy subjects. Reduced CH in EXG patients might result in decreased support of peripapillary scleral structure and increased damage to the optic nerve during IOP increase.

  7. N-P Co-Limitation of Primary Production and Response of Arthropods to N and P in Early Primary Succession on Mount St. Helens Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, John G.; O'Hara, Niamh B.; Titus, Jonathan H.; Apple, Jennifer L.; Gill, Richard A.; Wynn, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background The effect of low nutrient availability on plant-consumer interactions during early succession is poorly understood. The low productivity and complexity of primary successional communities are expected to limit diversity and abundance of arthropods, but few studies have examined arthropod responses to enhanced nutrient supply in this context. We investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on plant productivity and arthropod abundance on 24-yr-old soils at Mount St. Helens volcano. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the relative abundance of eight arthropod orders and five families in plots that received N, P, or no nutrients for 3–5 years. We also measured plant % cover, leaf %N, and plant diversity. Vegetation responded rapidly to N addition but showed a lagged response to P that, combined with evidence of increased N fixation, suggested P-limitation to N availability. After 3 yrs of fertilization, orthopterans (primarily Anabrus simplex (Tettigoniidae) and Melanoplus spp (Acrididae)) showed a striking attraction to P addition plots, while no other taxa responded to fertilization. After 5 yrs of fertilization, orthopteran density in the same plots increased 80%–130% with P addition and 40% with N. Using structural equation modeling, we show that in year 3 orthopteran abundance was associated with a P-mediated increase in plant cover (or correlated increases in resource quality), whereas in year 5 orthopteran density was not related to cover, diversity or plant %N, but rather to unmeasured effects of P, such as its influence on other aspects of resource quality. Conclusions/Significance The marked surprising response to P by orthopterans, combined with a previous observation of P-limitation in lepidopteran herbivores at these sites, suggests that P-mediated effects of food quantity or quality are critical to insect herbivores in this N-P co-limited primary successional system. Our results also support a previous

  8. Exercise Improves Immune Function, Antidepressive Response, and Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Teixeira, Alexandre Abílio de Souza; Lira, Fábio Santos; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 +/- 9 years) with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symp...

  9. Response of the primary tumor in symptomatic and asymptomatic stage IV colorectal cancer to combined interventional endoscopy and palliative chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Silke; Hünerbein, Diana; Mansuroglu, Tümen; Armbrust, Thomas; Scharf, Jens-Gerd; Schwörer, Harald; Füzesi, László; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of the primary tumor in advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a matter of discussion. Little attention has thus far been paid to the endoscopically observable changes of the primary in non-curatively resectable stage IV disease. 20 patients [14 men, 6 women, median age 67 (39–82) years] were observed after initial diagnosis of non-curatively resectable metastasized symptomatic (83%) or asymptomatic (17%) CRC, from June 2002 to April 2009. If necessary, endoscopic tumor debulking was performed. 5-FU based chemotherapy was given immediately thereafter. In 10 patients, chemotherapy was combined with antibody therapy. Response of the primary was observed in all patients. Local symptoms were treated endoscopically whenever necessary (obstruction or bleeding), and further improved after chemotherapy was started: Four patients showed initial complete endoscopic disappearance of the primary. In an additional 6 patients, only adenomatous tissue was histologically detected. In both these groups, two patients revealed local tumor relapse after interruption of therapy. Local tumor regression or stable disease was achieved in the remaining 10 patients. 15 patients died during the observation time. In 13 cases, death was related to metastatic disease progression. The mean overall survival time was 19.6 (3–71) months. No complications due to the primary were observed. This study shows that modern anti-cancer drugs combined with endoscopic therapy are an effective and safe treatment of the symptomatic primary and ameliorate local complaints without the need for surgical intervention in advanced UICC stage IV CRC

  10. 17 CFR 39.6 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 39.6 Section 39.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.6 Enforceability. An agreement, contract or transaction submitted to a derivatives clearing...

  11. 12 CFR 564.7 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 564.7 Section 564.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.7 Enforcement. Institutions and institution-affiliated parties, including staff appraisers and fee appraisers, who violate...

  12. Effective speed management through automatic enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses several aspects of the Dutch experience of speed enforcement, and presents the results of some speed management experiments in The Netherlands, using automatic warning of speeders and enforcement of speeding. Traditional approaches to manage speed there have not resulted in

  13. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following passage of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. The documents are published on the Indian Affairs Web site.

  14. 76 FR 54986 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Chapter I [NRC-2011-0209] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is soliciting comments from interested...

  15. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0014] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' December 30, 2009 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093200520);(2...

  16. 17 CFR 8.05 - Enforcement staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement staff. 8.05... staff. (a) Each exchange shall establish an adequate enforcement staff which shall be authorized by the... staff shall consist of employees of the exchange and/or persons hired on a contract basis. It may not...

  17. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  18. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  19. 5 CFR 1201.85 - Enforcing subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....85 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND... in the foreign country. (b) Upon application by the Special Counsel, the Board may seek court enforcement of a subpoena issued by the Special Counsel in the same manner in which it seeks enforcement of...

  20. 29 CFR 502.15 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 502.15 Section 502.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  1. 29 CFR 501.15 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 501.15 Section 501.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  2. 77 FR 12865 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  3. 78 FR 11216 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  4. 76 FR 9357 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  5. Assessment of the NRC Enforcement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Coblentz, L.

    1995-04-01

    On May 12, 1994, the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) established a Review Team composed of senior NRC managers to re-examine the NRC enforcement program. A copy of the Review Team's charter is enclosed as Appendix A. This report presents the Team's assessment. The purpose of this review effort are: (1) to perform an assessment of the NRC's enforcement program to determine whether the defined purposes of the enforcement program are appropriate; (2) to determine whether the NRC's enforcement practices and procedures for issuing enforcement actions are consistent with those purposes; and (3) to provide recommendations on any changes the Review Team believes advisable. In accordance with its charter, the Review Team considered the following principal issues in conducting its assessment of the enforcement program: the balance between providing deterrence and incentives (both positive and negative) for the identification and correction of violations; the appropriateness of NRC sanctions; whether the commission should seek statutory authority to increase the amount of civil penalties; whether the NRC should use different enforcement policies and practices for different licensees (e.g., materials licensees in contrast to power reactors or large fuel facilities); and whether the commission should establish open enforcement conferences as the normal practice

  6. Enforcement, Integration, and the Future of Immigration Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    immigrants with different legal statuses. While this essay remains largely (though not entirely agnostic on these questions, it offers four basic principles to frame any future federalism agenda. First, when it comes to enforcement federalism, the federal government ought to acknowledge the reasons that localities might resist federal enforcement efforts, at least as a matter of politics, and if only to ensure that federal policy is subjected to accountability checks by competing, external pressures. Second, whatever the value of resistance to enforcement, a federalism agenda should include efforts by all levels of government to identify a manageable equilibrium that reconciles the federal government’s constitutional and statutory responsibilities for maintaining an enforcement regime with the local politics of immigration and the lived realities of immigrant communities. Third, when it comes to integration federalism, the problem of illegal immigration must be solved, and only the federal government can do so decisively. Federalism can only mediate the political conflict over status and help set the terms for its ultimate resolution. And yet, the structural reasons that have given rise to integration federalism should re-enforce the country’s commitment to locally driven integration policy, supported by a national-level commitment to information sharing, coordination, and resource support. Finally, because both enforcement and integration policy require systemic flexibility, it is important not to confuse arguments on the merits of immigration policy with structural claims. In other words, scholars, advocates, or policymakers should exercise humility and circumspection when developing conversation-stopping claims that a certain intergovernmental relation is required by law, especially in a context as charged as immigration policy.

  7. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS) in...

  8. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. - Highlights: • Algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the eutrophication level. • Primary production and litter decomposition are stimulated by moderate eutrophication. • Biodiversity and process rates were reduced in highly eutrophic streams. • Subsidy-stress model explained biodiversity and process rates under eutrophication. - Rates of leaf litter decomposition, primary production and richness of periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient

  9. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  10. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  11. The response of an RC line MWPC to primary cosmic rays. [Multi-Wire Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Selig, W. J.; Austin, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple 50 x 50 sq cm MWPC plane was arranged as an RC-line and flown on a balloon flight with the MSFC-UAH Cosmic Ray experiment. Positions of primary cosmic ray tracks in the RC-line were determined by the risetime method and compared with the expected position as indicated by a best line fitted through four planes of the conventional MWPC hodoscope. Mean errors were estimated for sea-level muons, and CNO group and iron group particles. It is believed that the delta-rays accompanying the primaries degraded the position resolution. Measured standard deviations allowing for uncertainty in the true track position are of the order of 1 cm or less in the primary charge region between 7 and 26.

  12. Correlating metabolic and anatomic responses of primary lung cancers to radiotherapy by combined F-18 FDG PET-CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Inga

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To correlate the metabolic changes with size changes for tumor response by concomitant PET-CT evaluation of lung cancers after radiotherapy. Methods 36 patients were studied pre- and post-radiotherapy with18FDG PET-CT scans at a median interval of 71 days. All of the patients were followed clinically and radiographically after a mean period of 342 days for assessment of local control or failure rates. Change in size (sum of maximum orthogonal diameters was correlated with that of maximum standard uptake value (SUV of the primary lung cancer before and after conventional radiotherapy. Results There was a significant reduction in both SUV and size of the primary cancer after radiotherapy (p Conclusion Correlating and incorporating metabolic change by PET into size change by concomitant CT is more sensitive in assessing therapeutic response than CT alone.

  13. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  14. Developing a measure of patient access to primary care: the access response index (AROS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; Jones, W.; Rhydderch, S.M.; Edwards, P.

    2003-01-01

    Access to appointments in primary care is not routinely measured, and there is no one standardized method for doing so. Any measurement tool has to take account of the dynamic status of appointment availability and the definitional problems of appointment types. The aim of this study was to develop

  15. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  16. The Nature of Institutional Heteronormativity in Primary Schools and Practice-Based Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renee; Atkinson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Concern for school-based homophobia is increasing, yet there is a tendency to focus on individual incidents of homophobic bullying rather than the cultural and institutional factors supporting them. We analyse ways in which institutional heteronormativity operates in primary schools and report results from our research in UK schools that…

  17. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  18. Headteachers' Readings of and Responses to Disadvantaged Contexts: Evidence from English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Ruth; Thrupp, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Existing research demonstrates the impact of context on school organisation and management, curriculum and pedagogy and on student peer relations. New developments in English education policy will devolve more responsibility for dealing with these issues to headteachers. Headteachers' readings of their contexts and the responses that they make are…

  19. Can snag creation benefit a primary cavity nester: response to an experimental pulse in snag abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kilgo; Mark Vukovich

    2014-01-01

    Thresholds in response by cavity-nesting bird populations to variations in the snag resource are poorly understood. In addition, limited information exists on the value of artificially created snags for cavity-nesting birds. Therefore, uncertainty exists in whether artificially created snags can yield a positive population response among snag-dependent birds. We used...

  20. Picturebooks in the Primary EFL Classroom: Authentic Literature for an Authentic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by discussing the term ‘picturebook’, followed by a definition which centres on the picture-word dynamic, the social and cultural implications of using picturebooks and an explanation of picturebook peritext. This is followed by a section that discusses response and its relevance to teachers who want to (reconsider picturebooks in an EFL classroom. A category of responses is then suggested as a way to support EFL teachers to understand their learners’ responses to picturebooks and help them recognize the relevance of response to the storytelling experience. The final section describes two picturebooks with concrete examples of the different ways picturebooks enable and promote authentic responses through both the pictures and the words.

  1. Managing employee motivation: Exploring the connections between managers' enforcement actions, employee perceptions, and employee intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    analyze whether local managers—the primary enforcers of external interventions—affect how employees perceive a command system and thereby affect employee intrinsic motivation. Using a multilevel dataset of 1,190 teachers and 32 school principals, we test whether principals’ use of “hard”, “mixed” or “soft......” enforcement of a command system (obligatory teacher-produced student plans) is associated with teacher intrinsic motivation. Results show that teachers experiencing a “hard” enforcement have lower intrinsic motivation than teachers experiencing a “soft” enforcement. As expected by motivation crowding theory......A number of studies show that the use of external interventions, such as command systems and economic incentives, can decrease employee intrinsic motivation. Our knowledge of why the size of “the hidden cost of rewards” differs between organizations is, however, still sparse. In this paper, we...

  2. Department of Energy (DOE) transportation system for nuclear materials and the role of state law enforcement agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Hoover, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been assigned the responsibility for the safe and secure movement of strategic quantities of government-owned special nuclear material as well as classified material. To accomplish this mission, a transportation system has been developed which takes advantage of advanced technology and other features to reduce vulnerability to terrorists. The system consists of a careful balance of specially-trained personnel, procedures and sophisticated equipment. These, in combination, generally allow the system to be self-sufficient. However, should the need arise, DOE will request assistance from state law enforcement agencies. The primary contact for assistance is the state police or highway patrol. DOE, with the assistance of Sandia Laboratories, has surveyed state police agencies throughout the nation. A data base has been created which includes the results of these surveys and a numerical description of DOE transportation routes. This data base, along with a ''Response'' model developed by Sandia Laboratories, allows projections of officer availability to be made for all of DOE's routes. This paper will describe the DOE Transportation System, the role of state law enforcement agencies in support of the system, the nationwide state policy survey, and the operation of the response computer model

  3. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  4. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Ira [Warrington College of Business, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7169 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  5. Psychometric analysis of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in primary care using modern item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) is one of the most frequently used diagnostic self-report scales for screening, diagnosis and severity assessment of anxiety disorder. Its psychometric properties from the view of the Item Response Theory paradigm have rarely been investigated. We aimed to close this gap by analyzing the GAD-7 within a large sample of primary care patients with respect to its psychometric properties and its implications for scoring using Item Response Theory. Robust, nonparametric statistics were used to check unidimensionality of the GAD-7. A graded response model was fitted using a Bayesian approach. The model fit was evaluated using posterior predictive p-values, item information functions were derived and optimal predictions of anxiety were calculated. The sample included N = 3404 primary care patients (60% female; mean age, 52,2; standard deviation 19.2) The analysis indicated no deviations of the GAD-7 scale from unidimensionality and a decent fit of a graded response model. The commonly suggested ultra-brief measure consisting of the first two items, the GAD-2, was supported by item information analysis. The first four items discriminated better than the last three items with respect to latent anxiety. The information provided by the first four items should be weighted more heavily. Moreover, estimates corresponding to low to moderate levels of anxiety show greater variability. The psychometric validity of the GAD-2 was supported by our analysis.

  6. Suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, sublethally exposed to tritiated water during embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Antibody synthesis in response to vaccination with a 0.1 cc (1.8 x 10 8 cells/cc) intraperitoneally injected heat-killed strain of Flexibacter columnaris was employed to investigate the effect of tritium irradiation (0, 0.04, 0.4, 4.0 and 40.0 rads total dose for 20 days during embryogenesis) on development of the primary immune response in 5-month rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Total serum protein measurements and electrophoretic separation of blood serum proteins followed by densitometric analyses were performed to assess the potential for qualitative and quantitative changes in blood serum components which conceivably accounted for suppressed immune responsiveness in tritium-irradiated fish. Data on the biological effects of tritium on early life stages in terms of hatchability, abnormality, latent mortality, and growth were also collected. A review of all experiments directed at determining the effects of early radiation exposure on the parameters of hatchability, incidence of abnormality, latent mortality and depressed growth, revealed considerable variation among similar treatments and indicated that significant effects at dose levels of 50 rads and below were not consistently demonstrated. While present experimental results demonstrated that the primary immune response in juvenile rainbow trout was significantly suppressed following embryonic exposure to tritium at essentially the 1.0 μCi/ml level, and perhaps at the 0.1 μCi/ml level, these concentrations are no less than 5 to 6 orders of magnitude above present levels for tritium in the aquatic environment

  7. Response of Treatment in Patients with Primary Headaches and Hypertension: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the priority in the treatment of patients with primary headaches accompanied by high blood pressure. In our study, we investigated whether there was a relationship between the decline in headache after treatment and the change in the average arterial pressure. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was performed with 101 patients who were admitted to the hospital emergency department with primary headache accompanied by high blood pressure. After treatment, the decrease in the severity of headaches, mean arterial pressure, and percentage value for the drop of mean arterial pressure were calculated for all patients. Results: In the study, 25 (24.8% patients’ headache decreased 3 levels, 43 (42.6% patients’ headache decreased 2 levels, and 23 (22.8% patients’ headache decreased one level. The mean arterial pressure value at admission was 118.58±12.65 mmHg, and after treatment at the 30th minute decreased to 98.41±13.43 mmHg. Although there was a statistically significant (p0.05 drop in the mean arterial pressure value of the patients with one level decrease in headache severity after treatment. Conclusion: This study showed that when a primary headache, which is often associated with high blood pressure, was treated instead of treating high blood pressure as a secondary cause of headache, blood pressure decreased spontaneously

  8. Chemical Profiling of Primary Mesothelioma Cultures Defines Subtypes with Different Expression Profiles and Clinical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunselaar, Laurel M; Quispel-Janssen, Josine M M F; Kim, Yongsoo; Alifrangis, Constantine; Zwart, Wilbert; Baas, Paul; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: Finding new treatment options for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is challenging due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this cancer type. The absence of druggable targets further complicates the development of new therapies. Current treatment options are therefore limited, and prognosis remains poor. Experimental Design: We performed drug screening on primary mesothelioma cultures to guide treatment decisions of corresponding patients that were progressive after first- or second-line treatment. Results: We observed a high concordance between in vitro results and clinical outcomes. We defined three subgroups responding differently to the anticancer drugs tested. In addition, gene expression profiling yielded distinct signatures that segregated the differently responding subgroups. These genes signatures involved various pathways, most prominently the fibroblast growth factor pathway. Conclusions: Our primary mesothelioma culture system has proved to be suitable to test novel drugs. Chemical profiling of primary mesothelioma cultures allows personalizing treatment for a group of patients with a rare tumor type where clinical trials are notoriously difficult. This personalized treatment strategy is expected to improve the poor prospects of patients with mesothelioma. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1761-70. ©2017 AACR See related commentary by John and Chia, p. 1513 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Role of genetic polymorphisms in NFKB-mediated inflammatory pathways in response to primary chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhugashvili, Maia; Luengo-Gil, Ginés; García, Teresa; González-Conejero, Rocío; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Escolar, Pedro Pablo; Calvo, Felipe; Vicente, Vicente; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms of genes related to inflammation are associated with pathologic response (primary endpoint) in patients with rectal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy (PCRT). Genomic DNA of 159 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with PCRT was genotyped for polymorphisms rs28362491 (NFKB1), rs1213266/rs5789 (PTGS1), rs5275 (PTGS2), and rs16944/rs1143627 (IL1B) using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. The association between each genotype and pathologic response (poor response vs complete or partial response) was analyzed using logistic regression models. The NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype was associated with pathologic response (odds ratio [OR], 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-52.65; P=.03) after PCRT. No statistically significant associations between other polymorphisms and response to PCRT were observed. Patients with the NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype showed a trend for longer disease-free survival (log-rank test, P=.096) and overall survival (P=.049), which was not significant in a multivariate analysis that included pathologic response. Analysis for 6 polymorphisms showed that patients carrying the haplotype rs28362491-DEL/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G (13.7% of cases) had a higher response rate to PCRT (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.21-64.98; P=.034) than the reference group (rs28362491-INS/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G). Clinically significant (grade ≥2) acute organ toxicity was also more frequent in patients with that same haplotype (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.11-15.36; P=.037). Our results suggest that genetic variation in NFKB-related inflammatory pathways might influence sensitivity to primary chemoradiation for rectal cancer. If confirmed, an inflammation-related radiogenetic profile might be used to select patients with rectal cancer for preoperative combined-modality treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in NFKB-Mediated Inflammatory Pathways in Response to Primary Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhugashvili, Maia; Luengo-Gil, Ginés; García, Teresa; González-Conejero, Rocío; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Escolar, Pedro Pablo; Calvo, Felipe; Vicente, Vicente; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether polymorphisms of genes related to inflammation are associated with pathologic response (primary endpoint) in patients with rectal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy (PCRT). Methods and Materials: Genomic DNA of 159 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with PCRT was genotyped for polymorphisms rs28362491 (NFKB1), rs1213266/rs5789 (PTGS1), rs5275 (PTGS2), and rs16944/rs1143627 (IL1B) using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. The association between each genotype and pathologic response (poor response vs complete or partial response) was analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: The NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype was associated with pathologic response (odds ratio [OR], 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-52.65; P=.03) after PCRT. No statistically significant associations between other polymorphisms and response to PCRT were observed. Patients with the NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype showed a trend for longer disease-free survival (log-rank test, P=.096) and overall survival (P=.049), which was not significant in a multivariate analysis that included pathologic response. Analysis for 6 polymorphisms showed that patients carrying the haplotype rs28362491-DEL/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G (13.7% of cases) had a higher response rate to PCRT (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.21-64.98; P=.034) than the reference group (rs28362491-INS/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G). Clinically significant (grade ≥2) acute organ toxicity was also more frequent in patients with that same haplotype (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.11-15.36; P=.037). Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic variation in NFKB-related inflammatory pathways might influence sensitivity to primary chemoradiation for rectal cancer. If confirmed, an inflammation-related radiogenetic profile might be used to select patients with rectal cancer for preoperative combined-modality treatment

  11. PROGRESSIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT TOWARDS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION IN KOTA KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Efraim Liunima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is creator intellectual wealth so it needs to be protected by the State as a form of responsibility. Responding that problem comes into the world Law Number 28 Year 2014 concerning Copyrights and all violations in UUHC is formulated as delict complaint. Consequence of delict complaint is not all of copyright violations can be asked for the responsibility because law agencies are passive and limited by space and time. Answering that jurisdictional problem then researcher used empirical law research method. The result showed that civil servants investigator (PPNS Kanwil Kemenkumham NTT and also Kupang Kota Police Resort have done progressive step such as appealing, warning, calling, making statement, stocktaking and confiscation whereas the obstacle factor of progressive law enforcement is knowledge, mindset and in the formula of UUHC there is no section which formulate what the step can be done if criminal matters happen so the suggestions given is law enforcement agencies need an explanation about progressive law enforcement and it is better if in UUHC need to be formulated a step which will be taken if criminal matters happen

  12. A prospective study of shoulder pain in primary care: Prevalence of imaged pathology and response to guided diagnostic blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Peter J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of imaged pathology in primary care has received little attention and the relevance of identified pathology to symptoms remains unclear. This paper reports the prevalence of imaged pathology and the association between pathology and response to diagnostic blocks into the subacromial bursa (SAB, acromioclavicular joint (ACJ and glenohumeral joint (GHJ. Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain recruited from primary care underwent standardised x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound scan and diagnostic injections of local anaesthetic into the SAB and ACJ. Subjects who reported less than 80% reduction in pain following either of these injections were referred for a magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA and GHJ diagnostic block. Differences in proportions of positive and negative imaging findings in the anaesthetic response groups were assessed using Fishers test and odds ratios were calculated a for positive anaesthetic response (PAR to diagnostic blocks. Results In the 208 subjects recruited, the rotator cuff and SAB displayed the highest prevalence of pathology on both ultrasound (50% and 31% respectively and MRA (65% and 76% respectively. The prevalence of PAR following SAB injection was 34% and ACJ injection 14%. Of the 59% reporting a negative anaesthetic response (NAR for both of these injections, 16% demonstrated a PAR to GHJ injection. A full thickness tear of supraspinatus on ultrasound was associated with PAR to SAB injection (OR 5.02; p p p p ≤ 0.05. Conclusions Rotator cuff and SAB pathology were the most common findings on ultrasound and MRA. Evidence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear was associated with symptoms arising from the subacromial region, and a biceps tendon sheath effusion and an intact rotator cuff were associated with an intra-articular GHJ pain source. When combined with clinical information, these results may help guide diagnostic decision making in primary care.

  13. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    .... but provides the strong security guarantees of modern languages such as Java. A second avenue of language-based work explored a general class of policy enforcement mechanism based on in-line reference monitors (IRM...

  14. Flow enforcement algorithms for ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B.; Moth, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Four measurement algorithms for flow enforcement in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks are presented. The algorithms are the leaky bucket, the rectangular sliding window, the triangular sliding window, and the exponentially weighted moving average. A comparison, based partly on teletraffic...

  15. Anticorruption expertise of law-enforcement acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate public necessity to define the subject methodological and organizational capabilities of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic method was used to study the needs in anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts in the mechanism of legal regulation based on it general scientific and special formal legal and comparative legal methods of research used for the definition of subjectmatter of the proposed expertise. Results the value of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement was shown corruption factors and corruption indicators enabling legislation were identified ways of conducting such examinations were proposed. Scientific novelty the article examines the need and the subject proposes methods of a new type of anticorruption expertise. Practical significance the conditions of corruption are defined which are created in law enforcement activities and methods for their detection are proposed. nbsp

  16. Risk sharing relations and enforcement mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether the set of available enforcement mechanisms affects the formation of risk sharing relations by applying dyadic regression analysis to data from a specifically designed behavioural experiment, two surveys and a genealogical mapping exercise. During the experiment participants

  17. 49 CFR 212.115 - Enforcement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.115 Enforcement... assess and compromise penalties, to issue emergency orders and compliance orders, institute or cause to...

  18. Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about 800,000 regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced,...

  19. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  20. System analysis of automated speed enforcement implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Speeding is a major factor in a large proportion of traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities in the United States. Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) is one of many approaches shown to be effective in reducing speeding violations and crashes. However...

  1. 39 CFR 7.7 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 7.7 Section 7.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE PUBLIC OBSERVATION (ARTICLE VII) § 7.7 Enforcement. (a) Under 5 U.S.C. 552b(g), any person may bring a proceeding in the United States...

  2. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  3. Citizen enforcement and the smoking gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the provisions for private citizens to bring lawsuits in federal court against regulated parties violating federal air pollution-control laws and the steps that operators of facilities subject to air pollution-control laws need to take to help avoid significant enforcement liabilities. The topics of the article include a look at citizen enforcement since 1970, the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, construction and management with these regulations

  4. Future law enforcement officers and social workers: perceptions of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Elizabeth C; Carlan, Philip E; Nored, Lisa S

    2010-08-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring whether various scenarios were (1) related to domestic violence, and (2) worthy of being reported to law enforcement. Findings indicate that all student groups (law enforcement, non-law-enforcement criminal justice, and social work) tended to identify the various scenarios as domestic violence (and worthy of being reported) regardless of the person's sexual orientation, violence severity, and offender's or victim's gender. However, law enforcement students are less sensitive to domestic violence when compared with social work and non-law enforcement criminal justice students. Findings reveal that (1) graduate students, (2) female students, and (3) White students (compared with African American students in general) attending majority White universities were more likely to identify domestic violence and its worthiness of being reported.The data in this study indicate that criminal justice programs produce graduates who are reasonably sensitive toward the importance of appropriate domestic violence response but could still improve using the techniques employed within social work programs.

  5. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil McInnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or house dust mite allergen (HDM or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS. BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons. There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023. There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures.

  6. Attentional load modulates responses of human primary visual cortex to invisible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Lavie, Nilli; Rees, Geraint

    2007-03-20

    Visual neuroscience has long sought to determine the extent to which stimulus-evoked activity in visual cortex depends on attention and awareness. Some influential theories of consciousness maintain that the allocation of attention is restricted to conscious representations [1, 2]. However, in the load theory of attention [3], competition between task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli for limited-capacity attention does not depend on conscious perception of the irrelevant stimuli. The critical test is whether the level of attentional load in a relevant task would determine unconscious neural processing of invisible stimuli. Human participants were scanned with high-field fMRI while they performed a foveal task of low or high attentional load. Irrelevant, invisible monocular stimuli were simultaneously presented peripherally and were continuously suppressed by a flashing mask in the other eye [4]. Attentional load in the foveal task strongly modulated retinotopic activity evoked in primary visual cortex (V1) by the invisible stimuli. Contrary to traditional views [1, 2, 5, 6], we found that availability of attentional capacity determines neural representations related to unconscious processing of continuously suppressed stimuli in human primary visual cortex. Spillover of attention to cortical representations of invisible stimuli (under low load) cannot be a sufficient condition for their awareness.

  7. Decreasing Net Primary Productivity in Response to Urbanization in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional ecosystems have been greatly affected by the rapid expansion of urban areas. In order to explore the impact of land use change on net primary productivity (NPP in rapidly developing cities during the current urbanization process, we quantified land use change in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2010 using net primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem productivity and health. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach model was used to estimate NPP by region and land use. We used a unit circle-based evaluation model to quantify local urbanization effects on NPP around eight representative cities. The dominant land use types were farmland, woodland and urban, with urban rapidly replacing farmland. Mean annual NPP and total NPP decreased faster from 2005 to 2010 than from 2000 to 2005, reflecting increasing urbanization rates. The eastern, primarily woodland part of Liaoning province had the greatest reduction in NPP, while the western part, which was primarily farmland and grassland, had the lowest reduction.

  8. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  9. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  10. Permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, sublethally exposed to tritiated water during embryognesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Fujihara, M.P.; Poston, T.M.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that antibody synthesis in response to a challenge from the bacterium, Flexibacter columnaris, was significantly suppressed in juvenile (5 month) rainbow trout following exposure to tritium at doses as low as 4.0 rads when administered during the first 20 days of embryogenesis. In continuing studies, a secondary challenge to columnaris cells delivered to yearling (17 month) trout was used to test the hypothesis that early embryonic exposure to tritium irradiation (0, 0.04, 0.4, 4.0, and 40.0 rads) resulted in permanent injury to the primary immune process. Results indicated that under the prescribed experimental conditions, suppression of the primary immune response was permanent; that is, the degree of injury in yearling fish (17 months) equaled or exceeded that found in juvenile fish (5 months). At levels in the range of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC), tritium produced measurable, dose dependent, and irreversible suppression of immune capacity in affected fish. The threshold-free and exponential nature of the dose-response curve suggests extrapolation of effects to even lower exposures. (author)

  11. Nutrient limitation drives response of Calamagrostis epigejos to arbuscular mycorrhiza in primary succession

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Dostálková, M.; Janoušková, Martina; Frouz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2016), s. 757-767 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10377S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chronosequence * mycorrhizal growth response * spoil banks Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2016

  12. The effect of a primary sexual reward manipulation on cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Denson, Thomas F; Satyshur, Maureen

    2013-05-01

    Although previous research provides evidence for the role of rewarding activities in reducing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, no studies have tested whether rewards can buffer cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge. Fifty-four heterosexual men were randomly assigned to view either mildly erotic (reward) or neutral images (control) of mixed-sex couples before completing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants in the reward condition had significantly lower area-under-the-curve cortisol reactivity to the TSST (mean [M] = 363.46) in comparison with participants in the control group (M = 807.06; F(1,46) = 4.84, p = .033, η(2) = 0.095). Reward participants also had improved cognitive performance on the math portion of the TSST (M = 20.74) in comparison with control participants (M = 13.82; F(44) = 5.44, p = .024, η(2) = 0.11). The stress-buffering effects of reward were specific to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity: the reward and control groups did not differ on psychological perceptions of anticipatory or poststress perceptions, heart rate, or blood pressure responses. This research provides the first evidence linking the experience of reward with reduced stress reactivity in humans and suggests a potential novel reward pathway for coping under stress.

  13. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  14. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being

  15. A Proactive and Responsive Bio-Psychosocial Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviour in Mainstream Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lorraine O. B.; Senior, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Research in the area of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and teacher's struggle to respond to challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms, has consistently highlighted the need for proventative and responsive approaches within a continuum of support. This study aims to, firstly, investigate what proactive and reactive strategies…

  16. Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid predicts survival in a North American cohort of primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Craig; Juran, Brian D; Schlicht, Erik; Chan, Landon L; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid among patients with primary biliary cirrhosis remains variable, and there is no agreement of an ideal model. Novel assessment of response coupled to histologic progression was recently defined by the Toronto criteria. We retrospectively assessed transplant-free survival and clinical outcomes associated with ursodeoxycholic acid response to evaluate the Toronto criteria using a large North American cohort of PBC patients. Three hundred and ninety-eight PBC patients from the Mayo Clinic PBC Genetic Epidemiology Registry were assessed for ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and biochemical response per the Toronto criteria. Responders were defined by reduction in alkaline phosphatase to less than or equal to 1.67 times the upper normal limit by 2 years of treatment, whereas non-responders had alkaline phosphatase values greater than 1.67 times the upper normal limit. Probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred and two (76 %) patients were responders and 96 (24 %) were non-responders. Significantly more non-responders developed adverse events related to chronic liver disease compared to responders (hazard ratio (HR) 2.77, P = 0.001). Biochemical responders and early-stage disease at treatment start was associated with improved overall transplant-free survival compared to non-responders (HR 1.9) and patients with late-stage disease (HR 2.7) after age and sex adjustment. The Toronto criteria are capable of identifying ursodeoxycholic acid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis patients at risk of poor transplant-free survival and adverse clinical outcomes. Our data reveal that despite advanced disease at diagnosis, biochemical response per the Toronto criteria associates with improved overall transplant-free survival.

  17. Esophageal Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with Inconsistent Response to Treatment in the Primary and Metastatic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tomiyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC is a rare malignant tumor that is characterized by high-grade malignancy and a poor prognosis. However, the rarity of esophageal NEC has prevented the development of an established treatment, and no reports have described a discrepancy in the effectiveness of cisplatin plus irinotecan between primary and metastatic lesions. A 43-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with refractory epigastralgia. A previous gastrointestinal endoscopy had revealed a 50-mm type 2 tumor in the abdominal esophagus. The pathological findings indicated poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a metastatic liver tumor. One cycle of fluorouracil and cisplatin was not effective, and endoscopy was repeatedly performed. The pathological findings indicated a large-cell malignant tumor with tumor cells that were positive for CD56, synaptophysin, and Ki-67 (> 80%. Based on a diagnosis of esophageal large-cell NEC with a metastatic liver tumor, the patient received cisplatin plus irinotecan biweekly. After 4 months, computed tomography revealed marked shrinkage of the metastatic tumor, but the patient complained of dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed enlargement of the primary tumor, which was then treated using radiotherapy plus fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor subsequently shrank, and the patient’s symptoms were relieved, but the metastatic tumor grew. Thus, chemoradiotherapy could be an option for managing a primary esophageal large-cell NEC that does not respond to chemotherapy alone. However, the possibility of an inconsistent response to therapy in primary and metastatic lesions should be considered.

  18. Benthic reef primary production in response to large amplitude internal waves at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand)

    KAUST Repository

    Jantzen, Carin

    2013-11-29

    Coral reefs are facing rapidly changing environments, but implications for reef ecosystem functioning and important services, such as productivity, are difficult to predict. Comparative investigations on coral reefs that are naturally exposed to differing environmental settings can provide essential information in this context. One prevalent phenomenon regularly introducing alterations in water chemistry into coral reefs are internal waves. This study therefore investigates the effect of large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) on primary productivity in coral reefs at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand). The LAIW-exposed west sides of the islands are subjected to sudden drops in water temperature accompanied by enhanced inorganic nutrient concentrations compared to the sheltered east. At the central island, Ko Miang, east and west reefs are only few hundred meters apart, but feature pronounced differences. On the west lower live coral cover (-38%) coincides with higher turf algae cover (+64%) and growth (+54%) compared to the east side. Turf algae and the reef sand-associated microphytobenthos displayed similar chlorophyll a contents on both island sides, but under LAIW exposure, turf algae exhibited higher net photosynthesis (+23%), whereas the microphytobenthos displayed reduced net and gross photosynthesis (-19% and -26%, respectively) accompanied by lower respiration (-42%). In contrast, the predominant coral Porites lutea showed higher chlorophyll a tissues contents (+42%) on the LAIW-exposed west in response to lower light availability and higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, but net photosynthesis was comparable for both sides. Turf algae were the major primary producers on the west side, whereas microphytobenthos dominated on the east. The overall primary production rate (comprising all main benthic primary producers) was similar on both island sides, which indicates high primary production variability under different environmental conditions.

  19. Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Vladimir; Komssi, Soile; Scherg, Michael; Hoechstetter, Karsten; Classen, Joseph; Zaaroor, Menashe; Pratt, Hillel; Kahkonen, Seppo

    2007-08-01

    Analyzing the brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using electroencephalography (EEG) is a promising method for the assessment of functional cortical connectivity and excitability of areas accessible to this stimulation. However, until now it has been difficult to analyze the EEG responses during the several tens of milliseconds immediately following the stimulus due to TMS-induced artifacts. In the present study we show that by combining a specially adapted recording system with software artifact correction it is possible to remove a major part of the artifact and analyze the cortical responses as early as 10 ms after TMS. We used this methodology to examine responses of left and right primary motor cortex (M1) to TMS at different intensities. Based on the artifact-corrected data we propose a model for the cortical activation following M1 stimulation. The model revealed the same basic response sequence for both hemispheres. A large part of the response could be accounted for by two sources: a source close to the stimulation site (peaking approximately 15 ms after the stimulus) and a midline frontal source ipsilateral to the stimulus (peaking approximately 25 ms). In addition the model suggests responses in ipsilateral temporo-parietal junction areas (approximately 35 ms) and ipsilateral (approximately 30 ms) and middle (approximately 50 ms) cerebellum. Statistical analysis revealed significant dependence on stimulation intensity for the ipsilateral midline frontal source. The methodology developed in the present study paves the way for the detailed study of early responses to TMS in a wide variety of brain areas.

  20. Breast conserving surgery following primary irradiation in 3-7 cm breast cancer: pathologic response and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Gaudens, Anne Bareille; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Campana, Francois; Gautier, Chantal; Asselain, Bernard; Rocherfordiere, Anne de la; Clough, Krishna B.; Fourquet, Alain

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate histologic response and outcome of patients treated by primary irradiation followed by conservative surgery. Materials and Methods: Between 1981 and 1993, 1742 patients (pts.) with large 3-7 cm invasive breast cancer were treated by primary breast and nodes irradiation in our institution. Of these, 311 pts. (18%) further underwent a wide excision of the residual tumor. Median age was 55 years (yrs.) (29 - 79 yrs.). Median breast tumor size was 40 mm (35 - 70mm). 149 pts. (48%) were premenopausal. 142 pts (46%) had clinically palpable axillary nodes. Diagnosis of invasive breast cancer was performed in all patients by drill biopsy. Following diagnosis, all 311 patients were treated by external irradiation to the breast and regional nodes. Median dose to the breast was 55 Gy (50 - 64 Gy) over 5.5 weeks. Following this irradiation, all patients underwent a wide surgical excision with (140 pts; 45%) or without (171 pts; 55%) axillary node dissection. In addition, 70 pts (22.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy and 70 pts. received hormone therapy after local treatment. All patients were then regularly followed. Results: Median residual breast tumor size after completion of irradiation was 20 mm (0 - 50mm). On pathologic examination, 34 (11%) tumors had no residual malignant cells (complete response), 137 tumors (44%) had residual fibrosis with clusters of viable cells (partial response), and 138 tumors (45%) had residual viable malignant cells (no response). Median follow up was 106 months (10 - 188 months). Actuarial 9-year overall survival rate was 69 % ± 6%. The 9-year metastasis-free interval was 58 % ± 6%. The 9-year breast recurrence rate was 22 % ± 5 %. The 9-year breast preservation rate was 84% ± 5%. Pathologic response was not predictive of outcome, either distant or local. Conclusion: This retrospective study showed that in patients with tumors too large to be treated by upfront breast-conserving surgery, primary breast

  1. Acknowledging and allocating responsibility for clinical inertia in the management of Type 2 diabetes in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, A; Stone, M A; Davies, M J; Khunti, K

    2015-03-01

    Failure to intensify treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes with suboptimal blood glucose control has been termed clinical inertia and has been shown to contribute to poorer patient outcomes. We aimed to identify and explore perceptions about clinical inertia from the perspective of primary healthcare providers. A qualitative study was conducted in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, UK. Purposive sampling was based on healthcare providers working in primary care settings with 'higher' and 'lower' target achievement based on routine data. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted, face-to-face or by telephone. Thematic analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach. An important broad theme that emerged during the analysis was related to attribution and explanation of responsibility for clinical inertia. This included general willingness to accept a degree of responsibility for clinical inertia. In some cases, however, participants had inaccurate perceptions about levels of target achievement in their primary care centres, as indicated by routine data. Participants sought to lessen their own sense of accountability by highlighting patient-level barriers such as comorbidities and human fallibility, and also system-level barriers, particularly time constraints. Perceptions about ways of addressing the problem of clinical inertia were not seen as straightforward, further emphasizing a complex and cumulative pattern of barriers. In order to understand and address the problem of clinical inertia, provider, patient- and system-level barriers should be considered together rather than as separate issues. Acknowledgement of responsibility should be regarded positively as a motivator for change. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  2. Discerning Primary and Secondary Factors Responsible for Clinical Fatigue in Multisystem Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maughan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a common symptom of numerous acute and chronic diseases, including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, heart failure, cancer, and many others. In these multi-system diseases the physiological determinants of enhanced fatigue encompass a combination of metabolic, neurological, and myofibrillar adaptations. Previous research studies have focused on adaptations specific to skeletal muscle and their role in fatigue. However, most have neglected the contribution of physical inactivity in assessing disease syndromes, which, through deconditioning, likely contributes to symptomatic fatigue. In this commentary, we briefly review disease-related muscle phenotypes in the context of whether they relate to the primary disease or whether they develop secondary to reduced physical activity. Knowledge of the etiology of the skeletal muscle adaptations in these conditions and their contribution to fatigue symptoms is important for understanding the utility of exercise rehabilitation as an intervention to alleviate the physiological precipitants of fatigue.

  3. Probabilistic study of primary pump trip in a P.W.R. reactor: use of response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, C.; Duchemin, B.; Maigret, N.; Peltier, J.; Rostan, O.; Villeneuve, M.J. de; Lanore, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic study about the consequences of the trip or blockage of one of the three PWR reactor primary pumps. The distribution of the input parameters is taken into account and the resulting distribution of the consequence (number of failed fuel rods) is assessed. The necessity to do this study with the response surface methodology and the precautions to take are outlined. The results show that the probability to have failed fuel rods is about 10 -4 for pump trip and 0.16 for blockage with, in this case, a mean of 196 failed rods, that is 0.5 % of total number of rods

  4. Nonlinear dynamic response analysis in piping system for a loss of coolant accident in primary loop of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiwen; He Feng; Hao Pengfei; Wang Xuefang

    2000-01-01

    Based on the elaborate force and moment analysis with characteristics method and control-volume integrating method for the piping system of primary loop under pressurized water reactor' loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, the nonlinear dynamic response of this system is calculated by the updated Lagrangian formulation (ADINA code). The piping system and virtual underpinning are specially processed, the move displacement of the broken pipe with time is accurately acquired, which is very important and useful for the design of piping system and virtual underpinning

  5. Sex differences in the inflammatory response of primary astrocytes to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Galindo María

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders show sex differences in incidence, age of onset, symptomatology or outcome. Astrocytes, one of the glial cell types of the brain, show sex differences in number, differentiation and function. Since astrocytes are involved in the response of neural tissue to injury and inflammation, these cells may participate in the generation of sex differences in the response of the brain to pathological insults. To explore this hypothesis, we have examined whether male and female astrocytes show a different response to an inflammatory challenge and whether perinatal testosterone influences this response. Methods Cortical astrocyte cultures were prepared from postnatal day 1 (one day after birth male or female CD1 mice pups. In addition, cortical astrocyte cultures were also prepared from female pups that were injected at birth with 100 μg of testosterone propionate or vehicle. Cultures were treated for 5 hours with medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS or with control medium. The mRNA levels of IL6, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10, TNFα, IL1β, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and translocator protein were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical significance was assessed by unpaired t-test or by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. Results The mRNA levels of IL6, TNFα and IL1β after LPS treatment were significantly higher in astrocytes derived from male or androgenized females compared to astrocytes derived from control or vehicle-injected females. In contrast, IP10 mRNA levels after LPS treatment were higher in astrocytes derived from control or vehicle-injected females than in those obtained from males or androgenized females. The different response of male and female astrocytes to LPS was due neither to differences in the basal expression of the inflammatory molecules nor to

  6. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A.; Buck, Cara L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value. PMID:26158468

  7. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Field

    Full Text Available Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  8. Engineering Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response for Distributed Energy Resources: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guggilam, Swaroop [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj V [University of Minnesota; Chen, Yu C [University of British Columbia; Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    We propose a framework to engineer synthetic-inertia and droop-control parameters for distributed energy resources (DERs) so that the system frequency in a network composed of DERs and synchronous generators conforms to prescribed transient and steady-state performance specifications. Our approach is grounded in a second-order lumped-parameter model that captures the dynamics of synchronous generators and frequency-responsive DERs endowed with inertial and droop control. A key feature of this reduced-order model is that its parameters can be related to those of the originating higher-order dynamical model. This allows one to systematically design the DER inertial and droop-control coefficients leveraging classical frequency-domain response characteristics of second-order systems. Time-domain simulations validate the accuracy of the model-reduction method and demonstrate how DER controllers can be designed to meet steady-state-regulation and transient-performance specifications.

  9. KCNQ channels are involved in the regulatory volume decrease response in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was studied in intact single cells attached to coverslips, i.e. with an intact cytoskeleton. The potential contribution of KCNQ (Kv7) channels to the RVD response and the possible involvement of the F-actin cytoskeleton were investigated. The rate of RVD was significantly...... changes the structure of the F-actin cytoskeleton, leading to a more rounded cell shape, less pronounced F-actin stress fibers and patches of actin. In the presence of cytochalasin D (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of actin polymerization, the RVD response was strongly reduced, confirming a possible role...... for an intact F-actin cytoskeleton in linking cell swelling to activation of ion transport in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  10. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4−/− eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  11. Immune Responses following Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Maehata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune responses following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC were examined from the point of view of lymphocyte subset counts and natural killer cell activity (NKA. Patients and Methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 62 patients at 4 time points between pretreatment and 4 weeks post-treatment for analysis of the change of total lymphocyte counts (TLC and lymphocyte subset counts of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56+, and NKA. In addition, the changes of lymphocyte subset counts were compared between patients with or without relapse. Further, the correlations between SBRT-related parameters and immune response were analyzed for the purpose of revealing the mechanisms of the immune response. Results. All lymphocyte subset counts and NKA at post-treatment and 1 week post-treatment were significantly lower than pre-treatment (P<0.01. No significant differences in the changes of lymphocyte subset counts were observed among patients with or without relapse. The volume of the vertebral body receiving radiation doses of 3 Gy or more (VV3 significantly correlated with the changes of nearly all lymphocyte subset counts. Conclusions. SBRT for stage I NSCLC induced significant immune suppression, and the decrease of lymphocyte subset counts may be associated with exposure of the vertebral bone marrow.

  12. Establishing enforcement legitimacy in the pursuit of rule-breaking ‘global elites’: the case of transnational corporate bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article develops an analytical framework for analysing the legitimacy of law enforcement responses towards rule-breaking ‘global elites’, in particular multi-national corporations implicated in transnational corporate bribery. While international anti-bribery laws and norms converge cross-jurisdictionally, enforcement contexts and responses can diverge formally creating dilemmas over how to establish the relative legitimacy of different enforcement frameworks. This article draws on a...

  13. Low dose irradiation does not stimulate in vivo primary antibody response in specific-pathogen-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisaku, H.; Sado, T.; Muto, M.; Pongpiachan, P.; Magnemi, U.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies from other laboratories indicated that exposure of mice to low dose radiation resulted in the enhancement of primary anti-SRBC PFC response in mice. We have repeated these experiments using four strains of mice that are known to differ in radiosensitivity of immune response potential in vivo. In one study mice were exposed to 2.5-25 cGy of X-rays. Nine hours later they were injected with SRBC and the number of PFCs per spleen was assessed individually at 4.5 days. The results indicated no evidence for the enhancement of PFC response at all exposure levels examined. In another study, groups of C57BL/6J mice were immunized with SRBC and exposed to 0, 150, or 300 cGy of X-rays 2 days later. Numbers of direct as well as indirect PFCs per spleen were then assessed individually at frequent intervals thereafter. The results indicated that exposure of mice to 150 cGy resulted in a significant increase in the number of indirect PFCs assessed at day 11 after SRBC injection, or 9 days after radiation exposure. Dose-response analysis of radiation-induced enhancement of indirect PFC response by this protocol indicated that only after exposure to 150 and 300 cGy for C57BL/6 and C3H/He strain, respectively, a significant enhancement of indirect PFC response was demonstrated. Flow cytometric analysis of spleen cells from these animals indicated that CD4+/CD+ cell ratios increased rapidly during the first three days after radiation exposure, followed by a rapid decline, suggesting that relative proportion of helper/inducer as compared to cytotoxic/suppressor T cell subset changed rapidly in favor of the former shortly after radiation exposure and possibly contributed to the observed enhancement of indirect PFC response. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  15. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  16. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This... lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  17. [Seroconversion in response to a reinforced primary hepatitis B vaccination in children with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Rodolfo; Zubieta, Marcela; Hurtado, Carmen; Salgado, Carmen; Silva, Gladys; Fernández, Jazmine; Villarroel, Milena; Fernández, Marisol; Brahm, Javier; O'Ryan, Miguel; Santolaya, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Immune response against vaccine antigens may be impaired in children with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroconversion response against hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) at the time of chemotherapy onset and/or remission in children with cancer. Prospective, two-centre, controlled, non-randomised study conducted on children recently diagnosed with cancer, paired with healthy subjects. Cases received HBV at time 0, 1 and 6 months with DNA recombinant HBV at a dose of 20 and 40 μg if than 10 years of age, respectively, at the time of diagnosis for solids tumours and after the remission in case of haematological tumours. Controls received the same schedule, but at of 10 and 20 μg doses, respectively. HBs antibodies were measured in serum samples obtained at 2, 8 and 12 months post-vaccination. Protective titres were defined as > 10 mIU/ml at 8th month of follow up. A total of 78 children with cancer and 25 healthy controls were analysed at month 8th of follow up. Seroconversion rates in the cancer group reached 26.9%, with no differences by age, gender or type of tumour (P = .13, .29, and .44, respectively). Control group seroconversion was 100% at the 8th month, with P 10 mIU/ml. Vaccination against hepatitis B with three doses of DNA recombinant vaccine at an increased concentration, administrated at the time of onset of chemotherapy and/or remission provided an insufficient immune response in a majority of children with cancer. More immunogenic vaccines should be evaluated in this special population, such as a third generation, with more immunogenic adjuvants, enhanced schedules at 0, 1, 2, 6 month, evaluation of antibody titres at month 8 and 12h to evaluate the need for further booster doses. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Durability of immunity by hepatitis B vaccine in Japanese health care workers depends on primary response titers and durations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori Yoshioka

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCWs are frequently exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The efficacy and safety of immunization with the hepatitis B (HB vaccine are well recognized, but the durability of immunity and need for booster doses in those with secondary vaccine response failure remains controversial.This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Osaka University Hospital, Japan. We examined antibodies against HB surface antigen (anti-HBs titers annually after immunization for previously non-immunized HCWs. Primary responders were categorized by their sero-positive durations as short responders (those whose anti-HBs titers declined to negative range within 3 years, and long responders (those who retained positive anti-HBs levels for 3 years and more. We re-immunized short responders with either single or 3-dose boosters, the long responders with a single booster when their titers dropped below protective levels, and examined their sero-protection rates over time thereafter.From 2001 to 2012, data of 264 HCWs with a median age of 25.3 were collected. The rate of anti-HBs positivity after primary vaccination were 93.0% after three doses (n = 229, 54.5% after two doses (n = 11, and 4.2% after a single dose (n = 24. Of 213 primary responders, the anti-HBs levels of 95 participants (44.6% fell below the protective levels, including 46 short responders and 49 long responders. HCWs with higher initial anti-HBs titers after primary vaccination had significantly longer durations of sero-positivity. For short responders, 3-dose booster vaccination induced a longer duration of anti-HBs positivity compared to a single-dose booster, whereas for long responders, a single-dose booster alone could induce prolonged anti-HBs positivity.Our preliminary data suggested that it may be useful to differentiate HB vaccine responders based on their primary response durations to maintain protective levels of anti-HBs efficiently. A randomized, prospective

  19. [Response of primary care teams to manage mental health problems after the 2010 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Verónica; Minoletti, Alberto; Alvarado, Rubén; Sierralta, Paula; Cancino, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    Thirty to 50% of people exposed to a natural disaster suffer psychological problems in the ensuing months. To characterize the activities in mental health developed by Primary Health Care centers after the earthquake that affected Chile on february 27th, 2010. A cross-sectional study analyzing 16 urban centers of Maule Region, was carried out. A questionnaire was developed to know the preparatory and supportive activities directed to the community and the training and self-care activities directed to Health Care personnel that were made during the 12 months following the catastrophe. In addition, a questionnaire evaluating structural aspects was designed. Only 1/3 of the centers made some preparatory activity and none of them made a diagnosis of population vulnerability. The average of protective Mental Health interventions coverage reached 35% of the population estimated to be most affected. The activities lasted 31 to 62% of the optimal duration standards set by experts (according to the type of action). Important differences between centers in economic and geographical accessibility, construction and professional resources were found. This study shows the difficulties faced by urban centers of Maule Region to deal with mental health problems caused by the earthquake, which were attributable to the absence of local planning and drills, and to the lack of intra and inter sectorial coordination.

  20. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Interactive responses of primary producers and grazers to pollution on temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Amelia E; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Hill, Nicole A; Thomson, Russell J; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Alexander, Timothy J; Kirkpatrick, James; Edgar, Graham J

    2018-06-01

    Macroalgal beds provide important habitat structure and support primary production for rocky reef communities, but are increasingly degraded as a result of human pressures. Various sources of pollution can have both direct and interactive effects on stressed ecosystems. In particular, interactions involving invertebrate grazers could potentially weaken or strengthen the overall impact of pollution on macroalgal beds. Using a paired impact-control experimental design, we tested the effects of multiple pollution sources (fish farms, marinas, sewerage, and stormwater) on translocated and locally established algal assemblages, while also considering the influence of invertebrate grazers. Marinas directly affected algal assemblages and also reduced densities of amphipods and other invertebrate mesograzers. Fish farms and sewerage outfalls tended to directly increase local establishment of foliose and leathery algae without any indication of changes in herbivory. Overall, pollution impacts on algae did not appear to be strongly mediated by changes in grazer abundance. Instead, mesograzer abundance was closely linked to availability of more complex algal forms, with populations likely to decline concurrently with loss of complex algal habitats. Macrograzers, such as sea urchins, showed no signs of a negative impact from any pollution source; hence, the influence of this group on algal dynamics is probably persistent and independent of moderate pollution levels, potentially adding to the direct impacts of pollution on algal beds in urbanised environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S.; Johnston, Jill; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. Results 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a “big concern” for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be “good for the community” and 60% agreeing that it would be “good for law enforcement.” Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a “big concern” and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. Conclusions These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. PMID:25193720

  3. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  4. Primary Human Blood Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy—Tailoring the Immune Response by Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P. Sittig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC-based cancer vaccines hold the great promise of tipping the balance from tolerance of the tumor to rejection. In the last two decades, we have gained tremendous knowledge about DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation of DCs has proven indispensable to induce immunogenic T cell responses. We review the insights gained from the development of maturation cocktails in monocyte derived DC-based trials. More recently, we have also gained insights into the functional specialization of primary human blood DC subsets. In peripheral human blood, we can distinguish at least three primary DC subsets, namely CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. We reflect the current knowledge on maturation and T helper polarization by these blood DC subsets in the context of DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation stimulus in combination with the DC subset will determine the type of T cell response that is induced. First trials with these natural DCs underline their excellent in vivo functioning and mark them as promising tools for future vaccination strategies.

  5. An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution

  6. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  7. Primary immune system responders to nucleus pulposus cells: evidence for immune response in disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Murai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intervertebral disc herniation and associated sciatica is a common disease, its molecular pathogenesis is not well understood. Immune responses are thought to be involved. This study provides direct evidence that even non-degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP cells elicit immune responses. An in vitro colony forming inhibition assay demonstrated the suppressive effects of autologous spleen cells on NP cells and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed the positive cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK cells and macrophages on NP cells. Non-degenerated rat NP tissues transplanted into wild type rats and immune-deficient mice demonstrated a significantly higher NP cell survival rate in immune-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of macrophages and NK cells in the transplanted NP tissues. These results suggest that even non-degenerated autologous NP cells are recognized by macrophages and NK cells, which may have an immunological function in the early phase of disc herniation. These findings contribute to understanding resorption and the inflammatory reaction to disc herniation.

  8. Response characteristics of HPR1000 primary circuit under different working conditions of the atmospheric relief system after SBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Danting, E-mail: suidanting@163.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Lu, Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Shang, Changzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan [China Nuclear Power Design Co., ltd (ShenZhen), Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Xianjie [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Response of HPR1000 under different VDA conditions after SBLOCA was investigated. • Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point exists. • VDA capability design should compromise the critical point with reactivity feedback. - Abstract: To cope with SBLOCA in absence of High-Head Safety Injection (HHSI) from design of HPR1000, atmospheric relief system (originally named as VDA in French) is uniquely designed to help to trigger Middle Head Safety Injection (MHSI) or Low Head Safety Injection (LHSI) earlier through cooling primary system quickly after SBLOCA. To make the best use of VDA decay heat removal capability, primary and secondary system of HPR1000 was modeled with RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. After steady-state initialization, a cold leg 30 mm break SBLOCA was simulated with six simulation conditions and five additional cases including availability of ACCU, different VDA discharge locations and area. Response characteristics of primary loop under different VDA working conditions are investigated. Pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly to lower level to trigger the reactor scram, VDA activation and accumulator safety injection sequently. Peak cladding temperature is 899.45 K occurring at 222 s, which is far below the safety limit. Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point, while positive reactivity will be introduced due to negative moderator temperature effect and Doppler effect. Larger VDA discharge capability will introduce larger reactivity feedback, as well as induce lower core level and SG level. It's suggested that VDA discharge condition should be chosen before the critical point, with the compromise with reactivity feedback introduced due to the negative moderator temperature effect.

  9. The Significance of the Stromal Response in Breast Cancer: An Immunohistochemical Study of Myofibroblasts in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozdar, Alale; Hayes, Malcolm M; Pourseyedei, Bahram; Zeinalinejad, Hamid; Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Dabiri, Bahram; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2018-05-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has demonstrated the importance of stromal response in determining the prognosis of invasive breast cancer. The host response to breast cancer is of increasing interest to pathologists and may be a future focus for novel pharmacological treatments. This study describes the pattern of distribution of stromal myofibroblasts using immunostains for CD10 and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in 50 primary breast cancers and their matched nodal metastases (68.6% nodes positive and 31.4% nodes negative). The stroma within the tumor (intratumoral) and at the advancing tumor edge (peri-tumoral) was studied in both primary and nodal sites. A simple quantitative scoring system was employed for both immunostains. The correlation between expression of these markers by stromal cells and standard pathological prognostic factors of stage, grade, hormone receptor and Her-2 status was analysed. SMA-positive stromal cells were more abundant in peri-tumoral stroma compared with intratumoral stroma in both primary and metastatic lesions. SMA expression in the lymph node metastases showed a significant correlation with tumor stage. SMA expression in peri-tumoral stroma correlated with Her-2 status. The results of this study suggest that myofibroblasts, particularly those expressing SMA, might potentiate the progression of the carcinomatous process especially in nodal metastases. Thus these cells may be a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Response characteristics of HPR1000 primary circuit under different working conditions of the atmospheric relief system after SBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Danting; Lu, Daogang; Shang, Changzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xianjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of HPR1000 under different VDA conditions after SBLOCA was investigated. • Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point exists. • VDA capability design should compromise the critical point with reactivity feedback. - Abstract: To cope with SBLOCA in absence of High-Head Safety Injection (HHSI) from design of HPR1000, atmospheric relief system (originally named as VDA in French) is uniquely designed to help to trigger Middle Head Safety Injection (MHSI) or Low Head Safety Injection (LHSI) earlier through cooling primary system quickly after SBLOCA. To make the best use of VDA decay heat removal capability, primary and secondary system of HPR1000 was modeled with RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. After steady-state initialization, a cold leg 30 mm break SBLOCA was simulated with six simulation conditions and five additional cases including availability of ACCU, different VDA discharge locations and area. Response characteristics of primary loop under different VDA working conditions are investigated. Pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly to lower level to trigger the reactor scram, VDA activation and accumulator safety injection sequently. Peak cladding temperature is 899.45 K occurring at 222 s, which is far below the safety limit. Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point, while positive reactivity will be introduced due to negative moderator temperature effect and Doppler effect. Larger VDA discharge capability will introduce larger reactivity feedback, as well as induce lower core level and SG level. It's suggested that VDA discharge condition should be chosen before the critical point, with the compromise with reactivity feedback introduced due to the negative moderator temperature effect.

  11. Blocking of PDL-1 interaction enhances primary and secondary CD8 T cell response to herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudragouda Channappanavar

    Full Text Available The blocking of programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1 has been shown to enhance virus-specific CD8 T cell function during chronic viral infections. Though, how PDL-1 blocking at the time of priming affects the quality of CD8 T cell response to acute infections is not well understood and remains controversial. This report demonstrates that the magnitude of the primary and secondary CD8 T cell responses to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection is subject to control by PDL-1. Our results showed that after footpad HSV-1 infection, PD-1 expression increases on immunodominant SSIEFARL peptide specific CD8 T cells. Additionally, post-infection, the level of PDL-1 expression also increases on CD11c+ dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-PDL-1 monoclonal antibody given one day prior to and three days after cutaneous HSV-1 infection, resulted in a marked increase in effector and memory CD8 T cell response to SSIEFARL peptide. This was shown by measuring the quantity and quality of SSIEFARL-specific CD8 T cells by making use of ex-vivo assays that determine antigen specific CD8 T cell function, such as intracellular cytokine assay, degranulation assay to measure cytotoxicity and viral clearance. Our results are discussed in terms of the beneficial effects of blocking PDL-1 interactions, while giving prophylactic vaccines, to generate a more effective CD8 T cell response to viral infection.

  12. Primary vaccination with low dose live dengue 1 virus generates a proinflammatory, multifunctional T cell response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    Full Text Available The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-DENV-4 have a large impact on global health, causing 50-100 million cases of dengue fever annually. Herein, we describe the first kinetic T cell response to a low-dose DENV-1 vaccination study (10 PFU in humans. Using flow cytometry, we found that proinflammatory cytokines, IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2, were generated by DENV-1-specific CD4(+ cells 21 days post-DENV-1 exposure, and their production continued through the latest time-point, day 42 (p<0.0001 for all cytokines. No statistically significant changes were observed at any time-points for IL-10 (p = 0.19, a regulatory cytokine, indicating that the response to DENV-1 was primarily proinflammatory in nature. We also observed little T cell cross-reactivity to the other 3 DENV serotypes. The percentage of multifunctional T cells (T cells making ≥ 2 cytokines simultaneously increased with time post-DENV-1 exposure (p<0.0001. The presence of multifunctional T cells together with neutralizing antibody data suggest that the immune response generated to the vaccine may be protective. This work provides an initial framework for defining primary T cell responses to each DENV serotype and will enhance the evaluation of a tetravalent DENV vaccine.

  13. Presence of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Predicts a Poor Clinical Outcome in Dogs with a Primary Hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kilpatrick

    Full Text Available Primary hepatopathies are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The underlying aetiology of most cases of canine hepatitis is unknown. Consequently, treatments are typically palliative and it is difficult to provide accurate prognostic information to owners. In human hepatology there is accumulating data which indicates that the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a common and debilitating event in patients with liver diseases. For example, the presence of SIRS has been linked to the development of complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE and is associated with a poor clinical outcome in humans with liver diseases. In contrast, the relationship between SIRS and clinical outcome in dogs with a primary hepatitis is unknown. Seventy dogs with histologically confirmed primary hepatitis were enrolled into the study. Additional clinical and clinicopathological information including respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, white blood cell count, sodium, potassium, sex, presence of ascites, HE score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin and red blood cell concentration were available in all cases. The median survival of dogs with a SIRS score of 0 or 1 (SIRS low was 231 days compared to a median survival of 7 days for dogs with a SIRS score of 2, 3 or 4 (SIRS high (p<0.001. A Cox proportional hazard model, which included all other co-variables, revealed that a SIRS high score was an independent predictor of a poor clinical outcome. The effect of modulating inflammation on treatment outcomes in dogs with a primary hepatitis is deserving of further study.

  14. Differential roles of galanin on mechanical and cooling responses at the primary afferent nociceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulse Richard P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galanin is expressed in a small percentage of intact small diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and in the afferent terminals of the superficial lamina of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The neuropeptide modulates nociception demonstrating dose-dependent pro- and anti-nociceptive actions in the naïve animal. Galanin also plays an important role in chronic pain, with the anti-nociceptive actions enhanced in rodent neuropathic pain models. In this study we compared the role played by galanin and its receptors in mechanical and cold allodynia by identifying individual rat C-fibre nociceptors and characterising their responses to mechanical or acetone stimulation. Results Mechanically evoked responses in C-fibre nociceptors from naive rats were sensitised after close intra-arterial infusion of galanin or Gal2-11 (a galanin receptor-2/3 agonist confirming previous data that galanin modulates nociception via activation of GalR2. In contrast, the same dose and route of administration of galanin, but not Gal2-11, inhibited acetone and menthol cooling evoked responses, demonstrating that this inhibitory mechanism is not mediated by activation of GalR2. We then used the partial saphenous nerve ligation injury model of neuropathic pain (PSNI and the complete Freund’s adjuvant model of inflammation in the rat and demonstrated that close intra-arterial infusion of galanin, but not Gal2-11, reduced cooling evoked nociceptor activity and cooling allodynia in both paradigms, whilst galanin and Gal2-11 both decreased mechanical activation thresholds. A previously described transgenic mouse line which inducibly over-expresses galanin (Gal-OE after nerve injury was then used to investigate whether manipulating the levels of endogenous galanin also modulates cooling evoked nociceptive behaviours after PSNI. Acetone withdrawal behaviours in naive mice showed no differences between Gal-OE and wildtype (WT mice. 7-days after

  15. Treatment engagement and response to CBT among Latinos with anxiety disorders in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavira, Denise A; Golinelli, Daniela; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D; Lang, Ariel J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy; Bumgardner, Kristin; Glenn, Daniel; Barrios, Velma; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, we compared measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Participants were 18-65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at 4 different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) with usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment, were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Findings from propensity-weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on 2 of 7 engagement outcomes, namely, number of sessions attended and patients' understanding of CBT principles. These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.33 Are Indian country law enforcement...

  18. Beryllium-specific immune response in primary cells from healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Sauer, Nancy N.; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-01-01

    The effect of beryllium (Be) exposure has been extensively studied in patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CBD patients carry mutated MHC class II alleles and show a hyperproliferation of T cells upon Be exposure. The exact mechanism of Be-induced T-cell proliferation in these patients is not clearly understood. It is also not known how the inflammatory and suppressive cytokines maintain a balance in healthy individuals and how this balance is lost in CBD patients. To address these issues, we have initiated cellular and biochemical studies to identify Be-responsive cytokines and other cellular markers that help maintain a balance in healthy individuals. We have established an immune cell model derived from a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 shows decreased release whereas suppressive cytokine IL10 shows enhanced release after 5-10 h of Be treatment. Furthermore, the Be-specific pattern of IL6 and IL10 release is dependent upon induction of threonine phosphorylation of a 45 kDa cytosolic protein (p45), as early as 90 min after Be treatment. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3'K) by wortmannin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by SB203580 reveal that PI3'K mediates Be-specific p45 phosphorylation and IL6 release, whereas p38 MAPK regulates the release of IL6 and IL10 and the phosphorylation of p45 independent of metal-salt treatment. While the IL10 and IL6 release pathways are uncoupled in these cells, they are linked to phosphorylation of p45. These findings suggest that the balance between IL10 and IL6 release and the correlated p45 phosphorylation are important components of the Be-mediated immune response in healthy individuals

  19. Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-14

    Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8-9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures.

  20. Emergency response facilities including primary and secondary prevention strategies across 79 professional football clubs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-06-14

    To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. 76 FR 9268 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure Against the Lebanese Canadian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Treasury (``FinCEN''), Treasury... financial institution of primary money laundering concern pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 5318A. FinCEN is issuing... Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act amended the anti- money laundering provisions of the Bank...

  2. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  3. Key Aging-Associated Alterations in Primary Microglia Response to Beta-Amyloid Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Caldeira

    2017-08-01

    increased the number of CD86+ cells in 16 DIV microglia. Simultaneous M1 and M2 markers were found after Aβ treatment, but at lower expression in the in vitro aged microglia. Data show key-aging associated responses by microglia when incubated with Aβ, with a loss of reactivity from the 2 DIV to the 16 DIV cells, which course with a reduced phagocytosis, migration and lower expression of inflammatory miRNAs. These findings help to improve our understanding on the heterogeneous responses that microglia can have along the progression of AD disease and imply that therapeutic approaches may differ from early to late stages.

  4. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  5. A Review on Regulatory Enforcement Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Han; Lee, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    This paper examine the meaning and principle of enforcement through examples from other countries. Regulatory enforcement is the last stage of safety regulation and how it is exercised when one failing to meet regulatory requirements can have significant ripple effect across the industry. Thus, right philosophy and principle should be established. It is not recommended to emphasize neither deterrence approach nor behavior modification approach. This should be also taken into consideration when setting up the principle and system of regulatory enforcement. In the process of Vienna Declaration, Europe and the U.S showed the fundamental differences in their approaches to safety regulation. Considering this, it is required to remain cautious at all times on what to be improved in the aspect of internal consistency within our system and also in the aspect of procedure.

  6. Female starlings adjust primary sex ratio in response to aromatic plants in the nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Vicente; Veiga, José P; Cordero, Pedro J; Viñuela, Javier; Monaghan, Pat

    2004-09-22

    Adjustment of offspring sex ratios should be favoured by natural selection when parents are capable of facultatively altering brood sex ratios and of recognizing the circumstances that predict the probable fitness benefit of producing sons and daughters. Although experimental studies have shown that female birds may adjust offspring sex ratios in response to changes in their own condition and in the external appearance of their mate, and male attributes other than his external morphology are also thought to act as signals of male quality, it is not known whether females will respond to changes in such signals, in the absence of any change in the appearance of the male himself. Here, we experimentally manipulated a male courtship display, the green plants carried to the nest by male spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor), without changing any physical attributes of the male himself, and examined whether this influenced female decisions on offspring sex ratio. We found that in an environment in which female starlings were producing more daughters than sons, experimental enhancement of the green nesting material caused females to significantly increase the number of male eggs produced and thereby removed the female bias. This effect was consistent in 2 years and at two localities. This demonstrates that the green material, whose function has long puzzled biologists, conveys important information to the female and that she facultatively adjusts offspring production accordingly.

  7. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes.

  8. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primary producers and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ronghua; Buijse, Laura; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Dohmen, Peter; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Roessink, Ivo; Sinkeldam, Jos A; Smidt, Hauke; Van Wijngaarden, René P A; Brock, Theo C M

    2012-07-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints were investigated. Dissipation half-life (DT₅₀) of metiram was approximately 1-6 h in the water column of the microcosm test system and the metabolites formed were not persistent. Multivariate analysis indicated treatment-related effects on the zooplankton (NOEC(community) = 36 μg a.i./L). Consistent treatment-related effects on the phytoplankton and macroinvertebrate communities and on the sediment microbial community could not be demonstrated or were minor. There was no evidence that metiram affected the biomass, abundance or functioning of aquatic hyphomycetes on decomposing alder leaves. The most sensitive populations in the microcosms comprised representatives of Rotifera with a NOEC of 12 μg a.i./L on isolated sampling days and a NOEC of 36 μg a.i./L on consecutive samplings. At the highest treatment-level populations of Copepoda (zooplankton) and the blue-green alga Anabaena (phytoplankton) also showed a short-term decline on consecutive sampling days (NOEC = 108 μg a.i./L). Indirect effects in the form of short-term increases in the abundance of a few macroinvertebrate and several phytoplankton taxa were also observed. The overall community and population level no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC(microcosm)) was 12-36 μg a.i./L. At higher treatment levels, including the test systems that received the highest dose, ecological recovery of affected measurement endpoints was fast (effect period < 8 weeks).

  9. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fenza, Mauro; Hogg, Bridget; Grant, Jim; Barth, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Maize ( Zea mays ) is a C 4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h) and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h). Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling tolerance is possible in an already preselected gene pool.

  10. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Di Fenza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Maize (Zea mays is a C4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. Methods In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h. Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Results Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. Discussion We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling

  11. NRC program of inspection and enforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates civilian uses of nuclear materials to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) develops and implements the inspection, investigation, and enforcement programs for the NRC. The IE conducts inspection programs for reactors under construction and in operation, nuclear industry vendors, fuel facilities and users of nuclear materials, and all aspects of the safeguarding of facilities and materials. Recently the IE began implementing a program that will place inspectors on site at nuclear power reactors and will provide for national appraisal of licensee performance and for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the inspection programs

  12. Averting Regulatory Enforcement: Evidence from New Source Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keohane, N.O.; Mansur, E.T.; Voynov, A. [Yale University, New York, NY (USA)

    2009-09-15

    This paper explores firms' response to regulatory enforcement. New Source Review (NSR), a provision of the Clean Air Act, imposes stringent emissions limitations on significantly modified older power plants. In 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sued owners of 46 plants for NSR violations. We study how electricity companies respond to both the perceived threat of future action, and the action itself. A discrete choice model estimates plants likelihood of being named in lawsuits increases with large historic emissions and investments. On the eve of the lawsuits, emissions at plants with a one standard deviation greater probability of being sued fell approximately 10%.

  13. [Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadal, Santiago; Cortés-Romera, Montserrat; Vélez, Patricia; Climent, Fina; Gámez, Cristina; González-Barca, Eva

    2015-06-08

    To evaluate the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Fourteen patients (8 males) with a median age 59.5 years diagnosed of PCNSL. A brain PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in the initial evaluation. In 7 patients a PET-CT after treatment was performed. PET-CT showed at diagnosis 31 hypermetabolic focuses and MRI showed 47 lesions, with a good grade of concordance between both (k = 0.61; P = .005). In the response assessment, correlation between both techniques was good, and PET-CT was helpful in the appreciation of residual MRI lesions. Overall survival at 2 years of negative vs. positive PET-CT at the end of treatment was 100 vs. 37.5%, respectively (P = .045). PET-CT can be useful in the initial evaluation of PCNSL, and especially in the assessment of response. Despite the fact that PET-CT detects less small lesions than MRI, a good correlation between MRI and PET-CT was observed. It is effective in the evaluation of residual lesions. Prospective studies are needed to confirm their possible prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Knockdown of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 impairs temporal responses to speech stimuli in rat primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Booker, A B; Sloan, A M; Chen, F; Maher, B J; Carraway, R S; Khodaparast, N; Rennaker, R; LoTurco, J J; Kilgard, M P

    2014-07-01

    One in 15 school age children have dyslexia, which is characterized by phoneme-processing problems and difficulty learning to read. Dyslexia is associated with mutations in the gene KIAA0319. It is not known whether reduced expression of KIAA0319 can degrade the brain's ability to process phonemes. In the current study, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce expression of Kiaa0319 (the rat homolog of the human gene KIAA0319) and evaluate the effect in a rat model of phoneme discrimination. Speech discrimination thresholds in normal rats are nearly identical to human thresholds. We recorded multiunit neural responses to isolated speech sounds in primary auditory cortex (A1) of rats that received in utero RNAi of Kiaa0319. Reduced expression of Kiaa0319 increased the trial-by-trial variability of speech responses and reduced the neural discrimination ability of speech sounds. Intracellular recordings from affected neurons revealed that reduced expression of Kiaa0319 increased neural excitability and input resistance. These results provide the first evidence that decreased expression of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 can alter cortical responses and impair phoneme processing in auditory cortex. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparison of antibody and cytokine responses to primary Giardia muris infection in H-2 congenic strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, P; Finch, R G; Wakelin, D

    1996-11-01

    The course of primary infections with Giardia muris differs between BALB and B10 H-2 congenic strains of mice. In the first 3 weeks of infection, there is a more rapid decline in intestinal trophozoite and fecal cyst counts in B10 strains than in BALB strains. To determine whether this difference could be explained by variation in specific antibody responses, both secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum antibody responses were compared between these strains. No significant differences in the timing, titer, or specificity of secretory or serum antibodies were found. However, on comparing specific anti-G. muris serum IgG subclass responses, we found that B10 strains produced IgG2a while BALB strains produced IgG1, suggesting differential involvement of T helper 1 and 2 subsets of lymphocytes. When cells harvested from mesenteric lymph nodes were stimulated with concanavalin A in vitro, both gamma interferon and interleukin-5 were secreted by cells from B10 mice, but only interleukin-5 was secreted by cells from BALB/c mice. Specific blockade of gamma interferon by monoclonal antibody administered to B10 mice resulted in an enhanced intensity of infection.

  16. Molecular imaging of the transcription factor NF-κB, a primary regulator of stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Harald; Alexander, George; Austenaa, Liv M.I.; Ebihara, Kanae; Blomhoff, Rune

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of environmental stress and human disorders involves inappropriate regulation of NF-κB, including cancers and numerous inflammatory conditions. We have developed transgenic mice that express luciferase under the control of NF-κB, enabling real-time non-invasive imaging of NF-κB activity in intact animals. We show that, in the absence of stimulation, strong, intrinsic luminescence is evident in lymph nodes in the neck region, thymus, and Peyer's patches. Treating mice with stressors, such as TNF-α, IL-1α, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases the luminescence in a tissue-specific manner, with the strongest activity observable in the skin, lungs, spleen, Peyer's patches, and the wall of the small intestine. Liver, kidney, heart, muscle, and adipose tissue exhibit less intense activities. Exposure of the skin to a low dose of UV-B radiation increases luminescence in the exposed areas. In ocular experiments, LPS- and TNF-α injected NF-κB-luciferase transgenic mice exhibit a 20-40-fold increase in lens NF-κB activity, similar to other LPS- and TNF-α-responsive organs. Peak NF-κB activity occurs 6 h after injection of TNF-α and 12 h after injection of LPS. Peak activities occur, respectively, 3 and 6 h later than that in other tissues. Mice exposed to 360 J/m 2 of UV-B exhibit a 16-fold increase in NF-κB activity 6 h after exposure, characteristically similar to TNF-α-exposed mice. Thus, in NF-κB-luciferase transgenic mice, NF-κB activity also occurs in lens epithelial tissue and is activated when the intact mouse is exposed to classical stressors. Furthermore, as revealed by real-time non-invasive imaging, induction of chronic inflammation resembling rheumatoid arthritis produces strong NF-κB activity in the affected joints. Finally, we have used the model to demonstrate NF-κB regulation by manipulating the Vitamin A status in mice. NF-κB activity is elevated in mice fed a Vitamin A deficient (VAD) diet, and suppressed by surplus doses of

  17. COMMUNICATION: On variability and use of rat primary motor cortex responses in behavioral task discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J.

    2006-03-01

    The success of a cortical motor neuroprosthetic system will rely on the system's ability to effectively execute complex motor tasks in a changing environment. Invasive, intra-cortical electrodes have been successfully used to predict joint movement and grip force of a robotic arm/hand with a non-human primate (Chapin J K, Moxon K A, Markowitz R S and Nicolelis M A L 1999 Real-time control of a robotic arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex Nat. Neurosci. 2 664-70). It is well known that cortical encoding occurs with a high degree of cortical plasticity and depends on both the functional and behavioral context. Questions on the expected robustness of future motor prosthesis systems therefore still remain. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of minor changes in functional movement strategies on the M1 encoding. We compared the M1 encoding in freely moving, non-constrained animals that performed two similar behavioral tasks with the same end-goal, and investigated if these behavioral tasks could be discriminated based on the M1 recordings. The rats depressed a response paddle either with a set of restrictive bars ('WB') or without the bars ('WOB') placed in front of the paddle. The WB task required changes in the motor strategy to complete the paddle press and resulted in highly stereotyped movements, whereas in the WOB task the movement strategy was not restricted. Neural population activity was recorded from 16-channel micro-wire arrays and data up to 200 ms before a paddle hit were analyzed off-line. The analysis showed a significant neural firing difference between the two similar WB and WOB tasks, and using principal component analysis it was possible to distinguish between the two tasks with a best classification at 76.6%. While the results are dependent upon a small, randomly sampled neural population, they indicate that information about similar behavioral tasks may be extracted from M1 based on relatively few

  18. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  19. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from oncorhynchus mykiss following the combined exposure of ionising radiation and a heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyng, F.M.; Ni Shuilleabhain, S.; Davoren, M.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms of toxicant action on biological systems are difficult to identify when more than one contaminant is involved due to potential synergistic and antagonistic effects. There is a general paucity of research into the effect of radiation exposure in tandem with common environmental contaminants due to the inherent difficulties involved. In vitro cell cultures are particularly suited to the study of toxic mechanisms due to their proximity to toxic modes of action and the absence of the multiple defence mechanisms present in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures are particularly beneficial in this area of research as they still maintain many of their tissue specific functions. The objective of this study was to distinguish different mechanisms of cell death (growth arrest, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis and proliferation), following combination exposure to ionising radiation and a heavy metal (ZnCl 2 ). The model system employed was a primary cell culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) epidermal tissue which has been previously used to study the effects of various environmental agents in this laboratory. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified morphologically while proliferation was assessed immuno-cyto-chemically using an anti PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibody. While radiation doses up to and including 10 Gy had no effect on growth, exposure to ZnCl 2 produced a significant dose dependent reduction in growth (10, 50, 75, 100 and 200 ppm ZnCl 2 ). Preliminary results indicate no significant effect on growth following a combined exposure of 5 Gy + 50 ppm ZnCl 2 . These results may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to multiple contaminant exposures. (author)

  20. Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.P.; Flad, H.D.; Opitz, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

  1. Identifying the Misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA Using CRI (Certanty of Response Index at the Primary School Students in Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsinah Annisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA on primary school students in Tarakan. The output of this study is presented into a national scientific journal with ISSN. This study absolutely contributes to the schools and the education providers (universities. This study can identify the misconceptions of what happens to the students, so that teachers know how to handle and remediate these misconceptions. This study employs quantitative descriptive research. The population is the sixth grade students of primary schools in Tarakan. It is because the students of this grade have got the learning material on force, light, and simple machine. The technique.;s used in taking the sample is cluster sampling by considering on the three criteria, namely: superior, medium, and low school category which is based on the mean scores of final test (UAS on natural science subject. So, the sixth grade students of SDN A, SDN B Tarakan, and SDN C Tarakan are chosen as the sample of this study. The instrument of this research is a written test in a form of multiple choice test equiped with the CRI (certainty of response index answer sheet. The data are collected by distributing multiple-choice test which is consisted of 40 questions that are equipped with the CRI answer sheet.

  2. Unsaponifiable fraction isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil attenuates oxidative and inflammatory responses in human primary monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Linares, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Martin, Maria E; Muñoz, Ernesto; Abia, Rocio; Millan, Francisco; Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio

    2018-04-25

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed has well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report that the unsaponifiable fraction (UF) isolated from grape seed oil (GSO) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties towards human primary monocytes. The UF isolated from GSO was phytochemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC. Freshly obtained human monocytes were used to analyse the effects of GSOUF (10-100 μg mL-1) on oxidative and inflammatory responses using FACS analysis, RT-qPCR, and ELISA procedures. GSOUF skewed the monocyte plasticity towards the anti-inflammatory non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes and reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human primary monocytes diminishing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression and secretion. In addition, GSOUF showed a strong reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, reducing significantly nitrite levels with a significant decrease in Nos2 gene expression. Our results suggest that the UF isolated from GSO has significant potential for the management of inflammatory and oxidative conditions and offer novel benefits derived from the consumption of GSO in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  3. Species and Sex Differences in the Morphogenic Response of Primary Rodent Neurons to 3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunjay; Keil, Kimberly P; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-12-23

    PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific primary hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 48 h to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM. Total axonal length was quantified in tau-1 immunoreactive neurons at day in vitro (DIV) 2; dendritic arborization was assessed by Sholl analysis at DIV 9 in neurons transfected with MAP2B-FusRed. In mouse cultures, PCB 11 enhanced dendritic arborization in female, but not male, hippocampal neurons and male, but not female, cortical neurons. In rat cultures, PCB 11 promoted dendritic arborization in male and female hippocampal and cortical neurons. PCB 11 also increased axonal growth in mouse and rat neurons of both sexes and neuronal cell types. These data demonstrate that PCB 11 exerts sex-specific effects on neuronal morphogenesis that vary depending on species, neurite type, and neuronal cell type. These findings have significant implications for risk assessment of this emerging developmental neurotoxicant.

  4. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Hannah; Timmons, James A; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-12-01

    Increased ribosomal DNA transcription has been proposed to limit muscle protein synthesis, making ribosome biogenesis central to skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between ribosomal RNA (rRNA) production and IGF-1-mediated myotube hypertrophy in vitro Primary skeletal myotubes were treated with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) with or without 0.5 µM CX-5461 (CX), an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I. Myotube diameter, total protein, and RNA and DNA levels were measured along with markers of RNA polymerase I regulatory factors and regulators of protein synthesis. CX treatment reduced 45S pre-rRNA expression (-64 ± 5% vs. IGF-1; P IGF-1; P IGF-1-treated myotubes. IGF-1-mediated increases in myotube diameter (1.27 ± 0.09-fold, P IGF-1 treatment did not prevent early increases in AKT (+203 ± 39% vs. CX; P IGF-1, myotube diameter and protein accretion were sustained. Thus, while ribosome biogenesis represents a potential site for the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass, it does not appear to be a prerequisite for IGF-1-induced myotube hypertrophy in vitro. -Crossland, H., Timmons, J. A., Atherton, P. J. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes. © The Author(s).

  5. IL-23 p19 knockout mice exhibit minimal defects in responses to primary and secondary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L Kurtz

    Full Text Available Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.

  6. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Iran as a Jurisdiction of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Republic of Iran (``Iran'') is a jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern pursuant to 31 U.S.C... Act amends the anti- money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act (``BSA''), codified at 12 U.S...

  7. The effect of infectious dose on humoral and cellular immune responses in Chlamydophila caviae primary ocular infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipovic

    Full Text Available Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model. Guinea pigs were infected by ocular instillation of a Chlamydophila caviae-containing eye solution in the conjunctival sac in three different doses: 1×102, 1×104, and 1×106 inclusion forming units (IFUs. Ocular pathology, chlamydial clearance, local and systemic C. caviae-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. All inocula of C. caviae significantly enhanced the local production of C. caviae-specific IgA in tears, but only guinea pigs infected with the higher doses showed significant changes in C. caviae-specific IgA levels in vaginal washes and serum. On complete resolution of infection, the low dose of C. caviae did not alter the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within guinea pigs' submandibular lymph node (SMLN lymphocytes while the higher doses increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within the SMLN lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between pathology intensity and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within SMLN lymphocyte pool at selected time points post-infection was recorded for both 1×104, and 1×106 IFU infected guinea pigs. The relevance of the observed dose-dependent differences on the immune response should be further investigated in repeated ocular chlamydial infections.

  8. Characterisation of the p53-mediated cellular responses evoked in primary mouse cells following exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian D McFeat

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause significant damage to mammalian cells and, although the spectrum of damage produced varies with the wavelength of UV, all parts of the UV spectrum are recognised as being detrimental to human health. Characterising the cellular response to different wavelengths of UV therefore remains an important aim so that risks and their moderation can be evaluated, in particular in relation to the initiation of skin cancer. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is central to the cellular response that protects the genome from damage by external agents such as UV, thus reducing the risk of tumorigenesis. In response to a variety of DNA damaging agents including UV light, wild-type p53 plays a role in mediating cell-cycle arrest, facilitating apoptosis and stimulating repair processes, all of which prevent the propagation of potentially mutagenic defects. In this study we examined the induction of p53 protein and its influence on the survival of primary mouse fibroblasts exposed to different wavelengths of UV light. UVC was found to elevate p53 protein and its sequence specific DNA binding capacity. Unexpectedly, UVA treatment failed to induce p53 protein accumulation or sequence specific DNA binding. Despite this, UVA exposure of wild-type cells induced a p53 dependent G1 cell cycle arrest followed by a wave of p53 dependent apoptosis, peaking 12 hours post-insult. Thus, it is demonstrated that the elements of the p53 cellular response evoked by exposure to UV radiation are wavelength dependent. Furthermore, the interrelationship between various endpoints is complex and not easily predictable. This has important implications not only for understanding the mode of action of p53 but also for the use of molecular endpoints in quantifying exposure to different wavelengths of UV in the context of human health protection.

  9. 17 CFR 37.9 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 37.9 Section 37.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION... pursuant to the rules of, a registered derivatives transaction execution facility shall not be void...

  10. 7 CFR 3016.43 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 3016.43 Section 3016.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  11. Commercial Court and Enforcement Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeid, Omniah; Gramckow, Heike

    2016-01-01

    An effective and efficient justice system is essential for sustained economic growth. In a well-functioning, independent, and efficient justice system, decisions are taken within a reasonable time and are predictably and effectively enforced, and individual rights, including property rights, are adequately protected. Among other objectives, the efficiency of the judicial system is importan...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b.21 Section 1b.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... shall be treated as non-public by the Commission and its staff, consistent with the provisions of...

  13. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  14. 30 CFR 903.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... request, to a designated Arizona State agency with jurisdiction over mining. ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.843 Federal...

  15. 8 CFR 270.2 - Enforcement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PENALTIES FOR DOCUMENT FRAUD § 270.2 Enforcement procedures. (a) Procedures for the filing of complaints. Any person or entity... charges for document fraud committed by refugees at the time of entry. The Service shall not issue a...

  16. 31 CFR 31.218 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 31.218 Section 31.218 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TROUBLED ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM... more of the following sanctions: (1) Rejection of work tainted by an organizational conflict of...

  17. 7 CFR 1145.3 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Enforcement. 1145.3 Section 1145.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... contracts and based on the results of the investigation will take appropriate action. ...

  18. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which P...... of clear rules, complete observability, and a tradition of parliamentary cooperation....

  19. 30 CFR 933.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.843 Federal... violations on surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each enforcement action and order to show cause issued pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural...

  20. 16 CFR 1602.1 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement policy. 1602.1 Section 1602.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STATEMENTS OF..., set aside, or repealed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, by any court of competent...

  1. 12 CFR 370.11 - Enforcement mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.11 Enforcement mechanisms. (a) Termination of Participation. If... participate in the temporary liquidity guarantee program, the FDIC will inform the entity that it will no longer be provided the protections of the temporary liquidity guarantee program. (1) Termination of...

  2. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This first annual report on DOE's Price Anderson Amendments Act enforcement program covers the activities, accomplishments, and planning for calendar year 1996. It also includes the infrastructure development activities of 1995. It encompasses the activities of the headquarters' Office of Enforcement in the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) and Investigation and the coordinators and technical advisors in DOE's Field and Program Offices and other EH Offices. This report includes an overview of the enforcement program; noncompliances, investigations, and enforcement actions; summary of significant enforcement actions; examples where enforcement action was deferred; and changes and improvements to the program

  3. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  4. Patients harboring EGFR mutation after primary resistance to crizotinib and response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang WX

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenxian Wang,1 Xiaowen Jiang,1 Zhengbo Song,1,2 Yiping Zhang1,2 1Department of Chemotherapy, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 2Key Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement lung cancer responds to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is known that many cases ultimately acquired resistance to crizotinib. However, a case of primary resistance is rare. We present a case of harboring exon 19 deletion in epidermal growth factor receptor in ALK rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, who experienced a partial tumor response to icotinib after failure with crizotinib therapy and chemotherapy. Considering the partial response, we conclude that it is important to find the cause of resistance to crizotinib. We detected gene mutations with plasma by the next-generation sequencing; the next-generation sequencing demonstrates an attractive system to identify mutations improving the outcome of patients with a deadly disease. Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, crizotinib, epidermal growth factor receptor

  5. ICECO-CEL: a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code for analyzing primary system response in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code, ICECO-CEL, for analyzing the response of the primary system during hypothetical core disruptive accidents. The implicit Eulerian method is used to calculate the fluid motion so that large fluid distortion, two-dimensional sliding interface, flow around corners, flow through coolant passageways, and out-flow boundary conditions can be treated. The explicit Lagrangian formulation is employed to compute the response of the containment vessel and other elastic-plastic solids inside the reactor containment. Large displacements, as well as geometrical and material nonlinearities are considered in the analysis. Marker particles are utilized to define the free surface or the material interface and to visualize the fluid motion. The basic equations and numerical techniques used in the Eulerian hydrodynamics and Lagrangian structural dynamics are described. Treatment of the above-core hydrodynamics, sodium spillage, fluid cavitation, free-surface boundary conditions and heat transfer are also presented. Examples are given to illustrate the capabilities of the computer code. Comparisons of the code predictions with available experimental data are also made

  6. Early activation of natural killer and B cells in response to primary dengue virus infection in A/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shresta, Sujan; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Robert Beatty, P.; Harris, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Dengue virus (DEN) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans worldwide. Immune mechanisms that are involved in protection and pathogenesis of DEN infection have not been fully elucidated due largely to the lack of an adequate animal model. Therefore, as a first step, we characterized the primary immune response in immunocompetent inbred A/J mice that were infected intravenously with a non-mouse-adapted DEN type 2 (DEN2) strain. A subset (55%) of infected mice developed paralysis by 14 days post-infection (p.i.), harbored infectious DEN in the central nervous system (CNS), and had an elevated hematocrit and a decreased white blood cell (WBC) count. Immunologic studies detected (i) increased numbers of CD69 + splenic natural killer (NK) and B cells at day 3 p.i., (ii) DEN-specific IgM and IgG responses by days 3 and 7 p.i., respectively, and (iii) splenocyte production of IFNγ at day 14 p.i. We conclude that the early activities of NK cells, B cells and IgM, and later actions of IFNγ and IgG likely play a role in the defense against DEN infection

  7. Third party objection and action against enforcement: Request for exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a right of a third party to prevent enforcement on the basis of a claim and evidence that rights or assets seized in enforcement proceeding belong to him (third party and not to the enforcement debtor. In most of jurisdictions that were subject of analysis of this paper, this right of a third party is exercised by filing an objection to the court conducting enforcement proceedings. The claim of the third party is directed towards the enforcement creditor as well as against the enforcement debtor. In the event the claim of the third party is being contested, the court instructs the third party to initiate litigation proceedings for determining whether the third party is entitled to exclusion of such rights or assets from enforcement, especially if such third party holds property rights or some other rights over the assets that are being subject to enforcement proceedings. In majority of analyzed jurisdictions, enforcement proceedings are being suspended provided the third party, in the objection being filed makes prima facie likely, on the basis of credible evidence, that his assets were seized in the enforcement proceedings. However, according to the law of the Republic of Serbia, a credible objection of a third party does not result in suspension of enforcement proceedings, something that is being criticized in this paper. As a result of this provision of the law, a bona fide third party is forced to endure the enforcement although his claim has been made likely and subsequently confirmed in the litigation proceedings. The author, in particular, points to the legal consequences of mala fide enforcement creditor that knew that the assets that are being subject of the enforcement proceedings do not belong to the enforcement debtor. The author is of the opinion that, in such cases, the enforcement creditor should be obliged to pay to the third party damages that such party suffered as a result of enforcement proceedings being

  8. Appendix F. Developmental enforcement algorithm definition document : predictive braking enforcement algorithm definition document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to fully define and describe the logic flow and mathematical equations for a predictive braking enforcement algorithm intended for implementation in a Positive Train Control (PTC) system.

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: EPA Enforcement Action Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) data sets have been compiled for access to larger sets of national data to ensure that ECHO meets your data...

  10. Response of primary and secondary rainforest flowers and fruits to a cyclone, and implications for plant-servicing bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Annette T; Petit, Sophie; Tuiwawa, Marika; Naikatini, Alivereti

    2018-02-24

    The response of primary (PF) and secondary (SF) rainforests to cyclones has broad implications for servicing fauna and the resilience of forest functions. We collected fine-scale data on the reproductive phenology of plant communities in Fijian PF and SF in 12 monthly surveys before and after Cyclone Tomas (2010). We generated a resource index from the reproductive loads of 2218 trees and 1150 non-trees (>190 species) and trunk and stem diameter to assess patterns in resource abundance for nectarivores and frugivores (hereafter NF resources). We aimed to determine (i) whether species richness of NF resources differed between forests; (ii) the patterns of resilience of NF resources at community level in both forests after a cyclone; and (iii) the effect of response on NF resources for plant-servicing bats (Pteropodidae). In 12 months preceding the cyclone, NF resources were greater in PF trees; non-tree resources fluctuated and were greater in SF. Lower species richness of NF resources in SF indicated that fewer opportunities exist there for exploitation by a diverse fauna. More resources were available for bats in PF. In 12 months following the cyclone, PF flowers and fruits, and SF fruits specifically used by pteropodid bats decreased for trees. Non-tree resources were especially susceptible to the cyclone. No universal pattern of decline was associated with the cyclone; instead, some NF resources declined and others were resilient or responded rapidly to a post-cyclone environment. Both PF and SF demonstrated resilience at the community level via increased flower survival (PF) and rapid flower production (SF). Reduced species richness of NF resources in SF will compromise future resilience and response to disturbance, including for threatened pteropodid bat species. These findings are critical for long-term management of forests, given predicted increases in cyclone frequency and intensity associated with anthropogenic climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  11. Responses of primary human nasal epithelial cells to EDIII-DENV stimulation: the first step to intranasal dengue vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantachit, Nattika; Sunintaboon, Panya; Ubol, Sukathida

    2016-08-18

    About half of the world's population are living in the endemic area of dengue viruses implying that a rapid-mass vaccination may be required. In addition, a major target of dengue vaccine are children, thus, a needle-free administration is more attractive. These problems may be overcome by the alternative route of vaccination such as topical, oral and intranasal vaccination. Here, we investigated the possibility to deliver a dengue immunogen intranasally, a painless route of vaccination. The tested immunogen was the domain III of dengue serotype-3 E protein (EDIII-D3) loaded into trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (EDIII-D3 TMC NPs). The primary human nasal epithelial cells, HNEpCs, were used as an in vitro model for nasal responses. At tested concentrations, EDIII-D3 TMC NPs not only exerted no detectable toxicity toward HNEpC cultures but also efficiently delivered EDIII-D3 immunogens into HNEpCs. Moreover, HNEpCs quickly and strongly produced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), type-I IFN, the growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7), the chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1β, IL-8), Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-12p70, IL-17, IFN-γ) and Th2-related cytokine (IL-4) in response to EDIII-D3 TMC NPs treatment. A potential mucosal delivery system for dengue immunogens was revealed and found to stimulate a strong local innate antiviral response which possibly leading to a systemic adaptive immunity.

  12. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  13. 48 CFR 1322.406 - Administration and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and enforcement. 1322.406 Section 1322.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Involving Construction 1322.406 Administration and enforcement. ...

  14. 48 CFR 1222.406 - Administration and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and enforcement. 1222.406 Section 1222.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Involving Construction 1222.406 Administration and enforcement. ...

  15. 40 CFR 205.57 - Selective enforcement auditing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing requirements. 205.57 Section 205.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Selective enforcement auditing requirements. ...

  16. 40 CFR 204.57 - Selective enforcement auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing. 204.57 Section 204.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... enforcement auditing. ...

  17. 40 CFR 205.160 - Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. 205.160 Section 205.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. ...

  18. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  19. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  20. Fusing Intelligence With Law Enforcement Information: An Analytic Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornlow, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    ... and Law Enforcement Communities to fuse and analyze foreign threat intelligence with domestic law enforcement information in a timely fashion to provide adequate indications and warning of such an...

  1. Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Volpe Center has investigated law enforcement methods that have successfully prevented trespassing along the railroad right of way. The types of law enforcement strategies currently being used and procedures followed in the field are documented, ...

  2. Weight enforcement and evasion : Oregon case study: final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    This study examines the incidence of overweight trucks and its relation to regulatory enforcement activity. Addressed are questions of scale operations in relation to weight violations and the effectiveness of enforcement levels, automated preclearan...

  3. Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) 1999 National Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lytle, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) national conference was a three-day forum to inform and update federal, state and local law enforcement agents, of the DoD role supporting the National Drug Control Strategy...

  4. Common motifs in the response of cereal primary metabolism to fungal pathogens are not based on similar transcriptional reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Matthias Voll

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During compatible interactions with their host plants, biotrophic plant pathogens subvert host metabolism to ensure the sustained provision of nutrient assimilates by the colonized host cells. To investigate, whether common motifs can be revealed in the response of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism towards colonization with biotrophic fungi in cereal leaves, we have conducted a combined metabolome and transcriptome study of three quite divergent pathosystems, the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, the latter being a hemibiotroph that only exhibits an initial biotrophic phase during its establishment.Based on the analysis of 42 water-soluble metabolites, we were able to separate early biotrophic from late biotrophic interactions by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, irrespective of the plant host. Interestingly, the corresponding transcriptome dataset could not discriminate between these stages of biotrophy, irrespective, of whether transcript data for genes of central metabolism or the entire transcriptome dataset was used. Strong differences in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, lipid biosynthesis, and cell wall metabolism were observed between the pathosystems. Increased contents of Gln, Asn, and glucose as well as diminished contents of PEP and 3-PGA were common to early post-penetration stages of all interactions. On the transcriptional level, genes of the TCA cycle, nucleotide energy metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis exhibited consistent trends among the compared biotrophic interactions, identifying the requirement for metabolic energy and the rearrangement of amino acid pools as common transcriptional motifs during early biotrophy. Both metabolome and transcript data were employed to generate models of leaf primary metabolism during

  5. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  6. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μg L −1 of CdCl 2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μg L −1 as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μg L −1 , which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting tumor response and survival in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer treated with microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirelli, Serkan; Erkilic, Metin; Oner, Ali Ozan; Budak, Evrim Surer; Gunduz, Seyda; Ozgur, Ozhan; Bozcuk, Hakan; Sindel, Hakki Timur; Boz, Adil

    2015-04-01

    Radioembolization with the yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres is being used increasingly more often in the treatment of patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer. Although technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) scintigraphy performed following diagnostic angiography has an important role in predicting the effectiveness of treatment and in dose estimation, the number of studies using quantitative assessment of Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy is limited in this field. In the present study, the aim was to assess whether a tumor dose is required to obtain objective tumor response and to check whether this threshold value is predictive in terms of tumor response, survival, and liver toxicity by using Tc-99m MAA single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Overall, 54 patients (20 women and 34 men; median age: 60 years) who underwent Y-90 Resin (SIR-Spheres) and Glass (TheraSphere) microsphere treatment with a diagnosis of unresectable liver cancer between August 2010 and April 2013 were included in the study. The mean doses to normal liver and tumor were estimated for each patient using Tc-99m MAA SPECT images and the medical internal radiation dosimetry method. The responses were assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate Cox regression analysis were used in survival analysis. The relationship between treatment response and other parameters included was assessed using logistic regression analysis. The variables with a P value less than 0.01 in univariate analysis were assessed with multivariate analysis. Fifty-four Y-90 microsphere treatments (eight by using a Y-90 glass microsphere and 46 by using a Y-90 resin microsphere) were performed. In the multivariate analysis, the only parameter related to response was tumor dose (P<0.01). With a tumor dose of 280 Gy or higher, objective tumor

  8. Exposing primary rat retina cell cultures to γ-rays: An in vitro model for evaluating radiation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddini, Lucia; Balduzzi, Maria; Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Patrono, Clarice; Matteucci, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Retinal tissue can receive incidental γ-rays exposure during radiotherapy either of tumors of the eye and optic nerve or of head-and-neck tumors, and during medical diagnostic procedures. Healthy retina is therefore at risk of suffering radiation-related side effects and the knowledge of pathophysiological response of retinal cells to ionizing radiations could be useful to design possible strategies of prevention and management of radiotoxicity. In this study, we have exploited an in vitro model (primary rat retinal cell culture) to study an array of biological effects induced on retinal neurons by γ-rays. Most of the different cell types present in retinal tissue - either of the neuronal or glial lineages - are preserved in primary rat retinal cultures. Similar to the retina in situ, neuronal cells undergo in vitro a maturational development shown by the formation of polarized neuritic trees and operating synapses. Since 2 Gy is the incidental dose received by the healthy retina per fraction when the standard treatment is delivered to the brain, retina cell cultures have been exposed to 1 or 2 Gy of γ-rays at different level of neuronal differentiation in vitro: days in vitro (DIV)2 or DIV8. At DIV9, retinal cultures were analyzed in terms of viability, apoptosis and characterized by immunocytochemistry to identify alterations in neuronal differentiation. After irradiation at DIV2, MTT assay revealed an evident loss of cell viability and βIII-tubulin immunostaining highlighted a marked neuritic damage, indicating that survived neurons showed an impaired differentiation. Differentiated cultures (DIV8) appeared to be more resistant with respect to undifferentiated, DIV2 cultures, both in terms of cell viability and differentiation. Apoptosis evaluated with TUNEL assay showed that irradiation at both DIV2 and DIV8 induced a significant increase in the apoptotic rate. To further investigate the effects of γ-rays on retinal neurons, we evaluated the

  9. A Comparison of Military and Law Enforcement Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Orr; Ben Schram; Rodney Pope

    2018-01-01

    Law-enforcement officers increasingly wear body armour for protection; wearing body armour is common practice in military populations. Law-enforcement and military occupational demands are vastly different and military-styled body armour may not be suitable for law-enforcement. This study investigated differences between selected military body armour (MBA: 6.4 kg) and law-enforcement body armour (LEBA: 2.1 kg) in impacts on postural sway, vertical jump, agility, a functional movement screen (...

  10. A Regulação Responsiva das Telecomunicações: Novos horizontes para o controle de obrigações pela Anatel / Responsive Regulation in Telecommunications: New horizons for the Anatel’s Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Azevedo Marques Mello da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Propósito – O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação de estratégias características de regulação responsiva na discussão do novo modelo de telecomunicações brasileiro. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Valendo-se da teoria da regulação responsiva de Ayres e Braithwaite, foram avaliadas as revisões do modelo de gestão de qualidade e de acompanhamento e controle em andamento na Anatel. Resultados – A pesquisa demonstrou que a Agência vem utilizando, ainda que de maneira embrionária, técnicas de regulação responsiva nos novos instrumentos que serão aplicadas no novo modelo de prestação de serviços de telecomunicações brasileiro. Implicações práticas – A análise presente neste trabalho pode subsidiar as discussões em andamento e aprimorar a atuação regulatória da Agência. Originalidade/relevância do texto – A presente pesquisa indica que a Anatel vem buscando se valer deliberadamente de estratégias de regulação responsiva na sua atuação. Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this article is to assess the use of responsive regulation strategies in the debate about the new Brazilian telecommunications framework. Methodology/approach/design – The Responsive Regulation Theory proposed by Ayres and Braithwaite is used as lenses to evaluate Anatel’s quality management and command and control model. Findings –The research showed that Anatel is using, even though in an embryonic manner, responsive regulation techniques in the new regulation that will be applied in the new Brazilian telecommunications framework. Practical implications – The result of this work can be used to improve the regulation by Anatel. Originality/value – The research showed that Anatel tends do use responsive regulation strategy in a regular manner.

  11. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying eZhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  12. Early host responses of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses in primary well-differentiated human lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L Gerlach

    Full Text Available Replication, cell tropism and the magnitude of the host's antiviral immune response each contribute to the resulting pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAV in humans. In contrast to seasonal IAV in human cases, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm shows a greater tropism for infection of the lung similar to H5N1. We hypothesized that host responses during infection of well-differentiated, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (wd-NHBE may differ between seasonal (H1N1 A/BN/59/07 and H1N1pdm isolates from a fatal (A/KY/180/10 and nonfatal (A/KY/136/09 case. For each virus, the level of infectious virus and host response to infection (gene expression and apical/basal cytokine/chemokine profiles were measured in wd-NHBE at 8, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours post-infection (hpi. At 24 and 36 hpi, KY/180 showed a significant, ten-fold higher titer as compared to the other two isolates. Apical cytokine/chemokine levels of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO were similar in wd-NHBE cells infected by each of these viruses. At 24 and 36 hpi, NHBE cells had greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-α, CCL2, TNF-α, and CCL5, when infected by pandemic viruses as compared with seasonal. Polarization of IL-6 in wd-NHBE cells was greatest at 36 hpi for all isolates. Differential polarized secretion was suggested for CCL5 across isolates. Despite differences in viral titer across isolates, no significant differences were observed in KY/180 and KY/136 gene expression intensity profiles. Microarray profiles of wd-NHBE cells diverged at 36 hpi with 1647 genes commonly shared by wd-NHBE cells infected by pandemic, but not seasonal isolates. Significant differences were observed in cytokine signaling, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal arrangement pathways. Our studies revealed differences in temporal dynamics and basal levels of cytokine/chemokine responses of wd-NHBE cells infected with each isolate; however, wd-NHBE cell gene intensity profiles were not significantly

  13. 32 CFR 637.7 - Drug enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Provost marshals and U.S. Army law enforcement supervisors at all levels will ensure that active drug... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND... important nature of the drug enforcement effort. (a) MPI and DAC detectives/investigators will conduct...

  14. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor may...

  15. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or business...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... the criminal laws of the State and local jurisdictions in which the airport is located— (1) A crime...

  17. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546... § 1546.211 Law enforcement personnel. (a) At airports within the United States not governed by part 1542...) When using a screening system required by § 1546.101(a), (b), or (c), provide for law enforcement...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215 and...

  19. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Soares Rocha, B.; Conti, M.; Etalle, S.; Crispo, B.

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper we introduce

  20. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  1. 32 CFR 634.33 - Training of law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training of law enforcement personnel. 634.33 Section 634.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.33 Training of law enforcement personnel. (a) A...

  2. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8 Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air...

  3. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  4. 21 CFR 1309.26 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1309.26 Section 1309.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration § 1309.26 Exemption of law enforcement...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.24 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1301.24 Section 1301.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exceptions to Registration and Fees § 1301.24 Exemption of law enforcement...

  6. 25 CFR 11.1003 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1003 Section 11.1003 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1003 Law enforcement officer's duties. A law enforcement officer who takes a minor into...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer...

  8. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0159] Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S... Policy. In SRM-SECY-12-0047, ``Revisions to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' dated...

  9. 10 CFR 431.198 - Enforcement testing for distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. 431.198... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.198 Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. (a) Test notice. Upon receiving information in writing...

  10. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as a...

  11. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement...

  12. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... enforce certain consumer protection provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) and related... bring civil actions in the U.S. district courts to enforce the consumer protection provisions that apply..., 386, and 387 State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  13. 24 CFR 125.401 - Private Enforcement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private Enforcement Initiative. 125... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING INITIATIVES PROGRAM § 125.401 Private Enforcement Initiative. (a) The Private Enforcement Initiative provides funding on a single-year or multi-year basis, to investigate violations and...

  14. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of Care Provided by Law Enforcement Prior to EMS Arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Aaron B; Core, S Brent; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. Code E09_02 1200 specifically identifies care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival. A total of 25,835,729 unique events were reported. Of events in which pre-arrival care was documented, 2.0% received prior aid by law enforcement. Patients receiving law enforcement care prior to EMS arrival were more likely to be younger (52.8 [SD=23.3] years versus 58.7 [SD=23.3] years), male (54.8% versus 46.7%), and white (80.3% versus 77.5%). Basic Life Support (BLS) EMS response was twice as likely in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement. Multiple-casualty incidents were five times more likely with prior aid by law enforcement. Compared with prior aid by other services, law enforcement pre-arrival care was more likely with motor vehicle accidents, firearm assaults, knife assaults, blunt assaults, and drug overdoses, and less likely at falls and childbirths. Cardiac arrest was significantly more common in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement (16.5% versus 2.6%). Tourniquet application and naloxone administration were more common in the law enforcement prior aid group. Where noted, law enforcement pre-arrival care occurs in 2.0% of EMS patient encounters. The majority of cases involve cardiac arrest, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Better understanding of the nature of law enforcement care is

  16. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  17. Herpes simplex virus specific T cell response in a cohort with primary genital infection correlates inversely with frequency of subsequent recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Röhl, Elisabeth; Schepis, Danika; Atterfelt, Fredrik; Franck, Kristina; Wikström, Arne; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Bergström, Tomas; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Kärre, Klas; Berg, Louise; Gaines, Hans

    2017-05-01

    During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate and characterise the immune response of patients with first episode of HSV genital infection and its relation to the frequency of symptomatic recurrences. In this cohort study, clinical and immunological data were collected from 29 patients who were followed 1 year after presenting with a first episode of genital or meningeal HSV infection. They were classified by PCR and serology as those with primary HSV-1, primary HSV-2 and non-primary HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific interleukin(Il)-4 and Il-10 responses at first visit were higher in primary infected HSV-2 infected patients experiencing lower numbers of recurrences during subsequent year. The median number of recurrences following primary HSV-2 genital infection may partly be predicted by the strength of an early HSV-specific IL-4 and IL-10 response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Anne S.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 μL/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the

  19. Neural responses in the primary auditory cortex of freely behaving cats while discriminating fast and slow click-trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Qin, Ling; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xinan; Sato, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Repeated acoustic events are ubiquitous temporal features of natural sounds. To reveal the neural representation of the sound repetition rate, a number of electrophysiological studies have been conducted on various mammals and it has been proposed that both the spike-time and firing rate of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons encode the repetition rate. However, previous studies rarely examined how the experimental animals perceive the difference in the sound repetition rate, and a caveat to these experiments is that they compared physiological data obtained from animals with psychophysical data obtained from humans. In this study, for the first time, we directly investigated acoustic perception and the underlying neural mechanisms in the same experimental animal by examining spike activities in the A1 of free-moving cats while performing a Go/No-go task to discriminate the click-trains at different repetition rates (12.5-200 Hz). As reported by previous studies on passively listening animals, A1 neurons showed both synchronized and non-synchronized responses to the click-trains. We further found that the neural performance estimated from the precise temporal information of synchronized units was good enough to distinguish all 16.7-200 Hz from the 12.5 Hz repetition rate; however, the cats showed declining behavioral performance with the decrease of the target repetition rate, indicating an increase of difficulty in discriminating two slower click-trains. Such behavioral performance was well explained by the firing rate of some synchronized and non-synchronized units. Trial-by-trial analysis indicated that A1 activity was not affected by the cat's judgment of behavioral response. Our results suggest that the main function of A1 is to effectively represent temporal signals using both spike timing and firing rate, while the cats may read out the rate-coding information to perform the task in this experiment.

  20. Neural responses in the primary auditory cortex of freely behaving cats while discriminating fast and slow click-trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Dong

    Full Text Available Repeated acoustic events are ubiquitous temporal features of natural sounds. To reveal the neural representation of the sound repetition rate, a number of electrophysiological studies have been conducted on various mammals and it has been proposed that both the spike-time and firing rate of primary auditory cortex (A1 neurons encode the repetition rate. However, previous studies rarely examined how the experimental animals perceive the difference in the sound repetition rate, and a caveat to these experiments is that they compared physiological data obtained from animals with psychophysical data obtained from humans. In this study, for the first time, we directly investigated acoustic perception and the underlying neural mechanisms in the same experimental animal by examining spike activities in the A1 of free-moving cats while performing a Go/No-go task to discriminate the click-trains at different repetition rates (12.5-200 Hz. As reported by previous studies on passively listening animals, A1 neurons showed both synchronized and non-synchronized responses to the click-trains. We further found that the neural performance estimated from the precise temporal information of synchronized units was good enough to distinguish all 16.7-200 Hz from the 12.5 Hz repetition rate; however, the cats showed declining behavioral performance with the decrease of the target repetition rate, indicating an increase of difficulty in discriminating two slower click-trains. Such behavioral performance was well explained by the firing rate of some synchronized and non-synchronized units. Trial-by-trial analysis indicated that A1 activity was not affected by the cat's judgment of behavioral response. Our results suggest that the main function of A1 is to effectively represent temporal signals using both spike timing and firing rate, while the cats may read out the rate-coding information to perform the task in this experiment.

  1. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  2. Social Background, Cooperative Behavior, and Norm Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin; Martinsson, Peter; Visser, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that there are differences in cooperative behavior across countries. Furthermore, differences in the use of and the reaction to the introduction of a norm enforcement mechanism have recently been documented in cross-cultural studies. We present data that prove that stark differences in both dimensions can exist even within the same town. For this end, we created a unique data set, based on one-shot public goods experiments conducted in South Africa. Most of our group differ...

  3. Digital Rights Enforcement for Pervasive Computing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlem, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, application software is expanding from the desktop into mobile application environments, such as handset devices and embedded systems which are more limited in resources and volatile in their network connectivity. An integrated architecture that can protect intellectual property for both types of environments should offer the promise of reduced software maintenance costs. Software licensing is an existing mechanism by which specific license agreements are enforced be...

  4. Prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, M R; Romero, A O; Pérez, J E; Lacava, J A; Domínguez, M E; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M R; Romero Acuña, L A; Romero Acuña, J M; Langhi, M J; Amato, S; Ortiz, E H; Vallejo, C T; Leone, B A

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed in patients with noninflammatory locally advanced breast carcinoma. Between January 1989 and April 1995, 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma participated in the study. Of these, 140 fully evaluable patients (67, stage IIIA; 73, stage IIIB) were treated with three courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), followed by modified radical mastectomy when technically feasible or definitive radiation therapy. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 75 years); 55% of patients were postmenopausal. Objective response was recorded in 99 of 140 patients (71%; 95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Complete response occurred in 11 patients (8%), and partial response occurred in 88 patients (63%). No change was recorded in 37 patients (26%), and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (3%). One hundred and thirty-six patients underwent the planned surgery. Maximal pathological response of the primary tumor (in situ carcinoma or minimal microscopic residual tumor) was observed in 24 (18%); 112 patients (82%) presented minimal pathological response of the primary tumor (gross residual tumor). The number of metastatic axillary nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was as follows: N0, 39 patients (29%); N1-N3, 35 patients (26%); > N3, 62 patients (45%). Considering the initial TNM status, 75% of the patients had decreases in tumor compartment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, 31% and 23% of patients with clinical N1 and N2, respectively, showed uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. A significant correlation was noted between pathological response of primary tumor and the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Median disease-free survival was 34 months, whereas median overall survival was 66 months. Pathological responses of both primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes

  5. Do law enforcement interactions reduce the initiation of injection drug use? An investigation in three North American settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J S; Garfein, R S; Hayashi, K; Milloy, M J; DeBeck, K; Sun, S; Jain, S; Strathdee, S A; Werb, D

    2018-01-01

    The prevention of drug injecting is often cited as a justification for the deployment of law enforcement and for the continuation of drug criminalization policies. We sought to characterize the impact of law enforcement interactions on the risk that people who inject drugs (PWID) report assisting others with injection initiation in three North American countries. Cross-sectional data from PWID participating in cohort studies in three cities (San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; Vancouver, Canada) were pooled (August 2014-December 2016). The dependent variable was defined as recently (i.e., past six months) providing injection initiation assistance; the primary independent variable was the frequency of recent law enforcement interactions, defined categorically (0 vs. 1 vs. 2-5 vs. ≥6). We employed multivariable logistic regression analyses to assess this relationship while controlling for potential confounders. Among 2122 participants, 87 (4.1%) reported recently providing injection initiation assistance, and 802 (37.8%) reported recent law enforcement interactions. Reporting either one or more than five recent interactions with law enforcement was not significantly associated with injection initiation assistance. Reporting 2-5 law enforcement interactions was associated with initiation assistance (Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.74, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01-3.02). Reporting interactions with law enforcement was not associated with a reduced likelihood that PWID reported initiating others into injection drug use. Instead, we identified a positive association between reporting law enforcement interactions and injection initiation assistance among PWID in multiple settings. These findings raise concerns regarding the effectiveness of drug law enforcement to deter injection drug use initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enforcement of entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Waldemar; Gaubatz, Patrick; Strembeck, Mark; Zdun, Uwe; Dustdar, Schahram

    2013-11-01

    A distributed business process is executed in a distributed computing environment. The service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm is a popular option for the integration of software services and execution of distributed business processes. Entailment constraints, such as mutual exclusion and binding constraints, are important means to control process execution. Mutually exclusive tasks result from the division of powerful rights and responsibilities to prevent fraud and abuse. In contrast, binding constraints define that a subject who performed one task must also perform the corresponding bound task(s). We aim to provide a model-driven approach for the specification and enforcement of task-based entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes. Based on a generic metamodel, we define a domain-specific language (DSL) that maps the different modeling-level artifacts to the implementation-level. The DSL integrates elements from role-based access control (RBAC) with the tasks that are performed in a business process. Process definitions are annotated using the DSL, and our software platform uses automated model transformations to produce executable WS-BPEL specifications which enforce the entailment constraints. We evaluate the impact of constraint enforcement on runtime performance for five selected service-based processes from existing literature. Our evaluation demonstrates that the approach correctly enforces task-based entailment constraints at runtime. The performance experiments illustrate that the runtime enforcement operates with an overhead that scales well up to the order of several ten thousand logged invocations. Using our DSL annotations, the user-defined process definition remains declarative and clean of security enforcement code. Our approach decouples the concerns of (non-technical) domain experts from technical details of entailment constraint enforcement. The developed framework integrates seamlessly with WS-BPEL and the Web

  7. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  8. MnTM-4-PyP modulates endogenous antioxidant responses and protects primary cortical neurons against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Yuan; Guo, Fei; Lu, Jia-Qi; Cao, Yuan-Zhao; Wang, Tian-Chang; Yang, Qi; Xia, Qing

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress is a direct cause of injury in various neural diseases. Manganese porphyrins (MnPs), a large category of superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, shown universally to have effects in numerous neural disease models in vivo. Given their complex intracellular redox activities, detailed mechanisms underlying the biomedical efficacies are not fully elucidated. This study sought to investigate the regulation of endogenous antioxidant systems by a MnP (MnTM-4-PyP) and its role in the protection against neural oxidative stress. Primary cortical neurons were treated with MnTM-4-PyP prior to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. MnTM-4-PyP increased cell viability, reduced intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum function. The protein levels and activities of endogenous SODs were elevated, but not those of catalase. SOD2 transcription was promoted in a transcription factor-specific manner. Additionally, we found FOXO3A and Sirt3 levels also increased. These effects were not observed with MnTM-4-PyP alone. Induction of various levels of endogenous antioxidant responses by MnTM-4-PyP has indispensable functions in its protection for cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gastric electrical stimulation decreases gastric distension-induced central nociception response through direct action on primary afferents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Ouelaa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is an effective therapy to treat patients with chronic dyspepsia refractory to medical management. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gastric pain was induced by performing gastric distension (GD in anesthetized rats. Pain response was monitored by measuring the pseudo-affective reflex (e.g., blood pressure variation, while neuronal activation was determined using c-fos immunochemistry in the central nervous system. Involvement of primary afferents was assessed by measuring phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. RESULTS: GES decreased blood pressure variation induced by GD, and prevented GD-induced neuronal activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (T9-T10, the nucleus of the solitary tract and in CRF neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. This effect remained unaltered within the spinal cord when sectioning the medulla at the T5 level. Furthermore, GES prevented GD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: GES decreases GD-induced pain and/or discomfort likely through a direct modulation of gastric spinal afferents reducing central processing of visceral nociception.

  10. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography optimizes neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer to achieve pathological complete response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shigeto; Saeki, Toshiaki; Shigekawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The background of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT) for optimizing chemotherapy during neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer. One hundred and eight patients (110 tumors) with breast cancer (≥2 cm, stages II and III) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of an anthracycline-based regimen and taxane. The maximal value of the baseline standardized uptake value (SUV) and the change in SUV after four cycles of an anthracycline-based regimen relative to baseline SUV were assessed for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) after sequential taxane. Tumors with pCR had significantly higher baseline SUV (9.3±3.7 SD) compared to those with non-pCR (7.2±3.8 SD) (p=0.02), but there was a considerable overlap between two groups. On PET scan after four cycles of chemotherapy, thirty-three patients (33.7%) with a 72.1% or greater reduction in SUV were considered as responders and the performance in predicting pCR had a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.7%. The baseline SUV could not be a useful indicator for predicting pCR due to the wide range in sensitivity. On the other hand, a relative change in SUV after completion of an anthracycline-based regimen could be useful for predicting pCR. (author)

  11. The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law Enforcement Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Art of Perception is a professional development program that uses the analysis of works of art to help participants re-examine their responsibilities in various agencies of law enforcement, refresh their sense of inquiry, and reinvigorate the language they use to communicate on the job. "The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law…

  12. Abusing Loopholes in the Legal System - Efficiency Considerations of Differentiated Law Enforcement Approaches in Misleading Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Weber (Franziska)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Misleading advertisements, such as for ring tones, being a typical example of an unfair commercial practice have over the past years caused substantial harm to European consumers and society. This is particularly so because in many cases the enforcement response given

  13. The Role of Law Enforcement in Schools: The Virginia Experience--A Practitioner Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of…

  14. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Economic Sanctions Enforcement Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation with OFAC is an important factor in determining the appropriate enforcement response to an... considers it important to document the occurrence of a violation and, based on an analysis of the General... programs: OFAC Risk Matrix Low Moderate High Stable, well-known customer base in a localized environment...

  15. An Initial evaluation of law enforcement overdose training in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Cory D; Zaller, Nickolas; Macmadu, Alexandria; Green, Traci C

    2016-05-01

    To assess initial change in knowledge, self-efficacy, and anticipated behaviors among Rhode Island law enforcement officers on drug overdose response and prevention. Law enforcement officers (N=316) voluntarily completed a pre-post evaluation immediately before and after taking part in overdose prevention and response trainings. Assessment items included measures of knowledge (Brief Overdose Recognition and Response Assessment (BORRA)), self-efficacy, attitudes toward drugs and overdose prevention, awareness of the Good Samaritan Law, and open-ended items pertaining to overdose knowledge and response behaviors. Non-parametric tests measured within-group and between-group differences. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated changes in BORRA scores and self-efficacy items. McNemar's tests assessed changes regarding the Good Samaritan law and open-ended items. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests measured post-training change in attitudes. Law enforcement officers demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy (identifying signs of opioid overdose, naloxone indication, counseling witnesses in overdose prevention, and referring witnesses for more information), overdose identification knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 7.00 to 10.39), naloxone administration knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 10.15 to 12.59), Good Samaritan Law awareness (17.9% increase after training), and anticipated behaviors in response to future observed overdose (65.7% changed from passive to active response post training). Harm reduction programs can provide law enforcement officers with the knowledge and skills necessary to intervene and reduce overdose mortality. Given the statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy, attitudinal changes, and Good Samaritan law awareness, law enforcement officers are more prepared to actively interact with drug users during a drug-involved emergency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1986. Volume 5, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1986) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  17. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1986. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1986) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  18. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1985. Volume 4, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  19. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1984. Volume 3, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1984 and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  20. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1983. Volume 2, No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1983) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions ad licensees' responses. This and future issues will include cases involving Severity Level III violations for which no civil penalty was assessed. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  1. Who Guards the Guards? Understanding Deviance and Corruption of Law Enforcement Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan BALCIOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement officials must be honest in performing both their judicial and administrative responsibilities and duties within the criminal justice system to maintain public tranquility, social trust and order, and securing the justice. There are, however, different kinds phenomena in which several kinds of deviance from acceptable norms of behavior is existing among the law enforcement professionals. Studies dealing with deviance of law enforcement officials have been limited in the Turkish context. This study, first, categorize the kinds of deviant behavior among the law enforcement officials as pointed out by numerous scientific studies. Etiology of these types of behavior, than, is examined based on the existing literature. First of all, as a kind of white collar crime which observing among deviant behavior of police personal will be categorized according to international literature. Finally, this study brings the general consensus on the preventive measures as applied in several countries on law enforcement officials’ deviant behaviors to the attention of the Turkish reader

  2. Building on mental health training for law enforcement: strengthening community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.

  3. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  4. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Nystrom, Paul C; Calvo, Darryl V; Berris, Marc S; Norlin, Jeffrey F; Clinton, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    When responders are dealing with an agitated patient in the field, safety for all involved may sometimes only be accomplished with physical or chemical restraints. While experiences using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described. We report a case of successful law enforcement-administered sedation of a noncommunicative, autistic, and violent minor using intramuscular droperidol and diphenhydramine. Although this case has some unique characteristics that allowed chemical restraint to be given by the law enforcement agency, it calls attention to some specific prehospital issues that need to be addressed when dealing with autistic patients with extreme agitation.

  5. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  6. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS RESPONSE TO PHENOLOGY IN NORTHEAST CHINA DURING 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000–2015, meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS, the end of the growing season (EOS, the length of the growing season (LOS were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Changes of Net Primary Productivity and its Response to Phenology in Northeast China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, D.

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000-2015), meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS), the end of the growing season (EOS), the length of the growing season (LOS)) were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  8. Thiamine deficiency activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α to facilitate pro-apoptotic responses in mouse primary astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Zera

    Full Text Available Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses. Consistent with hypoxia/ischemia, TD stabilizes and activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α under physiological oxygen levels. However, the role of TD-induced HIF-1α in neurological injury is currently unknown. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated that TD induces HIF-1α expression and activity in primary mouse astrocytes. We observed a time-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory HIF-1α target genes MCP1, BNIP3, Nix and Noxa during TD. We also observed apoptotic cell death in TD as demonstrated by PI/Annexin V staining, TUNEL assay, and Cell Death ELISA. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α activity using YC1 and thiamine repletion both reduced expression of pro-apoptotic HIF-1α target genes and apoptotic cell death in TD. These results demonstrate that induction of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional up-regulation of pro-apoptotic/inflammatory signaling contributes to astrocyte cell death during thiamine deficiency.

  9. T-cell subset alterations and lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogens and antigen during severe primary infection with HIV: a case series of seven consecutive HIV seroconverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Dickmeiss, E; Gaub, J

    1990-01-01

    Seven consecutive patients who presented with a severe acute mononucleosis-like illness associated with HIV seroconversion were evaluated by T-cell subset enumerations and measurements of lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens and antigen during both their primary illness and a 1-year...

  10. A quantitative trait locus for a primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin on chicken chromosome 14-Confirmation and candidate gene approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwek, M.; Slawinska, A.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Witkowski, A.; Zieba, G.; Minozzi, G.; Knol, E.F.; Bednarczyk, M.

    2010-01-01

    A QTL involved in the primary antibody response toward keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was detected on chicken chromosome 14 in the experimental population, which was created by crossing commercial White Leghorn and a Polish native chicken breed (green-legged partridgelike). The current QTL location

  11. Social Norms and the Enforcement of Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Matthew O. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    We examine the interplay between social norms and the enforcement of laws. Agents choose a behavior (e.g., tax evasion, production of low-quality products, corruption, substance abuse, etc.) and then are randomly matched with another agent. An agent's payoff decreases with the mismatch between her behavior and her partner's, as well as average behavior in society. A law is an upper bound (cap) on behavior and a law-breaker, when detected, pays a fine and has her behavior forced down to the le...

  12. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  13. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties...

  14. US statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three volume set. BNL 52201 is titled `Selected Text of Atomic Energy Act Executive Orders and Other Laws of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Executives`, and it contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled `U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers`, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled `U.S. Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors`, and it contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors.

  15. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the efficiency of dissemination by altering adhesive and/or motile properties of their host cells. Theileria parasites do so by targeting signalling pathways that control host cell actin dynamics. The resulting enforced polar host cell morphology facilitates motility and invasiveness, by establishing focal adhesion and invasion structures at the leading edge of the infected cell. This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the CD8+ T cell responses directed against respiratory syncytial virus during primary and secondary infection in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Michael V.; Claassen, Erwin A.W.; Graaff, Patricia M.A. de; Dijk, Mariska E.A. van; Hoogerhout, Peter; Toebes, Mireille; Schumacher, Ton N.; Most, Robbert G. van der; Kimpen, Jan L.L.; Bleek, Grada M. van

    2006-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse strains and allow dissection of immune mechanisms by using transgenic and knockout mice that are mostly available on a C57BL/6 background, we characterized the specificity, level and functional capabilities of CD8 + T cells during primary and secondary responses in lung parenchyma, airways and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. During the primary response, epitopes were recognized originating from the matrix, fusion, nucleo- and attachment proteins, whereas the secondary response focused predominantly on the matrix epitope. C57BL/6 mice are less permissive for hRSV infection than BALB/c mice, yet we found CD8 + T cell responses in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage, comparable to the responses described for BALB/c mice

  17. Regulation of primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses generated during mixed leukocyte culture with H-2d identical Qa-1-disparate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, D.P.; Tavana, G.; Rich, R.R.; Gressens, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) responses are not usually generated during primary mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) with H-2 identical cells. Thus NZB mice are unusual in that their spleen cells do mount CTL responses during primary MLC with H-2d identical stimulator cells; the predominant target antigen for these NZB responses is Qa-1b. Considering the numerous immunoregulatory defects in NZB mice, we postulated that these NZB anti-Qa-1 primary CTL responses were due to an abnormality in T suppressor cell activity. Cellular interactions capable of suppressing NZB anti-Qa-1 primary CTL responses were investigated by using one-way and two-way MLC with spleen cells from NZB mice and other H-2d strains. Although H-2d identical one-way MLC with the use of NZB responders resulted in substantial CTL responses, only minimal CTL responses were detected from two-way MLC with the use of NZB spleen cells plus nonirradiated spleen cells from other H-2d mice. Thus the presence of non-NZB spleen cells in the two-way H-2d identical MLC prevented the generation of NZB CTL. Noncytotoxic mechanisms were implicated in the suppression of the NZB CTL responses during two-way MLC, because only minimal CTL activity was generated when NZB spleen cells were cultured with semiallogeneic, H-2d identical (e.g., NZB X BALB) F1 spleen cells. The observed suppression could be abrogated with as little as 100 rad gamma-irradiation to the non-NZB spleen cells. The phenotype of these highly radiosensitive spleen cells was Thy-1+, Lyt-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+. The functional presence of these cells in the spleens of semiallogeneic, H-2d identical F1 mice indicated that their deficiency in NZB mice was a recessive trait. These data suggest that NZB mice lack an L3T4+ cell present in the spleens of normal mice that is capable of suppressing primary anti-Qa-1 CTL responses

  18. Commercial-vehicle enforcement: a guide for law-enforcement managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide a resource for law enforcement agencies to evaluate their programs, and to promote the uniform application of concepts already shown to be effective in other jurisdictions, which identify and address commercial-vehicle traffic safety needs

  19. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  20. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  1. Enforcement of evaluation by achievement analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasutoshi; Sonoyama, Minoru; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed FBR achievement analysis system by the last fiscal year and has enforced the investigation of its functional expansion. That system is based on the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) to do comparative evaluation multilaterally between proposed concepts of FBR cycle or between FBR cycle and other power source systems. This fiscal year, we enforced achievement analysis for 22 cases of proposed concepts of FBR cycle and between FBR cycle and other power source systems (LWR, thermal power generation, hydraulic power generation, etc.). The evaluation items related with technical feasibility and social acceptability were included in addition to those of economy, resource utilization effectiveness, environmental burden reduction, nuclear proliferation resistance and safety. Also, we investigated social changes that could happen in our country in the future, and we drew 4 future scenarios combining likely changes, then we investigated classifications of weight that seem to be adequate under each scenario with its calculation logic. In establishing points of view or structure of evaluation, and in the process of drawing scenarios, we collected comments from experts in OR (Operations Research) field and energy field. (author)

  2. 76 FR 45689 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Repeal of the Final Rule and Withdrawal of the Finding of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Money Laundering Concern Against VEF Banka AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN... Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern of April 26, 2005, issued pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 5318A of the... PATRIOT Act amends the anti-money laundering provisions of the BSA, codified at 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 12 U.S.C...

  3. Academic psychiatry's responsibility for increasing the recognition of mood disorders and risk for suicide in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles R; Baumer, Joanie

    2010-03-01

    The authors seek solutions to better meet the healthcare needs of depressed patients in primary care by improving the recognition of depression, other mood disorders and of a risk for suicide. For 25 years academic psychiatry and primary care have known that only 10-50% of depressed patients are adequately treated, primarily because of the failure to recognize depression. There are substantial negative consequences including suicide. Suicide occurs during depression so the recognition of depression is the critical first step to preventing suicide. Recently noted is that one barrier to recognition is the traditional, comprehensive, psychiatric interview taught in academic departments of psychiatry that is impractical in primary care settings because it takes too much time. Some brief, initial psychiatric techniques have been developed but these typically have been introduced in primary care training programs and not by departments of psychiatry. A verbal four-question, 90 s screen for depression may be acceptable for routine use in primary care because it typically requires only seconds to a few minutes. Introduction of such a screening instrument to medical students on psychiatry and primary care clerkships could increase the recognition of depression and reduce death by suicide.

  4. Civil Enforcement Case Report Data Dictionary | ECHO | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  5. Sharing Powers Within Exclusive Competences: Rethinking EU Antitrust Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Although the establishment of competition rules forms part of the EU’s exclusive competences, the application and enforcement of those rules has always been shared consistently between the EU and its Member States.The sharing of enforcement powers is conceptualised traditionally as a delegation of the exercise of exclusively conferred competences. The Court of Justice of the European Union’s case law in the context of EU antitrust law enforcement nevertheless raises profound questions as to t...

  6. Labor Law Enforcement in California, 1970-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Cohen, Limor; Carrillo, Deana Milam

    2002-01-01

    This chapter examines the record of two state agencies within the California Department of Industrial Relations, the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) and the California Occupational Safety and Health Program (Cal/OSHA), over the 1970-2000 period. Although the data available on the performance of these agencies are severely limited - in most cases consisting only of enforcement activity measures, without any valid measures of enforcement outcomes, it is possible to draw some conc...

  7. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  8. Predicting meaningful outcomes to medication and self-help treatments for binge-eating disorder in primary care: The significance of early rapid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2015-04-01

    We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155.1040 Response plan...-based support or advice; (ii) The individuals who shall be notified of a casualty potentially affecting... coordinator responsible for overseeing or directing those actions. (4) The organizational structure that will...

  11. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  12. Understanding Law Enforcement Support to National Security Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores law enforcement as an element of national power, defines its contributions, limitations, and challenges, and provides recommendations to maximize interagency competencies and unity...

  13. Enforcing Transferable Permit Systems in the Presence of Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, C.A.; Stanlund, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    We derive an enforcement strategy for a transferable permit system in the presence of market power that achieves complete compliance in a cost-effective manner. We show that the presence of a firm with market influence makes designing an enforcement strategy more difficult than enforcing a perfectly competitive system. We also re-consider the suggestion that a firm with market influence should be allocated permits so that it chooses to not participate in the permit market. When enforcement and its costs are taken into account, that suggestion does not hold except in a very special case

  14. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  15. [The protection of health in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Herein the question of health protection/safety and well being in the Law Enforcement is introduced and includes examples of some particular risk conditions that may be multiple and polymorphous. Not only the "traditional" sources are involved in these risks, like chemical, physical and biological agents, but other issues emerge in these "new scenarios" connected to risk factors involving organization and/or psychosocial elements. From this, we may deduce that there is a specific need for all the operators involved in prevention/care in this particular sector to be well versed on the highest possible updated specialized knowledge along with having a complete and thorough mastery of the best practices in Occupational Medicine to face this task in the correct manner:

  16. Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Rowell, Greg; Guyatt, Gordon; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-03-01

    Violence is amongst the primary concerns of communities around the world and research has demonstrated links between violence and the illicit drug trade, particularly in urban settings. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based policy-making, and the ongoing severe drug market violence in Mexico and other settings, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impacts of drug law enforcement on drug market violence. We conducted a systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Specifically, we undertook a search of English language electronic databases (Academic Search Complete, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, PAIS International and Lexis-Nexis), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to January 24, 2011. Overall, 15 studies were identified that evaluated the impact of drug law enforcement on drug market violence, including 11 (73%) longitudinal analyses using linear regression, 2 (13%) mathematical drug market models, and 2 (13%) qualitative studies. Fourteen (93%) studies reported an adverse impact of drug law enforcement on levels of violence. Ten of the 11 (91%) studies employing longitudinal qualitative analyses found a significant association between drug law enforcement and drug market violence. Our findings suggest that increasing drug law enforcement is unlikely to reduce drug market violence. Instead, the existing evidence base suggests that gun violence and high homicide rates may be an inevitable consequence of drug prohibition and that disrupting drug markets can paradoxically increase violence. In this context, and since drug prohibition has not meaningfully reduced drug supply, alternative regulatory models will be required if drug supply and drug market violence are to be meaningfully reduced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Outcome and Predictive Factors in the Response to Splenectomy in Elderly Patients with Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Kim, Chul Soo; Hong, Junshik; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Hyo Jung; Zang, Dae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Park, Seong Kyu; Hong, Dae Sik; Lee, Guk Jin; Jin, Jong-Youl

    2016-01-01

    Because many physicians seem reluctant to recommend splenectomy for elderly patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), we investigated the safety and efficacy of splenectomy and the predictive factors for response in these patients. 184 patients with primary ITP were retrospectively analyzed based on age at splenectomy: an elderly group (≥60 years, n = 52) and a younger group (splenectomy (HR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.24-6.80, p = 0.014) and platelet count on postoperative day 14 ≥200 × 109/l (HR 31.43, 95% CI: 4.15-238.28, p = 0.001) were independent factors for a favorable response. Age ≥60 years did not influence the response to splenectomy but was associated with increased relapse and postoperative complications. Splenectomy could provide a durable long-term response for elderly ITP patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Detailing profiles of Lawsonia intracellularis specific lymphocytes in the immune response to a challenge inoculation after oral vaccination or primary inoculation with virulent bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the intracellular porcine enteric pathogen Lawsonia intracellularis remains a challenge as the commercially available vaccine does not provide full protection. In an experimental challenge study, the Enterisol® Ileitis attenuated live vaccine against Lawsonia intracellularis did...... not induce measurable primary humoral or cell-mediated immune responses, nor was it able to reduce faecal shedding of bacteria from eight vaccinated pigs compared to seven age-matched naïve challenge-control pigs. Vaccinated pigs did, however, respond to vaccination with an acute phase protein response...

  19. A qualitative study of the role of workplace and interpersonal trust in shaping service quality and responsiveness in Zambian primary health centres

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Stephanie M; Chipukuma, Julien M

    2015-01-01

    Background:?Human decisions, actions and relationships that invoke trust are at the core of functional and productive health systems. Although widely studied in high-income settings, comparatively few studies have explored the influence of trust on health system performance in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines how workplace and inter-personal trust impact service quality and responsiveness in primary health services in Zambia. Methods:?This multi-case study included four h...

  20. Code-Switching in the Primary Classroom: One Response to the Planned and the Unplanned Language Environment in Brunei [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C

    1996-01-01

    Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of…