WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary education reform

  1. Structural Dynamics of Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…

  2. Attitudinal Variables Affecting Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…

  3. Leadership practices and inclusive education reform in primary schools in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mullick, Jahirul

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate leadership practices for Inclusive Education (IE) reform in primary schools in Bangladesh. Specifically, the study investigated leadership practice structures, views of school leaders about the accountability approach in primary schools, school leaders’ opinions on challenges to implementing IE and possible strategies to address the identified challenges. The study also explored the relationships between school variables, teachers’ demographic variabl...

  4. Institutional Dynamics of Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida; James, Nkata L.

    2016-01-01

    This article scans Uganda's topical responsibility to transformation of the country's primary school education arrangement with attention to the institutional dynamics that constitute school factors such as the curriculum, assessment methods, course content, subject composition, teaching methods, and instructional materials; among others that…

  5. A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State in Nigeria Abstract: The current study is an evaluation of the pre-primary education policy in Plateau State in Nigeria. It was inspired by my own experience as a school teacher/principal who has seen the effects on primary schools and the results of a lack of government investment in the sector, itself leading to a proliferation of ‘private owners’. Because of these circumstances the implementation of central policy is highly dependent on the varying understanding of these owners. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection through the use of questionnaire, interviews, classroom observation and use of documents. The data will be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results will hopefully be used, not only to add to existing literature, but also to improve the system serving as a basis for further research in the area.

  6. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracun Sova, Rajka; Kemperl, Metoda

    2012-01-01

    One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011) and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European…

  7. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

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    Rajka Bračun Sova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011 and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European competences. One such competence is cultural awareness and expression, which until now has been an issue more in the context of cultural policies than school policies in Slovenia. The purpose of the present article is to critically analyse the curricular reform of art education (i.e., visual art education, through which, in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, it is foreseen that the student will gain a knowledge of art, develop an ability to experience works of art and develop a creative attitude towards art and heritage. Because the starting point and goal of curricular change is the curriculum, our analysis is derived from curriculum theories, and not from the art theories and pedagogical theories that have predominantly framed previous attempts at curriculum analysis. Critical consideration of the curricular reform of art education in primary school in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression was undertaken by comparing curricula in the field of aesthetic education. We compared art education with music education and literature within the Slovenian language curriculum. Qualitative analysis showed that, despite the reform, the curriculum for arts education does not realise selected components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, largely due to the curriculum’s conceptual structure. Art education is centred principally on art-making activities, with an obvious neglect of appreciation. The integration of arts subjects at school, as proposed by the White Paper, is therefore not possible, due to the existing

  8. Inclusive Education for Students with Refugee Experience: Whole School Reform in a South Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Karen; Every, Danielle; Hattam, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in students with refugee experience in the UK, the US, Europe and Australia. These students face many barriers to education, and appropriately educating this diverse student population presents many challenges to schools and education departments. We argue that a whole of school approach that includes…

  9. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  10. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  11. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  12. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  13. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  14. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  15. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  16. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  17. Education Reforms in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Aida Suraya Muhammad

    Malaysia's agenda in the late 1990s involved making the transition from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy. Thus, the more traditional purpose of education, that is, to produce an educated person, needs to be reevaluated. If the nation's Vision 2020 is to become a reality, the educational program needs to make a fundamental shift…

  18. Education reform in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including papers on various aspects of Nepal's education policy dynamic, a study on young people's experiences of education, especially the faith in schooling as a means to social and economic betterment, and a more radical critique...... of modernity and its relation to education in the South....

  19. Turning Lightning into Electricity: Organizing Parents for Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Families are the primary clients of public schools, but they are one of many constituencies who have a say in how schools actually operate. In all the technocratic fervor around "education reform"--the broad effort to implement standards and accountability, reform teacher tenure and evaluation, and increase parental choice--it is easy to…

  20. Educational Reform and Educational Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Author argues that education has increasingly become dominated by economic interest that can lead not to enhancing equality but to its opposite. Important ideological shifts are occurring in what education is for and in the content and control of curriculum, with an increased emphasis on making education an economic product. Author predicts a…

  1. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  2. Local Actors in Top-Down Implementation of Curricular Reform in Benin’s Primary Education System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Yessoufou (Akimi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the 1990 Jomtien Conference on Education for All, basic education in developing countries has attracted growing attention, both globally and do-mestically. Many policies have been initiated to improve educational access, quality and equity. While the accrued interest in education

  3. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  4. Sources of Funding for Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the trends in educational funding patterns needed to enact educational reform. Local property taxes, state revenues, and federal aid continue to provide the bulk of financing. Includes two tables. (MD)

  5. Education Reform and Career Education--Deja Vu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    The current outcry for educational reform raises issues that have already long concerned career education. This situation gives career educators the opportunity to provide leadership in attaining common educational goals. (JB)

  6. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  7. Can We Pay for Current Education Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the United States has been engaged in education reform efforts designed to dramatically boost student performance and close achievement gaps linked to poverty and ethnicity. Can schools afford those education ambitions? Most educators have their doubts. The author believes educators can improve student learning even when…

  8. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  9. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva

    2013-12-01

    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  10. Reform of teacher education and teacher educator competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    Despite it is well known known and recognized that teacher educators’ competences play a decisive role for the education of new teachers and also for the quality of the profession as such very little research is conducted on the competences of teacher educators and their training. It is also...... an established fact that the implementation of teacher education reforms to a large extent stands and falls with the competences of the teacher educators. Not least it is of importance that teacher educators possess the kind of competences that are needed to meet the intentions of a reform. Failing teacher...... educator competences might just as well be an explanation for frequent reforms in teacher education as it can be failure of the reforms themselves. Danish teacher education was in 2012 reformed for the third time in only fifteen years, but teacher educator competences were not mapped at all during...

  11. Standardization of Primary Education in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovaya, Yelena B.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…

  12. National Assessment and the Opportunity to Learn in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Conrad Wesley, Jr.; Mereku, Kofi D.; Amedahe, Francis K.; Etsey, Kofui; Adu, John

    2013-01-01

    Over two decades, national assessments in Ghana have revealed generally poor performances across curriculum-based tests for primary school (Grades 1-6). Various reform agendas have been applied to the education system, sometimes with isolated success, but the overall performances remained stable and low. Surveying teacher mentors in schools…

  13. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  14. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  15. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....

  16. Education and the Community in the Peruvian Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos

    1980-01-01

    A structural and philosophical reform of Peruvian education was instituted in March 1972, using as its basis a local community education nucleus model. This article presents the reform experience, relates it to its historical antecedents, gives some information on evaluation studies in progress, and traces some projections for educational…

  17. Learning Autonomy: Higher Education Reform in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Matthew; Gopaul, Bryan; Sagintayeva, Aida; Apergenova, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is a key economic and social priority in the global arena. Many countries have sought to advance reforms aimed at increasing access, promoting greater educational quality, and ensuring financial responsibility and sustainability. Often, strategies for achieving these aims are informed by experiences elsewhere. However,…

  18. Reforma Educativa: Proyecto de Reforma Educativa para Francia (Educational Reform: French Educational Reform Proposals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Paul

    This document is a Spanish translation of French educational reform proposals and general educational philosophy. Initial remarks in the document concern educational objectives and general aims of the particular educational levels. Different, possible, educational progressions are considered, and the university system is discussed. Teacher…

  19. Reforming the educated person in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2011-01-01

    The Bolivian educational reform law nr. 070 was approved in 2010 and its implementation is beginning in 2012. Basing itself on a combination of Marxist and Cultural Studies -influenced theories, the thesis examines the tensions between the vision of Law 070 and the conditions and aspirations of the stakeholders. A central concept in this discussion is ”the cultural production of the educated person”, and the development of the concept of the educated person through the history of Bolivia is d...

  20. Merging Educational Finance Reform and Desegregation Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.

  1. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  2. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a combination of…

  3. Motherhood, Gender Education Reforms, Empowerment, MDGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reforms/innovations in motherhood/gender education in enhancing attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa for sustainable development. In doing this, responses of 1,672 working mothers, randomly selected from North, South, East, and West Africa were analyzed which identified top among ten others as ...

  4. Artifacts as Authoritative Actors in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Virginie; Kelchtermans, Geert; Vermeir, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Educational reforms are often translated in and implemented through artifacts. Although research has frequently treated artifacts as merely functional, more recent work acknowledges the complex relationship between material artifacts and human/organizational behavior. This article aims at disentangling this relationship in order to deepen our…

  5. GLOBALIZATION, NEOLIBERALISM, EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio González-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and neoliberalism strongly affect education reforms in our country. Changes involving the three processes have conditions that can promote or inhibit the development of creativity. We can use one or the other with the development of our own creativity.

  6. Reforms and innovations in Nordic vocational education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2018-01-01

    The chapter examines policy reforms and innovations in the Nordic vocational education and training systems (VET) related to two challenges. The first is to improve the links of the VET system to the labour market and to ease the students’ transition to employment. It examines three new types...

  7. Educational Reform: Critiquing the Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews Walter Feinberg's criticisms of educational critics Allan Bloom and E. D. Hirsch. Supports Feinberg's argument that experimentation is the only course still open in education, but argues that his views are informed by the traditional obscurantism of the educational establishment. (FMW)

  8. The transnational grip on Scandinavian education reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals how templates that emerge from opaque albeit often inclusive policy processes in transnational forums (EU, OECD & the Bologna Process) affect education reform policy in Scandinavian countries, such as Denmark and Sweden. The open method of coordination is the mother template...... of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...

  9. Education Reform: Ten Years after the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Driscoll, Joseph B. Berger, Ronald K. Hambleton, Lisa A. Keller, Robert W. Maloy, David Hart, Paul Oh, Victoria Getis, Susan Bowles, Francis L. Gougeon, Kathryn A. McDermott, Andrew Churchill

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In June 1993, Governor William Weld signed into law the Massachusetts Education Reform Act (MERA. MERA greatly increased the state role both in funding public education and in guiding the local educational process. The state’s role changed to incorporate setting curriculum frameworks and holding schools accountable for student performance. Because MERA was designed to be a systemic reform of education, all of the various state activities and policies needed to fit together into a coherent whole based on state educational standards.

  10. Dysfunction and Educational Reform in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Llorent Bedmar, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. We concluded by acknowledging the efforts made in recent years in the Moroccan education sector, although there is still a considerable number of clearly important aspects of improvement.

  11. La reforma educativa y las reformas a la administracion (Educational Reform and Reforms in Educational Administration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maestro, Mexico, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) summarizing a report presented to the Eighth National Plenary Assembly of the National Technical Council for Education by the Mexican Academy of Education, a private association of teachers. It recommended the adoption of four basic educational administrative reforms by the…

  12. From Reforming to Reinventing Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Eva

    ECER 2015/17. Histories of Education, Symposium: Transitory Learning Spaces (revisiting space as virtual, in-between and dangerous?) PART 2......ECER 2015/17. Histories of Education, Symposium: Transitory Learning Spaces (revisiting space as virtual, in-between and dangerous?) PART 2...

  13. It's Our School Too: Youth Activism as Educational Reform, 1951-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajunwa, Kelechi

    2011-01-01

    Activism has the potential for reform (Howard, 1976). Unlike previous studies on high school activism this study places a primary focus on underground newspapers and argues that underground newspapers allowed high school students to function as activists as well as educational reformers. In order to make this argument, this study examined over 150…

  14. Exploring the Impact of Reform Mathematics on Entry-Level Pre-Service Primary Teachers Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead; Carroll, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This study reports entry-level mathematics attitudes of pre-service primary teachers entering an initial teacher education (ITE) program one decade apart. Attitudes of 360 pre-service primary teachers were compared to 419 pre-service teachers entering the same college of education almost one decade later. The latter experienced reform school…

  15. Wyoming's "Education Reform & Cost Study."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joseph B.

    A history of education in the state of Wyoming, along with a description of recent legislative initiatives, are presented in this paper. It opens with statewide reorganizations begun in the 1960s that unified school districts and equalized property valuation. A decade later a court order ruled the system inequitable and new laws provided for a…

  16. Blended Learning: enabling Higher Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Matheos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning research and practice have been areas of growth for two decades in Canada, with over 95% of Canadian higher education institutions involved in some form of blended learning. Despite strong evidence based research and practice blended learning, for the most part, has remained at sidelined in Canadian universities. The article argues the need for blended learning to situate itself within the timely and crucial Higher Education Reform (HER agenda. By aligning the affordances of blended learning with the components of HER, blended learning can clearly serve as an enabler for HER.

  17. Global Isomorphism and Governance Reform in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2010-01-01

    In the past three decades, higher education reforms have taken place almost everywhere in the world, and governance or the way that higher education is or should be coordinated has become a global topic. The governance reform in Chinese higher education emerged against such a background. The current studies on Chinese higher education reforms…

  18. Reforms in Nigerian education sector: Implications for Science and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the state of Education in Nigeria, the current educational reforms and their implications for science and technology education. It reviews various score sheets for the state of the countries educational system pointing to indicators of the system being inefficient, and attendantly calling for a reformation.

  19. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  20. The New Technology and Educational Reform: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…

  1. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  2. Applying Concepts of Critical Pedagogy to Qatar's Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.; Amatullah, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    Qatar is in the midst of a systemic education reform, Education For a New Era, steered by RAND's (a nonprofit research organization) analysis and report of Qatar's Educational system. Driven by a neoliberal agenda, the reform includes international curricula, curriculum standards, teacher licensure, and professional standards for school leaders…

  3. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  4. Coding as a Trojan Horse for Mathematics Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The history of mathematics educational reform is replete with innovations taken up enthusiastically by early adopters without significant transfer to other classrooms. This paper explores the coupling of coding and mathematics education to create the possibility that coding may serve as a Trojan Horse for mathematics education reform. That is,…

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  6. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  7. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new…

  8. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  9. Philanthropy and Educational Reform during the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses philanthropy and educational reform from the Great Depression to the present, contrasting the views of that time to "Making It Count" (Chester E. Finn, Jr. and Kelly Amis, 2001.) Although Finn and Amis presented their suggestions as advancing democracy, they thought that educational reform took place best when elite groups…

  10. Structural higher education reform - design and evaluation: synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Huisman, Jeroen; de Boer, Harry F.; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at: - Increasing

  11. Primary care and health reform in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C C; Forrest, C B; Starfield, B

    1997-02-14

    (1) To describe New Zealand's primary care system (2) to compare New Zealand to other Anglo-American members of the OECD with respect to the adequacy of primary care, and (3) to assess the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of New Zealand's system by comparing health spending and health indicators relevant to primary care. A cross-national comparison of primary care, health spending and health indicators in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Main outcome measures were health spending measured in purchasing power parties. Health indicators: mean life expectancy in years, years of potential life lost and infant mortality rates. New Zealand's primary care system ranked below the UK, above the USA and similar to Canada and Australia. Favourable characteristics of New Zealand's primary care system were the use of generalists as the predominant type of practitioner and the low proportion of active physicians who were specialists. Compared to the other countries, New Zealand scored poorly for financial that are necessary for the practise of good primary care. New Zealand and the UK had the lowest spending per capita on health care. New Zealand and the USA scored lowest for all three of the health care indicators. The quality of primary care in New Zealand is limited by barriers to access to care and the intermediate level of practise characteristics essential to primary care. Compared to other AngloAmerican OECD nations, New Zealand has relatively low levels of national health expenditure. In order to improve the quality of primary care, future reform should aim to facilitate access to care, increase the gatekeeping role of primary care physicians, and promote the practise characteristics essential to primary care.

  12. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  13. Health Sector Reform in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq: Financing Reform, Primary Care, and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, C Ross; Moore, Melinda; Hilborne, Lee H; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2014-12-30

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government asked the RAND Corporation to help guide reform of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The overarching goal of reform was to help establish a health system that would provide high-quality services efficiently to everyone to prevent, treat, and manage physical and mental illnesses and injuries. This article summarizes the second phase of RAND's work, when researchers analyzed three distinct but intertwined health policy issue areas: development of financing policy, implementation of early primary care recommendations, and evaluation of quality and patient safety. For health financing, the researchers reviewed the relevant literature, explored the issue in discussions with key stakeholders, developed and assessed various policy options, and developed plans or approaches to overcome barriers and achieve stated policy objectives. In the area of primary care, they developed and helped to implement a new management information system. In the area of quality and patient safety, they reviewed relevant literature, discussed issues and options with health leaders, and recommended an approach toward incremental implementation.

  14. Social Justice and Resisting Neoliberal Education Reform in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reform public education along free-market, corporate-styled models have swept across many nations. In the USA these reforms have included an intense focus on the use of high-stakes, standardized tests to quantify students, teachers, and schools for market comparisons, the deprofessionalization of teaching, and the establishment of…

  15. Reform in Literacy Education in China. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yianwei, Wang; Jiyuan, Li

    Literacy in China is mainly concerned with illiteracy in rural areas. Therefore, reforming literacy education is largely a problem of how to eliminate rural literacy within the general framework of reform in contemporary China. From 1949 to 1988, the illiteracy rate among the population decreased from 80 percent to 20 percent. There are still…

  16. Scaling up Education Reform: Addressing the Politics of Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Berryman, Mere

    2010-01-01

    What is school reform? What makes it sustainable? Who needs to be involved? How is scaling up achieved? This book is about the need for educational reforms that have built into them, from the outset, those elements that will see them sustained in the original sites and spread to others. Using the Te Kotahitanga Project as a model the authors…

  17. From policy to practice: education reform in Mozambique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mozambican government has introduced reforms of basic education, notably the introduction of interdisciplinarity, learner-centredness and new teaching pedagogies. This is a case study of how these curriculum reforms have been implemented at Marrere Teachers' Training College. We conducted interviews with ...

  18. Improving Finance for Qatari Education Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Qatar's education reform, which included implementation of a new finance system, appears to be providing schools with adequate funding but is still struggling with issues of transparency and swift policy shifts that have been difficult to accommodate. [For full report, "Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar", see…

  19. Curriculum Reform in Higher Education: A Contested Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Suellen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and analytical tools from the sociology of education, in particular the work of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, the paper explores the tensions within curriculum reform discourses and how these tensions play out in different global contexts. The analysis focuses on two curriculum reform policies--Hong Kong and South…

  20. Neo-Liberal Educational Reform in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana López Guerra

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the argument that educational systems in Latin American are inefficient, political organizations and international financial institutions promoted reforms based on free market principles to modernize education in the region. Chile was used as a laboratory for these reforms, which were then applied to other Latin American countries. This paper analyzes the argument that educational quality is improved through competition—used as a strategy to privatize the educational system—by transferring its financing from public to private sources, to the detriment of the national system of education. Finally, this paper examines the modernization process and the failure of the free market model of the Mexican system of education.

  1. Reforming Schools: A Case Study of New Basics in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Walsh, Lynne; Niesche, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective…

  2. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  3. Telemental health: responding to mandates for reform in primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Lieberman, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Telemental health (TMH) has established a niche as a feasible, acceptable, and effective service model to improve the mental healthcare and outcomes for individuals who cannot access traditional mental health services. The Accountability Care Act has mandated reforms in the structure, functioning, and financing of primary care that provide an opportunity for TMH to move into the mainstream healthcare system. By partnering with the Integrated Behavioral Healthcare Model, TMH offers a spectrum of tools to unite primary care physicians and mental health specialist in a mind-body view of patients' healthcare needs and to activate patients in their own care. TMH tools include video-teleconferencing to telecommute mental health specialists to the primary care setting to collaborate with a team in caring for patients' mental healthcare needs and to provide direct services to patients who are not progressing optimally with this collaborative model. Asynchronous tools include online therapies that offer an efficient first step to treatment for selected disorders such as depression and anxiety. Patients activate themselves in their care through portals that provide access to their healthcare information and Web sites that offer on-demand information and communication with a healthcare team. These synchronous and asynchronous TMH tools may move the site of mental healthcare from the clinic to the home. The evolving role of social media in facilitating communication among patients or with their healthcare team deserves further consideration as a tool to activate patients and provide more personalized care.

  4. Key Aspects of Current Educational Reforms in Islamic Educational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hashim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that Islamic education plays a significant role in producing an integrated personality of young generation in order to fulfil the needs of present society. This study is important to address the key educational changes in pedagogy, curricular and teaching approach that relate directly to the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Education in Islamic schools. Questions raised in this writing is whether and how Muslim schools have transformed to meet the changes and challenges of the globalizing world and what should be done to ensure Islamic schools meet current needs. Thus, it argues that there is a need for reform in contemporary Islamic schools with particular reference to the changes in the curriculum, teaching style, role of Islamic schools and gender participation. The paper considers the possibility of integrating new perspectives across the curriculum and outlines the integrated approach to ensure the quality and excellence of their graduates.

  5. On Quality Education Reform in International Trade Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing problems of quality education of specialization of international trade in current colleges and universities of China, and then propose several pieces of corresponding suggestion on educational reform. According to the characteristics of college and university education, we shall emphasize on the…

  6. Educational Development and Reformation in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rahimah Haji

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational development in Malaysia, focusing on curriculum changes, issues, and future perspectives. Discusses the development of values education, its importance in the curriculum, and the government's efforts to mold a united nation with Malaysian values. Current reforms target tertiary education. The school curriculum has not been…

  7. Analisis Potensi Ledakan dan Kebakaran Primary Reformer sebagai Unit Proses Produksi Amonia di PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resti Ayu Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan industri pupuk di dunia berimplikasi pada peningkatan jumlah industri amonia. Amonia memegang peranan penting pada proses produksi pupuk dalam hal penyediaan nitrogen. Proses pembuatan amonia melibatkan bahan baku berupa gas alam yang bersifat flammable dengan temperatur dan tekanan yang tinggi dalam setiap tahapan prosesnya. Primary reformer merupakan salah satu peralatan proses dalam produksi amonia dengan temperatur dan tekanan paling tinggi serta paling berisiko mengalami kegagalan yang dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya kebakaran/ledakan. Primary reformer berperan sebagai salah satu tahapan pemurnian gas alam dengan hasil berupa karbon monoksida. Identifikasi bahaya pada unit primary reformer dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Fault Tree Analysis (FTA. Hasil analisis FTA menghasilkan bahwa sumber bahaya dari ledakan primary reformer dapat ditinjau dari faktor teknis dan faktor non teknis. Faktor non teknis menyumbang 74% dari penyebab terjadinya ledakan/kebakaran pada primary reformer. Hasil analisis risiko ledakan/kebakaran pada primary reformer dilakukan dengan menggunakan Dow’s Fire & Explosion Index  dengan hasil radius area dampak adalah 51 meter. Nilai kerugian finansial mencapai US$ 23.640.285 dengan kerugian hari kerja minimal adalah 138 hari. Perangkat lunak Arial Location of Hazardous Atmospheres menghasilkan radius ledakan dengan dampak terkecil yaitu dapat memecahkan kaca jendela/pintu (0,5 psi adalah 73 m dari primary reformer. Radius ledakan dengan kekuatan ledakan 1 psi (meruntuhkan rumah/perkantoran adalah 48 m dari primary reformer.

  8. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  9. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  10. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the…

  11. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…

  12. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  13. Administrative Reform and the Egyptian Ministry of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes the organizational constraints acting upon and within the Egyptian Ministry of Education that deter its capacity for administrative reform. Despite being highly bureaucratic, the ministry's administrative structure operates with relative efficiency. However, the ministry cannot seem to change the educational system's…

  14. Educational Change by Commission: Attempting "Trickle Down" Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rick; Wimpelberg, Robert K.

    1987-01-01

    The processes and procedures of national commissions on education are discussed. Elements of commonality are presented with a review of competing explanations of the popularity of such commissions. A sociopolitical thesis of educational reform through commissions is advanced, based on the "trickle down" theory of economics. (SLD)

  15. systemic chemical education reform [scer] in the global era

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    growing the systemic way of thinking of our students that is one of the most important characteristics of Global Era. Here is the systemic education reform which means the change of our educational system from linearity to systemic in which we design the curriculum and write content systemically, which presented by SATL ...

  16. Educational Partnership and the Dilemmas of School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, David

    Today's educational reform proposals are undermined by four dilemmas. First, the public may demand visible results before it will provide the funding needed to achieve them. Second, higher academic standards will increase failure rates, while more attainable standards will inadequately educate students. Third, the current focus on high schools may…

  17. Education Governance Reform in Ontario: Neoliberalism in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal ideology and the discourse and practice of education governance reform in Ontario over the last two decades. It focuses on changes in education governance introduced by successive Ontario governments: the NDP government from 1990 to 1995, the Progressive Conservative government from 1995 to…

  18. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  19. Reform Implementation and Educational Management in Vocational Colleges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Slottved, Mette

    In 2014, a new reform of the VET system in Denmark was decided by a broad political coalition in the Parliament. This reform implies fundamental changes in VET, for example by changing the course structure and design, by an intended boost of teaching quality, by limited access, and a separation...... and targets reflects governance principles of performance management. Performance management is an idea that is growing in popularity, in Europa and abroad. In Denmark, the VET reform represents an example of how management philosophy and ideas of performance management inform a number of current reforms...... in the policy area of education. The logic of performance management is that organizations and individuals are given objectives, measurable indicators are derived from these objectives, and features such as authority or incentives are deployed in order for organizational actors to meet or improve performance...

  20. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  1. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  2. America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the deadline for fulfillment of the national education goals in the United States (the beginning of 2000 reflects the frequently hyperbolic statements of objectives and the manic pace of school reform efforts over the past two decades. The domination by schools of child and family life has combined with a longstanding reliance on schools to solve social problems to make school reform a politically opportune as well as visible issue. Thus, even if the phrasing of national education goals in the U.S. changes to reflect the passing of the nominal deadline, those pressures will remain.

  3. [The reform of primary health care: the economic, care and satisfaction results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, J; Jodar, G; Pociello, V; Parellada, N; Martín, A; Pradas, J

    1999-05-15

    To compare the overall effect on the general public before and after the primary care reform, its economic outcome and professional satisfaction, following the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management. A descriptive analysis of results at reformed primary care centres compared with results at non-reformed centres in the same city. The study was conducted at Sant Boi de Llobregat, a town of 77,591 inhabitants in Baix Llobregat county (Barcelona). 32.7% of the population was covered by two reformed centres. The rest was covered by one single non-reformed primary care centre. Clinical audits and data on pharmaceutical prescription quality were used to find attendance. For economic results, the formula of attribution of cost/inhabitant and cost/inhabitant seen, including the costs of labour, structure, referral, further tests and pharmacy, were used. The satisfaction of the outside customer (user) was measured by a population survey. Internal customer satisfaction was measured by a survey of the professionals. Results were compared with those for 1997. The study showed that the reformed primary care sector's results, measured in terms of professional satisfaction, user-outside customer, attendance, economic results and social impact, were better than the non-reformed sector's. Inside and outside customers' satisfaction was higher in the reformed network. The cost per inhabitant in the reformed network was 31,874 pesetas, against 25,177 in the non-reformed network. The cost per inhabitant seen was 34,482 and 44,603, respectively. The reform creates efficient resource management and greater satisfaction of the general public and professionals, when an indicator sensitive to the real use of services is used.

  4. Primary education, lagging behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.; Lieten, K.

    2008-01-01

    For more than 60 years Pakistan has had a constitutional commitment to providing all children with free and compulsory education. In 1947, M. A. Jinnah stated that "the importance of education and the type of education cannot be over-emphasised", and it was agreed that free and compulsory education

  5. Recommended Capacities for Educational Leadership: Pre-Reform Era Scholars versus Reform-Era Scholars versus National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Taylor-Backor, Karen; Croteau, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed the scholarship on capacities for educational leadership for the past decade of the pre-reform era (1976-1985), as well as a recent decade of the reform era (2005-2015), and compared scholarship from both decades with the current Professional Standards for Educational Leaders. We found that scholars in the past decade of the pre-reform…

  6. Some Trends and Reforms in the Educational Policy of Norway in the Light of the Concept of Life-Long Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udjus, Ingelise

    An emphasis on planned and completed educational reforms in Norway which reflect the attitude that education is a lifelong process is presented in this document. A study is made of some of the trends in the development of the formal school system which have been influenced by the concept of life-long education. This study includes primary,…

  7. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  8. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  9. Primary Teacher Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…

  10. Bourdieu, Department Chairs and the Reform of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Hardy, Ian; Bartley, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Using the insights of the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, this article considers the role of the science department chair in the reform of school science education. Using Bourdieu's 'thinking tools' of 'field', 'habitus' and 'capital', we case study the work of two teachers who both actively pursue the teaching and learning of science as inquiry. One teacher, Dan, has been a department chair since 2000, and has actively encouraged his department to embrace science as inquiry. The other teacher, Leslie, worked for one year in Dan's department before being transferred to another school where science teaching continues to be more traditional. Our work suggests that there are three crucial considerations for chairs seeking to lead the reform of science teaching within their department. The first of these is the development of a reform-minded habitus, as this appears to be foundational to the capital that can be expended in the leadership of reform. The second is an understanding of how to wield power and position in the promotion of reform. The third is the capacity to operate simultaneously and strategically within, and across, two fields; the departmental field and the larger science education field. This involves downplaying administrative logics, and foregrounding more inquiry-focused logics as a vehicle to challenge traditional science-teaching dispositions-the latter being typically dominated by concerns about curriculum 'coverage'.

  11. School-Based Management: The Next Needed Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…

  12. Educational Reforms in Morocco: Evolution and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. He underlined that the sector was…

  13. Education Reform in Alberta: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda L.; Webber, Charles F.

    This paper discusses what educational leadership might look like at the start of the 21st century, specifically within the context of Alberta. It also provides a brief synopsis of some of Alberta's major reforms of the past decade, and it presents some of the key findings and recommendations of a 1998 study entitled "An Analysis of Attitudes…

  14. Science Education Reform in Qatar: Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Science education reform in Qatar has had limited success. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS), Qatari 4th and 8th grade students have shown progress in science achievement, but they remain significantly below the international average. Also, in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), Qatari…

  15. Seeing through Transparency in Education Reform: Illuminating the "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill; Kania, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing "assemblage," a notion associated with Actor-Network Theory (ANT), we explore what discourses of transparency can, and cannot, accomplish in a network of education reform that includes schools, government agencies, and community organizations. Drawing on data collected between July 2011 and March 2013 in an…

  16. America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    Notes the passing of the deadline for fulfillment of the national education goals in the United States, the beginning of the year 2000, and indicates that pressures on schools to solve social problems will continue to make school reform a politically opportune and very visible issue. (SLD)

  17. Reforms, Leadership and Quality Management in Greek Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…

  18. Education Reform in Bolivia: Transitions towards Which Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrueta, Jose Antonio; Avery, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the impact of educational reforms on young people in Bolivian society as they transition into adulthood, against the backdrop of globalisation and far-reaching structural changes. Ethnicity and cultural capital are linked in complex ways with social stratification in Bolivia. In a pluricultural society, the language of…

  19. Teacher Agency in Educational Reform: Lessons from Social Networks Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datnow, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a context for understanding how social networks among teachers support or constrain school improvement in terms of instructional practice, professional development, and educational reform. It comments on the articles in this special issue, summarizing their contributions to the field. This analysis reveals several important…

  20. Place Matters: Mathematics Education Reform in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…

  1. Balancing the Readiness Equation in Early Childhood Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…

  2. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  3. Basic Education Curriculum Reform in Rural China: Achievements, Problems, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Zhichun

    2011-01-01

    The latest wave of basic education curriculum reform, carried out over the past ten years, has achieved significant results and promoted the development of rural education. There are still some problems in the reform of basic education in rural areas, however, such as a serious shortage of funds for rural school curriculum reform, the continuing…

  4. "Trickle-Down" Reform: Hispanics, Higher Education, and the Excellence Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcon, John J.; de la Luz Reyes, Maria

    1991-01-01

    Recent excellence-in-education reform measures have created greater restrictions on the access of Hispanics to higher education. Suggests that reformers expect reform benefits to "trickle down" to minorities after first benefiting mainstream students. The idea of excellence must include that of educational equity. (CJS)

  5. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education…

  6. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  7. Reforming Teacher Education for Online Pedagogy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheg, Abigail G.

    2014-01-01

    Online education is a long-term goal at most higher-education institutions in the United States, but very few faculty members have sufficient training or knowledge of online pedagogy. As a result, students are not receiving the highest quality education, and institutions are struggling with student retention and the improvement of their distance…

  8. Should Reformers Support Education Savings Accounts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Matthew; Smith, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Matthew Ladner and Nelson Smith on the topic of Education Savings Accounts (ESAs). ESAs apply the logic of school choice to the ever-expanding realm of education offerings. Rather than simply empowering families to select the school of their choice, ESAs provide families with most or all of…

  9. Comparison between Primary Teacher Educators' and Primary School Teachers' Beliefs of Primary Geography Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gert Jan; Bakx, Anouke; den Brok, Perry

    2016-01-01

    In this study teacher educators' beliefs concerning primary geography education have been investigated and compared with primary school teachers' beliefs. In this study 45 teacher educators and 489 primary school teachers completed a questionnaire, and nine teacher educators have been interviewed as well. It has been found that teacher educators…

  10. Thermal modeling of radiation and convection sections of primary reformer of ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Baheri, Ehsan

    2007-01-01

    The primary reformer is basically a furnace containing burners and tubes packed with supported nickel catalyst. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Accordingly, selection of primary reformer operating parameters has an important influence on reduction of operating costs and increasing the reactor performance (conversion efficiency). In this paper, the radiation and convection sections of primary reformer are investigated. The effects of key parameters on reformer performance are studied and the related developed software program is presented. The stirred-reactor furnace model which was used to simulate the radiation section of primary reformer was found to make substantially correct predictions of the overall heat transfer process in the furnace. Comparison of the numerical data obtained from the simulation program with the measured data collected from primary reformer of Razi petrochemical plant showed a mean difference of 0.23% in estimating produced hydrogen mole fraction, as well as 1.7% and 7.25% in computing the outlet temperature of process fluids and induced draft fan (ID) speed, respectively

  11. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  12. The use of deliberative method in educational reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Buljan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The project named Higher Education Reform was established in 2004 as one of the implementation elements of the European higher education policy. The core activities of the project were executed throughout the formation of National Teams of Bologna Experts who had the task and duty to contribute to the general and real awareness-rising on the topic of the higher education reform among different stakeholders in participating countries of the Bologna Process. The Croatian National Team of Bologna Expert (Hrvatska stručna skupina za Bolonjski proces was established in 2011. Among the diversity of activities executed by the student representatives in the Team, the important place is reserved for the deliberative workshops held during 2013. The target groups of the deliberative workshops were students and other stakeholders in the higher education. This paper presents the process of including the stakeholders in educational reform through the deliberative workshops. During the workshops, the organizers found out how the stakeholders are rethinking on some of the aspects of the Bologna Process, how they perceive and value the work of student representative and volunteering activities, and what they think about the extra-curricular activities of the student and how they value such activities. The form of deliberative workshops encouraged participants to freely and in constructive way express their thoughts and expectances in order to exchange ideas and knowledge about the matter, and to make a decision on common suggestions to solve a particular problem in the context of higher education (introduction of a new practice, modifications and alternations of existing practices, etc. This type of the application of deliberation method is extremely useful, which is the reason for the suggestion of the method’s use in preparing, implementing and evaluating the educational reforms.

  13. Problems of Primary Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Primary education in Russia has failed to adapt to the needs of post-Soviet society, and is still based on rote learning and memorization instead of learning through discovery and learning to use and apply what is learned.

  14. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  15. Education for a New Era: Stakeholders’ Perception of Qatari Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ellili-Cherif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar’s education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the challenges they face in the implementation of EFNE. Data for this study was collected through an open-ended questionnaire. The results point to the positive effects of EFNE on improving instruction, principals' leadership style, and learner attitude to education. These stakeholders believe that the reform is too ambitious and sometimes unrealistic. The three groups also report challenges that revolve around the amount of extra effort and work it requires from them, the continuous reform changes, and the threats to the local culture and language. Discussion and conclusions are provided regarding EFNE.

  16. Higher education reform: getting the incentives right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, Erik; Venniker, Richard; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Koelman, Jos; Koelman, Jos; van der Meer, Peter; van der Meer, Peter; Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2001-01-01

    This study is a joint effort by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies. It analyses a number of `best practices¿ where the design of financial incentives working on the system level of higher education is concerned. In Chapter 1,

  17. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  18. Reform of Medium Education and Physical education: an abyss for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It develops analyzes on the reform of secondary education proposed by Provisional Measure . 746, now Law 13.415/17, and its implications in the future of Physical Education. Part of the following scientific question: What are the perspectives for the future of Physical Education in the face of the reform of secondary education proposed by the new educational policy? As methodological strategy a documentary study was developed, having as a source of analysis the texts of the MP and the law that ratifies it, besides the notes published by different entities related to education and Physical Education. The study indicates that the reform of high school will imply significantly in Physical Education in three fields: in its teaching in basic education, in teacher training and in teaching work.

  19. The Relevance of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, John

    2018-01-01

    This article sketches a vision of how primary education needs to be re-shaped to let schools focus more sharply on the development of children as individuals. Rapid social change requires a fundamental re-thinking of formal education and assessment. High-stakes testing must end. Greater weight must be given to the application of knowledge and…

  20. Second Languages in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.; Kunkle, John F.

    A book on second languages in primary education, designed to assist both classroom teachers and language specialists, is presented. The following topics are addressed: (1) reasons for studying a second language; (2) reasons for children to learn a second language; (3) language choices; (4) qualifications of teachers; (5) FLES, bilingual education,…

  1. Down by the Riverside: A CRT Perspective on Education Reform in Two River Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Celia Rousseau; Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors utilize core ideas from Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the nature of education reform in two river cities. Similar to other cases of education reform in urban districts, the reforms in the two focal cities reflect at least four characteristics in common: (1) a form of portfolio management; (2) the growth of…

  2. A Decade of Education Reform in Thailand: Broken Promise or Impossible Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the perceived gap between the vision of education reform in Thailand embodied in its Education Reform Law of 1999 and the results of implementation a decade later. Drawing upon opportunistic data obtained from a sample of 162 Thai school principals, we analyze trends in reform implementation across schools in all regions and…

  3. Recent State Education Reform in the United States: Looking Backward and Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the past progress and outcomes of the educational reform movement at the state level and outlines strategies for the second wave of reform. Contends that the future of education reform depends primarily on the growth of the American economy and how this growth is distributed among the states. (TE)

  4. Teacher Education Reform and Subaltern Voices: From Politica to Practica in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, the National Educational Reform in Bolivia instituted reforms that called for a model of education that held at its center the knowledge and languages of Indigenous people. The types of change called for by the reforms in Bolivia signify major transformations in teacher preparation practices and a concerted emphasis on training in…

  5. Reforms in Education: The Need for Re-Engineering Teacher Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoego, O. C.; Ebebe, I. E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is concerned with reforms in Education and the need for re-engineering Teacher education in Nigeria for better professionalism and National Development. In the process, key concepts like Teacher Education and professionalism were explained. A brief review of the state of Teacher Education and Development in Nigeria revealed the…

  6. The "Hollywoodization" of Education Reform in "Won't Back Down"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Witte, Shelbie; Jennings Davis, Jennifer; Ward, Peggy; Flammang, Brandon; Gerhardson, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    What happens when forces attempting to privatize education create and produce a Hollywood film with an education reform plot line? This essay explores "Won't Back Down" through cultural studies and progressive education lenses in an effort to unveil misrepresentations of education and education reform. Drawing on scholarship in these…

  7. Technological Innovation in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisana Sleny López Alvarado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to reflect on technological innovation in Primary Education. In this idea, information processing was used to support the analysis of the theoretical approaches related to the relevance of education that is based on a significant pedagogical practice capable of developing the capacities and interests, so that they can appropriate the global and local content in the vision of access to information, considering social opportunities. The restructuring to which education has been subjected has been influenced by advances in science, technology and the demands of a complex, dynamic and uncertain society in the processes of educational innovation, which involves the introduction of something new in education. the educational system, modifying its teaching-learning structures through the incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the curricular design of primary education in its intention to train for incursion into science and technology from use of a wide range of didactic resources that lead to pedagogical innovation. It was concluded that technological innovation in the educational praxis of primary education, requires in addition to the vocation of service, to study the new didactic paradigms to display their reflective capacity and assume the commitment to acquire digital literacy to assume the requirements of a knowledge society which is increasingly globalized.

  8. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  9. Assigning Blame: The Rhetoric of Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.…

  10. Reform in Teacher Education: A Sociological View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    This monograph examines preservice teacher education from the perspective of the sociologist. It emphasizes the need for furthering the cause of professionalism among teachers through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and orientations of a profession, a process referred to as a socialization system. The publication offers a…

  11. Driven by History: Mathematics Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth, Steve; Dalzell, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of modern societies is fueled by mathematics, and mathematics education provides the foundation upon which future scientists and engineers will build. Society dictates how mathematics will be taught through the development and implementation of mathematics standards. When examining the progression of these standards, it is…

  12. The new reform educational in the Ecuador and its application in education special

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ernestina García Liscano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuador over the years, the government of the citizen revolution has made drastic changes in the education system,with the aim of improving the quality of learning of Ecuadorians. This article is aimed at analyzing the educational reform in Ecuador from the new institutions of the country, which constitutes the government of Econ. Rafael Correa Delgado with the new educational model that began in January 2010, from this restructuring conducted an analysis of special education in our country, if considered in the reforms and if taken due importance concerning the preparation of disabled people. This analysis also helps to demonstrate what are the benefits generated by the educational reform within specialized educational units, based on the perspective of before and after, and as by their application has been made to strengthen the processes of quality improvement, relevance, equity and efficiency of special education in Ecuador.

  13. Reform in Secondary Education: The Continuing Efforts to Reform Secondary Education, and a Modest Proposal. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Galen

    The author begins by examining the functions of the school and the basic principles governing the provision of education in the American democracy as a way of providing a framework for analyzing proposals for the reform of secondary education. He then examines proposals for reform. His major focus is on ten proposals made by agencies,…

  14. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  15. Politics and Culture in Croation Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Max

    1992-01-01

    Offers a historical overview of a series of reforms of higher education in the former Yugoslavia republic, stressing the cultural importance of "obrazovanje" (formal education/training) and "odgoj" (moral education/personal development) in Croatia. Describes the development of "visa skola," comparable to U.S.…

  16. Reform of the Educational Finance System as the Foundation of Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…

  17. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  18. Pre elementary design of primary reformer for hydrogen plant coupled with HTGR type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Priambodo; Erlan Dewita; Sudi Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has a high potent for new energy, because of it availability. Steam reforming is a fully developed commercial technology and is the most economical method for production of hydrogen. Steam reforming uses an external source of hot gas to heat tubes in which a catalytic reaction takes place that converts steam and lighter hydrocarbons such as natural gas (methane) or refinery feedstock into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) at high temperature on primary reformer (800-900°C). Utilization of helium from HTGR as heating medium for primary reformer has consequence to type and shape of its reactor. The main goal of this paper is to determine type/shape and pre elementary design of chemical reactor for the cogeneration system of Hydrogen Plant and HTGR The primary reformer for this system is Fixed Bed Multitube reactor with specification tube: NPS 3,5 Sch 40 ST 40S, 0.281 in thickness, number of tube 849 pieces and ASTM HH 30 for tube material. Tube arrangement is 'triangular pitch' on shell Split-Ring Floating Head from Steel Alloy SA 301 Grade B equipted with 8 baffles. (author)

  19. Supervision Vs Education Quality in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoel Ruber Mota Fonseca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective to interpret the voices of teachers supervising vs quality of education in primary education, as today, supervision entails progress and improvement in the performance of the duties of teachers in the learning environment is therefore, that through this content conflicts present information to achieve changes within educational institutions towards organizational efficiency and under supplied. In it, a qualitative paradigmatic approach as a methodological foundation that allows us to interpret educational supervision through delos social actors which is made up of managers, teachers and supervisors in the context of primary education, established likewise was necessary to collect the information through direct observation technique using as an interview script whose implementation was key informants comprised of a primary teacher education, a supervisor and from this the researcher, thus achieving the corresponding analysis according to the information provided for each, which allowed the development of argumentative skills teachers, establishing rules and procedures that provide guidelines for creating answers to the problem. For with following aims determined in the investigation, vital agents that help teachers to be highly competent in their daily practice, using teaching strategies that will enable success in the classroom, whose purpose is the achievement orientation and optimization in the process of teaching and student learning. In this sense, a reflection about the role it should play the supervisor to achieve educational quality is performed, demonstrating spaces mediation, integration, participation and collaboration with respect to the performance of the master whose aim is to be efficient and effective in its educational work of the educational system.

  20. Ethical and Civic Education. Difficulties during the Curricular Reform in Argentine Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelino Siede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios51.68 What type of ethical and civic education is effectively provided at school? This article analyzes the curricular prescriptions of Ethical and Citizenship Education in primary schools of the Argentine Patagonia, as well as its relations and contradictions with the school practices of moral education It inquires the process of definition of the area in the context of the Educational Reform in the 90s. Also, it pursuits to remake the way it was incorporated in the provincial curriculum design. Throughout focus groups and interviews to teachers from different public and private schools of three towns from de north of Santa Cruz, we analyze the descriptions and expectative of the teachers about their teaching practice in the moral area, as well as the possible causes of the differences and the contradictions between the policies of the curricular statement and educational proposals offered at school.

  1. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  2. QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS LEADING TO REFORMS IN EAST EUROPEAN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Vos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the evolution of qualifications frameworks across Europe. Five years ago, it was not clear if the discussions on national qualification frameworks (NQF in Eastern Europe would lead to the new standards and qualifications development, or initiate the reforms in education and training. Now, there is evidence of more countries using the NQFs to promote a dialogue between the public and private sectors on the expected outcomes of educational process. In some countries, the private sector has even taken the lead in the NQF discussions, being increasingly involved in their implementation. This is a fundamentally new paradigm in education policies and a cornerstone of the demand driven education and training. Each country is following its own patterns while moving to the comparable results. However, this is just the initial stage of NQF implementation. The author regards learning by doing and the local expertise expansion as the key challenges of the coming years. Although the reforms take time, they increasingly tend to become a shared public and private responsibility.

  3. From pedagogy to timeagogy? Leisure-time pedagogues handling time in the reformed Danish Primary School and Leisure-time Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Ringskou, Lea Thomsen

    for effectiveness contributes to increasing amounts of discipline techniques and new requirements in relation to the pedagogues’ skills in classroom management. Seemingly, the enhanced encounter between time and pedagogy both provide potentials and pitfalls, triggering different, often ambivalent, emotional......, Denmark. E-mail: dtg@viauc.dk Research topic/aim: In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. A reform that meant longer school days, emphasizing varied learning environments and better results for each pupil regardless of social background. In general, the reform matches other educational reforms...... effectiveness and academic outcomes. In our presentation, launching the concept of timeagogy, we analyze and discuss the encounter between time and pedagogy. Which strategies, techniques and action evolve when time challenges pedagogy? How do pedagogues handle time demands and in which way does time constitute...

  4. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  5. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  6. Major Reforms of the Swedish Education System: 1950-1975. Staff Working Paper No. 290.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenheimer, Arnold J.

    To develop a mass education structure that met the goals of both equality and efficiency, Sweden carried out extensive educational reforms between 1950 and 1975, starting at lower educational levels and moving in gradual staqes to the highest levels. This report looks at the background, nature, and history of these reforms. Its chapter on the…

  7. Digital education reform for improving interaction between students and instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiansong; Li, Yuanjie; Zheng, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays it is difficult to attract undergraduate students' interesting to put sufficient time to learn major courses in China, which are too hard for them to quick grasp and fully understanding. Here we report a digital education reform for improving interactions between students and instructors, in which we transform the abstract, obscure and boring knowledge, such as physical, mathematical, electronic or optical concepts into direct and dynamic 3-D model and flash. Therefore, this method can convert theoretical concepts into easy understanding pictures. Our several years' experience shows that this education mode can make students' willing to think and practice, then it is helpful for attracting their learning interests. Most students benefit from this education mode which can greatly enhance their understanding abilities.

  8. Primary health care reform, dilemmatic space and risk of burnout among health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Javanparast, Sara; Lawless, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout. Dilemmatic space and burnout were assessed in a survey of 130 staff across the six services (58% response rate). Additionally, 63 interviews were conducted with practitioners, managers, regional executives and health department staff. Dilemmatic space occurred across all services and was associated with higher rates of self-reported burnout. Three conditions associated with dilemmatic space were (1) conditions inherent in comprehensive primary health care, (2) stemming from service provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and (3) changes wrought by reorientation to selective primary health care in South Australia. Responses to dilemmatic space included ignoring directives or doing work 'under the radar', undertaking alternative work congruent with primary health care values outside of hours, or leaving the organisation. The findings show that comprehensive primary health care was contested and political. Future health reform processes would benefit from considering alignment of changes with staff values to reduce negative effects of the reform and safeguard worker wellbeing.

  9. Laying Bare Educational Crosstalk: A Study of Discursive Repertoires in the Wake of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Cormac; Laksov, Klara Bolander

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Bologna process, many European universities are undergoing comprehensive educational reform. Our attention in this paper is focused on how a medical university came to terms with the challenges presented therein. We wished to explore how educators identify, understand and deal with opportunities for change at a medical…

  10. Education under the Heel of Caesar: Reading UK Higher Education Reform through Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    UK higher education reform (BIS, ) has been presented as a common-sense movement towards efficiency. This article will argue that, in reality, the marketisation of higher education is a movement towards negative freedom, defined after Berlin (2007) as unrestricted choice. Using Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" as a means to explore…

  11. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 year education reform in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By CEYLAN

    2016-05-28

    Öztürk, 2005). ... compulsory, and education following primary school (middle school, high school and university) was ...... initially very popular in the mass media in 2012, ... in Turkey: opinions and concerns of elementary.

  12. Payment Reform to Enhance Collaboration of Primary Care and Cardiology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven A; Casale, Paul N; Gillam, Linda D; Rumsfeld, John S; Erickson, Shari; Kirschner, Neil M; de Regnier, Kevin; Williams, Bruce R; Martin, R Shawn; McClellan, Mark B

    2018-01-01

    The US health care system faces an unsustainable trajectory of high costs and inconsistent outcomes. The fee-for-service payment model has contributed to inefficiency, and new payment methods are a promising approach to improving value. Health reforms are needed to increase patient access, reduce costs, and improve health care quality, and the landmark Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act presents a roadmap for reform. The product of a collaboration between primary care and cardiology clinicians, this review describes a conceptual approach to delivery and payment reforms that aim to better support primary care-cardiology comanagement of chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few existing alternative payment models specifically address long-term management of CVD. Primary care medical homes and accountable care organizations come closest, but both emphasize primary care, and cardiologists have often not been well engaged. A collaborative care framework should articulate distinct roles and responsibilities for primary care and cardiology in CVD comanagement. Finally, a series of payment models aim to better support clinicians in providing accountable, seamless, and patient-centered cardiac care. Clinical leadership is essential during this time of change in the health care system. Patients often struggle to navigate a fragmented and expensive system, whereas clinicians often practice with incomplete information about tests, treatments, and recommendations by their colleagues. The payment models described in this review offer an opportunity to create more satisfying approaches to patient care while improving value. These models have potential to support more effective coordination and to facilitate broader health care system transformation.

  13. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  14. Reforming STEM Undergraduate Education: What's a Faculty Member to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, J.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to improve undergraduate STEM education lie at the forefront of many national educational policies. The recent National Academies of Science study of discipline-based educational research (DBER)is typical of such efforts. Most of the initiatives to improve student learning in STEM focus on the the student or the instructor in the classroom (Austin, 2011). This focus is consistent with the work by Seymour & Hewitt (1997), which found that poor teaching in STEM adversely affects learning and retention in the major. Professional development efforts focus on helping the individual STEM faculty member to figure out what to do to improve student learning. Substantial research (Austin, 2011) shows that the origin of many learning problems lies beyond the control of the instructor or the individual classroom. In these circumstances what is a STEM faculty member to do? This paper explores answers to this question. The first step is to define the nature of the problem. Is it related to classroom teaching and learning such as knowledge, skills, and interest in the major? If so then what environmental factors affect strategic alternatives, including type of course, instructor characteristics, and prior teaching experience (Fairweather & Rhoads, 1995)? Does good disciplinary-based research on the learning problem exist? If so then how can the research results be translated into practice? If not then does good research from other disciplines exist? If relevant evidenced-based research does not exist at all then how can STEM instructors learn to evaluate key learning outcomes and find ways to ameliorate problems? Despite appearances not all STEM teaching and learning problems are classroom-based. Some problems derive from curricula, others from faculty work-related issues such as rewards and work load. Any classroom reform effort must reflect accurately the system in which the teaching and learning take place. Understanding these systemic interactions improves the ability

  15. Mind, Brain and Education as a Framework for Curricular Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Larrison, Abigail L.

    2013-01-01

    A growing collaboration between psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators has culminated in the emergence of a new academic discipline known as Mind, Brain and Education (MBE). MBE differs from previous efforts, such as educational neuroscience, in that it is focused on the problem of how we might bring findings from the learning sciences into the classroom. As such MBE is placed squarely in the classroom, and works through engaging teachers as primary participants. Hence, MBE must work t...

  16. Proactive educational reforms in South Korea: Schools for Improvement and multicultural education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This paper discusses the educational issues and societal changes that have led to proactive reforms in the education system of South Korea. Korean pupils achieve high academic levels, but there have been some criticisms relating to sociocultural issues. In addition, Korea is being transformed into a multicultural society. Here we consider two examples of Korea’s educational interventions, introduced in response to contextual demands and societal changes: firstly, the Schools for...

  17. Reformed Teaching and Learning in Science Education: A Comparative Study of Turkish and US Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Cavlazoglu, Baki; Burlbaw, Lynn; Aydin, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Achievements of educational reform advantage constructivist understandings of teaching and learning, and therefore highlight a shift in beliefs of teachers and apply these perceptions to the real world. Science teachers' beliefs have been crucial in understanding and reforming science education as beliefs of teachers regarding learning and…

  18. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  19. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  20. Teachers' Emotions in the Context of Education Reform: Labor Process Theory and Social Constructionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Kwong, Tsun Lok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many teachers suffered different kinds of negative emotions in the context of education reforms. A typical explanation was that the education reforms disempowered teachers in teaching, so teachers were forced to do much non-instructional work. Teachers considered their work meaningless but were powerless to change it, and…

  1. Lebanon's 2011 ICT Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan: Curriculum Success or Abeyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Lebanon's Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan (LERSAP) set in 2011 as a form of the educational reform the curriculum underwent through focusing on promoting and employing the information communication technology (ICT) tools. The LERSAP was launched to equip teachers…

  2. The Evaluation of Higher Education Expenditure Performance and Investment Mechanism Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De; Fu, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Along with the reform of Chinese Government public finance, higher education belongs to the public product, gradually changes from "fund investment management" to the "expenditure performance management". The evaluation of expenditure performance system becomes the key point of higher education investment mechanism reform. This…

  3. Recipients, Agents, or Partners?: The Contradictions of Teacher Participation in Mexican Secondary Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Bradley A.; Blackwood, Janet; Cross, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The countries of Latin America have been no exception to global calls for educational transformation and teacher professionalization at the secondary level. One of the newest of these reforms is Mexico's Reforma de la Educacion Secundaria (RS) (Reform of Secondary Education), launched in 2006. This article examines portrayals by various actors of…

  4. Action Research as Professional Development: Its Role in Education Reform in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Conley; Dillon, Anna Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring the microsystem of teachers' experiences with education reform within the action research (AR) model for professional development (PD). Within the macrosystem of current major education reform in the UAE, it is timely to explore teachers' experiences of AR as PD to improve pedagogy. The process of engaging in…

  5. Intersections between School Reform, the Arts, and Special Education: The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…

  6. Local Instruction Theories as Means of Support for teachers in Reform Mathematics Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a form of instructional design that is deemed fitting for reform mathematics education. Reform mathematics education requires instruction that helps students in developing their current ways of reasoning into more sophisticated ways of mathematical reasoning. This implies

  7. Early education - strategic field of the educational reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Marian Bunaiasu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, early education represents the educational area that benefits from a multitude of researches and theoretical and practical contributions, pursuant to acknowledging the necessity in order to holistically approach pre-scool pupil's development and to report to education's European dimension. The managerial approach of the early education implies strategic decisions regarding the: a plan, organization and implementation of the school curriculum, by referring to legislative documents and in the spirit of focusing activities on pre-school pupil's global development; b institutional development of pre-school educational units, regarding all functional fields and managerial activity's efficiency, for reasons related to optimal organization of the pre-school pupils' learning and development conditions. The article approaches early education issues from multiple perspectives: a theoretical, legislative and conceptual premises; b strategic orientations and finalities of the curriculum for early education; c educational management as part of the early education area. The above mentioned premises, strategies and directions represent elements that supply new reflections and points of view as part of future studies and backgrounds of some empiric researches we foresee as part of early education field.

  8. Future directions for Public Health Education reforms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  9. Globalisation and science education: Rethinking science education reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2005-05-01

    Like Lemke (J Res Sci Teach 38:296-316, 2001), I believe that science education has not looked enough at the impact of the changing theoretical and global landscape by which it is produced and shaped. Lemke makes a sound argument for science education to look beyond its own discourses toward those like cultural studies and politics, and to which I would add globalisation theory and relevant educational studies. Hence, in this study I draw together a range of investigations to argue that globalisation is indeed implicated in the discourses of science education, even if it remains underacknowledged and undertheorized. Establishing this relationship is important because it provides different frames of reference from which to investigate many of science education's current concerns, including those new forces that now have a direct impact on science classrooms. For example, one important question to investigate is the degree to which current science education improvement discourses are the consequences of quality research into science teaching and learning, or represent national and local responses to global economic restructuring and the imperatives of the supranational institutions that are largely beyond the control of science education. Developing globalisation as a theoretical construct to help formulate new questions and methods to examine these questions can provide science education with opportunities to expand the conceptual and analytical frameworks of much of its present and future scholarship.

  10. Russian Journalism Education: Challenging Media Change and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanova, Elena; Lukina, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a general picture of higher education institutions offering journalism undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral programs located in different parts of the Russian Federation. Monitoring websites of all the universities with journalism education discovered 150 such institutions. They are unevenly dispersed around the country, but…

  11. Time for TIGER to ROAR! Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Hubner, Ursula; Shaw, Toria; Blake, Rachelle; Ball, Marion

    2017-11-01

    Information Technology (IT) continues to evolve and develop with electronic devices and systems becoming integral to healthcare in every country. This has led to an urgent need for all professions working in healthcare to be knowledgeable and skilled in informatics. The Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Initiative was established in 2006 in the United States to develop key areas of informatics in nursing. One of these was to integrate informatics competencies into nursing curricula and life-long learning. In 2009, TIGER developed an informatics competency framework which outlines numerous IT competencies required for professional practice and this work helped increase the emphasis of informatics in nursing education standards in the United States. In 2012, TIGER expanded to the international community to help synthesise informatics competencies for nurses and pool educational resources in health IT. This transition led to a new interprofessional, interdisciplinary approach, as health informatics education needs to expand to other clinical fields and beyond. In tandem, a European Union (EU) - United States (US) Collaboration on eHealth began a strand of work which focuses on developing the IT skills of the health workforce to ensure technology can be adopted and applied in healthcare. One initiative within this is the EU*US eHealth Work Project, which started in 2016 and is mapping the current structure and gaps in health IT skills and training needs globally. It aims to increase educational opportunities by developing a model for open and scalable access to eHealth training programmes. With this renewed initiative to incorporate informatics into the education and training of nurses and other health professionals globally, it is time for educators, researchers, practitioners and policy makers to join in and ROAR with TIGER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Networks and social capital: a relational approach to primary healthcare reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Catherine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Collaboration among health care providers and across systems is proposed as a strategy to improve health care delivery the world over. Over the past two decades, health care providers have been encouraged to work in partnership and build interdisciplinary teams. More recently, the notion of networks has entered this discourse but the lack of consensus and understanding about what is meant by adopting a network approach in health services limits its use. Also crucial to this discussion is the work of distinguishing the nature and extent of the impact of social relationships – generally referred to as social capital. In this paper, we review the rationale for collaboration in health care systems; provide an overview and synthesis of key concepts; dispel some common misconceptions of networks; and apply the theory to an example of primary healthcare network reform in Alberta (Canada. Our central thesis is that a relational approach to systems change, one based on a synthesis of network theory and social capital can provide the fodation for a multi-focal approach to primary healthcare reform. Action strategies are recommended to move from an awareness of 'networks' to fully translating knowledge from existing theory to guide planning and practice innovations. Decision-makers are encouraged to consider a multi-focal approach that effectively incorporates a network and social capital approach in planning and evaluating primary healthcare reform.

  13. The Discourse of Partnership and the Reality of Reform: Interrogating the Recent Reform Agenda at Initial Teacher Education and Induction Levels in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Harford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, teacher education in Ireland has experienced radical reconceptualization and restructuring at both initial teacher education [ITE] and induction levels, with reform of continuous professional development now in the planning phase. The establishment of the Teaching Council (2006 as a statutory, regulatory body, with a role in the review and accreditation of teacher education, increased the visibility of and policy focus on teacher education. Significant reform of initial teacher education was announced in 2011 that included both an extension of the duration of programmes and, most notably, the period the student teachers were to be engaged in school-based professional development. This increased period has been accompanied by a shift in the understanding of what is involved in practicum and implies a redefinition of the respective roles of the university and the school, and the development of a new form of partnership between both agencies. The period of induction and probation has also become an area of reform with an emphasis on school-based coaching and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers, which devolves decisions on teachers’ full recognition and membership of the profession, to principals and colleagues. This shift, which changes the established approach to induction for primary level teachers, has resulted in the withdrawal of cooperation with this policy by the main teacher union and to the implementation process being stymied. Both policy developments bring the concept of partnership within Irish education into sharp focus: a partnership between schools and universities in ITE, but also partnership in policy development and implementation in the case of induction.

  14. Neoliberalism as Nihilism? A Commentary on Educational Accountability, Teacher Education, and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism. The article provides commentary on five recent articles on teacher education and the neoliberal agenda. The article presents an analysis of neoliberalism as despair, and as a form of nihilism. The author discusses an indigenous model of school reform and…

  15. Transformative Education? A Philosophic-Augustinian Response to the 2010 Albertan Reform Initiatives in "Inspiring Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta Government's 2010 "Inspiring Education" reform proposals claim to be "transformational" in nature. This paper examines these proposals in light of ancient philosophy and various among the world's wisdom traditions. Drawing particularly on the philosophic reflections of St. Augustine in his "Confessions",…

  16. Education, Culture and Indigenous Rights: The Case of Educational Reform in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboni Salinas, Sonia; Juarez Nunez, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implementation of intercultural bilingual education throughout Bolivia and its relationship to the linguistic and cultural rights of the majority indigenous population. Discusses institutional and curriculum reforms, particularly in rural schools; a new emphasis on students' learning needs; relationship to indigenous…

  17. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  18. Experimental teaching reforms of optical fiber communication based on general education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L.; Liu, S.; Zhou, J. H.; Peng, Z. M.

    2017-08-01

    It's necessary that higher education experimental teaching reforms on the basis of general education. This paper put forward the experimental teaching reform mode of optical fiber communication in the context of general education. With some reform measures such as improving the experimental content, enriching the experimental style, modifying the experimental teaching method, and adjusting the evaluation method of experimental teaching, the concept of general education is put throughout the experimental teaching of optical fiber communication. In this way, it facilitates the development of students and improvement of experimental teaching quality.

  19. Reforming Canadian primary care - don't stop half-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Strong primary care is a fundamental underpinning of high-performing health systems. Sadly, primary care infrastructure and performance in canada lag behind many of our international peers. Although substantial reforms have been implemented over the past decade, progress has been uneven, and no province has all the essential system elements in place. Continued investment is both needed and affordable. However, whether those investments - and others necessary to strengthen medicare - are made will be determined largely by the ongoing clash between communitarian and libertarian values. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. Reforming Canadian Primary Care – Don't Stop Half-Way1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Strong primary care is a fundamental underpinning of high-performing health systems. Sadly, primary care infrastructure and performance in Canada lag behind many of our international peers. Although substantial reforms have been implemented over the past decade, progress has been uneven, and no province has all the essential system elements in place. Continued investment is both needed and affordable. However, whether those investments – and others necessary to strengthen medicare – are made will be determined largely by the ongoing clash between communitarian and libertarian values. PMID:23968670

  1. The single most important education reform in developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orija, O.

    2007-05-01

    I deciding teaching as peer educator and working with NGOs in my country, as method to need to consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curriculum as determined by their school district. Strengthening relationships among students and adults, Improving engagement, alignment and rigor of teaching and learning in every classroom, every day. My single most reform achieves is the rural school and community trust is a national non-profit organization addressing the crucial relationship between good schools and thriving communities. Our mission is to help rural schools and communities get better together. Working in some of the poorest, most challenging places, the rural trust involves young people in learning linked to their communities, improves the quality of teaching and school leadership, and advocates in a variety of ways for appropriate state educational policies, including the key issue of equitable and national agenda (serve Peer Educator) where rural people and their issues are visible and credible for rural schools.

  2. Analyses of science education reform in Florida: Emerging from the eclipse or trapped in the darkness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muire, Willis Christian, Jr.

    This research is focused on the changes that have occurred across the complex web of systems and subsystems of education in Florida and to examine the relative impact these changes have exacted upon science education. The primary purpose of this research is to describe and interpret the practices of reform efforts in Florida as a way to inform educational stakeholders such that new visions of school improvement can be discussed and planned for improving the teaching and learning of science. This study begins with the questions of "what is happening in science education in an extremely large and diverse state and why is it happening?" The solutions to these questions required a blend of investigatory techniques to answer. The needs of elementary school teachers for improving science education were initially used to provide the organizational foci of this research. As trends emerged from analyzing these needs, a wide variety of qualitative and quantitative data sources were acquired and analyzed in a longitudinal, multi-level design to obtain rich insights into the factors associated with achievement and equity in the teaching and learning of science in Florida. Relevant statistical indicators obtained from state, district and school data in combination with interviews of teachers, principals, parents, state and district level leaders were used for interpreting qualitative evidence. As credible data were acquired, I also examined the evidence in terms of educational policy formulation and the "filter down process" associated with the impact of national, state, and district policies on schools. Moreover, I investigated issues of policy and governance and their interrelations with student achievement science. I am interested in identifying the most robust indicators of science education reform in authentic ways with the goal of ascertaining if and where reform is occurring, and in terms of grounded theory, why these changes are occurring. Though the focus of this study

  3. Educational reform in Nigeria: the case of Multicultural Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cohesion of our multicultural societies depends on mutual understanding, engaging proactively in co-operation between different communities and respecting one another. This paper deals with the educational philosophy of a well-known Turkish Islamic scholar, Fethullah Gülen and its application to schools in Nigeria.

  4. Teacher Education Reform in Urban Educator Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle

    2015-01-01

    The majority of teachers in the United States are of a different race, ethnicity, class, gender, and linguistic dominance from that of their students. Teachers are specifically challenged by a variety of racial and ethnic issues as they enter their classrooms. This paper discusses the importance of educator preparation programs devoting attention…

  5. An Ecojustice Approach to Educational Reform in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Chet A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the key principles of an ecojustice approach to adult education. The author describes the cultural roots of the ecological crisis, the difference between ecological and individual intelligence and the linguistic colonization of the present by the past. The dangers of an overreliance on print are described and the need for a…

  6. EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL COHESION ATTEMPTS IN LEBANON: REFLECTIONS ON THE 1994 AND 2010 EDUCATION REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Shuayb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Lebanese civil war, education was put forward as a major means for rebuilding Lebanon and promoting social cohesion and unity. A huge education development plan was launched in 1994 culminating in a new national curriculum in 1997 and the production of new textbooks.  Although the quality of education improved in public schools, dropout rates continued to be high, particularly amongst the most disadvantaged groups. As education inequality soared, a new education reform strategy was launched in 2010. This paper investigates how social cohesion has been tackled in the two reforms (1994 and 2010. In defining social cohesion, the study adopts Nancy Fraser’s framework of social justice which includes redistribution, recognition, and participation. In addition, Novelli, Lopes Cardozo and Smith’s (2014 fourth component of social justice ‘reconciliation’ is added to the analytical framework. Findings revealed an emphasis on distributive justice by widening access to education including during early years and tackling causes of dropout, specifically in the 2010 reform. Reconciliation, in particular nationalism and promoting one narrative of the past, is given a major priority. Conflict is reduced to religious intolerance while structured barriers to social justice, including the use of languages that are considered foreign as mediums of instruction, the marginalisation of disadvantaged groups, a lack of participation, and sectarian nepotism, were downplayed. Critical reflections on the past has been suppressed in favour of building a national memory.  

  7. Zanzibar's Curriculum Reform: Implications for Children's Educational Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores recent developments in linguistic choices in education in Zanzibar and examines the arguments for using local languages of instruction (LoI) as a right. The article's analysis is based on a study of a curriculum change in Zanzibar in which English replaced Kiswahili as the LoI in the last two years of primary school in…

  8. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  9. How primary care reforms influenced health indicators in Manisa district in Turkey: Lessons for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Celalettin; Sozmen, Kaan; Kilic, Bulent

    2018-12-01

    Turkish health reforms began in 2003 and brought some significant changes in primary care services. Few studies in Turkey compare the shift from health centres (HC) to family physicians (FP) approach, which was initiated by reforms. This study compares health status indicators during the HC period before reforms (2003-2007) and the FP period after reforms (2008-2012) in Turkey. This study encompasses time series data consisting of the results of a 10-year assessment (2003-2012) in Manisa district. All the data were obtained electronically and by month. The intersection points of the regression curves of these two periods and the beta coefficients were compared using segmented linear regression analysis. The mean number of follow-up per person/year during the HC period in infants (10.5), pregnant women (6.6) and women (1.8) was significantly higher than the mean number of follow-up during the FP period in infants (6.7), pregnant women (5.6) and women (0.9). Rates of BCG and measles vaccinations were significantly higher during the FP period; however, rates of HBV and DPT were same. The mean number of outpatient services per person/year during the FP period (3.3) was significantly higher than HC period (2.8). Within non-communicable diseases, no difference was detected for hypertension prevalence. Within communicable diseases, there was no difference for rabies suspected bites but acute haemorrhagic gastroenteritis significantly decreased. The infant mortality rate and under five-year child mortality rate significantly increased during the FP period. Primary care services should be reorganized and integrated with public health services.

  10. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  11. Regulatory Autonomy and Performance: The Reform of Higher Education Re-Visited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Jurgen; de Boer, Harry; Weyer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of organizational autonomy and control in higher education reform and related expectations as regards the performance of universities. Our analyses draws on principal-agent models as a normative theory of policy reform, and institutionalist approaches in public policy and…

  12. Why the Best Isn't so Bad: Moderation and Ideals in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdeman, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education," Michael Feuer counsels reformers to "satisfice": moderate their expectations and accept that flawed reforms can be good enough. Implicit in Feuer's view of satisficing is the assumption that moderating expectations entails eschewing ideals and replacing optimal goals…

  13. Enhancing teaching and learning in the Dutch vocational education system : Reforms enacted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elly de Bruijn; Stephen Billett; Jeroen Onstenk

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses how the Dutch vocational education system has undergone significant waves of reform driven by global imperatives, national concerns and governmental policy goals. Like elsewhere, the impetuses for these reforms are directed to generating a more industry-responsive,

  14. Debates on the Basic Education Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Challenges in China: The Case of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Ni, Yu-jing

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the case of mathematics, this paper reviews debates on China's new Basic Education Curriculum Reform program, including the status of knowledge within the reformed curriculum, the arrangement of the curriculum system, and the push toward real-life applicability and hands-on participation. It discusses the related challenges that…

  15. Prescription, Ceremony, or "Trickle Down": How Do National Commissions Try to Reform Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpelberg, Robert K.; Ginsberg, Rick

    Educational reform commissions and their reports can be traced back to the massive expansion of public schools during the 1890s. The reports of reform commissions over the years follow the same format: problems are identified, experts are selected to examine them, and improvement proposals are recommended. This report examines 14 national studies…

  16. In Flesh and Bone: Bodily Image and Educational Patterns in Early Reformation Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Luana

    2018-01-01

    From its very beginning, the Protestant Reformation adopted the theatre as one of its educational tools. Together with choral music, visual arts, and preaching, Luther, Melanchthon, Oekolampad, and other Reformers promoted both the cultivated school theatre and the popular street theatre in order to spread the new faith, create a community ethos,…

  17. Educational reform as a dynamic system of problems and solutions: Towards an analytic instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttenberg, J.; Carpay, T.; Veugelers, W.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale educational reforms are difficult to realize and often fail. In the literature, the course of reform and problems associated with this are frequently discussed. The explanations and recommendations then provided are so diverse that it is difficult to gain a comprehensive overview of what

  18. Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Paul

    An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…

  19. Excavating silences and tensions of agency|passivity in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2010-12-01

    I reflect on studies by Rodriguez and Carlone, Haun-Frank, and Kimmel to emphasize the ways in which they excavate silences in the science education literature related to linguistic and cultural diversity and situating the problem of reform in teachers rather than contextual factors, such as traditional schooling discourses and forces that serve to marginalize science. I propose that the current push for top-down reform and accountability diminishes opportunities for receptivity, learning with and from students in order to transform teachers' practices and promote equity in science education. I discuss tensions of agency and passivity in science education reform and argue that attention to authentic caring constitutes another silence in the science education literature. I conclude that the current policy context positions teachers and science education researchers as tempered radicals struggling against opp(reg)ressive reforms and that there is a need for more studies to excavate these and other silences.

  20. Qualitative Advances of China's Basic Education since Reform and Opening up: A Brief Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Chunhua, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Basic education is universal education, which aims to improve the basic quality of a nation's people. In the three decades since reform and opening up, earth-shaking changes have taken place in the quality of China's basic education. This article describes the path of development and changes in China's basic education over the past thirty years…

  1. Critical Race Feminism and the Complex Challenges of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers-McKee, Cherese D.; Hytten, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the past several decades, there has been an abundance of research about school reform, particularly in schools predominated by students of color and students experiencing poverty. Critics acknowledge that many reform efforts have failed and comprehensive solutions to school change remain elusive. In this article, we provide an overview…

  2. On the Reform of Higher Education and Science in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, L. Ia.

    2011-01-01

    Making sure that any reforms enjoy social support is an urgent problem in societal transformations. This truth has been hard won by history and has rightly taken on the status of an axiom. What makes reforms different from revolutions is that they are limited when it comes to the use of the mechanisms of destruction and suppression. In contrast to…

  3. Moving from Traditional Teacher Education to a Field-Based Urban Teacher Education Program: One Program's Story of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jennifer; Vartuli, Sue

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, teacher education has been charged with reforming programs to better align curriculum, clinical practice, and accountability. The sense of urgency for reform has been heightened by competition from alternative routes to teaching that jump straight to practice, often criticized for foregoing essential knowledge and theory. This…

  4. Teacher's voices in the context of higher education : reforms in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakhanyan, S.; Veen, S.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, teachers' sense-making and reasoning about higher education reforms in a post Soviet country, namely Armenia, are examined using an analytical framework with six sensitising concepts: beliefs, emotions, attitudes, change knowledge, attributions and organisational culture. The

  5. A Critical Analysis of The Holmes Group's Proposals for Reforming Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1986-01-01

    The Holmes Group proposals for reforming teacher education are evaluated by looking at the effects on teacher knowledge and competence, attraction and retention of talented teachers, organization of schools and the teaching profession, and cost effectiveness. (MT)

  6. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  7. Globalization, statist political economy, and unsuccessful education reform in South Korea, 1993-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Su Kim

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between globalization and national education reforms, especially those of educational systems. Instead of exploring the much debated issues of how globalization affects national educational systems and how the nations react by what kinds of systemic education reform, however, it focuses on what such a method often leaves out, viz., the internal conditions of a nation that facilitates or hampers reform efforts. Taking South Korea as an example, it explores that country's unique national context which restricts and even inhibits education reforms. Especially noted here is the established "statist" political economy in education. In the paper's analysis, although South Korea's statist political economy has made a substantial contribution to economic and educational development, it is now considered increasingly unviable as globalization progresses. Nevertheless, the internal conditions, resultant from the previous statist policies, set limits on policy makers' efforts to alter the existing educational system. The analysis suggests that a fuller assessment of globalization's impact upon national educational systems or their reforms requires a perspective which is broad enough to encompass not only the concepts and/or theories of globalization and nation states but also the power relations and ideological setup of individual nations.

  8. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  9. Education reforms: consequences for the systems and the workers in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Araújo Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the consequences of the reforms in basic education, which started with the promulgation of the Federal Constitution of 1988. These reforms were elaborated without the social participation, resulting, nowadays, in high number of no literate people, big percentage of functional illiterates, the non universalization of the service school, low quality of the learning and a school with difficulties to accomplishing its paper of preparing the citizen for the life and the work. Besides, the education politics took a long time, after the Constitution, for being approved and they didn't assist to the claims and expectations of the workers’ in education. However, in the last three years, there were changes in the structure of the Brazilian education, causing some progresses; but, still, there are challenges to be overcome. The author concluded getting the attention for the importance of the participation, organization and intervention of the organized entities of the social movements so that the present challenges in the education are overcome and that the education is in the right direction.

  10. Perspectives in medical education 9. Revisiting the blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha; Rao, Kanchan H

    2010-01-01

    Reform of medical education at Keio University has been underway since 2003. We measure the progress made since then in five specific categories that span fifteen recommendations presented in our "Blueprint for Reform" at the outset of the effort. These are effectiveness of leadership, curriculum reform, recognition of teaching, clinical competence, and comprehensive training in general internal medicine (GIM). First, effective leadership is being sustained through a succession of Deans, although a potentially crippling loss of leadership in the Department of Medical Education must be offset through timely appointment. Second, curriculum reform is awaiting the implementation in 2012 of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum with an emphasis on ward clerkships, but the introduction of PBL has been delayed indefinitely. Third, teaching is being recognized through the use of student feedback to reward good teachers and through funds for six full-time equivalent salaries dedicated to medical education, but promotions still depend exclusively on research, without consideration of teaching ability. Fourth, clinical skills training is still lacking, although enthusiasm for it seems to be building, thanks to the presence on the wards of a (still miniscule) cadre of dedicated teachers. Finally, exposure to GIM remains non-existent; however, visionary leadership in a newly-independent Emergency Department and the wide variety of medical problems seen there provide a remarkable opportunity to craft a uniquely Japanese solution to the problem. The changes implemented to date are impressive, and we remain enthusiastic about the future, even as we recognize the magnitude of the task that lies ahead.

  11. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoulal Mansouri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out since 1999. This article reviews the most important components of the higher education reforms that have been adopted in Moroccan higher education in their endeavor to enhance student retention in university. These components are chronologically reviewed, first in the National Charter of Education and Training (NCET launched in 1999, second in the Emergency Plan conducted in 2009-2012, and finally in the latest Strategic Vision of Reform 2015-2030. It is concluded that more efforts are necessary to strike a balance between quantity and quality in terms of student retention in university education.

  12. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  13. Learner Autonomy as an Element in Chinese Education Reform: A Case of English Language Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinjin; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing students' learning autonomy has been emphasized in the current round of English curriculum reforms by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in China. The initial aim of the new guidelines was developed to enhance students' English proficiency to better fulfil their basic education (Nine-year compulsory education). However, up until now, very…

  14. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  15. Reforming Lao Teacher Education to Include Females and Ethnic Minorities--Exploring Possibilities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…

  16. Educational Reform in Japan towards Inclusion: Are We Training Teachers for Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Kawai, Norimune; Higuchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Within a tradition of a dual regular and special education system in Japan, the Government is promoting education reform that encourages an inclusive approach to education. This research investigates whether teachers are being trained for successful inclusion in Japan by reviewing the perceptions of all pre-service teachers in one university…

  17. Documentos de consulta para iniciar la reforma educativa (Preparatory documents on educational reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of two booklets on Mexican educational reform. The first booklet cites the parts of the Mexican Constitution dealing with education, the legal foundation of Mexican education, stipulating that it shall be universal, democratic, national, compulsory, free and immune from…

  18. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  19. Examining the Perceptions of Curriculum Leaders on Primary School Reform: A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…

  20. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Zoulal Mansouri; Mohamed El Amine Moumine

    2017-01-01

    High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out since 1999. This article reviews the most important components of the higher education reforms that have been adopted in Moroccan higher education in th...

  1. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2018-03-01

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  2. Reconstructing a lost tradition: the philosophy of medical education in an age of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    At the 100th anniversary of Abraham Flexner's landmark report on medical education, critical reassessment of the direction of medical education reform evinced valuable interdisciplinary contributions from biomedicine, sociology, psychology and education theory. However, to date, philosophy has been absent from the discussion despite its long standing contribution to studies on education in other professions. This discussion paper examines how the philosophical tradition can contribute to scholarship in medical education. It begins with an explanation of the scholarly tradition of philosophy of education and its role in thinking in education more generally. It then makes links between this tradition and the context of medical education in the Flexner era of education reform. The paper then argues that this tradition is necessary to the understanding of medical education reform post-Flexner and that doctors must benefit from an education derived from this tradition in order to be able to carry out their work. These foundations are characterised as a hidden, but always present, tradition in medical education. Two ways in which this 'lost tradition' can inform medical education theory and practice are identified: firstly, by the establishment of a public canon of medical education texts that express such a tradition, and, secondly, by the incorporation of a variety of 'signature pedagogies' exemplary of liberal education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  3. [Exploration of the oral health education experimental teaching for oral health education reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Hu, Wenting; Zhang, Juanjuan; Sun, Yan; Gao, Yuguang

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to improve students' ability in practical and theoretical courses of oral health education and to promote students' learning interest and initiative. Fourth-year students of the oral medical profession from 2006 to 2008 at Weifang Medical University were chosen as research objects for oral health education to explore the experimental teaching reform. The students were divided into test and control groups, with the test group using the "speak out" way of teaching and the control group using the traditional teaching method. Results of after-class evaluation of the test group, as well as final examination and practice examination of the two groups, were analyzed and compared. After-class evaluation results of the test group showed that the "speak out" teaching method was recognized by the students and improved students' ability to understand oral health education. The final examination and practice examination results showed that the score of the test group was higher than that of the control group (P teaching methods can improve students' ability for oral health education, in accordance with the trend of teaching reform.

  4. Improved education after implementation of the Danish postgraduate medical training reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodal, Troels; Kjær, Niels Kristian; Qvesel, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    A reform of educational postgraduate medical training was launched in Denmark in 2004. The reform was based on a report by the Danish Medical Specialist Commission and consisted of a number of initiatives that were all aimed at improving the quality of medical training. Since 1998, all junior...... doctors in Denmark have been requested to rate the quality of their training on a Danish standardized questionnaire (DSQ) comprising 24 questions. In this study, we examined how junior doctors in hospitals rated their postgraduate medical training before and six years after the reform was implemented....

  5. Implementing Inclusive Education in Primary Schools in Bangladesh: Recommended Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Mullick, Jahirul

    2014-01-01

    Continued discrimination towards, and exclusion of, children with special needs, combined with the high dropout rate of students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, creates considerable pressure on the inclusive education (IE) reform initiatives of developing countries. To minimise the challenges to implementing IE reform policies…

  6. Educational and school managers training in the context of educational reforms: consensus and dissensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Rescia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some of the results from a doctoral research on the educational and school managers training to the beginning of XXI century, in the context of decentralization and trends of educational reforms in Latin America at the end of 1980s and 1990s. Guided by a qualitative, bibliographic and documentary research, the methodological procedures had reference in studies conducted by international organizations, such as: UNESCO, ECLAC and ILPE as well as scholars from different management paradigms, considering the Latin-American education systems’ needs. In Brazil, we sought to understand the requirements of transformation of local competences in planning and educational management after implications and managers training initiatives within this new reality. Therefore, it was analyzed for comparative purposes, three educational and school managers training programs in public schools: Management Circuit Program; Distance Learning Program for School Managers and the Managers’ School Program of Public Basic Education. It was intended to identify the trends of each program for educational and school managers training, with a view to the changes occurred in our society and education and the requirements to acquire new skills and abilities. As conclusion, the research indicated that although the training programs have originated from different instances and explain various guidelines, everything converges to the same set of skills in educational and school managers training.

  7. Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen

    2001-12-01

    A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.

  8. Primary Science Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Consider the extent to which primary science teaching has evolved since it became a core subject in England with the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988, and the pace at which theory-driven classroom practice has advanced. It is no wonder that, given the recent economic restructuring and boom in technological development in China,…

  9. Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century: Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…

  10. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  11. The New Basic Education and Whole School Reform: A Chinese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yuhua; Li, Jiacheng

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has entered an era of transformation which has extended its reach to education and school reforms. The "New Basic Education" (NBE) was born in this era and implemented by the East China Normal University together with schools around the country. NBE aims at nurturing the active, healthy development of a new…

  12. The Reform Process of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: From Collegial to Managerial Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…

  13. Imaging the Frame: Media Representations of Teachers, Their Unions, NCLB, and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the political discourse surrounding NCLB, educational reform, and how that discourse shaped perceptions of public education during the Bush Administration. Examining mass media campaigns in the New York Times and Time Magazine, the article demonstrates how the media has visually and textually framed and reinforced NCLB and…

  14. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  15. Reforming Society through Education for Gifted Children: The Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakavets, Natallia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the current education reform agenda in Kazakhstan, which is underpinned, in part, by the argument that investment in human capital through elite institutions for gifted children can lift up the whole system of education. The paper revisits two broad theoretical perspectives, relating to human capital and to ideas about…

  16. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2017-01-01

    High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out…

  17. General Education Today. A Critical Analysis of Controversies, Practices, and Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaff, Jerry G.

    The range of controversies and changes emerging from the current revival of general education are examined, and many ideas, examples, and recommendations for achieving realistic and successful curricular reform are offered. Instead of either offering an apology for general education or advocating any particular approach, the book draws on solid…

  18. Implementing the Strategy for financial reform of higher education in Mozambique (EFES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteyne, Bart; Jongbloed, B.W.A.

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the results of more than fifteen years of cooperation between the Government of Mozambique, the Government of the Netherlands, the Mozambican higher education institutions and the relevant stakeholders in designing and implementing reforms in the financing of higher education

  19. Education Reform as Platform for Promoting Lifelong Learning: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2008-01-01

    The fierce competition largely brought by the globalization of a knowledge-based economy provided an impetus for the Hong Kong government to endorse massive education reforms in 2000, as proposed by the Education Commission, as the central strategy to improve and sustain workforce quality and social justice through the provision of lifelong…

  20. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  1. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  2. Governance and Funding Reforms in Dutch Higher Education: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzen, Jozef M. M.; Marconi, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of higher education governance and funding in The Netherlands, generalising when possible to other European countries. It finds that governance reforms and the funding of higher education appear to be driven by economic and demographic factors, including massification. Furthermore, the Bologna Process can be…

  3. Anti-Clericalism and Educational Reform in the French Third Republic: A Retrospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keylor, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the educational reform movement in France during the late nineteenth century which produced one of the most tightly organized, centrally controlled, and pedagogically effective models of elementary education in the world, with emphasis on the role of the Catholic clergy and attempts of the republican regime to uproot clerical influence in…

  4. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  5. Teachers' Views on an ICT Reform in Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarman, Bülent; Baytak, Ahmet; Duman, Harun

    2015-01-01

    FATIH project (Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology) is an information and communication technologies (ICT) project to promote social justice for all schools in Turkey. The educational movements and reforms in Turkish Educational System (TES) are not new but this project has a purpose to integrate the newest technologies…

  6. Welcome to the "New Normal": The News Media and Neoliberal Reforming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rebecca A.; Macrine, Sheila; Chesky, Nataly Z.

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates how media coverage employs dominant neoliberal narratives and discourses to blame public education for societal ills. The authors examine how the media's use of neoliberal narrative and discourse has hegemonically become the "new normal" of public education and school reform. Utilizing data from media coverage…

  7. Scaffolding Mathematics Remediation for Academically At-Risk Students Following Developmental Education Reform in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Rebecca L.; Woods, Chenoa S.; Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Park, Toby J.; Hu, Shouping; Tandberg, David A.; Nix, Amanda N.; Rahming, Sophia G.; Martindale, Sandra K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand how educational scaffolding may explain changing patterns of student success in mathematics in the era of developmental education (DE or remediation) reform in Florida College System (FCS) institutions. Specifically, we apply the concept of scaffolding to underprepared FCS students who are at…

  8. Reforming Science Education: Part I. The Search for a Philosophy of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    The call for reforms in science education has been ongoing for a century, with new movements and approaches continuously reshaping the identity and values of the discipline. The HPS movement has an equally long history and taken part in the debates defining its purpose and revising curriculum. Its limited success, however, is due not only to competition with alternative visions and paradigms (e.g. STS, multi-culturalism, constructivism, traditionalism) which deadlock implementation, and which have led to conflicting meanings of scientific literacy, but the inability to rise above the debate. At issue is a fundamental problem plaguing science education at the school level, one it shares with education in general. It is my contention that it requires a guiding “metatheory” of education that can appropriately distance itself from the dual dependencies of metatheories in psychology and the demands of socialization—especially as articulated in most common conceptions of scientific literacy tied to citizenship. I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science. This will be elaborated in Part II of a supplemental paper to the present one. As a prerequisite to presenting Egan’s metatheory I first raise the issue of the need for a conceptual shift back to philosophy of education within the discipline, and thereto, on developing and demarcating true educational theories (essentially neglected since Hirst). In the same vein it is suggested a new research field should be opened with the express purpose of developing a discipline-specific “philosophy of science education” (largely neglected since Dewey) which could in addition serve to reinforce science education

  9. An Introduction to Primary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Physical Education is a core component of the primary school curriculum. The primary years are perhaps the most significant period for motor development in children, a time during which basic movement competencies are developed and which offers the first opportunity for embedding physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle. This is the first…

  10. "More Justice": The Role of Organized Labor in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John S.; Terriquez, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of low-wage service sector unions in engaging in equity-minded school reform. The members of many such unions are parents of children attending poorly resourced public schools. In seeking to address the interests of their members, labor unions can draw upon resources, organizing strategies, and political…

  11. Connecting Educational Leadership with Multi-Level Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Cherubini, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Renewed calls for greater accountability within schools have led to a rapid expansion of standards-based reforms across the Western world. Establishing and raising standards, and measuring the attainment of those standards, are intended to encourage excellence in our schools. Yet concern is increasing about the fairness of external testing and the…

  12. Implementing Active Learning Reform in the Maldives: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are adopting child-centered active learning reforms as they strive to improve the quality of primary education. Consistent challenges can be found in the implementation of similar, global reforms. These issues are discussed here within the following framework: the cultural appropriateness of such reforms; the extent to which active…

  13. Fluent Reading in Special Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtveen, Anthonia A. M.; van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.; Brokamp, Saskia K.

    2014-01-01

    The learning gains in reading of students in 57 classrooms in special primary education doubled as a result of implementing the Reading Impulse in Special Education (RISE) programme. Raising the scheduled reading time with 1.5 hr in all classrooms and implementing standards-based teaching characterised by "monitoring of pupil progress",…

  14. A view to educational reforms and the formation of citizenship in Bolivia (century XX and XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimar Iño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article takes a historical look at the educational reforms implemented in Bolivia with reference to the formation of citizenship. For this purpose historical research was used and the bibliographic review was used to collect, describe and analyze the written sources. This in order to understand the relationship between State, education and citizenship, which identifies two aspects that guide educational policies and the formation of citizenship. In this way, we can also elucidate the types of citizens who projected these educational reforms in Bolivia during the 20th century: the liberal (1899-1920, the nationalist (1954-1964 and the neoliberal (1994-2004; And in the 21st century, the sociocommunity. In each of these reforms there are common characteristics, on the one hand, there is the centralization of public education at the hands of the State; On the other hand, the role given to education for civic formation and the construction of national identity, in this case Bolivianity; For example, for the indigenous majority was their assimilation to the national culture and homogenization, through education. Likewise, each reform sought the formation of a citizenship; In the case of the liberal raised the Bolivian identity; The nationalist point towards mestizaje as a citizen, neoliberal ideal for the construction of a pluricultural and multilingual citizenship; And the sociocommunity towards an intercultural and decolonized citizenship.

  15. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  16. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  17. Facing the Knowledge Society: Reforming Secondary Education in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Education Working Paper Series. Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai Ming; Yip, Hak Kwong

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe and analyze the development and reforms of secondary education in Hong Kong and Shanghai over the past 25 years. Comparing the two cities is useful in constructing a spectrum of possibilities on the one hand, and identifying some common themes in the development of secondary education on the other. The…

  18. Payment Reform Meets Pharmacy Practice and Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygstad, Troy

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacy profession has for the greater part of four decades been associated with dispensing activities and product reimbursement. This has hindered the ability of pharmacists to evolve their roles in their respective sites of care. Payment reform efforts that create an outcomes marketplace offer an opportunity for professional transformation. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  19. Teacher Educators' Practice and Vision of Good Teaching in Teacher Education Reform Context in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) has been criticized for the lack of attention to learning to teach in real classrooms, which limits the opportunity for pre-service teachers to successfully introduce learner-centered pedagogy in African primary school classrooms. To address this problem, Ghana has implemented a teacher education reform…

  20. Reforming The Structure Of Technical Business Education In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business education is a sub sector of technical education. This paper takes the position that technical education as now organized appears to dump both recipients and lecturers into dead-end educational and career positions in Nigeria. Therefore, the polytechnics and colleges of education (technical) are not the first ...

  1. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  2. CONCEPTS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR A NEW BUDDHIST EDUCATION : REFORMING THE SAṂGHA BETWEEN AND WITHIN STATE AGENCIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Education reforms have played a key role in the turning points of Chinese history. Slogans like jiaoyu jiuguo 教育救國 became well-known when the first Republic succeeded the Empire, at the dawn of the Mao era, and with Deng Xiaoping in the 1980s. China used to base her reinvention on education reforms,

  3. In Pursuit of Social Democracy: Shena Simon and the Reform of Secondary Education in England, 1938-1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Shena Simon (1883-1972), a leading English socialist and educationist, actively called for the reform of secondary education in the 1930s and 1940s in order to bring the ideal of 'equality of opportunity' into the English educational system. This paper explores the continuity and changes in Simon's proposed reforms in relation to her ideals of…

  4. National standards of pharmaceutical education in the context of reforming legislation of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Socially significant steps of Ukraine in the issue of European integration are measures to reform the legislation on higher education in the context of the Bologna process, namely: the adoption of the National Qualifications Framework and the new edition of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education." The National Qualifications Framework (NQF, 2011 provides for "the introduction of European standards and principles to ensure the quality of education, taking into account the requirements of the labor market to the competence of specialists." According to formal characteristics, NQF is a matrix with static support elements – descriptors, which determine the vector of movement to a specific goal. The legal basis for the modernization of educational activities and standards of higher education was the new edition of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" (2014. The purpose of the article is a scientific and analytical study of the process of forming national standards for higher education, in particular, the standards of pharmaceutical higher education. Materials and methods. The study was based on the analysis of normative and legal and other normative acts on higher education, the issues of standardization of higher education and the systematization of qualifications, as well as scientific developments on this issue. Methods of research – bibliographic, linguistic, contextual, substantive-legal, comparative-legal, generalization, description of results. Results. Updating the wording of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education," which is the basic normative legal act of higher legal action in higher education, the adjustment of its basic principles, concepts and approaches, objectively entailed the renewal of the entire regulatory and legal framework regulating the organization of higher education. Equally, this also affected the standards of higher education. This issue in the Act is reserved Section III: Standards of educational activity and

  5. Health care reform and job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazeviciene Aurelija

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research paper is to study job satisfaction of physicians and general practitioners at primary health care institutions during the health care reform in Lithuania. Methods Self-administrated anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and general practitioners (N = 243, response rate – 78.6%, working at Kaunas primary health care level establishments, in October – December 2003. Results 15 men (7.9% and 176 women (92.1% participated in the research, among which 133 (69.6% were GPs and 58 (30.4% physicians. Respondents claimed to have chosen to become doctors, as other professions were of no interest to them. Total job satisfaction of the respondents was 4.74 point (on a 7 point scale. Besides 75.5% of the respondents said they would not recommend their children to choose a PHC level doctor's profession. The survey also showed that the respondents were most satisfied with the level of autonomy they get at work – 5.28, relationship with colleagues – 5.06, and management quality – 5.04, while compensation (2.09, social status (3.36, and workload (3.93 turned to be causing the highest dissatisfaction among the respondents. The strongest correlation (Spearmen's ratio was observed between total job satisfaction and such factors as the level of autonomy – 0.566, workload – 0.452, and GP's social status – 0.458. Conclusion Total job satisfaction of doctors working at primary health care establishments in Lithuania is relatively low, and compensation, social status, and workload are among the key factors that condition PHC doctors' dissatisfaction with their job.

  6. The challenges of primary health care nurse leaders in the wake of New Health Care Reform in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvoll, Wivi-Ann; Sæterstrand, Torill; McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2016-01-01

    The local municipality, whose management style is largely inspired by the New Public Management (NPM) model, has administrative responsibilities for primary health care in Norway. Those responsible for health care at the local level often find themselves torn between their professional responsibilities and the municipality's market-oriented funding system. The introduction of the new health care reform process known as the Coordination Reform in January 2012 prioritises primary health care while simultaneously promoting a more collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to health care. Nurse leaders experience constant cross-pressure in their roles as members of the municipal executive team, the execution of their professional and administrative duties, and the overall political aims of the new reform. The aim of this article is to illuminate some of the major challenges facing nurse leaders in charge of nursing homes and to draw attention to their professional concerns about the quality of nursing care with the introduction of the new reform and its implementation under NPM-inspired municipal executive leadership. This study employs a qualitative design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 nurse leaders in 10 municipalities, with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach used for data analysis and interpretation. Findings highlighted the increasingly complex challenges facing nurse leaders operating in the context of the municipality's hierarchical NPM management structure, while they are required to exercise collaborative professional interactions as per the guidelines of the new Coordination Reform. The interview findings were interpreted out of three sub-themes 1) importance of support for the nurse leader, 2) concerns about overall service quality, and 3) increased tasks unrelated to nursing leadership. The priorities of municipal senior management and the focus of the municipality's care service need clarification in the light of this reform. The voices

  7. ASPECTS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ioana CRISTEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education, a subject included in the core curriculum in all educational cycles, with different number of hours, aims at training students attitudes and habits, specific to its field, also targeting other areas of education.The current pre-university education in Romania, including the physical education classes, joined the European standards of education.These require further reforms in both the organizational documents and the deployment methodology in the educational process in all university institutions.It is known that physical education lessons are conducted in dedicated facilities (sports court, gyms but what solution is there when we do not have these spaces?The classroom remains a loophole rescue, a space to be exploited with more creativity and motivation.This paper proposes a series of teaching strategies to achieve the objectives of physical education in primary school.

  8. On Tendencies in the Reform of Russian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senashenko, V. S.; Tkach, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Under the conditions of the postindustrial society, the system of education is becoming a vital resource of economic development and a means of social adaptation, and it is increasingly obvious that financial problems are of paramount importance in educational policy. Budget appropriations for education, especially higher education (which has…

  9. Administrative reform in the Venezuelan Ministry of Education: A case analysis of the 1970's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1984-06-01

    Democracy arrived in Venezuela in 1958, and reforming the rigid, centralized and unrepresentative institutions of government subsequently assumed a high priority. This article, based on data gathered in Venezuela several times over a twelve-year period by means of a standard field research methodology, represents a longitudinal case study of efforts through the 70's to generate administrative reform in the Ministry of Education. Specifically, the reform proposed to decentralize and regionalize the organization and management of education in order to promote regional socio-economic development. The study describes and discusses political and organizational factors which disrupted and frustrated the reform process, including: (1) lack of political continuity and maturity; (2) lack of appropriate structures within the system and of real desire on the part of ministry officials to initiate an effective delegation of powers and responsibilities; (3) lack of adequate mechanisms for gathering, processing and distributing information; and (4) lack of sufficient personnel within the ministry with the training and sustained experience to manage complex programs. As in many other countries, the ideals of the reform in Venezuela outstripped the political and human realities of the situation there. Comparative research is now needed to enable other nations to learn from this experience.

  10. From Government to Governance: Teach for India and New Networks of Reform in School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vidya K.

    2018-01-01

    The Teach for India (TFI) programme, an important offshoot of the Teach for All/Teach for America global education network, began as a public-private partnership in 2009 in poorly functioning municipal schools in Pune and Mumbai. Like its American counterpart, the programme in India has similar ideas of reform and recruits college graduates and…

  11. Excavating Silences and Tensions of Agency|Passivity in Science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    I reflect on studies by Rodriguez and Carlone, Haun-Frank, and Kimmel to emphasize the ways in which they excavate silences in the science education literature related to linguistic and cultural diversity and situating the problem of reform in teachers rather than contextual factors, such as traditional schooling discourses and forces that serve…

  12. International Tests and the U.S. Educational Reforms: Can Success Be Replicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Guliz

    2013-01-01

    The ranking of the United States in major international tests such as the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is used as the driving force and rationale for the current educational reforms in the United…

  13. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  14. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  15. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Universal Preschool Education: Evidence from a Spanish Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Dumhs, E.; Plantenga, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education. We focus on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. We extrapolate the benefits in terms of maternal employment and child

  16. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  17. Using Practitioner Inquiry within and against Large-Scale Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mary Beth; Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This research study examines the impact of teacher research on participants in a large-scale educational reform initiative in the United States, No Child Left Behind, and its strand for reading teachers, Reading First. Reading First supported professional development for teachers in order to increase student scores on standardized tests. The…

  18. A Co-Construction Perspective on Organizational Change and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, Hugh; Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    In their earlier work, the authors explained how the co-construction perspective has been heuristic in the study of organizational change and educational reform, often providing more nuanced analyses and findings than "technical-rational" models that dominated the field previously (Datnow, Hubbard, & Mehan, 2002). In framing organizational change…

  19. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,…

  20. Teachers' Voices in the Context of Higher Education Reforms in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Th. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, teachers' sense-making and reasoning about higher education reforms in a post Soviet country, namely Armenia, are examined using an analytical framework with six sensitising concepts: beliefs, emotions, attitudes, change knowledge, attributions and organisational culture. The results of semi-structured interviews with 12 Armenian…

  1. Governmental Reform and Education for the Gifted in Japan: A Current Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Though targeted for governmental reform since 2002, services envisioned for gifted and talented students have not materialized in Japan. From the perspective of his personal experience as a Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund participant in 2005 and an extensive review of available literature and contacts with the Japanese Ministry of Education,…

  2. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  3. Education, Dictatorship and Democracy in Spain: An Analysis of Administrative Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    Spain's transition from dictatorship to pacific and stable democracy without producing major national convulsions is remarkable in a world where many such attempts have been made and most have failed. Within the context of government reform, this study identifies and examines strengths and weaknesses of the regionalization process in education 10…

  4. Evaluation of Undergraduate Teaching at Institutions of Higher Education in China: Problems and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukun, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the first cycle of undergraduate teaching evaluation at institutions of higher education in China. Existing problems are identified, and suggestions are made for corresponding reforms for improving the standard and quality of China's undergraduate teaching evaluation.

  5. Weighted Student Formula: Putting Funds Where They Count in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; DeRoche, Timothy R.; Ouchi, William G.; Segal, Lydia G.; Brown, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the publication of "A Nation At Risk" in 1983, Americans have been preoccupied with two problems regarding public education: (1) student performance is unsatisfactory to most Americans despite large increases in real spending per student; and despite several attempts at reforming curricula, teacher training, testing, and other…

  6. Local Control: Fear or Fantasy. A Report of the New Jersey Education Reform Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan H.

    Today local control over education seems to face the most serious challenge in its history. The movement to reform school finance raises the specter of the State assuming its formal consitutional powers and removing autonomy from the communities. Hence, it is argued, as the State takes over control of taxation and expenditures it will want to…

  7. Between Competition Imperative and Europeanisation: The Case of Higher Education Reform in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    While the Europeanisation of Higher Education (HE) systems has triggered much debate, the relationship between European factors and domestic economic processes, has been less thoroughly analysed. This article analyses HE reforms in the light of two parallel processes, which have shaped this sector: the introduction of market mechanisms and a…

  8. Implementing Marzano's Model: The Reality of Educational Leadership and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveny, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…

  9. Perspective Transformation: A Mechanism to Assist in the Acceptance of Contemporary Education Reform in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Athletic training education is experiencing major reform. As professionals consider the implications of these initiatives, the perspective transformation approach to change processes and future impact provides a viable model for all constituents. Objectives: Transformative learning is used as a construct for framing perspective…

  10. Popularity of the Decentralization Reform and Its Effects on the Quality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Anila

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly advocated decentralization as a way of enhancing educational quality, although its potential in this area is still subject to debate. This article traces the impetus and popularity of the reform as a policy solution over the past few decades. It argues that three trends in particular have characterized the post-2000…

  11. Mathematics Reform Curricula and Special Education: Identifying Intersections and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Paulsen, Kim J.

    2010-01-01

    In many general education classrooms today, teachers are using "reform" mathematics curricula. These curricula emphasize the application of mathematics in real-life contexts and include such practices as collaborative, group problem solving and student-generated algorithms. Students with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics can…

  12. Constitutional Reform and the Opportunity for Higher Education Access in Ecuador since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2011-01-01

    Ecuador's 2008 Constitution--and a subsequent law on higher education passed in its wake--effectively suspended student fees for public universities. The goal of this reform was to increase equality of opportunity. In this article I use newly-available individual-level retrospective information from the 2001 Census to explore gender and ethnic…

  13. Mapping Government Reforms in Quality against Higher Education Theory: Is the Relationship Symbiotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Lyn

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, a review of the higher education sector is usually triggered by a change in government leadership, followed by the development and implementation of the government's response in the form of a reform package to enact change. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent evaluation of a large-scale national government policy…

  14. Whose Quality? The (Mis)Uses of Quality Reform in Early Childhood and Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Elise

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an in-depth genealogical study of the discourse of quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policy. Quality reform has become the foremost global policy agenda for ECEC due to assumptions about the economic potentials of quality services. In Australia, the recent National Quality…

  15. Missing Pieces of the Educational Reform Agenda: Or, Why the First and Second Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1988-01-01

    Contends that two of the most important goals of educational reform should be (1) narrowing the learning gap between high- and low-achieving pupils; and (2) developing in all children a greater capacity for higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills. (TE)

  16. Looking Forward: Rethinking the National Education Reform Blueprint with the Contributing Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ross, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This article concludes the two issues on the College Entrance Examination (CEE) in which the contributing authors were invited to take part in a moderated discussion of their opinions on a newly unveiled national policy document titled "Blueprint for Medium and Long-Term National Education Reform and Development (2010-0)" (hereafter, the…

  17. The Promise of the New: Genealogies of Youth, Nation and Educational Reform in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie; Wright, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The promise of the new underpins much educational reform discourse, from utopian strands and grand gestures to more formulaic rhetoric found in declarations of new policies for new times. Informed by genealogical and feminist approaches, this essay introduces some conceptual frameworks for analysing such expressions of hopefulness and newness in…

  18. Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Ida

    2007-01-01

    The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

  19. School Autonomy Reform and Public Education in Australia: Implications for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…

  20. Reconceptualised life skills in secondary education in the African context: Lessons learnt from reforms in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2014-04-01

    Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.

  1. Mobile internet and technology for optical teaching reform in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Muchun; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yanru

    2017-08-01

    There are some problems in optical education such as insufficient flexibility, individuality and adaptability to students who need information and education at present. The development of mobile internet and technology provides support to solve these problems. Basic characteristics, advantages and developments of these techniques used in education are presented in this paper. Mobile internet is introduced to reform the classroom teaching of optical courses. Mobile network tool selection, teaching resources construction and reform in teaching methods are discussed. Academic record and sampling surveys are used to assess intention to adopt mobile internet and learning effect of academic major of students, the results show that high quality optical education can be offered by adopting mobile internet and technologies in traditional instruction.

  2. Elementary school teachers perspective about educative reform in Zacatecas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cristina Bañuelos Sánchez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a research carried out in the state of Zacatecas, México, aiming at probing teachers perceptions about the Educative Reform (RE to elementary school education approved in 2013 in the country are presented. Structural reforms served as the research theoretical frame and are the starting point to analyze changes that reorganized educative institutions in general. The information gathering was conducted by an interview with open answers, focusing on the aspects which have direct effects on teachers: evaluation, entry requirements and the job continuity. The results show that most teachers do not oppose the evaluation, provided that it is used as a tool for improving their teaching practice. Yet they do mistrust the transparency of the system, since they consider that the RE is a hidden mechanism to fire teachers, instead of a mechanism to improve the quality of education.

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHEME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Education scheme in Western Region and marked a radical departure from the hitherto ... academic symposia, lectures, debates, reputable journals and standard .... Enrolment in Primary Schools in the Western Region by Sex, 1953 – 1960. Year Boys .... “Possibly no single decision of the decade prior to independence had.

  4. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  5. Teaching Inductive Reasoning in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Els; Hamers, Jo H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Vermeer, Adri

    2002-01-01

    Used a three-phase teaching procedure based on the development of metacognition to extend emphasis on inductive reasoning in primary education to Grades 3 and 4. Found that teachers could apply the programs as intended, but needed support to shift attention from reasoning product to reasoning process. Program learning effects indicated that better…

  6. Sustainability Education: Researching Practice in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Monica; Somerville, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Many teachers are keen to implement sustainability education in primary schools but are lacking the confidence, skills and knowledge to do so. Teachers report that they do not understand the concept and cannot integrate sustainability into an already overcrowded curriculum. Identifying how teachers successfully integrate sustainability education…

  7. Reform in Teacher Education and the Professionalization of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Philip C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The critical link between education and the social, political and economic life of a democracy makes it important that teaching--and other education related occupations--attain professional status. Considers the problems and facets of education that must change if teaching is to reach professional status. (Author/RK)

  8. Research on reform plan of civil engineering adult education graduation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Sun, Shengnan; Cui, Shicai

    2017-12-01

    As for civil engineering adult education graduation design, reform program is put forward combined with our school. The main points of reform include the following aspects. New pattern of graduation design which is consisted of basic training of engineering design, technical application and engineering innovation training is formed. Integration model of graduation design and employment is carried out. Multiple professional guidance graduation design pattern is put forward. Subject of graduation design is chosen based on the school actual circumstance. A “three stage” quality monitoring system is established. Performance evaluation pattern that concludes two oral examinations of the dissertation is strictly carried out.

  9. Free transfer, limited mobility: A decade of higher education reform in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohstall

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate how countries with a relative low performance in higher education like Egypt and Morocco, are informed and worked by the forces of internationalization in this domain. It compares the path of university reforms in both countries over the last decade, from their emergence on the agenda to their implementation. Through the lenses of a public policy approach it illustrates how higher education is subject to a complex negotiation process between international orga...

  10. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  11. Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

  12. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  13. Performance Measures for Teachers and Teacher Education: Corporate Education Reform Opens the Door to New Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to change the teaching profession and teacher preparation include a number of innovations to use portfolio assessment, value added measures (VAM), accountability metrics and other corporate education reform ideas. These approaches may provoke considerable potential legal consequences. Traditional constitutional and civil rights…

  14. A Dark Knight for Public Education: Using Batman as an Apparatus of Diffraction with Neoliberal Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Diffraction is defined as the process by which a beam of light or other system of waves is spread out as a result of passing through a narrow aperture or across an edge. In this article, the author employs his favorite comic book character, Batman, and positions him as a tool of diffraction for education reforms. Huddleston argues that it is…

  15. Physical Education in Primary Education in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Črtomir Matejek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to compare the representation of physical education in primary education in the countries of European Union and to explain the effects of sports activities in child's development. For at least twenty years experts have pointed to the lack of spontaneous movement in childhood. Therefore, sports activity is suitable for maintaining good health and proper physical fitness. Physical education represents a large proportion of children's sports activities and has positive effects on a child’s holistic development. EU countries allocate physical education of children in primary school different amounts of attention. To physical education about half of European countries devote 10% of the total time of school curriculum, Hungary, Croatia and Slovenia to 15%, while Ireland only 4%. These findings suggest that among EU countries, there are very large differences in the number of hours devoted to physical education and that designers of primary education in Europe perceive physical education as less important than other subjects.

  16. Effect of primary health care reforms in Turkey on health service utilization and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Thomas; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Millett, Christopher; Başara, Berrak; Akdağ, Recep; Atun, Rifat

    2017-02-01

    Strengthening primary health care (PHC) is considered a priority for efficient and responsive health systems, but empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries is limited. The stepwise introduction of family medicine across all 81 provinces of Turkey (a middle-income country) between 2005 and 2010, aimed at PHC strengthening, presents a natural experiment for assessing the effect of family medicine on health service utilization and user satisfaction.The effect of health system reforms, that introduced family medicine, on utilization was assessed using longitudinal, province-level data for 12 years and multivariate regression models adjusting for supply-side variables, demographics, socio-economic development and underlying yearly trends. User satisfaction with primary and secondary care services was explored using data from annual Life Satisfaction Surveys. Trends in preferred first point of contact (primary vs secondary, public vs. private), reason for choice and health services issues, were described and stratified by patient characteristics, provider type, and rural/urban settings.Between 2002 and 2013, the average number of PHC consultations increased from 1.75 to 2.83 per person per year. In multivariate models, family medicine introduction was associated with an increase of 0.37 PHC consultations per person (P < 0.001), and slower annual growth in PHC and secondary care consultations. Following family medicine introduction, the growth of PHC and secondary care consultations per person was 0.08 and 0.30, respectively, a year. PHC increased as preferred provider by 9.5% over 7 years with the reasons of proximity and service satisfaction, which increased by 14.9% and 11.8%, respectively. Reporting of poor facility hygiene, difficulty getting an appointment, poor physician behaviour and high costs of health care all declined (P < 0.001) in PHC settings, but remained higher among urban, low-income and working-age populations. © The Author 2016

  17. France, initiatives for excellence in higher education: One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudard, Emmanuel; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing

  18. "Compensatory Legitimation" in Greek Educational Policy: An Explanation for the Abortive Educational Reforms in Greece in Comparison with Those in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persianis, Panayiotis

    1998-01-01

    Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…

  19. Poland, assuring and strengthening the quality of (private) higher education : One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiek, Marek; Antonowicz, Dominik; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing

  20. Critique of the „official critique” of neoliberal reforms in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Szwabowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I criticise theoretical structure which is employed in critiquesof higher education reforms within the domain of pedagogy. I argue thatcritique of neoliberalism in education doesn’t recognise the dynamics of change and„necessity” of transformation. Both critique and defense of neoliberal reforms donot transcend capitalist „separation” and institutionalization typical of particularorders. In practical terms, it results in reactive resistance, either in the form of defenseof privileges of „leisure class or attempt to brink back the period of „class compromise”.In this way, it is not able to develop a radical practice, transcend „ideologicalstate apparatus” and produce a radical practice as well as education based on democracyand equality.

  1. The Educational Reform in Argentina: A Look at the Labor Trajectories and Teaching Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlanda Señorino

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven years after the implementation of Argentina’s Federal Law of Education, this paper offers a critical analysis of the impact this educational reform has had on the career paths and working conditions of teachers in the Argentine educational system. The changes brought about in the economic and political field, the redefinition of the relationship between State and Society, and its impact on the labor market constitute the framework or context for our study of the reform. We maintain the methodology of analyzing labor trajectories, in order to recover the voices of the protagonists, in an attempt to break with the representations built from an external view only. We have attempted, through a cooperative construction of meaning, to capture the dynamic aspects by relating the social practice of the actors with the structural aspects already mentioned.

  2. Ontario's primary care reforms have transformed the local care landscape, but a plan is needed for ongoing improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Brian; Glazier, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Primary care in Ontario, Canada, has undergone a series of reforms designed to improve access to care, patient and provider satisfaction, care quality, and health system efficiency and sustainability. We highlight key features of the reforms, which included patient enrollment with a primary care provider; funding for interprofessional primary care organizations; and physician reimbursement based on varying blends of fee-for-service, capitation, and pay-for-performance. With nearly 75 percent of Ontario's population now enrolled in these new models, total payments to primary care physicians increased by 32 percent between 2006 and 2010, and the proportion of Ontario primary care physicians who reported overall satisfaction with the practice of medicine rose from 76 percent in 2009 to 84 percent in 2012. However, primary care in Ontario also faces challenges. There is no meaningful performance measurement system that tracks the impact of these innovations, for example. A better system of risk adjustment is also needed in capitated plans so that groups have the incentive to take on high-need patients. Ongoing investment in these models is required despite fiscal constraints. We recommend a clearly articulated policy road map to continue the transformation.

  3. History Teaching in Albania Following Educational Reform in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuka, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores history teaching in Albania, with particular emphasis on educational and methodological aspects of new history textbooks published after the liberalization of the school textbook market in 2008. National history textbooks serve as a basis for the assessment of changing educational principles and methodologies in history…

  4. World Bank in Nepal's Education: Three Decades of Neoliberal Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses key educational policy documents produced by the World Bank mainly from the mid-1980s to 2010 with regard to implementing major educational projects in Nepal. Using critical policy sociology as a methodological tool, the paper explores how a small Himalayan nation with per capita income of about US$730 (2014) plunged…

  5. Quota System And Educational Reforms In Nigeria | Obielumani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the multi-ethnic nature of Nigeria and the desire of all to have quality education as a way of breaking the barriers of poverty, disease and ignorance, the struggle to have access to education has become more aggressive hence the introduction of quota system policy by the Federal Government as an instrument ...

  6. Gender and leadership in Greek primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Papanastasiou, Efthymia

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute more than half of the teaching force in primary schools in Greece but men are more likely than women to achieve headship. In other countries (e.g. in the USA, in the UK and in other European countries) women are represented in educational leadership in disproportionately low numbers, too.The aim of this thesis is to cast light on the neglected phenomenon of women’s relatively low participation in Greek primary school leadership and to explore the constructions of men and wome...

  7. education reform in Mozambique and Marrere Teachers' Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    the research at Marrere Teachers' Training College because it had experi- .... social issues or “competence in dealing with commercial concerns”; to “work effectively ..... appropriate for a primary school class than for students training to be tea-.

  8. Mind the Gap: An Initial Analysis of the Transition of a Second Level Curriculum Reform to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; Faulkner, Fiona; Breen, Cormac; Carr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article details an initial analysis of the transition of a second level curriculum reform to higher education in Ireland. The reform entitled 'Project Maths' involved changes to what second level students learn in mathematics, how they learn it, and how they are assessed. Changes were rolled out nationally on a phased basis in September 2010.…

  9. Nursing education reform in South Africa--lessons from a policy analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which

  10. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions

  11. Is Reform in Accounting Education Needed in China and Russia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore T. Y. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine, through literature review, whether China and Russia are in need of accounting education reforms when they are not English-speaking, do not have developed accounting systems as major English-speaking countries do, have a different political orientation from the selected Englishspeaking countries and are at a transition stage from a state-planned economy to a market-driven economy. The paper is based entirely on literature review of global forces at play on accounting education reform, accounting education change in selected English-speaking countries and developments in accounting education in Russia and China. The review indicates that the two countries have a desperate need for accounting education change and that gradual changes are taking place in both countries, although China is at a more advanced stage of development because of its international trade. There are signs of both countries leaning towards the direction of the Accounting Education Change Commission’s (AECC initiatives. China is focusing more on breadth of education than specialization and Russia is at a preliminary stage having to enhance its financial reporting system. The available literature on accounting education in Russia and China is limited, particularly in Russia as the Soviet’s old system did not offer accounting degrees. However, this does not present a problem in identifying an accounting education trend in these two countries from the available literature as explained in the final section of this paper “Limitations of This Study and Future Research”. With major English-speaking and non English-speaking countries leaning towards AECC in their accounting education reforms regardless of the political orientation of the country, one may conclude that AECC is the direction that developing countries having the same need for change should consider. The comparison made in this paper provides insights into an area that

  12. Exploring the role of curriculum materials to support teachers in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2001-07-01

    For curriculum materials to succeed in promoting large-scale science education reform, teacher learning must be supported. Materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to be educative by including detailed lesson descriptions that addressed necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. The goal of this research was to describe how such materials contributed to classroom practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, four middle school teachers' initial enactment of an inquiry-based science unit on force and motion were videotaped. Enactments focused on five lesson sequences containing experiences with phenomena, investigation, technology use, or artifact development. Each sequence spanned three to five days across the 10-week unit. For each lesson sequence, intended and actual enactment were compared using ratings of (1) accuracy and completeness of science ideas presented, (2) amount student learning opportunities, similarity of learning opportunities with those intended, and quality of adaptations , and (3) amount of instructional supports offered, appropriateness of instructional supports and source of ideas for instructional supports. Ratings indicated two teachers' enactments were consistent with intentions and two teachers' enactments were not. The first two were in school contexts supportive of the reform. They purposefully used the materials to guide enactment, which tended to be consistent with standards-based reform. They provided students opportunities to use technology tools, design investigations, and discuss ideas. However, enactment ratings were less reflective of curriculum intent when challenges were greatest, such as when teachers attempted to present challenging science ideas, respond to students' ideas, structure investigations, guide small-group discussions, or make adaptations. Moreover, enactment ratings were less consistent in parts of lessons where materials did not include lesson specific

  13. Reforming vocational didactics by implementing a new VET teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Henriette; Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    2015-01-01

    from backgrounds with no tradition for education. Despite historical changes, the education as vocational college teacher also struggles with the interplay between theory and practice in the program and great diversity among vocational college teachers. Based on empirical data from focus group......A new education program, Diploma of Vocational Pedagogy, has recently been implemented in Denmark to upskill vocational college teachers and improve didactics at VET colleges in general. Among many challenges, vocational college teachers have to adapt their pedagogy to a large number of students...... interviews with students from the Diploma of Vocational Pedagogy program and concepts developed by Bernstein and Bourdieu, the article analyzes how these aspects might affect the development of new vocational didactics. We know that it is not easy to change the culture of educational institutions...

  14. Preliminary exploration of the postgraduate education reform in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Caifang; Ouyang Yong

    2012-01-01

    Interventional radiology now is facing many challenges. The education quality has declined, and the high-level professional talents have been lost. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the postgraduate education and the relevant issues in the field of interventional radiology, and to make a preliminary exploration into how we can train the postgraduates to become qualified interventional radiologists with high comprehensive quality in order to meet the urgent requirements demanded by the development of interventional radiology. (authors)

  15. General practice education and training in southern China: recent development and ongoing challenges under the health care reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia-Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available China has launched a general practice (GP-orientated primary care reform in 2009 to develop a more productive, coordinated, and cost-effective system to maintain and improve the health and wellbeing of one-fifth of the world population. The restructure of the health care system with a focus on primary care requires practitioners working on GP as gatekeepers for service delivery that is responsive to the needs of people. It is particularly prioritised to establish a sound education and training system to ensure that the competencies of practitioners are aligned with local health care needs. This article aims to provide a brief review of the development of GP, including exemplary model of education and training currently implemented in southern China, as well as the challenges to be addressed in the next step. There is a shortage of well-trained and qualified general practitioners in China where more than half of the licensed clinicians in primary care are educated below the undergraduate level. Although there is a stepwise increase in recognition that the capacity of GP is pivotal to the success of primary care development in China, challenges coming from resource restriction, rural and urban disparity, social attitude, and community involvement are highlighted as major bottlenecks that currently hinder the rapid development of GP in China. Supportive policy and guidelines are necessary to build up strong GP recognition and ensure adequate resources to underpin a robust primary care system to deliver affordable and effective health care services for the world’s largest population. It might share some similar experiences with other countries that are struggling to develop a GP-based primary care system.

  16. General practice education and training in southern China: recent development and ongoing challenges under the health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H H X; Wang, J J; Zhou, Z H; Wang, X W; Xu, L

    2013-01-01

    China has launched a general practice (GP)-orientated primary care reform in 2009 to develop a more productive, coordinated, and cost-effective system to maintain and improve the health and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. The restructure of the health care system with a focus on primary care requires practitioners working on GP as gatekeepers for service delivery that is responsive to the needs of people. It is particularly prioritised to establish a sound education and training system to ensure that the competencies of practitioners are aligned with local health care needs. This article aims to provide a brief review of the development of GP, including exemplary model of education and training currently implemented in southern China, as well as the challenges to be addressed in the next step. There is a shortage of well-trained and qualified general practitioners in China where more than half of the licensed clinicians in primary care are educated below the undergraduate level. Although there is a stepwise increase in recognition that the capacity of GP is pivotal to the success of primary care development in China, challenges coming from resource restriction, rural and urban disparity, social attitude, and community involvement are highlighted as major bottlenecks that currently hinder the rapid development of GP in China. Supportive policy and guidelines are necessary to build up strong GP recognition and ensure adequate resources to underpin a robust primary care system to deliver affordable and effective health care services for the world's largest population. It might share some similar experiences with other countries that are struggling to develop a GP-based primary care system.

  17. Professional Development in a Reform Context: Understanding the Design and Enactment of Learning Experiences Created by Teacher Leaders for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Teacher in-service learning about education reforms like NGSS often begin with professional development (PD) as a foundational component (Supovitz & Turner, 2000). Teacher Leaders, who are early implementers of education reform, are positioned to play a contributing role to the design of PD. As early implementers of reforms, Teacher Leaders…

  18. Experiences with primary healthcare in Fuzhou, urban China, in the context of health sector reform: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Rosalind; Chen, Lieping; ChenXiang, Tang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Starfield, Barbara; Jinhuan, Zheng; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    China has recently placed increased emphasis on the provision of primary healthcare services through health sector reform, in response to inequitably distributed health services. With increasing funding for community level facilities, now is an opportune time to assess the quality of primary care delivery and identify areas in need of further improvement. A mixed methodology approach was adopted for this study. Quantitative data were collected using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Chinese version (C-PCAT), a questionnaire previously adapted for use in China to assess the quality of care at each health facility, based on clients' experiences. In addition, qualitative data were gathered through eight semi-structured interviews exploring perceptions of primary care with health directors and a policy maker to place this issue in the context of health sector reform. The study found that patients attending community health and sub-community health centres are more likely to report better experiences with primary care attributes than patients attending hospital facilities. Generally low scores for community orientation, family centredness and coordination in all types of health facility indicate an urgent need for improvement in these areas. Healthcare directors and policy makers perceived the need for greater coordination between levels of health providers, better financial reimbursement, more formal government contracts and recognition/higher status for staff at the community level and more appropriate undergraduate and postgraduate training. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND TEACHERS’ WORKING CONDITIONS: EMOTIONS EXPERIENCED BY AN IN-SERVICE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Nunes RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the relation among educational reforms and teachers’ work, and emotions. This study was conducted with a public school English teacher, in Minas Gerais. The aim was to verify the role that contextual factors play in the production of emotions, and detect the emotions that influence her practice with students, colleagues, and school managers. The theoretical framework was based on studies about educational reforms and teachers’ work (AUGUSTO, 2005; HYPOLITO; VIEIRA; PIZZI, 2009; DUARTE; AUGUSTO, [s.d.], the relationship between emotions and the process of teaching and learning languages (HARGREAVES, 2000; ZEMBYLAS, 2002, 2003; ARAGÃO, 2008; DAY; QING, 2009; SHUTZ; ZEMBYLAS, 2009; COWIE, 2011; RIBEIRO, 2012. We used a semistructured questionnaire and a narrative interview as data collection instruments. The analysis has pointed out poor work condition, crowded classrooms, poor physical and technological structures, strict school curriculum, students’ indiscipline, and the institution pessimistic atmosphere as frustrating, stressful, and de-motivating factors. These results indicate the need to create alternative ways of school workplaces organization, and to modify the way people interact in schools. They also suggest the need of educators to participate in the design and implementation of educational reforms.

  20. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The ``Through-Road'' Model and its Societal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a crucial role in the process. The education reform, which is still on-going, aims to overhaul the entire system by introducing the "through-road" model. To accomplish this, some mechanisms need to be changed. J.P. Farrell's concepts of equality and equity, C.W. Mills' concept of elitism, and P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman's concepts of cultural and social capital will be applied to analyse the consequences of the reform. The paper argues that the education reform may be well-intentioned in eliminating some elements of inequality and inequity in education, but that this comes at the expense of Hong Kong's cultural and social capital and leads to the development of new forms of inequality.

  1. SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM REFORM. SURVEY CONDUCTED IN UPPER HIGH SCHOOLS OF BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau Remus Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers

  2. Perceptions of Higher Education Reforms in Russia: the Role of Institutions and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reforms of higher education in Russia are aimed at boosting the quality and efficiency of the educational process. Nevertheless, in most cases, implemented institutional and organizational innovations do not work properly. Calculative technologies and various ratings, which are widespread today, opened up the opportunities for regular managerial interventions. These interventions are not neutral. In Russian higher education, the mania for measurement resulted in a deficit of trust and rampant bureaucracy. Historically, the system of higher education has been based on specific values and institutions. Academic freedom and autonomy are extremely important for the members of the academic community, and these values cannot be eliminated. Implemented reforms destroy old institutions and organizational structures. However, new institutions, being inconsistent with present working rules and practices, are not able to replace the old ones. Such inconsistency can result in inefficiency. Social capital plays a crucial role for development and growth in the field of higher education. The structure of social capital in the field embraces three components: trust, social engagement and social integration. These elements must be taken into account when implementing educational reforms. The higher the employees are motivated and experience personal growth, the more they feel embedded in their job. We have analyzed the discourses of the key actors within the universities of Rostov Region. The discourse analysis shows that bureaucracy, constant institutional and organizational changes and the reduction of academic freedom are perceived as significant factors that influence labor productivity, organizational efficiency and the quality of educational services in the field of higher education.

  3. Transforming Dental Technology Education: Skills, Knowledge, and Curricular Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobich, Anita M; Mitchell, Betty L

    2017-09-01

    Dental technology is one of the core allied dental health professions supporting the practice of dentistry. By definition, it is the art, science, and technologies that enable the design and fabrication of dental prostheses and/or corrective devices to restore natural teeth and supporting structures to fulfill a patient's physiological and esthetic needs. Dental technology educational programs are faced with serious challenges, including rapid changes in technology, inadequate funding for educational programs, and the need to develop curricula that reflect current industry needs. Better communications between dental technologists and practitioners are needed to gain greater recognition of the contribution that technologists make to patient health. Amid these challenges, the technology workforce is dedicated to providing patients with the best possible restorative dental prostheses. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  4. Globalization and Language and Education Reform in Colombia: A Critical Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Usma

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connection between economic, political, and cultural globalization processes and recent education and language reforms in Colombia. Throughout the article, the author attempts to demonstrate that current education and language policies in Colombia are tightly connected to transnational agendas and models of reform that do not necessarily represent a real benefit for the majority of the population, but, instead, may render privileges for a few. With this analysis, the author insists on the need for an equitable plan for the improvement of language teaching and learning in Colombia in a way that considers local priorities of economic development, respects local knowledge and culture, and accounts for a systemic and fundamental improvement of the public system based on the dissimilar conditions that affect schools, teachers, and students in both the private and the public sectors in the country.

  5. Education for Sustainable Development in Malaysia's National Curriculum Reformation: A Theoretical Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aai Sheau Yean

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the feasibility and potential of including appropriate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD elements in the National Curriculum Reformation of Malaysia that is set to be introduced in the year 2017. This is done through the proposal of a theoretical approach for understanding ESD fit for Malaysia from an environmental epistemology. To start with, this article outlines dominant ideologies and epistemologies revolving around the concept of Sustainable Development (SD and focuses on critiquing the underlying anthropocentric tendencies found within. Drawing principally from the ideas of Schumacher (1973, Orr (2004, and Sterling (1992, the article then sets out to examine the ideologies and epistemologies needed to support education reformation that are more environmentally sensitive in nature.

  6. Free transfer, limited mobility: A decade of higher education reform in Egypt and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kohstall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how countries with a relative low performance in higher education like Egypt and Morocco, are informed and worked by the forces of internationalization in this domain. It compares the path of university reforms in both countries over the last decade, from their emergence on the agenda to their implementation. Through the lenses of a public policy approach it illustrates how higher education is subject to a complex negotiation process between international organizations and domestic policy-makers. The transfer of international models like grant-based funding and the Bologna process has become the driving force of these reforms. But when imposed through a top-down approach these models do not necessarily bring about the outcome they might have promised. They rather illustrate an example of distorted internationalization.

  7. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  8. Addressing the dynamics of science in curricular reform for scientific literacy: Towards authentic science education in the case of genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Science education reform must anticipate the scientific literacy required by the next generation of citizens. Particularly, this counts for rapidly emerging and evolving scientific disciplines such as genomics. Taking this discipline as a case, such anticipation is becoming increasingly problematic

  9. Smarter Spending: Reforming Federal Financial Aid for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In higher education, three generally recognized rationales for federal involvement in financial aid exist: (1) Promoting equality of opportunity: Those from poor households are less likely to attend college for a variety of reasons; (2) Credit market imperfections: Students may not have access to the credit needed to make profitable investments in…

  10. Reform of Secondary Education in Morocco: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyen, Hayat

    2004-01-01

    As people embark on a new globalized world, the old formal system of education in the Arab world is facing challenges and dilemmas. How can the new system preserve their Islamic and Arabic culture, while incorporating strategies for a new globalized world? This article tries to answer some of these questions by focusing on Morocco as a case study.…

  11. Educational Reform from the Perspective of the Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Felipe; Cardona-Toro, Jose-Gerardo; Díaz-Renteria, María-Guadalupe; Alvarez, Maria-Ines; Rendon, Hector; Valero, Isabel; Morfin, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies are tools that the state prepares to generate conditions that allow access to and retention in schools, with the consequent reduction in school failure, increasing the external yield and fulfilling the expectations of the internal agents (teachers, students, school managers), external users (families, society, employers,…

  12. Peer Pressure: Comments on the European Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the growing influence of informal and not democratically legitimised authority within the educational field in Europe. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework are discussed as instances of neoliberal strategies of modernisation that change the…

  13. From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…

  14. The Slow Reform of Teacher Education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern de Finkel, Sara

    1991-01-01

    After 16 years of transition from dictatorship to democracy, Spain's teacher education system has not changed substantially. The existing model is much criticized, but politics impede the process of change. The proposed new model for preservice training shows little innovation, but some progress is seen in inservice training. (MSE)

  15. Motivation in vocational education: a reform issue in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working in a non-motivating environment is a nagging issue in various tertiary institutions in Cross River State .This dampens staff morale a great deal. However, the provision of motivation in work places will be a great boost to staff morale especially in Vocational Education. This paper discusses the meaning of motivation, ...

  16. Looking Backward: James Madison University's General Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles W.; Allain, Violet Anselmini; Erwin, T. Dary; Halpern, Linda Cabe; McNallie, Robin; Ross, Martha K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the new general education program at James Madison University (Virginia) and the process by which it was developed. Indicates that the program is organized by five broad areas of knowledge that are defined by interdisciplinary clusters of learning objectives, which in turn were developed using input from every academic department on…

  17. Human Capital Development: Reforms for Adult and Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult and community education (ACE) sector is consistently responsive to changing community needs and government priorities. It is this particular function that has drawn ACE into the lifelong learning debate as one model for sustaining communities. The responsiveness of ACE means that the sector and its programs continue to make valuable…

  18. The Keys to Effective Schools: Educational Reform as Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Working in tandem with the powerful National Education Association's KEYS initiative (Keys to Excellence in Your Schools), this second edition focuses on how to change a school's organizational structure and culture to improve the quality of teaching and learning. Each chapter, revised and updated to address continuous improvement and narrowing…

  19. Brokering Knowledge Mobilization Networks: Policy Reforms, Partnerships, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Kane, Ruth G.; Butler, Jesse K.; Glithero, Lisa; Forte, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers and policy-makers are now expected by funding agencies and their institutions to innovate the multi-directional ways in which our production of knowledge can impact the classrooms of teachers (practitioners), while also integrating their experiential knowledge into the landscape of our research. In this article, we draw on…

  20. Classroom assessment in Chinese primary school mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.

    2018-01-01

    In mainland China, where there exists a deeply-rooted examination culture, an assessment reform promoting the use of assessment to support teaching and learning has been carried out since 2001. After a decade, however, only a few studies have been done that focus on primary school mathematics

  1. Deepening the reform of interventional radiology education and speeding up the development of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chuan; Liu Linxiang; Cheng Yongde

    2010-01-01

    For recent years, although interventional radiology in China has achieved rapid development, it is still facing some rigorous challenges, such as the lack of personnel in interventional field and the flowing-away of certain patients who are definitely suitable for interventional therapy. This paper aims to discuss the reform of interventional radiology education for the undergraduates, postgraduates and clinical practitioners in the medical colleges in order to seek effective solutions to these issues the interventional radiology has confronted with. (authors)

  2. Is Reform in Accounting Education Needed in China and Russia: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore T. Y. Chen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine, through literature review, whether China and Russia are in need of accounting education reforms when they are not English-speaking, do not have developed accounting systems as major English-speaking countries do, have a different political orientation from the selected Englishspeaking countries and are at a transition stage from a state-planned economy to a market-driven economy. The paper is based entirely on literature review of global fo...

  3. Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in DenmarkMore children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014) the children have to particip......Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in DenmarkMore children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014) the children have...... to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge to participate...... a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11 children...

  4. Global Education Reform Movement: Challenge to Nordic Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ringsmose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The international comparison and competitive focus on (academic performance, together with the growing awareness that early years impact children’s learning and development in education as well as over a lifetime, has resulted in heightened political interest in the learning of the youngest children. Politicians take action to achieve what they assume to be most effective approach, resulting in more centralized control, and more structured learning approaches introduced to children at still younger ages (Brogaard-Clausen, 2015: Brehony, 2000: Moss, 2013. In the Nordic countries1 there is a general concern for early years and the challenges facing early childhood education and care in an era of increasing globalization, with focus on accountability and academic competition (Ringsmose, Kragh-Müller, 2017. In Denmark, the social pedagogical tradition has been part of the culture of early childhood education for decades. In the social pedagogical tradition, relationships, play, and children’s influence are considered of key importance, and as the child’s natural way to learn about, and make sense of the world. It is considered that children learn and explore through play and participation embedded in the culture. Recently, the ministry of education has discussed more focused learning plans, and has tried out a program with more structured learning approaches. The gradual changes, together with the possible political action, are changes seriously threatening the social pedagogical tradition with more school-like, and more structured ways for children to interact. The purpose of this article is to present the Danish example as an alternative to the schoolification of early years that we see in many countries.

  5. The discussion about classical and Real education in Russia: the debate on D. Tolstoy`s «Educational reform» in State Council (1871-1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Всеволод Евгеньевич Воронин

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the important event in the Russian political history of the Great reforms epoch. It's the discussion about the role of classical and real education led in Governmental circles in the beginning of 1870s. Special attention is paid to the consideration of reform projects of gymnasium education occurred in State Council, the highest legislative institution of Empire, and to the positions elaboration of supporters and opponents of Public Education Minister D. Tolstoy.

  6. Conservation of local architecture from primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esther Azcuy Chiroles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the local architecture in the primary school is insufficient, according to results of the diagnosis carried out for the investigation of the Project of Local Art of the Artistic Education Department of ISP “Rafael M. Mendive.” The lack of systematic work was demonstrated in the promotion of local architecture starting from the subject of Plastic arts, in its curricular and extracurricular components. This is the reason for presenting an Strategy for the promotion of the local architecture in primary teaching, with a System of Activities for the promotion of the local civil architecture that allows the motivation of the students, professors, family and Institutions toward the acquisition of knowledge on the local artistic culture, and the appreciation of the most illustrative architectural patrimonial values in Pinar del Río city.

  7. Development of Educational Management System in Small Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammarry, Yupayao; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Duangcharthom, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the research were: (1) to study the factors of Educational Management System in Small Primary School; (2) to investigate current situations problems and guidelines of developing educational management in small primary school; (3) to develop Educational Management System in Small Primary School; and (4) to examine the results of…

  8. Enhancing Teacher Education in Primary Mathematics with Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A challenge of teacher education is to produce graduate primary school teachers who are confident and competent teachers of mathematics. Various approaches to primary school teacher education in mathematics have been investigated, but primary teacher education graduates still tend to be diffident in their teaching of mathematics. In an age where…

  9. Effects of comprehensive educational reforms on academic success in a diverse student body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Steven A; Ainsworth, Michael A; Asimakis, Gregory K; Thomas, Lauree; Cain, Lisa D; Mancuso, Melodee G; Rabek, Jeffrey P; Zhang, Ni; Frye, Ann W

    2010-12-01

    Calls for medical curriculum reform and increased student diversity in the USA have seen mixed success: performance outcomes following curriculum revisions have been inconsistent and national matriculation of under-represented minority (URM) students has not met aspirations. Published innovations in curricula, academic support and pipeline programmes usually describe isolated interventions that fail to affect curriculum-level outcomes. United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 performance and graduation rates were analysed for three classes of medical students before (matriculated 1995-1997, n=517) and after (matriculated 2003-2005, n=597) implementing broad-based reforms in our education system. The changes in pipeline recruitment and preparation programmes, instructional methods, assessment systems, academic support and board preparation were based on sound educational principles and best practices. Post-reform classes were diverse with respect to ethnicity (25.8% URM students), gender (51.8% female), and Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) score (range 20-40; 24.1% scored ≤ 25). Mean±standard deviation MCAT scores were minimally changed (from 27.2±4.7 to 27.8±3.6). The Step 1 failure rate decreased by 69.3% and mean score increased by 14.0 points (effect size: d=0.67) overall. Improvements were greater among women (failure rate decreased by 78.9%, mean score increased by 15.6 points; d=0.76) and URM students (failure rate decreased by 76.5%, mean score increased by 14.6 points; d=0.74), especially African-American students (failure rate decreased by 93.6%, mean score increased by 20.8 points; d=1.12). Step 1 scores increased across the entire MCAT range. Four- and 5-year graduation rates increased by 7.1% and 5.8%, respectively. The effect sizes in these performance improvements surpassed those previously reported for isolated interventions in curriculum and student support. This success is likely to have resulted from the broad

  10. TIME LOAD UPON STUDENTS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time load upon students is a central issue in the context of the overall load placed upon students. Most authors dealing with the issue of load upon students mainly approach this issue from the aspect of the time the students need to respond to the requirements posed by the school and otherwise concerning school. Such load is called time load. In our research, we investigated exactly this kind of time load placed upon students in the nine-year primary education in Macedonia. The main goal of our research was getting insight what is the students’ time load like and how big it is.

  11. Adopting reform-based pedagogy in post-secondary microbiology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Jeffery W.

    Current emphasis on improving student learning and retention in post-secondary science education can potentially motivate veteran faculty to reconsider what is often a traditional, instructor-centered instructional model. Alternative models that foster a student-centered classroom environment are more aligned with research on how students learn. These models often incorporate active-learning opportunities that engage students in ways that passively taking notes in an instructor-centered classroom cannot. Although evidence is mounting that active-learning is an effective strategy for improving student learning and attitude, university professors, without formal pedagogical knowledge and training, can face uncertainty about where to start and how to implement these strategies. The research presented here was conducted in two parts under the same context during one semester of a post-secondary microbiology course. First, a quantitative study was conducted to compare collaborative and individual completion of a reform-based instructional strategy that utilized a student-centered, active-learning component. Students were evaluated on learning, critical thinking, and epistemological beliefs about biology. Results indicated no significant differences between treatment groups. Interestingly, the impact of active-learning implementations had positive effects on students' epistemological beliefs. This was a finding contradicting previous research in which epistemological beliefs became more novice-like in science majors enrolled in courses without an active-learning component. Study two represents one case in which a professor with a traditional instructional model became motivated to pursue instructional change in his introductory microbiology course. A single-case qualitative study was conducted to document the professor's initial effort at instructional reform. Results indicated that his utilization and understanding of reform-based instructional strategies improved over

  12. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  13. International Experience in Reforming the System of Higher Education Governance in terms of Increasing the University Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Iryna M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the international experience of reforming the system of higher education governance and develop directions that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the Ukrainian model for governance of higher education and ensuring its autonomy. There identified common elements and trends in European higher education reforms: greater autonomy for higher education institutions with less direct administrative intervention; greater emphasis on private rather than public funding; emphasis on the quality and effectiveness of education. The tools for implementing reforms in the European higher education system are identified: the New Public Management (NPM model, governance through networks, and new forms of governance. The changes in the university autonomy of European countries for the period of 2010-2016 are summarized. The content of the reforms in terms of increasing the autonomy of HEIs in the countries of Asia is disclosed. Possible vectors for reforming the system of higher education governance in Ukraine are identified: introduction of a model for funding HEIs on the basis of combining a one-time full budgeting and financing by results; assigning universities ownership of their buildings and their sale in the market; strengthening the decentralization of government control of higher education; development of legislative bases for the self-sufficiency of HEIs; inclusion of external stakeholders in decision-making governing bodies of HEIs; maximum involvement of students in decision-making.

  14. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  16. Educational Reform in Management Courses of Agricultural & Forestry Higher Vocational Schools from the Perspective of Microblog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuhe; JIN

    2014-01-01

    At present there are many socialized microblog platforms.With powerful mobility,real-time information,fragment of information dissemination,and innovation of interaction,the microblog has become a socialized interaction mode in recent years.Since microblog is very popular with students of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,with the rising and development of network education,the microblog as a new information platform will be used by more and more teachers in education.From the perspective of microblog,this paper studied educational reform in management courses of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,in the hope of providing certain reference and help for current education practice of agricultural and forestry management courses.

  17. Sociology in American medical education since the 1960s: the rhetoric or reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegar, K

    1992-10-01

    Despite recommendations by medical reformers that medical sociology be included in the curriculum, there is currently little evidence of a far-reaching integration of sociological perspectives in American medical education. Yet, support for the relevance of sociological knowledge has since the late 1960s helped to diffuse external pressures for change in health care and medical education. As a symbol of the communitarian commitment of the medical profession, claims in favor of the incorporation of sociological perspectives have thus occasionally, and largely unintentionally, served the public relations interests of biomedicine. However, the more recent interest in medical ethics has to some degree transformed medicine's educational agenda and the definition of medical 'human values'. Whereas the rhetorical expropriation of medical sociology primarily has concerned medicine's responsibility vis-à-vis society as a whole, the new medical ethics education signifies a return to a more individualistically oriented medical morality.

  18. Response to science education reforms: The case of three science education doctoral programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai

    Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question

  19. Decentralization and Distribution Primary Education Access in Indonesia 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Benita, Novinaz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines decentralisation and distribution of access to primary school in Indonesia. Data come from Indonesia National Socio Economic Survey 2014, and statistic reports from Ministry of education, Ministry Of Finance, and General Election Commision. Descriptive statistic is used to describe spatial distribution of decentralization in primary education system and distribution of primary education access. The results show there are districts disparities in decentralization of primary...

  20. Interprofessional teamwork innovations for primary health care practices and practitioners: evidence from a comparison of reform in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark F; Advocat, Jenny; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Miller, William L; Gunn, Jane M; Hogg, William; Scott, Cathie M; Chase, Sabrina M; Halma, Lisa; Russell, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    A key aim of reforms to primary health care (PHC) in many countries has been to enhance interprofessional teamwork. However, the impact of these changes on practitioners has not been well understood. To assess the impact of reform policies and interventions that have aimed to create or enhance teamwork on professional communication relationships, roles, and work satisfaction in PHC practices. Collaborative synthesis of 12 mixed methods studies. Primary care practices undergoing transformational change in three countries: Australia, Canada, and the USA, including three Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec). We conducted a synthesis and secondary analysis of 12 qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by the authors in order to understand the impacts and how they were influenced by local context. There was a diverse range of complex reforms seeking to foster interprofessional teamwork in the care of patients with chronic disease. The impact on communication and relationships between different professional groups, the roles of nursing and allied health services, and the expressed satisfaction of PHC providers with their work varied more within than between jurisdictions. These variations were associated with local contextual factors such as the size, power dynamics, leadership, and physical environment of the practice. Unintended consequences included deterioration of the work satisfaction of some team members and conflict between medical and nonmedical professional groups. The variation in impacts can be understood to have arisen from the complexity of interprofessional dynamics at the practice level. The same characteristic could have both positive and negative influence on different aspects (eg, larger practice may have less capacity for adoption but more capacity to support interprofessional practice). Thus, the impacts are not entirely predictable and need to be monitored, and so that interventions can be adapted at the local level.

  1. Interprofessional teamwork innovations for primary health care practices and practitioners: evidence from a comparison of reform in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark F; Advocat, Jenny; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Miller, William L; Gunn, Jane M; Hogg, William; Scott, Cathie M; Chase, Sabrina M; Halma, Lisa; Russell, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    Context A key aim of reforms to primary health care (PHC) in many countries has been to enhance interprofessional teamwork. However, the impact of these changes on practitioners has not been well understood. Objective To assess the impact of reform policies and interventions that have aimed to create or enhance teamwork on professional communication relationships, roles, and work satisfaction in PHC practices. Design Collaborative synthesis of 12 mixed methods studies. Setting Primary care practices undergoing transformational change in three countries: Australia, Canada, and the USA, including three Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec). Methods We conducted a synthesis and secondary analysis of 12 qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by the authors in order to understand the impacts and how they were influenced by local context. Results There was a diverse range of complex reforms seeking to foster interprofessional teamwork in the care of patients with chronic disease. The impact on communication and relationships between different professional groups, the roles of nursing and allied health services, and the expressed satisfaction of PHC providers with their work varied more within than between jurisdictions. These variations were associated with local contextual factors such as the size, power dynamics, leadership, and physical environment of the practice. Unintended consequences included deterioration of the work satisfaction of some team members and conflict between medical and nonmedical professional groups. Conclusion The variation in impacts can be understood to have arisen from the complexity of interprofessional dynamics at the practice level. The same characteristic could have both positive and negative influence on different aspects (eg, larger practice may have less capacity for adoption but more capacity to support interprofessional practice). Thus, the impacts are not entirely predictable and need to be monitored, and so that

  2. Maximum utilization of primary reformer catalyst tubes careful assessment of remaining life-An experience at an ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Condition evaluation and residual life assessment of Reformer Catalyst Tubes has always been a point of concern for Ammonia and Methanol Plant operators. Failure of catalyst tubes results in total plant shutdown and consequent production loss. On the other hand, replacement of these tubes entails major cost impact on the company's budget, being a capital expenditure. A careful Residual Life Assessment of the tubes is therefore of utmost importance for maximum utilization of these tubes without jeopardizing plant operational reliability. This paper presents an experience of extracting maximum service life from the catalyst tubes of Primary Reformer of an Ammonia Plant. Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) has been operating the plant since 1982, having a designed capacity of 1100 MTPD. Its Primary Reformer has 288 catalyst tubes of IN-519 material (24Cr-24Ni-Nb). The design temperature and pressures are 925 degree C and 38kg/Cm respectively. Thanks to the optimum operating conditions, regular inspections and careful assessment of the residual life, the tubes have achieved more than double of the designed life and are still operating reliably. To evaluate the tube's health, Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) was carried out in 1987 and 1994 using attenuation technique. The tubes with maximum attenuation were marked for further evaluation. Accelerated Creep Rupture Test was carried out on sample tubes periodically (1996, 2001 and 2004). Tubes were selected on the basis of UT results, TMT (Tube Metal Temperature) monitoring and Inspection findings. Based on the combined results of DT, NDT, equipment history and foreseen operational parameters, the life of these tubes was carefully assessed periodically. The tubes have been in service for more than 23 years (design life: 11 years) and a further life of 04 years has been predicted as per last assessment.The experience of successful health evaluation and residual life assessment has saved substantial cost involved in tubes replacement

  3. Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study

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    Ravinder Rena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.

  4. Has Health Care Reform Legislation Reduced the Economic Burden of Hospital Readmissions Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Adler, Edward M; Kolisek, Frank R; Manley, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cost of readmissions after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) has decreased since the introduction of health care reform legislation and what patient, clinical, and hospital factors drive such costs. The 100% Medicare inpatient dataset was used to identify 1,654,602 primary THA and TKA procedures between 2010 and 2014. The per-patient cost of readmissions was evaluated in general linear models in which the year of surgery and patient, clinical, and hospital factors were treated as covariates in separate models for THA and TKA. The year-to-year risk of 90-day readmission was reduced by 2% and 4% (P total joint arthroplasty volume. The top 5 factors associated with the cost of 90-day TKA readmissions were (in rank order) the length of stay, hospital's teaching status, discharge disposition, patient's gender, and age. Although readmission rates declined slightly, the results of this study do not support the hypothesis that readmission costs have decreased since the introduction of health care reform legislation. Instead, we found that clinical and hospital factors were among the most important cost drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intertextuality in Educational Reform: Reflections on Equity in Swedish School Reform La Intertextualidad en las reformas educativas: reflexiones sobre la equidad en la reforma escolar sueca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Francia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes intertextuality as a conceptual instrument for the deeper understanding of the phenomenon of equity in educational Reform in times of decentralization. This analysis starts from a dynamic vision of education reforms as interactions of texts. To illustrate the use of intertextual analysis of equity in education, this article introduces and discusses the analyzed examples of the educational national policy and of educational practice in the educational reform implemented in the 90?s and currently in force in the compulsory school in Sweden. It is argued that the meaning of equity is never a fixed one; it varies according to the interactions between political texts at a national level and texts of educational practice at communal and school levels. En este artículo se propone la intertextualidad como herramienta conceptual para lograr una mayor comprensión de la equidad en las reformas educativas en tiempos de descentralización. En este análisis se parte de una visión de reforma educativa como sistema dinámico de interacciones de textos. Para ilustrar la utilidad del análisis intertextual de la equidad educativa se presentan y discuten ejemplos de la política y de la práctica escolar en la reforma introducida en la década de los noventa y actualmente vigente en la escuela obligatoria sueca. Se argumenta que el significado de equidad nunca es fijo, sino que varía de acuerdo con las interacciones de los diferentes textos de la política educativa y de la práctica escolar.

  6. Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda on People's Republic of China: The Role of Complementary Education Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Fan; Hertel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the poverty impact of mutlilateral trade liberalization under Doha Round WTO negotiation, using a household-disaggregated, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It explores how trade liberalization interacts with the reform of improving rural education. Simulation results show that multilateral trade reforms reduce poverty in the PRC, with biggest reductions occurring in the rural areas due to higher prices f...

  7. Have you ever considered a career in total revolution?: drama and the corporate reform of higher education.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Roy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the corporate reform of UK higher education and its implications for drama. The paper first sets out the background to this reform and its ideological reference points. It then outlines the discourse surrounding the foundation of drama in British Universities and relates this to the discourse developed several decades later by performance studies. In mapping out these areas, the paper draws attention to drama academics’ professed emphasis on rejecting commodification in fa...

  8. ramón de la sagra: early spanish socialism and educational reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Costa Rico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution analyses the figure of the ideologist, social theoretician, economist and international comparative education scholar, Ramón de la Sagra (1798-1871. Originally from Galicia and having begun his university studies in Santiago, he soon moved to Madrid, where he would become one of the founders of the Ateneo. University professor and naturalist in Havana. Observer of social reforms in the U.S.A. (1835. Later, he travelled through Europe comparing various attempts at social reform. Writer. Scholar and propagator, as well as a keen attender at intellectual salons, alongside Arhens, Cousin, Hippolyte Colins, Engels, or Proudhon (with whom he was involved in a variety of social undertakings in Paris between 1848 to 1849, as well as other well-known characters in the field of political economy and of social theory. Liberal Spanish member of parliament. Promoter of the first infant schools in Madrid (1839-1842. An idealistic reformer: an attractive and complex figure. One of the most outstanding Spanish intellectuals of the 19th Century but until now largely unknown.

  9. Understanding Learning and Teaching in Papua New Guinea: Elementary Teacher Trainers Engaged in Cultural Authorship in the Context of National Educational Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Joanne M.; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Papua New Guinea (PNG) has pursued educational reform in elementary teacher education. Because elementary teachers and teacher education are central to the reform agenda, there is a need to gain empirical evidence about how PNG teacher trainers' understandings about learning and teaching impact on their practice. The study…

  10. EDUCATION OF VOLITIVE QUALITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLSTUDENTS

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    Pablo Ángel Martínez-Morales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the results of the application of the methodology developed by the author, as a scientific result of his doctoral studies, aimed at the education of volitional qualities self control and perseverance, respect to teaching in primary school students. The evaluation of the methodology was carried out through a pretest and posttest pre-experiment with only one group, an intentional sample of two groups, one from third and one from fourth grade. Observation of teaching activities used and techniques designed to ascertain the level of knowledge, emotional bond and behavioral manifestations in primary school students in relation to volitional qualities in study. It was found, when analyzing the final results, positive changes in self-control and perseverance in the school sample, compared to the initial stage of the pre - experiment. These results were verified statistically by applying Spearman ́s rank correlation coefficient test and Wilcoxon ́s peer and allocated ranks, using SPSS.

  11. The Free Education Policy in Kenya: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limukii, Kaberia E.; Mualuko, Ndiku J.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reforms are crucial in a country if the reforms benefit the intended target group. One of the educational reforms in Kenya was the introduction of Free Primary Education. This was informed by the need to improve access and equity in provision of education. Informed by the need to eradicate ignorance, poverty and disease, the…

  12. An in-depth study of undergraduate tutorial system based on education and teaching integration reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As personalized development for undergraduate is the trend of higher education development, the undergraduate tutors should play their role in the establishment of personalized personnel training mode. Based on reform practice of university education integration, this article gives a deepening research on the essence and implement methods of undergraduate tutorial system. To implement and strengthen the function of undergraduate tutorial system, we need to increase teachers’ comprehensive quality training, build a multiple-dimension, full-process and whole-staff-participation educational concept, absorb the enterprise mentors to give guidance on students’ career planning and implement the scientific and reasonable undergraduate administrative evaluation system. With continuous theory exploration and practice research, the quality of undergraduate talent training has been gradually improved.

  13. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  14. Poverty of Primary Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Akindele Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Inspite of the fact that primary education forms the foundation on which education at the secondary and tertiary levels rests, the issue of poverty is undermining its roles in Nigeria. In this paper, this issue of poverty of primary education was examined, from the perspectives of its history, scope, indicators, in terms of inadequacy of resource…

  15. Internationalization versus Localization: "The Case of Primary Education in Taiwan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization is receiving increasing attention at academic institutions all over the world. Taiwan is no exception, where the government is promoting internationalization not only in higher education, but also at the primary education level. In this research we identified the key factors of the internationalization of primary education in…

  16. Development of the profession and qualifications of adult educators in Lithuania in the context of reforms of adult education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilienė, Genutė; Tūtlys, Vidmantas; Lukošūnienė, Vilija; Zuzevičiūtė, Vaiva

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic countries regained their independence from the Soviet Union in the early 1990s and joined the European Union in 2004. This article seeks to explore institutional development and reforms of adult education and lifelong learning in Lithuania with respect to the processes, the actors and the context of socioeconomic change over the past 20 years. It also looks at the implications of these processes for the professionalisation of adult educators, referred to here as "adult learning teachers" (ALTs). The authors begin with an analysis of the historical-institutional and political-economical aspects of the development of adult education and lifelong learning by providing a retrospective of institutional change in Lithuania. They then move on to analyse the existing institutional and legal arrangements of adult education which shape and institutionalise the profession and qualifications of ALTs. Their empirical research reveals the opinions of Lithuanian ALTs on their current professional occupational profile and its future development.

  17. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  18. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…

  19. New Orleans Education Reform: A Guide for Cities or a Warning for Communities? (Grassroots Lessons Learned, 2005-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu, co-chair of the Senate Public Charter School Caucus in Washington, DC, hosted a forum for education policymakers. It centered on "New Orleans-Style Education Reform: A Guide for Cities (Lessons Learned, 2004-2010)," a report published by the charter school incubator New Schools for New Orleans (NSNO).…

  20. The Role of Ideas in Education Politics: Using Discourse Analysis To Understand Barriers To Reform in Multiethnic Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Mara S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the presence of multiple racial/ethnic groups complicates educational politics. Interviews with participants in education politics in four cities highlight a complex arena of problem definitions and assessment of reforms. The arena is so infused with issues of race/ethnicity that groups agreeing upon some elements of the education…

  1. Science Education Reform in Confucian Learning Cultures: Teachers' Perspectives on Policy and Practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-01-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical…

  2. Evidence as Source of Power in School Reforms: The Quest for the Extension of Compulsory Education in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…

  3. Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education curricular reforms and course design in Tanzania for enhancing graduates’ competencies: stakeholders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Available documentary and research evidences reveal that the majority of Tanzania universities’ graduates (public and private universities lack competencies or technical skills (employability skills required for the job market and by potential employers, despite massive curricular reforms implemented in the public higher education sector since the early 1990s. Lack of employability skills which consequently leads to graduate unemployment or un-employability is attributable to the fact that curricular reforms and design in Tanzania public universities undertaken by lecturers and professors do not incorporate basic Tuning principles of competence-based teaching and learning which puts emphasis on competencies and skills by identifying generic and specific competencies during course design or curriculum reform. This study using the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM’s School of Education sought to: (1 explore faculty and students’ views on the application of the Tuning approach in curricular reforms and degree/course design as a mitigation of university graduates’ unemployment and un-employability, (2 solicit stakeholders’(academic staff and students perceptions of Tuning approach and its relevance in higher education curriculum reforms and design to make higher education more competence-based, and (3 find out students perceived causes of graduate unemployment and un-employability and whether the application of Tuning approach in curriculum reforms and design in universities can be a solution to graduate unemployment. Findings from the study reveal that both faculty and students concur that application of Tuning approach in higher education reforms and curricular design could enhance graduates competences and skills and reduce graduate unemployment.First published online: 30 November 2017

  4. Exploring educational partnerships: a case study of client provider technology education partnerships in New Zealand primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weal, Brenda; Coll, Richard

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores the notion of educational partnerships and reports on research on client provider partnerships between full primary schools and external technology education providers for Year 7 and 8 New Zealand students (age range approx. 12 to 13 years). Educational reforms in New Zealand and the introduction of a more holistic technology education curriculum in 1995 changed the nature of the relationship between the technology education partners. The research sought to identify, from the perspective of the primary schools (clients), factors that contribute to successful partnerships between them and their technology education provider. A mixed methods approach consisting of a survey of client schools, in-depth interviews and a series of four in-depth case studies (drawing on issues derived from the survey) was employed. Issues relating to teacher subculture, leadership roles and inflexibility of official processes all surfaced. The research points to an absence of commitment, shared understanding, shared power, leadership, communication and accountability in many educational partnerships that were the focus of this work.

  5. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher educators…

  6. Interprofessional teamwork innovations for primary health care practices and practitioners: evidence from a comparison of reform in three countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark F Harris,1 Jenny Advocat,2 Benjamin F Crabtree,3 Jean-Frederic Levesque,1,4 William L Miller,5 Jane M Gunn,6 William Hogg,7 Cathie M Scott,8 Sabrina M Chase,9 Lisa Halma,10 Grant M Russell11 1Center for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2Southern Academic Primary Care Research Unit, School of Primary Health Care, Monash University, Notting Hill, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 4Bureau of Health Information, NSW Government, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Department of Family Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, PA, USA; 6Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 7The CT Lamont Primary Care Research Center, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 8Alberta Centre for Child, Family, and Community Research, University of Calgary, AB, Canada; 9Rutgers University, Rutgers School of Nursing, Rutgers, NJ, USA; 10Alberta Health Services, Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 11School of Primary Health Care, Monash University, Notting Hill, VIC, Australia Context: A key aim of reforms to primary health care (PHC in many countries has been to enhance interprofessional teamwork. However, the impact of these changes on practitioners has not been well understood.Objective: To assess the impact of reform policies and interventions that have aimed to create or enhance teamwork on professional communication relationships, roles, and work satisfaction in PHC practices.Design: Collaborative synthesis of 12 mixed methods studies.Setting: Primary care practices undergoing transformational change in three countries: Australia, Canada, and the USA, including three Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec.Methods: We conducted a synthesis and secondary analysis of 12 qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by the authors in order to understand the impacts and how they

  7. Reducing the physician workforce crisis: Career choice and graduate medical education reform in an emerging Arab country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Halah; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Shaban, Sami; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In today's interdependent world, issues of physician shortages, skill imbalances and maldistribution affect all countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a nation that has historically imported its physician manpower, there is sustained investment in educational infrastructure to meet the population's healthcare needs. However, policy development and workforce planning are often hampered by limited data regarding the career choice of physicians-in-training. The purpose of this study was to determine the specialty career choice of applicants to postgraduate training programs in the UAE and factors that influence their decisions, in an effort to inform educational and health policy reform. To our knowledge, this is the first study of career preferences for UAE residency applicants. All applicants to residency programs in the UAE in 2013 were given an electronic questionnaire, which collected demographic data, specialty preference, and factors that affected their choice. Differences were calculated using the t-test statistic. Of 512 applicants, 378 participated (74%). The most preferred residency programs included internal medicine, pediatrics, emergency medicine and family medicine. A variety of clinical experience, academic reputation of the hospital, and international accreditation were leading determinants of career choice. Potential future income was not a significant contributing factor. Applicants to UAE residency programs predominantly selected primary care careers, with the exception of obstetrics. The results of this study can serve as a springboard for curricular and policy changes throughout the continuum of medical education, with the ultimate goal of training future generations of primary care clinicians who can meet the country's healthcare needs. As 65% of respondents trained in medical schools outside of the UAE, our results may be indicative of medical student career choice in countries throughout the Arab world.

  8. Inclusive Education in Government Primary Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Itfaq Khaliq Khan; Shujahat Haider Hashmi; Nabeela Khanum

    2017-01-01

    The perceptions of primary school teachers towards inclusive education was investigated in mainstream government schools of Islamabad capital territory where inclusive education was being supported by Sight savers and other international organizations. The study was carried out involving 54 teachers in six randomly selected primary schools. The sampled group comprised both, teachers trained in inclusive education and teachers working in same schools, but not trained in inclusive education. Pu...

  9. Music in the educational programs of primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Coelho de Souza, Cássia

    2012-01-01

    Two situations indicate the need of bringing closer music education and the educational community. Elementary school teachers struggle to mediate a relation between their students and knowledge about music. In addition, a contradiction between Brazilian elementary schools and educational programs for primary school teacher exists, in relation to knowledge about music. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the present article aims to review the main ideas on educational programs for primary ...

  10. If reform of science education is the answer - what were the questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    questions remain open: What is the aim of modern natural science education? How can the teaching methods and curriculum structure best support all this? How are changes of teaching practices best initiated? How does the university teacher improve his or her own teaching? These questions were addressed......At most Danish universities dramatic changes of the natural science programmes are under way. These changes are carried out both in response to external forces, and to internal ones, such as the need to rethink curriculum and pedagogy. But while the answer - structural reforms - is clear, the major...... at the third May Conference of the Centre for Educational Development in University Science (Dansk Center for Naturvidenskabsdidaktik, DCN), 22 -23 May, 2003, in Korsør, Denmark. This publication contains presentations given at the conference by keynote speakers. Further, it includes extensive reports from...

  11. Evaluation of a national process of reforming curricula in postgraduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang, Gunver; Bugge, Lasse; Beck, Henning

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: A national reform of the postgraduate medical education in Denmark introduced (1) Outcome-based education, (2) The CanMEDS framework of competence related to seven roles of the doctor, and (3) In-training assessment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the process...... of developing new curricula for 38 specialist training programmes. The research question was: which conditions promote and which conditions impede the process? METHODS: Evaluation of the process was conducted among 76 contact-persons, who were chairing the curriculum development process within the specialties...... and motivation in faculty and support from written guidelines and seminars. Identified impeding factors included insufficient pedagogical support, poor introduction to the task, changing and inconsistent information from authorities, replacement of advisors, and stressful deadlines. CONCLUSIONS: This study...

  12. The limits of market-based reforms in the NHS: the case of alternative providers in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anna; Checkland, Kath; McDermott, Imelda; Harrison, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Historically, primary medical care in the UK has been delivered by general practitioners who are independent contractors, operating under a contract, which until 2004 was subject to little performance management. In keeping with the wider political impetus to introduce markets and competition into the NHS, reforms were introduced to allow new providers to bid for contracts to provide primary care services in England. These contracts known as 'Alternative Provider Medical Services', were encouraged by two centrally-driven rounds of procurement (2007/8 and 2008/9). This research investigated the commissioning and operation of such Alternative Providers of Primary Care (APPCs). Two qualitative case studies were undertaken in purposively sampled English Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and their associated APPCs over 14 months (2009-10). We observed 65 hours of meetings, conducted 23 interviews with PCT and practice staff, and gathered relevant associated documentation. We found that the procurement and contracting process was costly and time-consuming. Extensive local consultation was undertaken, and there was considerable opposition in some areas. Many APPCs struggled to build up their patient list sizes, whilst over-performing on walk-in contracts. Contracting for APPCs was 'transactional', in marked contrast to the 'relational' contracting usually found in the NHS, with APPCs subject to tight performance management. These complicated and costly processes contrast to those experienced by traditionally owned GP partnerships. However, managers reported that the perception of competition had led existing practices to improve their services. The Coalition Government elected in 2010 is committed to 'Any Qualified Provider' of secondary care, and some commentators argue that this should also be applied to primary care. Our research suggests that, if this is to happen, a debate is needed about the operation of a market in primary care provision, including the trade-offs between

  13. The limits of market-based reforms in the NHS: the case of alternative providers in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Historically, primary medical care in the UK has been delivered by general practitioners who are independent contractors, operating under a contract, which until 2004 was subject to little performance management. In keeping with the wider political impetus to introduce markets and competition into the NHS, reforms were introduced to allow new providers to bid for contracts to provide primary care services in England. These contracts known as ‘Alternative Provider Medical Services’, were encouraged by two centrally-driven rounds of procurement (2007/8 and 2008/9). This research investigated the commissioning and operation of such Alternative Providers of Primary Care (APPCs). Methods Two qualitative case studies were undertaken in purposively sampled English Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and their associated APPCs over 14 months (2009-10). We observed 65 hours of meetings, conducted 23 interviews with PCT and practice staff, and gathered relevant associated documentation. Results and conclusions We found that the procurement and contracting process was costly and time-consuming. Extensive local consultation was undertaken, and there was considerable opposition in some areas. Many APPCs struggled to build up their patient list sizes, whilst over-performing on walk-in contracts. Contracting for APPCs was ‘transactional’, in marked contrast to the ‘relational’ contracting usually found in the NHS, with APPCs subject to tight performance management. These complicated and costly processes contrast to those experienced by traditionally owned GP partnerships. However, managers reported that the perception of competition had led existing practices to improve their services. The Coalition Government elected in 2010 is committed to ‘Any Qualified Provider’ of secondary care, and some commentators argue that this should also be applied to primary care. Our research suggests that, if this is to happen, a debate is needed about the operation of a market

  14. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions of Adequacy and Quality of Physical Facilities in Public Primary Schools under Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthima, Ndirangu Wahome; Udoto, Maurice O.; Anditi, Zephania O.

    2016-01-01

    The Free Primary Education (FPE) programme was commissioned in Kenya in January 2003 to provide basic education to all children of school going age and to ease the burden of cost sharing from the parents. However, even though the public primary school class teachers were to shoulder the greatest responsibility in the implementation of this…

  15. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  16. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  17. Evaluation techniques in Punjab, Pakistan: eight years of reforms in health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid Sarfraz; Biggs, John S G; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, the most populated country in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region has a population of over 170 million, spread over five provinces and four federally administered areas. It has a growth rate of 1.9%. Punjab is the most populous and developed province with an estimated population in 2010 of 81 million. In 2008, Punjab's development index of 0.60 and a literacy rate of 80% were the highest in the country. In Pakistan, the number of doctors and nurses has risen from 48 to 71 per 100,000 and from 16 to 30 per 100,000, respectively between 1990 and 2003. The major challenge, still, is the imbalance of the population to health-care workers ratio. At the time of creation of Pakistan, King Edward Medical College was the only fully functioning medical college. Over the years, as a result of health reform initiatives, a number of government medical colleges were established in the country. University of Health Sciences, Lahore was established in 2002, having sole jurisdiction over all medical, dental and allied health institutes in the province with the aim of moving medical education towards an outcome-based patient and community-oriented competency-driven system. This paper attempts to clarify how initiatives and reforms in the evaluation process have helped the UHS realise its aims. Evaluation in all branches of higher education has long been taken as a means to an end. The focus of UHS on teacher-training, introduction of behavioural sciences as a compulsory subject and setting up an outcome-based evaluation process, has established a knowledge-acquisition medical education atmosphere. The challenges in the future relate to sustainability through capacity-building and staying abreast with the Best Evidence Medical Education practices worldwide, implementing them to fit our local needs and resources.

  18. Fundamental Reform of Payment for Adult Primary Care: Comprehensive Payment for Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.

    2007-01-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  19. Multicultural Music Education in Singapore Primary Schools: An Analysis of the Applications of a Specialist Professional Development in Practical Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes-Onishi, Pamela; Lum, Chee Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Multicultural music education is often approached simply through the exposure of students to different world musics. This "cultural supermarket" approach to teaching diversity in the classrooms is re-examined in this study by drawing attention to the need for a broader curriculum reform. Using the Singapore primary school music teachers…

  20. Finland, university mergers and institutional profiling: One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nokkala, Terhi; Välimaa, Jussi; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing

  1. What is the impact of a national postgraduate medical specialist education reform on the daily clinical training 3.5 years after implementation? A questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene; Malling, Bente; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have recently reformed their postgraduate medical education (PGME). New pedagogic initiatives and blueprints have been introduced to improve quality and effectiveness of the education. Yet it is unknown whether these changes improved the daily clinical training. The purpose...... was to examine the impact of a national PGME reform on the daily clinical training practice....

  2. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  3. The Netherlands, strengthening research in Universities of Applied Sciences: One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harry F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing

  4. Thinking Change Inclusively: Views of Educational Administrators on Inclusive Education as a Reform Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Halis

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to delve into the debate about educational change and evaluate this concept around the paradigms introduced by inclusive education. The paper embarks on views of 27 educational administrators working in different educational institutions in Turkey. Participants are asked to provide their views on educational change and the…

  5. Healthcare reforms: implications for the education and training of acute and critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, S

    2004-12-01

    This paper offers a wide ranging analysis of the drivers that resulted in scrutiny of medical, nursing, and healthcare professional roles. It suggests that what is needed is a coherent vision of the future shape of the health workforce. This requires moving beyond the presumption that reforming working practices primarily involves "delegating doctors" responsibilities to nurses. The paper argues that it is self evident that the implications of changes in healthcare roles and the ability of existing professionals to function effectively in the future will require education, training, and human resource investment supportive of the changes. It suggests a clear definition of competence and a national standard to practice is essential for nurses working in acute and acute critical settings. There should therefore be a correlation between levels of practice, levels of education, and remuneration. Furthermore, education programmes for senior nurses should sit coherently alongside the education programmes required by Modernising Medical Careers. Finally, the realisation of the government's service and modernisation agenda will require a culture change within higher education institutions, postgraduate deaneries, professional organisations, workforce development confederations, and NHS trusts.

  6. National Study of Excellence and Innovation in Physical Therapist Education: Part 2-A Call to Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gail M; Hack, Laurita M; Nordstrom, Terrence; Gwyer, Janet; Mostrom, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    This perspective shares recommendations that draw from (1) the National Study of Excellence and Innovation in Physical Therapist Education research findings and a conceptual model of excellence in physical therapist education, (2) the Carnegie Foundation's Preparation for the Professions Program (PPP), and (3) research in the learning sciences. The 30 recommendations are linked to the dimensions described in the conceptual model for excellence in physical therapist education: Culture of Excellence, Praxis of Learning, and Organizational Structures and Resources. This perspective proposes a transformative call for reform framed across 3 core categories: (1) creating a culture of excellence, leadership, and partnership, (2) advancing the learning sciences and understanding and enacting the social contract, and (3) implementing organizational imperatives. Similar to the Carnegie studies, this perspective identifies action items (9) that should be initiated immediately in a strategic and systematic way by the major organizational stakeholders in physical therapist education. These recommendations and action items provide a transformative agenda for physical therapist education, and thus the profession, in meeting the changing needs of society through higher levels of excellence. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. The History of Education Institutions in Developed Countries has Lessons for the Reform of the System of Higher Education in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2007-01-01

    Universities in African countries are widely considered to be a colonial relic that is in desperate need of reform. This article argues that useful lessons for such a reform may be drawn from the developed countries' own education institution policy debates and history, especially as those relate...... to development. In that history, innovation-oriented industrial employers that advocate adjustment and institutional change at universities often clash with the vested interests of the educated elite and its desire to buttress its privileged social position with restrictions on entry into various professions...... and continued as useful complements to the stock of the technically educated in later stages of development. It is therefore suggested that the proper basis for university reform in Africa is to ask first whether the range and quality of educational institutions is appropriate to the current state of private...

  8. History of Higher Education: Educational Reform and the Emergence of the Nursing Professorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Jane

    1999-01-01

    In the late 19th century, visionary leaders pursued liberal education for nurses, moving nursing education from hospitals to universities. The nursing professorate might never have developed had nursing education remained under the jurisdiction of hospitals. (SK)

  9. Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.

  10. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  11. English Language Education in Primary Schooling in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes public primary English language education in Argentina. I begin with background information about the country and a brief historical overview of education in general, accompanied by a portrait of primary schooling in particular. This overview involves local, political and economic considerations but also international…

  12. Measuring Progress toward Universal Primary Education: An Examination of Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsten, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Education Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education (UPE) states that "by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling." The 2008 midterm Global Monitoring Report claims that "A country's distance from UPE appears most clearly in terms of the net…

  13. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  14. Inclusive Education in Government Primary Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Itfaq Khaliq; Hashmi, ShujahatHaider; Khanum, Nabeela

    2017-01-01

    The perceptions of primary school teachers towards inclusive education was investigated in mainstream government schools of Islamabad capital territory where inclusive education was being supported by Sight savers and other international organizations. The study was carried out involving 54 teachers in six randomly selected primary schools. The…

  15. Primary Geography Education in China: Past, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiaowei; Duan, Yushan; Sun, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In China, geography education in primary schools (grades 1 to 6) has not been emphasized, although some scholars have done research in this area. In order to deepen the understanding of primary geography education in China, this paper examines its history, current situation, and future trends. The authors used the method of document analysis and…

  16. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  18. Historicity as a Legitimising Argument in the Case of the Greek Educational Reforms of 1985 and 1997-1998 in General and Technical-Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzakis, Siphis; Koustourakis, Gerasimos

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the "historical argument", namely references to the educational policies and practices of other historical periods, was used by Greek politicians in the framework of the 1985 and 1997-1998 educational reforms. Employing the method of quantitative and qualitative content analysis, the…

  19. Calls for reform of medical education by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching: 1910 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, David M; Cooke, Molly; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2010-02-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which in 1910 helped stimulate the transformation of North American medical education with the publication of the Flexner Report, has a venerated place in the history of American medical education. Within a decade following Flexner's report, a strong scientifically oriented and rigorous form of medical education became well established; its structures and processes have changed relatively little since. However, the forces of change are again challenging medical education, and new calls for reform are emerging. In 2010, the Carnegie Foundation will issue another report, Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency, that calls for (1) standardizing learning outcomes and individualizing the learning process, (2) promoting multiple forms of integration, (3) incorporating habits of inquiry and improvement, and (4) focusing on the progressive formation of the physician's professional identity. The authors, who wrote the 2010 Carnegie report, trace the seeds of these themes in Flexner's work and describe their own conceptions of them, addressing the prior and current challenges to medical education as well as recommendations for achieving excellence. The authors hope that the new report will generate the same excitement about educational innovation and reform of undergraduate and graduate medical education as the Flexner Report did a century ago.

  20. Coping and compromise: a qualitative study of how primary health care providers respond to health reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Wang, Wei; Millar, Ross; Li, Guohong; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-04

    Health reform in China since 2009 has emphasized basic public health services to enhance the function of Community Health Services as a primary health care facility. A variety of studies have documented these efforts, and the challenges these have faced, yet up to now the experience of primary health care (PHC) providers in terms of how they have coped with these changes remains underdeveloped. Despite the abundant literature on psychological coping processes and mechanisms, the application of coping research within the context of human resources for health remains yet to be explored. This research aims to understand how PHC providers coped with the new primary health care model and the job characteristics brought about by these changes. Semi-structured interviews with primary health care workers were conducted in Jinan city of Shandong province in China. A maximum variation sampling method selected 30 PHC providers from different specialties. Thematic analysis was used drawing on a synthesis of theories related to the Job Demands-Resources model, work adjustment, and the model of exit, voice, loyalty and neglect to understand PHC providers' coping strategies. Our interviews identified that the new model of primary health care significantly affected the nature of primary health work and triggered a range of PHC providers' coping processes. The results found that health workers perceived their job as less intensive than hospital medical work but often more trivial, characterized by heavy workload, blurred job description, unsatisfactory income, and a lack of professional development. However, close relationship with community and low work pressure were satisfactory. PHC providers' processing of job demands and resources displayed two ways of interaction: aggravation and alleviation. Processing of job demands and resources led to three coping strategies: exit, passive loyalty, and compromise with new roles and functions. Primary health care providers employed coping

  1. Educational Development and Reformation in the Malaysian Education System: Challenges in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Zakaria, Haji Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Development of the education system in Malaysia is tied to the National Development Policy. Malaysia will address issues related to equity, access, and democratization of education, education quality, efficiency, and values education as the country responds to the demands of being part of the global village while ensuring domestic growth and…

  2. Tax justice of the reform of higher education: tuition fees or tax relief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the current reform of higher education which is now being discussed in the Czech Republic. The Government and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports propose a tuition fee for students at universities but there is still no clear concept of it. University leaders and students are against the tuition fee because of their fear of getting into debt during their study. The aim of this paper is to show an alternative way of funding higher education without tuition fee loans and from the point of view of tax justice. According to the concept of horizontal justice (Mankiw, 1999 taxpayers should pay taxes at the same rate, but it does not work this way. The result of research is that changes in Act 586/1992 Coll., on income tax and in Act 117/1995 Coll., on state social welfare are required. Abolition of tax relief is proposed where discrimination against other taxpayers and groups of students could occur. By abolition of tax relief for a student and tax relief for a dependent child the amounts of 4,020 CZK and 13,404 CZK respectively could be saved. Changes in legislation could be politically more acceptable than the tuition fee. The solution could also lead to simplification for taxpayers. The target should be equal access to higher education for all students.

  3. The pedagogical and ethical legacy of a "successful" educational reform: The Citizen School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2016-02-01

    The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.

  4. Primary care and behavioral health practice size: the challenge for health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark S; Leader, Deane; Un, Hyong; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the size profile of US primary care and behavioral health physician practices since size may impact the ability to institute care management processes (CMPs) that can enhance care quality. We utilized 2009 claims data from a nationwide commercial insurer to estimate practice size by linking providers by tax identification number. We determined the proportion of primary care physicians, psychiatrists, and behavioral health providers practicing in venues of >20 providers per practice (the lower bound for current CMP practice surveys). Among primary care physicians (n=350,350), only 2.1% of practices consisted of >20 providers. Among behavioral health practitioners (n=146,992) and psychiatrists (n=44,449), 1.3% and 1.0% of practices, respectively, had >20 providers. Sensitivity analysis excluding single-physician practices as "secondary" confirmed findings, with primary care and psychiatrist practices of >20 providers comprising, respectively, only 19.4% and 8.8% of practices (difference: Pestimate practice census for a high-complexity, high-cost behavioral health condition; only 1.3-18 patients per practice had claims for this condition. The tax identification number method for estimating practice size has strengths and limitations that complement those of survey methods. The proportion of practices below the lower bound of prior CMP studies is substantial, and care models and policies will need to address the needs of such practices and their patients. Achieving a critical mass of patients for disorder-specific CMPs will require coordination across multiple small practices.

  5. A Tale of Two Generations: Creativity Growth and Gender Differences over a Period of Education and Curriculum Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ping Chung; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    The Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that…

  6. Arbiters of Effectiveness and Efficiency: The Frames and Strategies of Management Consulting Firms in US Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of public colleges and universities in the United States have hired management consulting firms to help develop strategies aimed at increasing institutional effectiveness and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore the frames and strategies of consultants in US public higher education reform efforts. Drawing upon a…

  7. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  8. The Acculturation of Russian-Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Language Issues Three Years after the 2004 Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on acculturation strategies (attitudes and behaviors) in the language domain of Russian-speaking adolescents in Latvia in the context of the education reform. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Riga; the same schools were invited to…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  10. The Impact of the Reform of the Italian Higher Education System on the Labour Market for Young Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…

  11. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of…

  12. Reforms in German Higher Education: Implementing and Adapting Anglo-American Organizational and Management Structures at German Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefner, Ingo; Schatzl, Ludwig; Schroder, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the German higher education system is undergoing drastic reform. Competitive structures and funding mechanisms are being introduced that are already successfully used in other countries. However, critics state that cultural differences prevent the effective application, in German universities, of funding mechanisms and incentives…

  13. Public Higher Education Reform Five Years after the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John V.

    2006-01-01

    The Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land grant Universities existed between January 1996 and March 2000 in order to create an awareness among public universities of the need for higher education reform. The Commission, consisting of the presidents and chancellors of 25 major public universities, produced six reports and held numerous…

  14. High School Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Extra Effort during Educational Reform: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…

  15. State variation in primary care physician supply: implications for health reform Medicaid expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Medicaid enrollment is expected to grow by 16 million people by 2019, an increase of more than 25 percent. Given the unwillingness of many primary care physicians (PCPs) to treat new Medicaid patients, policy makers and others are concerned about adequate primary care capacity to meet the increased demand. States with the smallest number of PCPs per capita overall--gen­erally in the South and Mountain West--potentially will see the largest per­centage increases in Medicaid enrollment, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). In contrast, states with the largest number of PCPs per capita--primarily in the Northeast--will see more modest increases in Medicaid enrollment. Moreover, geograph­ic differences in PCP acceptance of new Medicaid patients reflect differences in overall PCP supply, not geographic differences in PCPs' willingness to treat Medicaid patients. The law also increases Medicaid reimbursement rates for certain services provided by primary care physicians to 100 percent of Medicare rates in 2013 and 2014. However, the reimbursement increases are likely to have the greatest impact in states that already have a large number of PCPs accepting Medicaid patients. In fact, the percent increase of PCPs accepting Medicaid patients in these states is likely to exceed the percent increase of new Medicaid enrollees. The reimbursement increases will have much less impact in states with a relatively small number of PCPs accepting Medicaid patients now because many of these states already reimburse primary care at rates close to or exceeding 100 percent of Medicare. As a result, growth in Medicaid enrollment in these states will greatly outpace growth in the num­ber of primary care physicians willing to treat new Medicaid patients.

  16. POLICY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND EDUCATION RESOURCES TO REFORM THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF MAKASSAR SIDENRENG RAPPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  17. BUSINESSMEN AND EDUCATIONAL POLICY: HOW THE PROCLAIMED RIGHT TO QUALITY EDUCATION IS DENIED IN PRACTICE BY BUSINESS REFORMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite that businessmen were always trying to interfere with the educational process from the times of theory of human capital, what can be happening of new that is motivating an increased interest of the business community through education? Is it possible that changes in the socio-economic development process of countries or their own crises of capital, are mobilizing the businessmen? We think so. The current interest of businessmen has specific aspects that deserve to be examined. It is not recommended that we believe that “history is repeating itself”. This linearity of analysis disarm us for the local confrontations of contradictions placed by this new escalation of capital on education. The educational policy of the reformers is produced to articulate the need to qualify for the new forms of organization of productive work, at the same time that it preserves and amplifies the classical social functions of the school: exclusion and subordination. At stake is the political and ideological control of the school, at a time when some greater degree of access to knowledge is required by new forms of organization of productive work, new consumption demands of the capitalist system and new political pressures for social mobility through the education.

  18. "TRANSFORMING PRIMARY EDUCATION AND PEDAGOGY – THE CASE OF SCHOOL GARDENS IN DENMARK"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2015-01-01

    School gardens spreading across Europe can make an important contribution to the transformation of primary education. The dissemination of school gardens in Denmark is a result of trends in urban farming and a farm-to-table and gastronomy focus in the country combined with a recent school reform....... The research is based on qualitative, explorative studies of four different school gardens. The study investigates children’s self-perceived learning and teachers’ and garden educators’ perception of pedagogy and learning opportunities, including the integration in the curriculum. It is based on garden...... observations, interviews with teachers and garden educators and focus group discussions with children two months after the programs were completed .Preliminary findings show that children benefit from learning in a school garden. Not only do they feel more motivated about being taught outside, they are also...

  19. Education for Social Cohesion Attempts in Lebanon: Reflections on the 1994 and 2010 Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Following the end of the Lebanese civil war, education was put forward as a major means for rebuilding Lebanon and promoting social cohesion and unity. A huge education development plan was launched in 1994 culminating in a new national curriculum in 1997 and the production of new textbooks. Although the quality of education improved in public…

  20. The New Stupid: Limitations of Data-Driven Education Reform. Education Outlook. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, it was disconcertingly easy to find education leaders who dismissed student achievement data and systematic research as having only limited utility when it came to improving schools or school systems. Today, we have come full circle. Educators have made great strides in using data, and it is hard to attend an education conference or…

  1. Competing Paradigms of Educational Justice: Parent Organizing for Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Reform Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a grassroots parent organizing effort in a large, high-poverty, urban school district. Drawing from ethnographic field research at a community-based popular education organization, the study describes how parent organizers worked to educate and mobilize Latina/o immigrant parents on issues of educational justice and equity.…

  2. Educating the sense of rhythm in primary education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhythm as a core element of complex coordination is the key to efficient moulding of motor skills specific to sports activities in curricula. Practicing physical exercise in a varied rhythm and tempo in primary school students moulds the skill of achieving correct movement basics (direction, span, coordination, and expressivity. The use of music in sports classes improves kinetics and vestibular sensitivity. The sense of rhythm and tempo are imperative criteria in vocational schools. Purpose: This paper aims to describe a pattern of means selected to develop the sense of rhythm and to allow movements in different sports branches with increased efficiency. Methods: The test battery was applied on a sample of 15 students from the 4th grade of the “Ion Vidu” National Arts College in Timisoara, Romania, aged 9-10 years, over an entire school year, using different rhythms and tempos during sports classes, which were later used in gymnastics, athletic events, and basketball. Results: Data recorded after the application tests, processed and interpreted confirms the proposed assumption and validates the motor contents used. Conclusions: Sense of rhythm is a component of coordinative capacity that is required to be educated from an early age. Rhythmic movements are easier to automate saving energy and motivating students to an active and conscious participation.

  3. Closing the Gender Gap: Six Decades of Reform in Mexican Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew; Park, Hyunjoon

    2010-01-01

    Gender parity in education is a goal for national governments and international organizations. The case of Mexico, along with some of its neighboring countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, is particularly interesting given its current gender parity in terms of entrance into primary school and female advantage in enrollment in secondary…

  4. The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Fazio, Xavier; Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the…

  5. All-Russian primary education (1894-1917): developmental milestones

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkasov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Basing on large statistical material, the article considers all-Russian primary education dynamic development during Emperor Nikolay II's reign. Special attention is attached to prognosis of illiteracy abolition terms in Russia in conditions of pre-revolutionary power preservation.

  6. What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing. Free Primary Education in Lesotho .... resulted in high levels of poverty amongst women, particularly in rural areas. Women ...... Lesotho demographics profile 2010. Available at ...

  7. Learning literacy and content through video activities in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; McKenney, Susan; Resta, P.

    2012-01-01

    This case study research explored to what extent and in which ways teachers used Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) and related competencies to implement video activities in primary education. Three Dutch teachers implemented video activities to improve students‟ content knowledge

  8. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  9. Intended Consequences: Challenging White Teachers' Habitus and Its Influence in Urban Schools Implementing an Arts-Based Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Susan; Otto, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Reform efforts like the urban, arts-based initiative Project ARTS are designed to provide intentional, equitable methods of improving students' learning, yet few urban educators have been sufficiently trained to recognize differences in habitus between themselves and their students. For equitable reform to occur teachers must understand their…

  10. Stages in Educational Reform; The Max Planck Institute Has Produced a Report on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Gottfried

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the Max Planck Institute's exhaustive report on West German educational trends since World War II. An analysis of the effects of changing social values and demographic factors on educational policy, school organization, enrollment trends, curriculum design, and teaching methods is included. (AM)

  11. Inventing Better Schools: An Action Plan for Education Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    If schools are not changed in dramatic ways very soon, public schools will lose their place as a vital component of the American education system. The first three chapters of this book describe the crisis in American education, arguing that what the schools were designed to do no longer serves the needs of American society. The presence of…

  12. Non-Formal Education and Basic Education Reform: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppers, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This paper intends to: identify the problems of non-formal education within different socioeconomic contexts in relation to the changing landscape of basic education as a whole; review the range of current practices; and raise some pertinent issues as a basis for policy analysis and further systematic research and development work on non-formal…

  13. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  14. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2011-01-01

    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  15. A Critical Examination of Education Reforms Implemented in the Early Years of the Turkish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yılmaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fundamental reforms in different spheres of Turkey’s institutions were swiftly implemented in a top-down manner in the early years of the Turkish Republic under Atatürk’s leadership. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the alphabet and language reforms put into practice in the years between the 1920s and 1930s. Since an analysis of socio-cultural and socio-political context is fundamental to understanding any reform initiatives, the article examines the alphabet and language reforms within the larger social, cultural, and political context within which they were carried out. In order to evaluate these reforms from a broader perspective, the article also scrutinizes the assumptions, beliefs, ideologies, and goals of those politicians or reformers who implemented them.

  16. Electronic consultation system demonstrates educational benefit for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Jonas; Olayiwola, J Nwando; Knox, Margae; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tuot, Delphine S

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic consultation systems allow primary care providers to receive timely speciality expertise via iterative electronic communication. The use of such systems is expanding across the USA with well-documented high levels of user satisfaction. We characterise the educational impact for primary care providers of a long-standing integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Methods Primary care providers' perceptions of the educational value inherent to electronic consultation system communication and the impact on their ability to manage common speciality clinical conditions and questions were examined by electronic survey using five-point Likert scales. Differences in primary care providers' perceptions were examined overall and by primary care providers' speciality, provider type and years of experience. Results Among 221 primary care provider participants (35% response rate), 83.9% agreed or strongly agreed that the integrated electronic consultation and referral system provided educational value. There were no significant differences in educational value reported by provider type (attending physician, mid-level provider, or trainee physician), primary care providers' speciality, or years of experience. Perceived benefit of the electronic consultation and referral system in clinical management appeared stronger for laboratory-based conditions (i.e. subclinical hypothyroidism) than more diffuse conditions (i.e. abdominal pain). Nurse practitioners/physician assistants and trainee physicians were more likely to report improved abilities to manage specific clinical conditions when using the electronic consultation and/or referral system than were attending physicians, as were primary care providers with ≤10 years experience, versus those with >20 years of experience. Conclusions Primary care providers report overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the educational value of an integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Nurse

  17. Scholasticism, the dilemma for a radical reformation of our educational thought and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Helberg

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Those who have acquainted themselves with the work of Prof J.A.L. Taljaard will undoubtedly agree as regards the following two issues. First of all, Taljaard, theoretically and practically, reveals a special interest in education in general as well as in the furtherance of Christian educational thought and practice. On the other hand, Taljaard has set himself the aim in his philosophical work of attaining a radical biblical approach and a radical biblical philosophy. This implies not only a profound ‘No’ to Humanism, but also an effort to get ‘reformed’ philosophy disentangled from the shackles of Scholasticism which still persists as an active power that must never be underestimated. This leads him, naturally, more than once, to a confrontation with authors of reformed philosophy and theology, who, aware of it or not, did not succeed in freeing themselves from old Scholastic influences. To fight Scholasticism, in our ‘reformed’ Christian society, demands moral courage as well as a firm belief in one’s calling. It also includes the risk of becoming alienated by those who, usually or naturally, (should stand very close to you. This, however, is sad when viewed in terms of the confession which Taljaard never gets tired to accentuate, namely, that life is to be a religious worship of our Lord, the Creator and Redeemer in Jesus Christ.

  18. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-04-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  19. Bangladesh: Summary Report. Financing Primary and Secondary Education in Bangladesh. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Qazi Kholiquzzaman

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to gain an understanding on educational expenditure at primary and secondary levels in Bangladesh. In estimating educational expenditure by source, it has been sought to determine: (1) sources of financing of primary and secondary education; (2) rural-urban variation; (3) variation between boys and girls; (4)…

  20. Elements and indicators for identification of quality of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Vlasta M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the main pillars of the quality of knowledge, and, in turn, social progress in general. There are numerous positions concerning quality of education, some more, and some less detailed. In order to determine the quality of a primary school, for example as 'poor', 'mediocre' or 'excellent', we use, more or less precisely, a certain idea about the value, and thus identify, again with a certain extent of accuracy, the position of the school in question in relation to other schools. In terms of the quality of education, it is necessary to analyze all segments of educational process. This includes the analysis of objectives of educational process, products of quality education as well as adequate and accessible technical-instrumental, that is, operational-procedural level of quality of educational process. Most authors connect the quality of primary education to results, that is, outcomes of education. In order to achieve quality of education, we need to achieve quality of particular components or elements of the whole of education. This paper deals with theoretical review of elements and indicators of quality of basic education, and provides a review of pedagogical strategies and their effect on certain components of quality with the aim to improve the effects on pedagogical and didactical resources of the quality of education.