WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary development challenge

  1. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Hargreaves, Richard; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the history of drug development in primary headaches and discusses challenges to the discovery of innovative headache therapeutics. Advances in headache genetics have yet to translate to new classes of therapeutics and there are currently no clear predictive human biomarkers...... for any of the primary headaches that can guide preventative drug discovery and development. Primary headache disorder subtypes despite common phenotypic presentation are undoubtedly heterogeneous in their pathophysiology as judged by the variability of response to headache medicines. Sub......, despite having promising effects in basic pain models, have not delivered efficacy in the clinic. Future efforts may triage novel physiological mediators using human experimental models of headache pain to support drug discovery strategies that target active pathways pharmacologically....

  2. Orphan drugs in development for primary biliary cirrhosis: challenges and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad H Ali,1 Thomas J Byrne,1 Keith D Lindor1,21Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 2College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic progressive liver disease that often leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The diagnosis is made when there is evidence of cholestasis and reactivity to the antimitochondrial antibody. The etiology of PBC is poorly understood; however, several lines of evidence suggest an environmental factor that triggers a series of immune-mediated inflammatory reactions in the bile ducts in a genetically susceptible individual. Fatigue and pruritus are the most common symptoms of PBC; however, many patients are diagnosed with PBC only based on laboratory abnormalities. The only pharmacological treatment approved for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. Several controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves liver biochemistries and prolongs transplant-free survival in PBC patients. Nearly 40% of PBC patients do not respond to UDCA, and those patients are at high risk of serious adverse events, such as the development of liver failure. Therefore, newer alternative therapeutic options for PBC are needed. Obeticholic acid is a first-in-class farnesoid X receptor agonist that has been recently evaluated in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA, and demonstrated beneficial results in improving liver biochemistries. Several other agents (fibrates and glucocorticoids have been previously examined in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA, and preliminary results showed biochemical improvement. However, large-scale controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the long-term effects of fibrates and glucocorticoids on the clinical outcomes of PBC. Clinical trials of NGM282 (a fibroblast growth factor-19 analog and Abatacept (a fusion protein composed of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G1 fused to

  3. RNA-Sequencing of Primary Retinoblastoma Tumors Provides New Insights and Challenges Into Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja V. Elchuri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is rare tumor of the retina caused by the homozygous loss of the Retinoblastoma 1 tumor suppressor gene (RB1. Loss of the RB1 protein, pRB, results in de-regulated activity of the E2F transcription factors, chromatin changes and developmental defects leading to tumor development. Extensive microarray profiles of these tumors have enabled the identification of genes sensitive to pRB disruption, however, this technology has a number of limitations in the RNA profiles that they generate. The advent of RNA-sequencing has enabled the global profiling of all of the RNA within the cell including both coding and non-coding features and the detection of aberrant RNA processing events. In this perspective, we focus on discussing how RNA-sequencing of rare Retinoblastoma tumors will build on existing data and open up new area’s to improve our understanding of the biology of these tumors. In particular, we discuss how the RB-research field may be to use this data to determine how RB1 loss results in the expression of; non-coding RNAs, causes aberrant RNA processing events and how a deeper analysis of metabolic RNA changes can be utilized to model tumor specific shifts in metabolism. Each section discusses new opportunities and challenges associated with these types of analyses and aims to provide an honest assessment of how understanding these different processes may contribute to the treatment of Retinoblastoma.

  4. Gender Factor in Decision Making: Challenges Facing Women Leadership Development in Primary Schools' Management in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…

  5. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices......In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...

  6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: diagnostic and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpal S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjeev Sirpal,1 Natasha Chandok2 1Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, 2Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Abstract: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic immune-mediated disease affecting intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, primarily the large biliary ducts. Clinical manifestations are broad, and the spectrum encompasses asymptomatic cholestasis, icteric cholangitis with pruritis, cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma. Though rare, PSC has a propensity to affect young to middle-aged males and is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. There is an unmet need for effective medical treatments for PSC, and to date, the only curative therapy is liver transplantation reserved for those with end-stage liver disease. This article addresses the diagnostic and management challenges of PSC, with a succinct analysis of existing therapies, their limitations, and a glimpse into the future of the management of this multifaceted pathologic entity. Keywords: primary sclerosing cholangitis, management, PSC

  7. WANO. Development, programs, challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the accident at the Soviet RBMK reactor unit 4 in Chernobyl the nuclear industry founded the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). To this day, the purpose of the organization has been to enhance worldwide cooperation of nuclear industry and, in this way, strengthen the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. Following some first steps after 1986, the charter of the organization was signed at the WANO constituent assembly in Moscow on May 15 and 16, 1989. The member companies thus committed themselves to support WANO's mission. WANO was established for these purposes: ''The mission of WANO is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information, and emulation of best practices.'' The WANO programs developed speedily thereafter. The focus was on peer reviews. In 2000, the first interim objective had been reached: Fifty percent of all member nuclear power plants had undergone peer reviews. In addition, plant-related peer reviews were extended throughout all operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The other WANO programs as well, i.e. exchanges of experience, technical support, and performance indicators, exerted more and more influence on industry. Peer reviews covered entire operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The worldwide paradigm shift in evaluating the use of nuclear power, and the associated construction programs for new nuclear power plants already in their implementation phase, assigned a new quality to the work of WANO. The organization is preparing a long-term strategy in the face of the challenges to be expected. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to support member organizations from the first preparations of a nuclear power plant project to the end of commercial operation. (orig.)

  8. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides essential insights into Bhutan’s developmental challenges. It analyzes and scrutinizes the sovereign state’s developmental approach, including the idea of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which has replaced Gross National Product (GNP) as a measurement of prosperity. The authors...... also explore and deconstruct ideational and cultural aspects of knowledge production and present a critical overall assessment of the political economy of education policy, health, ICT and migration in Bhutan. The book is divided into five parts all taking a critical approach towards inequality: Part...

  9. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Prytherch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not

  10. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  11. The international development challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

  12. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  13. What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing. Free Primary Education in Lesotho .... resulted in high levels of poverty amongst women, particularly in rural areas. Women ...... Lesotho demographics profile 2010. Available at ...

  14. Islay development flow assurance challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helingoe, Mark; Greder, Hugues

    2010-07-01

    The Islay field is located in the Northern North Sea UK sector in the vicinity of the Alwyn Platforms. This gas condensate Brent structure is planned to be developed subsea with first gas in 2011. The main development challenge for this HPHT field comes from the early expected formation water production which is the source of major hydrate related flow assurance issues. As continuous inhibition is not feasible, Total has progressed a development scenario based on seabed conditioning prior to pipe laying so that water can be collected and temporarily inhibited at specific low points after a shut-down. It is also intended to heat trace the pipeline as a back-up solution to avoid hydrate formation. Heat tracing has so far never been implemented in Subsea developments. The Islay pilot could open the path to a new hydrate management philosophy for future developments. (Author)

  15. Deepwater development - the metocean challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.

    1998-01-01

    As the focus of the offshore industry moves increasingly towards deepwater, attention is concentrating more and more on life-cycle field development costs. Key elements are reducing development lead times, equipment standardisation and efficient use of scarce resources. An essential precursor is a clear definition of the metocean environment. Without it, engineering design may be unnecessarily conservative or inadequate. Either way the consequences will be expensive. It is the metocean challenge to help bring down costs, while maintaining adequate safety levels by providing the necessary answers, but most important of all, to do this in sufficient time to be in step with the engineering requirements at each stage of a planned development. (author)

  16. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  17. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  18. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  19. Universal Primary Education in Kenya: Advancement and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Margaret; Mumiukha, Catherine; Fedha, Flora; Ndiga, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Universalisation of primary education (UPE) has been a global issue since the early sixties, yet several decades later and even in the 21st century, many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are still grappling with it. Unlike their counterparts in the developed world, its realisation in developing countries has been faced with a myriad of constraints.…

  20. Interlibrary loan in primary access libraries: challenging the traditional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, R F; Coldren, S; Condon, J E; Katsh, S; Reiter, C M; Roth, P L

    2000-10-01

    Primary access libraries serve as the foundation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) interlibrary loan (ILL) hierarchy, yet few published reports directly address the important role these libraries play in the ILL system. This may reflect the traditional view that small, primary access libraries are largely users of ILL, rather than important contributors to the effectiveness and efficiency of the national ILL system. This study was undertaken to test several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. Three hypotheses were developed. HI: Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries comply with the recommended ILL guideline of adhering to a hierarchical structure, emphasizing local borrowing. H2: The closures of two Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) primary access libraries in 1996 resulted in twenty-three Colorado primary access libraries' borrowing more from their state resource library in 1997. H3: The number of subscriptions held by Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries is positively correlated with the number of items they loan and negatively correlated with the number of items they borrow. The hypotheses were tested using the 1992 and 1997 DOCLINE and OCLC data of fifty-four health sciences libraries, including fifty primary access libraries, two state resource libraries, and two general academic libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. The ILL data were obtained electronically and analyzed using Microsoft Word 98, Microsoft Excel 98, and JMP 3.2.2. CCML primary access libraries comply with the recommended guideline to emphasize local borrowing by supplying each other with the majority of their ILLs, instead of overburdening libraries located at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy (H1). The closures of two CCML primary access libraries appear to have affected the entire ILL system, resulting in a greater volume of ILL activity for the state resource library and other DOCLINE libraries higher

  1. relevance and challenges of primary education to the overall

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The study buttresses that primary education is useful to the development of the child and the society at large in various .... modern Nigerian society if there is no childhood education. .... traditional Nigerian society, the way the child is treated or ...

  2. Opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Chestnutt, I G; Channing, D

    2009-09-01

    Inequalities in oral health in areas of socio-economic disadvantage are well recognised. As children spend a considerable proportion of their lives in education, schools can play a significant role in promoting children's health and oral health. However, to what extent schools are able to do this is unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools. A purposive sample of 20 primary schools from socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Cardiff, UK were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with head teachers or their nominated deputies. General awareness of health and oral health was good, with all schools promoting the consumption of fruit, water and milk and discouraging products such as carbonated drinks and confectionaries. Health promotion schemes wereimplemented primarily to improve the health of the children, although schools felt they also offered the potential to improve classroom behaviour and attendance. However, oral health was viewed as a separate entity to general health and perceived to be inadequately promoted. Successful health promotion schemes were also influenced by the attitudes of headteachers. Most schools had no or limited links with local dental services and, or oral health educators, although such input, when it occurred, was welcomed and highly valued. Knowledge of how to handle dental emergencies was limited and only two schools operated toothbrushing schemes, although all expressed an interest in such programmes. This study identified a positive predisposition to promoting health in primary schools. The challenge for the dental team, however, is to promote and integrate oral health into mainstream health promotion activities in schools. The paper also makes recommendations for further research.

  3. The Challenges of Distributing Leadership in Irish Post-Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the challenges and opportunities in relation to developing distributed leadership practice in Irish post-primary schools. It considers school leadership within the context of contemporary distributed leadership theory. Associated concepts such as distributed cognition and activity theory are used to frame the study. The study…

  4. Big Class Size Challenges: Teaching Reading in Primary Classes in Kampala, Uganda's Central Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewaza, Samuel; Welch, Myrtle I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading has established that reading is a pivotal discipline and early literacy development dictates later reading success. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate challenges encountered with reading pedagogy, teaching materials, and teachers' attitudes towards teaching reading in crowded primary classes in Kampala,…

  5. Challenge Problem Development and Evaluation Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrag, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This final report describes work performed by Information Extraction & Transport (IET), Inc. on Challenge Problem Development and Evaluation Management for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's...

  6. Key technological challenges for JSFR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Nakai, Ryodai; Aoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    JSFR is a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor on which a conceptual design study is now underway in the framework of 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT project)' of Japan. Achieving economic competitiveness with future light water reactors, along with assuring high level of safety and reliability, is among the most crucial development targets. A number of innovative technologies are pursued for these purposes. A two loop primary heat transfer system (PHTS) design, integration of a main circulation pump and an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) into one single component, and adoption of high chrome ferritic steel as a structural material are typical technologies mainly for economic purposes. A passive shutdown system, decay heat removal by natural convection, and re-criticality free core configuration are those for mainly safety enhancement purposes. Technically challenging issues inevitably accompany these innovative technologies, and a systematic research and development program is undertaken for resolving these issues and realization of the plant design. An overall picture will be given in this paper on the design concept of JSFR that will be followed by descriptions on the major innovative technologies and their relevant research and development activities. (author)

  7. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...... of the seven lessons in the ZTR primary school programme; the materials were also evaluated in relation to best practice within attitudinal change promotion. Analysis shows that ZTR empowers pupils to reflect on and confront gender stereotypes by developing pupils’ social awareness, as respect is characterized...

  8. Sustainable development, challenges and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Arabshahi, S.

    2003-01-01

    This article primarily introduces a general overview of the concept of sustainable development along with its formation and expansion process. After defining the concept, followed by an analysis of certain principles on how s ustainable development management h as so far been implemented, some arguments against those principles are presented. The article emphasize on the fact that ever since the concept of sustainable development has emerged, highly industrialized countries perceived it as o nging development m erely in its materialistic sense, with little respect to preserving the nature. while developing countries are held responsible to cooperate, coordinate and act in with international directives on environment protection, industrialized countries, in addition to changing their production and consumption patterns, must be committed to provided financial resources and transfer the needed environmentally sound technologies the developing world. The author finally suggests an number of guidelines as to how sustainable development may be achieved Iran

  9. Development research: The environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winpenny, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book represents papers from a 1990 conference 'The environment, Development and Economic Research'. The focus of the book is the environmental and natural resource use problems, though economic development is a strong co-theme. Chapters cover the following topic areas: international issues; macroeconomic policies; natural resource degradation; urban problems; social dimensions; bio-diversity; energy; economic valuation

  10. Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Couverture du livre Palestinian Refugees : Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Directeur(s):. Rex Brynen et Roula El-Rifai. Maison(s) d'édition: I.B. Tauris, CRDI. 14 avril 2007. ISBN : 9781845113117. 224 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552502310.

  11. Inequality and Development Challenges | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-08-30

    Inequality and Development Challenges. Couverture du livre Inequality and Development Challenges. Editor(s):. Maria Clara Couto Soares, Mario Scerri et Rasigan Maharajh. Publisher(s):. Routledge, CRDI. August 30, 2013. ISBN: 9780415710329. 372 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552505571. Download PDF · Read the e-book.

  12. Inequality and Development Challenges | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inequality and Development Challenges. Couverture du livre Inequality and Development Challenges. Directeur(s):. Maria Clara Couto Soares, Mario Scerri et Rasigan Maharajh. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 30 août 2013. ISBN : 9780415710329. 372 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505571. Téléchargez le PDF.

  13. Focusing on key development challenges

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    addresses today's pressing environmental, social, economic, and political ... telecentre.org. Harness science, technology, and innovation to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty. ... capacities, support research that would lead to better policies and ... country researchers, and the private sector to produce.

  14. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... towards environmental management in Nigeria which is a fast developing economy. The basic ... almost every developing country in which it is grown ..... perspective of Development in Formal and Integrated Management of.

  15. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  16. Salt Sensitivity: Challenging and Controversial Phenotype of Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrino, Rossella; Manunta, Paolo; Zagato, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Increases in life expectancy and cardiovascular adverse events in patients with hypertension highlight the need for new risk-reduction strategies to reduce the burden of degenerative diseases. Among the environmental factors, high salt consumption is currently considered the most important risk factor of hypertension. However, while high salt intake significantly raises blood pressure in some individuals, others do not show variation or even decrease their blood pressure. This heterogeneity is respectively classified as salt sensitivity and salt resistance. In this review, we propose salt sensitivity as a useful phenotype to unravel the mechanistic complexity of primary hypertension. The individual variability in blood pressure modification in response to salt intake changes derives from the combination of genetic and environmental determinants. This combination of random and non random determinants leads to the development of a personal index of sensitivity to salt. However, those genes involved in susceptibility to salt are still not completely identified, and the triggering mechanisms underlying the following development of hypertension still remain uncovered. One reason might be represented by the absence of a specific protocol, universally followed, for a standard definition of salt sensitivity. Another reason may be linked to the absence of common criteria for patient recruitment during clinical studies. Thus, the generation of a reliable approach for a proper recognition of this personal index of sensitivity to salt, and through it the identification of novel therapeutic targets for primary hypertension, should be one of the aspirations for the scientific community.

  17. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development implies development which ensures maximization of human well being for today's generation which does not lead to declines in future well being. Attaining this path requires eliminating those negative externalities that are responsible for natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.

  18. Engineering: issues, challenges and opportunities for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available to contribute to greater international understanding of the issues, challenges and opportunities facing engineering, with a particular focus on contributions of our discipline to sustainable development. The Report, one of the most cost-effective reports UNESCO...

  19. Primary cardiac lymphoma: diagnostic tools and treatment challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, R

    2011-03-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare malignancy and the optimal treatment strategy remains uncertain. It appears to respond much better to systemic chemotherapy than to surgery and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cardiac tumours before definitive management is undertaken. We report a case of this rare disorder treated successfully with a combination of rituximab and cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone. The patient developed recurrent unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) post-chemotherapy secondary to extensive scarring at the tumour site. The tumour as well as the post-treatment scarring is well illustrated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging highlighting its usefulness in this setting. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was placed. This is only the second case in the literature of PCL to have an ICD placed for recurrent VT. A brief literature review is included.

  20. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...

  1. Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for pre-primary school teachers in rivers state, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... of the child's interactive learning and emphasizes specific teaching methods ...

  2. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  3. Challenges to Quality Primary and Secondary Education in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...

  4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    The empirical study this paper is based upon, aimed to identify and describe knowledge management challenges, throughout the new business development process. This paper reports findings from the study, as well as the framework used for analysing the KM challenges, which can be applied to other...... in the early phases. Furthermore, two new roles of the early phase, besides instigating projects, were found. This study contributes to the development of support tools for knowledge management in industry and to research with a deeper understanding of the new business development process....... case studies for comparison. Six interviews and 2 full-day workshops, gathering the perspectives of 76 people from an energy-utilities company forms the empirical background of the study. Six categories of knowledge management challenges were identified and, within each, central issues were extracted...

  5. The dire need for primary care specialization in India: Concerns and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Nafis; Khalique, Najam; Ahmad, Anees; Shah, Mohammad Salman

    2016-01-01

    Primary health care is an evidence-based priority, but it is still inadequately supported in many countries. Ironically, on one hand, India is a popular destination for medical tourism due to the affordability of high quality of health care and, on the other hand, ill health and health care are the main reasons for becoming poor through medical poverty traps. Surprisingly, this is despite the fact that India was committed to 'Health for All by 2000' in the past, and is committed to 'Universal Health Coverage' by 2022! Clearly, these commitments are destined to fail unless something is done to improve the present state of affairs. This study argues for the need to develop primary care as a specialization in India as a remedial measure to reform its health care in order to truly commit to the commitments. Three critical issues for this specialization are discussed in this review: (1) The dynamic and distinct nature of primary care as opposed to other medical specializations, (2) the intersection of primary care and public health which can be facilitated by such a specialization, and (3) research in primary care including the development of screening and referral tools for early diagnosis of cancers, researches for evidence-based interventions via health programs, and primary care epidemiology. Despite the potential challenges and difficulties, India is a country in dire need for primary care specialization. India's experience in providing low-cost and high quality healthcare for medical tourism presages a more cost-effective and efficient primary care with due attention and specialization.

  6. The dire need for primary care specialization in India: Concerns and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Faizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary health care is an evidence-based priority, but it is still inadequately supported in many countries. Ironically, on one hand, India is a popular destination for medical tourism due to the affordability of high quality of health care and, on the other hand, ill health and health care are the main reasons for becoming poor through medical poverty traps. Surprisingly, this is despite the fact that India was committed to 'Health for All by 2000' in the past, and is committed to 'Universal Health Coverage' by 2022! Clearly, these commitments are destined to fail unless something is done to improve the present state of affairs. This study argues for the need to develop primary care as a specialization in India as a remedial measure to reform its health care in order to truly commit to the commitments. Three critical issues for this specialization are discussed in this review: (1 The dynamic and distinct nature of primary care as opposed to other medical specializations, (2 the intersection of primary care and public health which can be facilitated by such a specialization, and (3 research in primary care including the development of screening and referral tools for early diagnosis of cancers, researches for evidence-based interventions via health programs, and primary care epidemiology. Despite the potential challenges and difficulties, India is a country in dire need for primary care specialization. India's experience in providing low-cost and high quality healthcare for medical tourism presages a more cost-effective and efficient primary care with due attention and specialization.

  7. Nanotechnology: Development and challenges in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, I. Made; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Hermawan, Wawan; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology today is regarded as a revolutionary technology that can help to address the key needs related to energy, environment, health and agriculture in developing countries. This paper is a short review on the development and challenges of nanotechnology in Indonesia. Nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there is emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. The main applications of nanotechnology in the different sectors which is vital and its economic impact in Indonesia is also discussed. The achievment and development of nanotechnology including synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) and its applications in various fields is briefly addressed in Nanotehcnology and Graphene Research Center, Universitas Padjadjaran (Unpad). Despite significant progress in developmental goals, many challenges in the development of nanotechnology proccesing need to be resolved such as support infrastructure and evolution of new form of collaborative arrangements between various sectors and policies which is emerged as an important factor enabling development.

  8. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who ...

  9. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scott J

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

  10. Perceived Challenges in Primary Literature in a Master's Class: Effects of Experience and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Richard; Abdullah, Christopher; He, Wenliang; Tour, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature offers rich opportunities to teach students how to "think like a scientist," but the challenges students face when they attempt to read research articles are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of what master's students perceive as the most challenging aspects of engaging with primary literature. We…

  11. Challenging the development dialogue on Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... Africa Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Exploring the Multi-dimensional Discourses on 'Development' challenges longstanding views and practices in ... The two-day conference, organized by the African Students Association at the University of Alberta, brought together scholars from a wide variety of fields ...

  12. Knowledge management challenges in new business development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Kirschbaum, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper's focus is on the knowledge management challenges that come along with technology-based new business development (NBD). NBD thrives upon the exploration of knowledge, under radical uncertainty. Furthermore, existing knowledge may both enable and constrain the radical innovation process.

  13. Challenges on wind power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianjin; Shi, Jingli

    2010-09-15

    Wind power has experienced exponential growth in China in the past five years, which exceeds the most optimistic expectations. The increasing penetration and aggressive future plan are arousing big concerns about its impact on operation and security of existing power networks. This paper introduces present condition of wind power development in China and the challenges on both grid integration and regulations. Most of these challenges are economical rather than technical. Feed-in tariff policies and grid code are the key countermeasures. Accurate wind forecast and economical mass energy storage are needed to guarantee compliance of wind power to the grid.

  14. The Challenges of Distributing Leadership in Irish Post-Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O’DONOVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the challenges and opportunities in relation to developing distributed leadership practice in Irish post-primary schools. It considers school leadership within the context of contemporary distributed leadership theory. Associated concepts such as distributed cognition and activity theory are used to frame the study. The study is situated in a space which acknowledges the current complex reality in our schools, where school leadership is characterised by increased workload and an ever-expanding role-definition. Drawing on the empirical findings from semi-structured interviews conducted with principals, deputy principals, post of responsibility holders and teachers in three case-study schools, the study probes: (1 how school leaders (reconstruct a form of leadership suited to the needs of the current reality, by exploring their leadership and management styles; (2 how the internal conditions are created in which distributed leadership can function; (3 the challenges posed by distributed leadership and how they might be overcome. The findings clarify that school leadership is a construct beyond the scope of the principal alone. While there is widespread support for a distributed model of leadership, the concept does not explicitly form part of the discourse in the case-study schools. This poses challenges for school leaders and policy-makers to put mechanisms in place to re-culture schools, to develop teacher-leadership capacity and to reflect on the future direction of leadership in Irish post-primary schools.

  15. The challenges of distributing leadership in Irish post-primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O'Donovan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the challenges and opportunities in relation to developing distributed leadership practice in Irish post-primary schools. It considers school leadership within the context of contemporary distributed leadership theory. Associated concepts such as distributed cognition and activity theory are used to frame the study. The study is situated in a space which acknowledges the current complex reality in our schools, where school leadership is characterised by increased workload and an ever-expanding role-definition. Drawing on the empirical findings from semi-structured interviews conducted with principals, deputy principals, post of responsibility holders and teachers in three case-study schools, the study probes: (1 how school leaders (reconstruct a form of leadership suited to the needs of the current reality, by exploring their leadership and management styles; (2 how the internal conditions are created in which distributed leadership can function; (3 the challenges posed by distributed leadership and how they might be overcome. The findings clarify that school leadership is a construct beyond the scope of the principal alone. While there is widespread support for a distributed model of leadership, the concept does not explicitly form part of the discourse in the case-study schools. This poses challenges for school leaders and policy-makers to put mechanisms in place to re-culture schools, to develop teacher-leadership capacity and to reflect on the future direction of leadership in Irish post-primary schools.

  16. Administration of primary school in Nigeria: challenges ahead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the administration of primary school in Nigeria. It traces the trend from previous years until the recent situation and highlights government's position and what it should be. It also suggests ways of improving on the present situation so that the future of the young ones will not be jeopardized. Nigerian ...

  17. relevance and challenges of primary education to the overall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    consequential effects one is forced to ask certain questions. Some such ... providing opportunities for genuine learning to children .... demonstrated their political will through the declaration of Universal Primary Education (UPE) programmes in their zones. The post independent era revealed that the 1976 UPE programme ...

  18. Primary health care management challenges for childhood atopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaarina Frieda Meintjes

    primary health care (PHC) management of their children's atopic eczema in a Gauteng district. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual embedded single case study design ... direct observation until saturation occurred; analysed according to Tesch's ..... needed, it was provided by the researcher as part of the pro-.

  19. Career Planning: Developing the Nation's Primary Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Phillip S.

    Career planning is the most critical ingredient in developing a nation's primary resource, its workers. A 1988 Gallup Poll showed that 62 percent of U.S. workers had no career goal when they began their first job, and more than 50 percent felt they were in the wrong job. The same results probably could be applied to Canada. Career planning skills…

  20. Challenges in Translational Development of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Dnyaneshwar P; Zode, Sandeep S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2017-02-01

    The last 2 decades have witnessed increased research in the area of cocrystals resulting in deeper scientific understanding, increase in intellectual property landscape, and evolution in the regulatory environment. Pharmaceutical cocrystals have received significant attention as a new solid form on account of their ability to modulate poor physicochemical properties of drug molecules. However, pharmaceutical development of cocrystals could be challenging, thus limiting their translation into viable drug products. In the present commentary, the role of cocrystals in the modulation of material properties and challenges involved in the pharmaceutical development of cocrystals have been discussed. The major hurdles encountered in the development of cocrystals such as safety of coformers, unpredictable performance during dissolution and solubility in different media, difficulties in establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation, and polymorphism have been extensively discussed. The influence of selecting appropriate formulation and process design on these challenges has been discussed. Finally, a brief outline of cocrystals that are undergoing clinical development has also been presented. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Challenging Case of Primary Breast Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Iliesiu, Andreea; Procop, Alexandru; Tampa, Mircea; Matei, Clara; Sajin, Maria; Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian; Lazaroiu, Anca Mihaela

    2015-03-01

    Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare entity accounting for less than 1% of all breast malignancies. Diagnostic criteria for primary Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast are: the presence of sufficient tissue for diagnosis, close interaction between mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate and no evidence or prior diagnosis of widespread lymphoma. Our case illustrates an unusual presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast: clinically as inflammatory breast cancer and core biopsy as granulomatous mastitis, the final diagnosis requiring surgical biopsy. Current information regarding this entity is scant, mainly build upon its rarity. In this paper we assess the clinical presentation, the step-by-step diagnosis, the treatment and the importance of immunohistochemistry in this uncommon condition.

  2. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disorder, characterized by abnormal dilation of intestinal lymphatic vessels and extensive enteric loss of lymph rich in plasma proteins, lymphocytes and chylomicrons. The main characteristics of the disease are hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphocytopenia, and more rarely, the deficit of liposoluble vitamins and anemia. Except for primary, there are secondary lymphangiectasia, associated with celiac disease, malignant, infective and inflammatory diseases of the small intestine, fibrosis, liver and cardiovascular diseases. Case report. A male, 33 years of age, presented for his medical examination suffering from diarrhea and edema. The diagnosis was established upon the histological examination of a small intestine biopsy during double balloon enteroscopy, which revealed changes only in one segment of the intestine examined. Such a finding was later confirmed by the video endoscopy capsule. Conclusion. The diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia is usually established before the age of 3, but it can also be diagnosed in adults. The diagnosis is based on the histological analysis of the intestinal mucosa biopsy, obtained by endoscopic procedures. The diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is also made upon the exclusion of secondary causes.

  3. Connecting Medical Records: An Evaluation of Benefits and Challenges for Primary Care Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ruth Compeau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementation of systems to support health information sharing has lagged other areas of healthcare IT, yet offers a strong possibility for benefit.  Clinical acceptance is a key limiting factor in health IT adoption. Objectives:  To assess the benefits and challenges experienced by clinicians using a custom-developed health information exchange system, and to show how perceptions of benefits and challenges influence perceptions of productivity and care-related outcomes. Methods: We used a mixed methods design with two phases. First, we conducted interviews with stakeholders who were familiar with the health information exchange system to inform the development of a measure of benefits and challenges of the use of this system. Second, using this measure we conducted a survey of current and former users of the health information exchange system using a modified Dillman method. Results: 105 current and former users completed the survey. The results showed information quality, ease of completing tasks and clinical process improvement as key benefits that reduced workload and improved patient care.  Challenges related to system reliability, quality of reports and service quality increased workload and decreased impact on care, though the effect of the challenges was smaller than that of the benefits. Conclusions:  Even very limited health information exchange capabilities can improve outcomes for primary care users.  Improving perceptions of benefits may be even more important the removing challenges to use, though it is likely that a threshold of quality must be achieved for this to be true.

  4. Human Resources Development Challenges for Nuclear Newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrette, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and take away messages: • HRD solution is dependent upon country’s economical, societal, industrial situation and development strategy. • HRD to be integrated in the global HCB approach (education and training, KM, knowledge networks). • Maximum local benefit with national development. • International collaboration and partnership with competent and experienced partners is recommended (lever effect). • Anticipation is key. → HRD for a nuclear program is challenging but achievable. Countries already did it and are ready to build long term partnerships

  5. Kabuki syndrome: a challenge for the primary care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Bonnie; Alpert, Patricia T; Cyrkiel, Dianne; Jauregui, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Using a case format, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Kabuki syndrome, a rare genetic condition, is presented. Nurse practitioners (NPs) may encounter patients presenting to the primary care setting with this rare syndrome; understanding this condition may help them to better care for these patients. A case presentation of a pediatric patient supported by the currently available literature from multiple health and medial databases. Kabuki syndrome is a rare phenomenon that occurs in 1 in every 32,000 births. A diagnosis of this syndrome may take several months to years because there are no specific tests, and the physical features may be subtle at birth, becoming more pronounced over a period of time during childhood. The degree of disease severity varies widely. Understanding this syndrome increases the NP's ability to provide primary care to affected patients and their families. Management of this condition requires the NP take on the role of gatekeeper, so timely coordination of specialty or subspecialty services is provided. Special consideration should be given to monitoring caregiver fatigue and impact on siblings so family members can be directed to the appropriate support services. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Rena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.

  7. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  8. Educational challenges of internal migrant girls: a case study among primary school children in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate education-related challenges encountered by internal migrant girls studying at primary schools in Turkey. From the perspectives of participants, the emerging themes included adaptation, language, low socio-economic status, peer relations, discrimination and

  9. Learning Analytics: drivers, developments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ferguson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning analytics is a significant area of Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL that has emerged during the last decade. This review of the field begins with an examination of the technological, educational and political factors that have driven the development of analytics in educational settings. It goes on to chart the emergence of learning analytics, including their origins in the 20th century, the development of data-driven analytics, the rise of learning-focused perspectives and the influence of national economic concerns. It next focuses on the relationships between learning analytics, educational data mining and academic analytics. Finally, it examines developing areas of learning analytics research, and identifies a series of future challenges.

  10. Dune management challenges on developed coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Brodie, Kate; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Houser, Chris; McKenna, Kim; Moore, Laura; Rosati, Julie D.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thuman, Roberta; Walker, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    From October 26-28, 2015, nearly 100 members of the coastal management and research communities met in Kitty Hawk, NC, USA to bridge the apparent gap between the coastal dune research of scientists and engineers and the needs of coastal management practitioners. The workshop aimed to identify the challenges involved in building and managing dunes on developed coasts, assess the extent to which scientific knowledge can be applied to the management community, and identify approaches to provide means to bridge the gap between needs and potential solutions.

  11. The Challenges in Developing E-Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowati Juhary

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is considered an active key player in information communication technologies (ICTs especially in education. In fact, in the National Higher Education Strategic Plan, one of the Critical Agenda Projects (CAPs of the Minister of Higher Education is e-learning. It goes without saying that all higher learning providers in Malaysia must be prepared to provide state-of-the-art facilities for the students. One critical aspect of e-learning is the quality and quantity of the content, or what will be referred by many scholars as e-content. This paper attempts to identify the challenges of content development for e-learning practice at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM. It is crucial to investigate this issue since the university just purchased its Learning Management System (LMS. It is expected that resistance will be present as the academics at the defence university is a mixture of junior and senior lecturers, as well as civilian and military lecturers; and some of these academics have been teaching without the assistance of e-learning. In so doing, the methodology of this paper will mainly be content analysis of various reports, governmental documents, as well as semi-structured interviews with lecturers at the NDUM. As this paper acts as a preliminary investigation into the issue of e-content at the university, only seven lecturers were interviewed. Initial findings suggest that there are basically five challenges of developing e-content at the NDUM. These include the lack of ICT and e-learning policy that can provide guidelines to academics; the uncertainty of ownership for e-learning initiatives; the lack of understanding of the roles of e-learning; the lack of awareness on e-learning; and the difficulties to develop military based content due to confidentiality issues. Two possible solutions for these challenges are also examined which take into consideration the urgent need to set up an e-Learning Unit and to provide

  12. The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    M. O. Oduola; A. M. Yakubu

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technol...

  13. Poor understanding? Challenges to Global Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buchanan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As members of a global community, we cohabit a metaphorically shrinking physical environment, and are increasingly connected one to another, and to the world, by ties of culture, economics, politics, communication and the like. Education is an essential component in addressing inequalities and injustices concerning global rights and responsibilities. The increasing multicultural nature of societies locally, enhanced access to distal information, and the work of charitable organisations worldwide are some of the factors that have contributed to the interest in, and need for, understanding global development education. The project on which this paper reports sought answers to the question: to what extent and in what ways can a semester-long subject enhance and extend teacher education students’ understandings of and responses to global inequalities and global development aid? In the course of the project, a continuum model emerged, as follows: Indifference or ignorance ➝ pity and charity ➝ partnership and development among equals. In particular, this paper reports on some of the challenges and obstacles that need to be addressed in order to enhance pre-service teachers’ understandings of global development education. The study, conducted in Australia, has implications for global development education in other developed nations.

  14. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  15. General practitioners' views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners? (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. Design We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Setting Norwegian primary health care. Subjects 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Results Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical...

  16. Ocean OSSEs: recent developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric OSSEs have had a much longer history of applications than OSSEs (and OSEs) in oceanography. Long standing challenges include the presence of coastlines and steep bathymetric changes, which require the superposition of a wide variety of space and time scales, leading to difficulties on ocean observation and prediction. For instance, remote sensing is critical for providing a quasi-synoptic oceanographic view, but the coverage is limited at the ocean surface. Conversely, in situ measurements are capable to monitor the entire water column, but at a single location and usually for a specific, short time. Despite these challenges, substantial progress has been made in recent years and international initiatives have provided successful OSSE/OSE examples and formed appropriate forums that helped define the future roadmap. These will be discussed, together with various challenges that require a community effort. Examples include: integrated (remote and in situ) observing system requirements for monitoring large scale and climatic changes, vs. short term variability that is particularly important on the regional and coastal spatial scales; satisfying the needs of both global and regional/coastal nature runs, from development to rigorous evaluation and under a clear definition of metrics; data assimilation in the presence of tides; estimation of real-time river discharges for Earth system modeling. An overview of oceanographic efforts that complement the standard OSSE methodology will also be given. These include ocean array design methods, such as representer-based analysis and adaptive sampling. Exciting new opportunities for both global and regional ocean OSSE/OSE studies have recently become possible with targeted periods of comprehensive data sets, such as the existing Gulf of Mexico observations from multiple sources in the aftermath of the DeepWater Horizon incident and the upcoming airborne AirSWOT, in preparation for the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean

  17. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  18. Volcano Geodesy: Recent developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose F.; Pepe, Antonio; Poland, Michael; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2017-01-01

    Ascent of magma through Earth's crust is normally associated with, among other effects, ground deformation and gravity changes. Geodesy is thus a valuable tool for monitoring and hazards assessment during volcanic unrest, and it provides valuable data for exploring the geometry and volume of magma plumbing systems. Recent decades have seen an explosion in the quality and quantity of volcano geodetic data. New datasets (some made possible by regional and global scientific initiatives), as well as new analysis methods and modeling practices, have resulted in important changes to our understanding of the geodetic characteristics of active volcanism and magmatic processes, from the scale of individual eruptive vents to global compilations of volcano deformation. Here, we describe some of the recent developments in volcano geodesy, both in terms of data and interpretive tools, and discuss the role of international initiatives in meeting future challenges for the field.

  19. Perceived Challenges in Primary Literature in a Master's Class: Effects of Experience and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Richard; Abdullah, Christopher; He, Wenliang; Tour, Ella

    Primary literature offers rich opportunities to teach students how to "think like a scientist," but the challenges students face when they attempt to read research articles are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of what master's students perceive as the most challenging aspects of engaging with primary literature. We examined 69 pairs of pre- and postcourse responses from students enrolled in a master's-level course that offered a structured analysis of primary literature. On the basis of these responses, we identified six categories of challenges. Before instruction, "techniques" and "experimental data" were the most frequently identified categories of challenges. The majority of difficulties students perceived in the primary literature corresponded to Bloom's lower-order cognitive skills. After instruction, "conclusions" were identified as the most difficult aspect of primary literature, and the frequency of challenges that corresponded to higher-order cognitive skills increased significantly among students who reported less experience with primary literature. These changes are consistent with a more competent perception of the primary literature, in which these students increasingly focus on challenges requiring critical thinking. Students' difficulties identified here can inform the design of instructional approaches aimed to teach students how to critically read scientific papers. © 2016 R. Lie, C. Abdullah, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. LA GEOGRAFÍA DE CUBA EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA ANTE LOS RETOS DE LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL PARA EL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE | THE GEOGRAPHY OF CUBA IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL BEFORE THE CHALLENGES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavel Moré Estupiñan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of environmental education for sustainable development to the teaching - learning process becomes a challenge for the educational systems in the XXI century. This study is aimed to support this challenge from the didactics of the Geography of Cuba in the elementary school. In this sense, both investigation action participation and systematization of experiences are used to carry out a critical analysis of the Primary School Model, the program and the textbook of this subject. Didactic recommendations for the inclusion of environmental education for the sustainable development to the teaching learning process of Geography of Cuba in the primary school have been provided, as well as dimensions, indicators for their evaluation and models of exercises. These results of the educational science are a valuable tool for updating school curricula and also for the teachers’ continuous formation. Their introduction in selected schools of Villa Clara province achieved positive impacts in the environmental education for the sustainable development, among students and at the same time, in the professional behavior and environmental awareness of teachers.

  1. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  2. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment.Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  3. Primary care workforce development in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Gress, S.; Schäfer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a large variation in the organization of primary care in Europe. In some health care systems, primary care is the gatekeeper to more specialized care, whilst in others patients have the choice between a wide range of providers. Primary care has increasingly become teamwork.

  4. Program Development for Primary School Teachers' Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjeam, Waraporn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the elements and indicators of primary school teachers' critical thinking, 2) to study current situation, desirable situation, development technique, and need for developing the primary school teachers' critical thinking, 3) to develop the program for developing the primary school teachers'…

  5. Challenges and opportunities for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, A; Dias, J C P; Marin-Neto, J A; Rassi, A

    2009-04-01

    A century after its discovery, Chagas' disease still represents a major public health challenge in Latin America. Moreover, because of growing population movements, an increasing number of cases of imported Chagas' disease have now been detected in non-endemic areas, such as North America and some European countries. This parasitic zoonosis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted to humans by infected Triatominae insects, or occasionally by non-vectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion, mother to fetus, or oral ingestion of materials contaminated with parasites. Following the acute phase of the infection, untreated individuals enter a chronic phase that is initially asymptomatic or clinically unapparent. Usually, a few decades later, 40-50% of patients develop progressive cardiomyopathy and/or motility disturbances of the oesophagus and colon. In the last decades several interventions targeting primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease have been attempted. While control of both vectorial and blood transfusion transmission of T cruzi (primary prevention) has been successful in many regions of Latin America, early detection and aetiological treatment of asymptomatic subjects with Chagas' disease (secondary prevention) have been largely underutilised. At the same time, in patients with established chronic disease, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are currently available and have been increasingly used with the intention of preventing or delaying complications of the disease (tertiary prevention). In this review we discuss in detail each of these issues.

  6. Technical Challenges Hindering Development of Robust Wireless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... challenges remain to be resolved, in designing robust wireless networks that can deliver the performance ... demonstrated the first radio transmission from the Isle of ... distances with better quality, less power, and smaller ...

  7. Challenges in referral communication between VHA primary care and specialty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Rose, Danielle E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Cordasco, Kristina M

    2015-03-01

    Poor communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists is a significant problem and a detriment to effective care coordination. Inconsistency in the quality of primary-specialty communication persists even in environments with integrated delivery systems and electronic medical records (EMRs), such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The purpose of this study was to measure ease of communication and to characterize communication challenges perceived by PCPs and primary care personnel in the VHA, with a particular focus on challenges associated with referral communication. The study utilized a convergent mixed-methods design: online cross-sectional survey measuring PCP-reported ease of communication with specialists, and semi-structured interviews characterizing primary-specialty communication challenges. 191 VHA PCPs from one regional network were surveyed (54% response rate), and 41 VHA PCPs and primary care staff were interviewed. PCP-reported ease of communication mean score (survey) and recurring themes in participant descriptions of primary-specialty referral communication (interviews) were analyzed. Among PCPs, ease-of-communication ratings were highest for women's health and mental health (mean score of 2.3 on a scale of 1-3 in both), and lowest for cardiothoracic surgery and neurology (mean scores of 1.3 and 1.6, respectively). Primary care personnel experienced challenges communicating with specialists via the EMR system, including difficulty in communicating special requests for appointments within a certain time frame and frequent rejection of referral requests due to rigid informational requirements. When faced with these challenges, PCPs reported using strategies such as telephone and e-mail contact with specialists with whom they had established relationships, as well as the use of an EMR-based referral innovation called "eConsults" as an alternative to a traditional referral. Primary-specialty communication is a continuing

  8. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development of...

  9. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  10. The Teaching of African Traditional Religion in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…

  11. Rural Teachers' Views: What Are Gender-Based Challenges Facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Pholoho

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from…

  12. Regulatory challenges affecting ICT development in Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    in the region in terms of network readiness (64th place out of 139 economies) and global competitiveness (79th place out of 140 economies) in 2016. The significance of ICT policies is broadly understood at the highest political level in Ukraine, however their implementation has always posed a challenge....... And the chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.1 is the introduction; section 2.2 presents an overview of policies and regulations influencing ICTs in Ukraine; section 2.3 presents a snapshot of the national ICT sector which is dominated by the mobile market and the Broadband Access Technology market; Section...... 2.4 provides an insight into the various ICT regulations, how it affected the markets and the challenges in implementing these policies; section 2.5 highlights the role , successes and challenges of implementing regulations aimed at implementing e-government; and section 2.7 concludes this chapter...

  13. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals working in challenging environments: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  14. General practitioners’ views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners’ (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. Design We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Setting Norwegian primary health care. Subjects 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Results Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognized the need to take on leadership roles in primary care, but their lack of leadership training and credentials, and the way in which their practices were organized and financed were barriers towards their involvement. Conclusions GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role and note a lack of leadership training and awareness. There is a need for a more structured educational and career path for GPs, in which doctors are offered training and preparation in advance. Key points Little is known about doctors’ experiences and views about leadership in general practice and primary health care. Our study suggests that: There is a lack of preparation and formal training for the leadership role. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognize leadership challenges at a system level and that doctors should take on leadership roles in primary health care. PMID:28277051

  15. General practitioners' views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C

    2017-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Norwegian primary health care. 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognized the need to take on leadership roles in primary care, but their lack of leadership training and credentials, and the way in which their practices were organized and financed were barriers towards their involvement. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role and note a lack of leadership training and awareness. There is a need for a more structured educational and career path for GPs, in which doctors are offered training and preparation in advance. KEY POINTS Little is known about doctors' experiences and views about leadership in general practice and primary health care. Our study suggests that: There is a lack of preparation and formal training for the leadership role. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognize leadership challenges at a system level and that doctors should take on leadership roles in primary health care.

  16. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  17. Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Luis R; Thakur, Mili

    2017-03-01

    Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI.

  18. logical Challenges in Developing a Contemporary Reading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    formed by theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures ... the collection of evidence based solely on the lexicographer's linguistic intui- ... The reading programme involves the systematic collection of citations or quo- .... The field of primary sources for the DSAE contemporary reading programme is.

  19. Development of Educational Management System in Small Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammarry, Yupayao; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Duangcharthom, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the research were: (1) to study the factors of Educational Management System in Small Primary School; (2) to investigate current situations problems and guidelines of developing educational management in small primary school; (3) to develop Educational Management System in Small Primary School; and (4) to examine the results of…

  20. Psychological Challenges Affecting Primary School Going Orphans In Wanganui Community Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwirire John

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify psychological challenges affecting primary school orphans in Wanganui Community in Zimbabwe. The study employed a mixed method approach combining questionnaires with teachers and care givers interview sessions with orphans and in-depth interviews with community socialdevelopment worker. The study finds that lack of love lack of attention and withdrawal were the main signs and symptoms of psychological challenge in the community. The study revealed that the term and symptoms of psychological challenges were understood differently between African context and Western context. The study recommended that action must be taken as soon as possible once the signs and symptoms which include lack of love lack of attention to rectify the psychological challenges faced by the community.

  1. The renewable energy development framework - I. The challenge of renewable energy development. Territorial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Mauricette; Grison, Jean-Baptiste; Rieutort, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The authors comment the evolutions of renewable energy production in the world during the last thirty years and notice how the geography of this production and of the associated consumption has changed while still displaying contrasts. They also notice the diversification of actors (big companies as well as small and medium sized companies and local communities). Then, they highlight the challenges of renewable energies at the local level: these energies can be tools for local development and competitiveness, but are also matters of either cooperation or conflict (they comment factors related to social acceptance or non-acceptance of wind farm projects in France)

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHEME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Education scheme in Western Region and marked a radical departure from the hitherto ... academic symposia, lectures, debates, reputable journals and standard .... Enrolment in Primary Schools in the Western Region by Sex, 1953 – 1960. Year Boys .... “Possibly no single decision of the decade prior to independence had.

  3. Development of indigenous irradiator - current progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Aznor Hassan; Fadil Ismail; Julia A Karim; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The development of indigenous irradiator is one of Prototype Development Center main project to support Nuclear Malaysia services. Three (3) projects have been identified and currently the status is in final stage of design. There are some issues and challenges encountered, which delayed the project progress. The paper will discuss the current progress of development and challenges faced in designing the irradiator. (Author)

  4. The Development of Visionary Leadership Administrators in Thai Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordsala, Suwit; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-Ampai, Anan

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to investigate the current situations and needs in developing visionary leadership of Thai primary school administrators; 2) to develop visionary leadership development program of Thai primary school administrators, and; 3) to evaluate the implementation of the developed program of administrators visionary leadership…

  5. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  6. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: Current state of the field and primary challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihoglu, Gueray

    2010-01-01

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories - basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers - accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal transboundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  7. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya--perspectives of primary care health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben

    2013-09-30

    Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other

  8. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order...... to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind......While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate...

  9. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalón Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  10. Approaches and challenges to optimising primary care teams’ electronic health record usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Pandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Although the presence of an electronic health record (EHR alone does not ensure high quality, efficient care, few studies have focused on the work of those charged with optimising use of existing EHR functionality.Objective To examine the approaches used and challenges perceived by analysts supporting the optimisation of primary care teams’ EHR use at a large U.S. academic health care system.Methods A qualitative study was conducted. Optimisation analysts and their supervisor were interviewed and data were analysed for themes.Results Analysts needed to reconcile the tension created by organisational mandates focused on the standardisation of EHR processes with the primary care teams’ demand for EHR customisation. They gained an understanding of health information technology (HIT leadership’s and primary care team’s goals through attending meetings, reading meeting minutes and visiting with clinical teams. Within what was organisationally possible, EHR education could then be tailored to fit team needs. Major challenges were related to organisational attempts to standardise EHR use despite varied clinic contexts, personnel readiness and technical issues with the EHR platform. Forcing standardisation upon clinical needs that current EHR functionality could not satisfy was difficult.Conclusions Dedicated optimisation analysts can add value to health systems through playing a mediating role between HIT leadership and care teams. Our findings imply that EHR optimisation should be performed with an in-depth understanding of the workflow, cognitive and interactional activities in primary care.

  11. [Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Uribe-Olalde, Juan Salvador; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo Alberto; Rejón-Pérez, Jorge Dax; Palomera-Gómez, Héctor Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The rare incidence of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system and its ability to mimic other melanocytic tumors on images makes it a diagnostic challenge for the neurosurgeon. A 51-year-old patient, with a tumor located in the right forniceal callosum area. Total surgical excision was performed. Histopathological result was consistent with the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, after ruling out extra cranial and extra spinal melanocytic lesions. The primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare. There are features in magnetic resonance imaging that increase the diagnostic suspicion; nevertheless there are other tumors with more prevalence that share some of these features through image. Since there is not an established therapeutic standard its prognosis is discouraging. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  13. Air Force Civilian Senior Leadership Development Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Billy P

    2008-01-01

    .... While Gen Jumper's sight picture recognizes the need to grow civilians for leadership positions, there is a more compelling reason for the Air Force to focus on civilian leadership development...

  14. Stakes and Challenges for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    COLONNA, Paul

    2015-01-01

    How can we ensure the sustainability of biological resources? The development of new industries using biomass as raw material to produce a broad range of products, through a large number of different transformation processes, raises new questions on the associated environmental impacts. The current situation, mainly due to the significant development of the bio-fuel industries, is characterized by strong demand for sustainability criteria to apply to these new industries, particularly from a...

  15. 'Ephemerality’ in game development: opportunitiees and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Leiva, Antonio J.; Vázquez-Núñez, Ariel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Ephemeral Computation (Eph-C) is a newly created computation paradigm, the purpose of which is to take advantage of the ephemeral nature (limited lifetime) of computational resources. First we speak of this new paradigm in general terms, then more specifically in terms of videogame development. We present possible applications and benefits for the main research fields associated with videogame development. This is a preliminary work which aims to investigate the possibilities of applyin...

  16. Challenging the sustainability of micro products development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2006-01-01

    Environmental aspects are one of the biggest concerns regarding the future of manufacturing and product development sustainability. Furthermore, micro products and micro technologies are often seen as the next big thing in terms of possible mass market trend and boom. Many questions are raised...... and the intermediate parts which can be in-process created. Possible future trends for micro products development scheme involving environmental concerns are given....

  17. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K; Miller, Louis H

    2010-12-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major public health threat, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa. An effective malaria vaccine would be a valuable tool to reduce the disease burden and could contribute to elimination of malaria in some regions of the world. Current malaria vaccine candidates are directed against human and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle, but thus far, relatively few proteins have been studied for potential vaccine development. The most advanced vaccine candidate, RTS,S, conferred partial protection against malaria in phase II clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a phase III trial in Africa. New vaccine targets need to be identified to improve the chances of developing a highly effective malaria vaccine. A better understanding of the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity to malaria may lead to insights for vaccine development.

  18. Developing finance to meet energy industry challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphett, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of commercial financial institutions in the development of the world's oil and gas industry are charted in this article. Banks and other institutions have been lending money to the oil industry since the late 1920s. In the early days loans were short-term, but as the oil and gas industries have developed, using deeper wells and more complex technology, financial needs too have expanded. Better forecasting of future recovery levels, and a better understanding of reservoir characteristics has meant that lending institutions have advanced funds against projected oil revenues, with repayments due only as oil production comes on-line. (UK)

  19. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  20. Nuclear boom - challenge for research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korec, M.; Liska, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture authors present research and development in which VUJE, a. s. has participated. Authors concluded that resume as soon as possible the short-term research and development tasks for the existing SE reactors, both, operational reactors of SE and for shut-downed reactors - JAVYS. (Financing with the contribution from the state but major part from the industry). In cooperation with state institutions, regulatory authorities and investor (would-be operator) and supplier (suppliers) define and prepare tasks focused on issues of new-built Generation III reactors (Financing split between the state and industry in accordance with the characteristics of the tasks). Begin preparing tasks for resolving development problems of Generation IV reactors: - Persuade politicians abut the inevitability of state participation in the process, including financing; - Involve in the process institutions that can significantly contribute to the problems resolving (mainly on technical level, but also on organization and potentially financial level); - Prepare international cooperation agreements in this field (based on the existing agreements, preparation of new agreements); - Define technical areas of cooperation (research infrastructure, experimental and development facilities, simulation tools).

  1. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  2. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  3. Panoramic view of challenges and opportunities for primary healthcare systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, H.; Sughra, U.; Butt, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan has a broad system of primary health care facilities to achieve mission of Health for all. Over the last seven years health expenditure by government of Pakistan has been increased to attain this goal. This study was conducted with the aim to assess all blocks of service readiness (basic equipment, basic amenities, laboratory capacity, standard precautions and essential medicines) in public-primary health care facilities of tehsil Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilizing two separate structured questionnaires for basic health units and rural health centres. Information was collected from administrative heads along with other staff where required, of all public-primary health care facilities of Tehsil Rawalpindi. Data were analysed by using SPSS version17. Results: A total of 26 health facilities were assessed; only 56% BHUs had a sign board that was available in readable form. BHUs with women medical officer as administrative head constituted 52%. Backup for electricity and toilet were the most neglected areas. Basic amenities, standard precautions and laboratory capacity of Basic Health Units (BHUs) showed a clear deviation from standards and is thus a challenge for Pakistan's Primary Health care (PHC). On the other hand for Rural Health Centres (RHCs), most were on the way to meet expectations. Conclusion: Pakistan's government is undoubtedly putting efforts in order to achieve targets of primary healthcare but it needs better mainstreaming of political, institutional and social commitments with modified standards for PHC. (author)

  4. Promoting Reflexive Thinking and Adaptive Expertise through Video Capturing to Challenge Postgraduate Primary Student Teachers to Think, Know, Feel, and Act Like a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Steven S.; Williamson-Leadley, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how a 1-year, course-taught, master's level initial teacher education (ITE) program challenged primary student teachers (n = 4) in developing their sense of self-as-teacher. This study examined how the program's incorporation of video capturing technology impacted on these student teachers' development of…

  5. Past and future challenges in developing remote systems technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    During the early development of remote systems for processing and examining fuel and materials from nuclear reactors, the facility designer and operator worked closely together to meet the challenges of this new field. Numerous challenges still face the nuclear remote systems engineer, e.g., the development of systems that reduce the exposure of workers, the need for advances in basic technology, and the development of cost-effective facilities. The solution to these and other challenges can be accelerated by an expanded program of information exchange, an aggressive development program, and improved project management procedures

  6. South Coastal Community Development: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imamudin Yuliadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reality show that Indonesia is one country that have longest beach in the world. This fact give implication that economic potential of people life at the beach is important factor to indoors economic growth for improving walfare and equity economic development both national and regional scope. Research method that applied is desriptive investigative for obtain the fact about the economic problem of people at the beach especially beach potential economy for improving people economic welfare. Analitical methode at this research is location quotion (LQ, shift-share, and typology klassen. The output of this research is making the planning model of promotion system and integrated investment to realize the equality of development economic at beach are in Yogyakarta.

  7. Prenatal stress challenge impairs fetal lung development and asthma severity sex-specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazara, Dimitra E; Perani, Clara V; Solano, María E; Arck, Petra C

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically. Whilst prenatal stress challenge did not profoundly affect lung development in male fetuses, it resulted in less extensive terminal sacs, surrounded by thicker mesenchymal tissue in female fetuses. Thus, prenatal stress disrupted fetal lung development sex-specifically. Interestingly, upon prenatal stress challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation- two hallmarks of asthma - were significantly increased in adult female offspring, whilst regulatory CD4+ T cells were reduced. These findings strongly underpin the sex-specific association between s challenged fetal development and a sex-specific altered severity of asthma in adult offspring. Our model now allows to identify maternal markers through which the risk for asthma and possible other diseases is vertically transferred before birth in response to challenges. Such identification then opens avenues for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  9. Mobile health data collection at primary health care in Ethiopia: a feasible challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Moser, Albine; Spigt, Mark; Yebyo, Henock; Little, Alex; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility assessment of mobile health (mHealth) data collection at primary health care in Ethiopia. A total of 14 health workers were recruited from 12 primary health care facilities to use smartphones, installed with customized data collection application and electronic maternal health care forms for assessing pregnant women's health for 6 months. Qualitative approaches comprising in-depth interviews and field notes were used to document the users' perception and experience in using the application and forms. All health workers had never had previous exposure to smartphones and electronic forms, but they got used to them easily. Over 6 months, all health workers completed a total of 952 patient records using the forms on smartphones. Health workers' acceptability and demand for the application and forms were high. In introducing the application, nontechnical challenges were more difficult to solve than technical challenges. Introducing an mHealth application at primary health care for routine collection of health data relevant to maternal health at a small scale was feasible. Nonetheless, implementing a system of assigning unique and consistent patient identifier, standardization of health services, and improving mobile network coverage would be prerequisites for scaled-up usage of such an application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  11. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for Public Primary School Head Teachers in the Implementation of Free Primary Education in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya: An Analytical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akech, Benta Achieng' Opul; Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated opportunities and challenges for public primary school head teachers in the implementation of Free Primary Education in Kisumu municipality. Being a descriptive research, the study population consisted of 114 head teachers, 17,100 class seven and eight pupils in the municipality. Out of this, a sample of 37 head teachers…

  13. Precise chronology of differentiation of developing human primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuefeng; Xu, Shan; Lin, Chensheng; Zhang, Lishan; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Yanding

    2014-02-01

    While correlation of developmental stage with embryonic age of the human primary dentition has been well documented, the available information regarding the differentiation timing of the primary teeth was largely based on the observation of initial mineralization and varies significantly. In this study, we aimed to document precise differentiation timing of the developing human primary dentition. We systematically examined the expression of odontogenic differentiation markers along with the formation of mineralized tissue in each developing maxillary and mandibular teeth from human embryos with well-defined embryonic age. We show that, despite that all primary teeth initiate development at the same time, odontogenic differentiation begins in the maxillary incisors at the 15th week and in the mandibular incisors at the 16th week of gestation, followed by the canine, the first primary premolar, and the second primary premolar at a week interval sequentially. Despite that the mandibular primary incisors erupt earlier than the maxillary incisors, this distal to proximal sequential differentiation of the human primary dentition coincides in general with the sequence of tooth eruption. Our results provide an accurate chronology of odontogenic differentiation of the developing human primary dentition, which could be used as reference for future studies of human tooth development.

  14. Urban Big Data and Sustainable Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Kharrazi, A.; Qin, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cities are perhaps one of the most challenging and yet enabling arenas for sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasize the need to monitor each goal through objective targets and indicators based on common denominators in the ability of countries to collect and maintain relevant standardized data. While this approach is aimed at harmonizing the SDGs at the national level, it presents unique challenges and opportunities for the development of innovative ur...

  15. DENGUE VACCINE, CHALLENGES, DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Marbawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenyakit demam Dengue endemik di lebih dari 100 negara di dunia. Obat anti virus Dengue efektif belum ditemukan danpengendalian vektor dinilai kurang efektif, sehingga diperlukan upaya pencegahan dengan vaksinasi. Vaksin Dengue yangideal adalah murah, mencakup 4 serotipe, efektif dalam memberikan kekebalan, cukup diberikan sekali seumur hidup, aman,memberi kekebalan jangka panjang, stabil dalam penyimpanan dan stabil secara genetis (tidak bermutasi. Beberapakandidat vaksin yang telah dan sedang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti di seluruh dunia adalah tetravalent live attenuatedvaccine, vaksin Chimera (ChimeriVax, vaksin subunit dan vaksin DNA. Vaksin Dengue dipandang sebagai pendekatan yangefektif dan berkesinambungan dalam mengendalikan penyakit Dengue. Tahun 2003 telah terbentuk Pediatric DengueVaccine Initiative (PDVI, yaitu sebuah konsorsium internasional yang bergerak dalam advokasi untuk meyakinkanmasyarakat internasional akan penting dan mendesaknya vaksin Dengue. Konsorsium vaksin Dengue Indonesia saat iniberupaya mengembangkan vaksin Dengue dengan menggunakan strain virus lokal.Kata kunci: Dengue, virus, vaksinABSTRACTDengue fever is endemic in more than 100 countries in the world. The effective dengue antiviral drug has not been found yet,and vector control is considered less effective. Prevention program by vaccination is needed. An ideal dengue vaccine shouldbe inexpensive, covering four serotypes (tetravalent, effective in providing immunity, given once a lifetime, safe, stable instorage and genetically. Several vaccine candidates have been and are being developed included attenuated tetravalentvaccine, ChimeriVax, sub- unit vaccines and DNA vaccines. Dengue vaccine is seen as an effective and sustainable approachto controll Dengue infection. In 2003, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI has been formed as an internationalconsortium involved in advocacy to convince the international community about the essence and urgency

  16. Addressing the challenges of improving primary care quality in Uzbekistan: a qualitative study of chronic heart failure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Mohir; Green, Judith; Azimov, Ravshan; Avezova, Guloyim; Inakov, Sherzod; Mamatkulov, Bahrom

    2013-08-01

    Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions.

  17. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African states: a review of Adamu Usman's Sieged. ... This paper discusses and contributes to debates on the critical governance challenges faced by post-colonial African states such as bribery and corruption, lack of democratic and participatory governance, ...

  18. [Challenges in primary health care: the experience in Vila Mariana District, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso de; Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Cuginotti, Aloísio Punhagui; Hayana, Eliana Tiemi; Brito, Francisco Carlos de; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This article presents the results of a case study aimed at identifying challenges for the delivery of primary health care in a health district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, considering comprehensiveness as a central device for organizing work at this level of care. Five units in the district's primary care network were studied. We collected the data by observing work routines and flows, conducting interviews with managers and health professionals from different backgrounds, and through focus groups with family health teams. The analysis shows a mismatch between users' characteristics and their presumed needs and the heterogeneity of the health professionals' perceptions concerning their work. Lack of staff and time and difficulties with referrals were the main problems identified by interviewees.

  19. Primary unclassified sarcoma of the parotid gland: a case of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravakos, Panagiotis; Hartwein, Joerg; Fayyazi, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland sarcomas represent a clinically and histologically diagnostic challenge. Primary unclassified sarcomas of the parotid gland consist a rare salivary gland tumor. We report an unusual case of such a tumor, which occurred in the right parotid gland of a 54-year-old male and presented as an asymptomatic painless mass. The pathologoanatomical examination revealed a rhabdoid large-cell unclassified sarcoma. The patient was treated with superficial parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was noted in a 10-year follow-up period. Due to the rare occurrence of primary unclassified sarcomas, there is no evidence-based treatment of choice. An optimal approach is best planned in a multidisciplinary setting, taking into consideration the resectability of the tumor, individual patient characteristics, presence of local or distant metastatic activity, local infiltrative behavior and tumor stage. A close follow-up of the patient is strongly recommended.

  20. Challenges and Strategies in Providing Home Based Primary Care for Refugees in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febles, C; Nies, M A; Fanning, K; Tavernier, S S

    2017-12-01

    The recent crisis in the Middle East has prompted the exodus of millions of refugees from the region who are at present seeking shelter across Europe and in the United States. Among the most immediate needs of refugees upon arrival in a host country is health care, and it is one of the most sustained interactions they experience. Home visits are a common form of primary care for refugees. The authors review the literature to identify themes related to challenges and strategies for providing home based primary care to refugees. The literature review was performed by searching cross-disciplinary databases utilizing Onesearch, but focusing primarily on results produced through CINAHL, EBSCOHOST, and Pub Med databases. To maximize the number of studies included, there was no time frame placed upon publication dates of articles within the search. A total of 55 articles were included in this paper.

  1. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, J.M.; Laraie, M.; Dinner, P. [Waste Technology Section, Dept. of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pescatore, C.; O' Sullivan [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France); Dupuis, M.C. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.; Negin, Ch. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T < 31 years, 3) low activity and T > 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T < 31 years, 5) intermediate activity and T > 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  2. Managing anemia in low-income toddlers: barriers, challenges and context in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Rebecca; Pierce, Michelle B; Ferris, Ann M; Slivka, Hilda; Joyce, Patricia; Bernstein, Bruce A; Russell-Curtis, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Iron-deficiency remains a concern among low-income toddlers in the U.S. This formative study describes how primary care providers serving high-risk 1- to 3-year-old children in an urban ambulatory care setting approach anemia. Data collection included a retrospective review of randomly selected medical records (n=264) and semi-structured interviews with clinicians (n=41). Thirty-eight percent of the children presented with anemia (Hgb variable. While providers felt clinically comfortable with anemia, they felt burdened and challenged by follow-up. Communication and system barriers weighed most heavily on perceived treatment outcomes.

  3. e-research: Changes and challenges in the use of digital tools in primary care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Skonnord, Trygve; Gjelstad, Svein

    in primary care research. Examples of this are online randomisation, electronic questionnaires, automatic email scheduling, mobile phone applications and data extraction tools. The amount of data can be increased to a low cost, and this can help to reach adequate sample sizes. However, there are still...... challenges within the field. To secure a high response rate, you need to follow up manually or use another application. There are also practical and ethical problems, and the data security for sensitive data have to be followed carefully. Session content Oral presentations about some technological...

  4. The Fit Family Challenge: A Primary Care Childhood Obesity Pilot Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortberg, Bonnie T; Rosen, Raquel; Roth, Sarah; Casias, Luke; Dickinson, L Miriam; Coombs, Letoynia; Awadallah, Nida S; Bernardy, Meaghann K; Dickinson, W Perry

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over several decades, and the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended primary care practices as ideal sites for the identification, education, and implementation of therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to describe the implementation and results for the Fit Family Challenge (FFC), a primary care-based childhood obesity intervention. A single-intervention pilot project that trains primary care practices on childhood obesity guidelines and implementation of a family-focused behavior modification curriculum. A total of 29 family medicine and pediatric community practices in Colorado participated. Participants included 290 patients, aged 6 to 12 years, with a body mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile. The main outcome measure included the feasibility of implementation of a childhood obesity program in primary care; secondary outcomes were changes in BMI percentile, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, and changes in lifestyle factors related to childhood obesity. Implementation of FFC is feasible, statically significant changes were seen for decreases in BMI percentile and BMI z-scores for participants who completed 9 to 15 months of follow-up; lifestyle factors related to childhood obesity in proved Spanish-speaking families and food insecurity were associated with less follow-up time (P childhood obesity intervention may result in significant clinical and lifestyle changes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. Challenges to the Israeli healthcare system: attracting medical students to primary care and to the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Charles; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa; Avidan, Alexander; Elchalal, Uriel; Tandeter, Howard

    2018-05-29

    The greatest challenges facing healthcare systems include ensuring a sufficient supply of primary care physicians and physicians willing to work in rural or peripheral areas. Especially challenging is enticing young physicians to practice primary care in rural/peripheral areas. Identifying medical students interested in primary care and in residencies in Israel's periphery should aid the healthcare leadership. It may be particularly important to do so during the clinical years, as this is the stage at which many future physicians begin to crystallize their specialty and location preferences. Questionnaires, distributed to 6 consecutive 5th-year classes of the Hebrew University - Hadassah School of Medicine, from 2010 to 2016, elicited information on criteria for choosing a career specialty, criteria for choosing a residency program and whether one-time monetary grants authorized in the 2011 physicians' union contract would attract students to residencies in the periphery. Completed questionnaires were returned by 511 of 740 (69%) students. Ninety-eight (19%) were interested in a primary care residency, 184 (36%) were unsure and 229 (45%) were not interested. Students interested in primary care were significantly less interested in specialties that perform procedures/surgeries and in joining a medical school faculty, while being more inclined towards specialties dealing with social problems, controllable lifestyles and working limited hours. The percentage of students interested in primary care was stable during the study period. Forty-eight of the students indicated interest in residencies in the country's periphery, and 42% of them were also interested in primary care residencies. Overall, only 3.7% of students were interested in both a primary care residency and a residency in the periphery. Thirty percent of the students indicated that the monetary incentives tempted them to consider a residency in the periphery. Fifty-three percent of these students reported

  6. The typology and development of attitude to primary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Adelaide

    The introduction and development of science within the primary curriculum has been a challenge to teachers, parents and children and a highly politicised decision. Augmenting any difficulties are the images of science within popular culture and the traditions of scientific inquiry that have maintained the Western, male elitist hierarchy of the Vienna circle throughout the last millennium. The Royal Society's committee on the public understanding of science has recognised the difficulty in recruiting students to higher-level science study and embarked on a programme of sponsorship to address this. At the same time major governmental policy changes have provided a new 'market' model of education that has encouraged parental involvement in schools and enforced a new 'transparency' of evaluation on schools through league tables and Ofsted. Set against this backdrop, this research explores the development of attitudes to science and science education in the parent's of primary school aged children. It examines the perceptions of science and science education through the narrative of the parent's and their understanding of the interaction between different areas of science. The use of key events within narrative as a method of exploring attitude and conceptual development is novel to this research and through this exploration the concept of attitude itself is examined and criticised developing a new concept of attitude as process-based rather than static or crystallised. This reconceptualisation allows a more operational understanding of attitude that overcomes the difficulties of the traditional concept, which has only a limited theoretical basis on which to examine behaviour. The research generates a typology for views of science and the more operational compliment to this, stance to science. This framework allows a greater understanding of attitude formation, how science is perceived and how this perception is actualised. It is particularly interesting given the

  7. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  8. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of Nyanya, Federal Capital ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... unaffordable health care facilities, poor environmental health and traffic congestion on the ...

  9. Challenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu-Natal. ... for promoting tourism as a sustainable economic driver in their municipalities. ... the nature of tourism, evaluating community's sensitivity and associated impacts should ...

  10. Continuing Professional Development and Learning in Primary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of continuing professional development (CPD) on teachers' and pupils' experiences of learning and teaching science in primary classrooms. During 2006-2007, quantitative and qualitative data were elicited from two primary teachers in Scotland using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and video-stimulated…

  11. Environmental Education in Serbian Primary Schools: Challenges and Changes in Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…

  12. Improving Quality of Care in Primary Health-Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria: Successes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. A total of 6 states were selected across the 6 geopolitical zones of the country. However, assessments were carried out in 40 facilities in only 5 states. Selection was based on location, coverage, and minimum services offered. The facilities were divided randomly into 2 groups. The treatment group received quality-of-care assessment, continuous feedback, and improvement support, whereas the control group received quality assessment and no other support. Data were collected using the SafeCare Healthcare Standards and managed on the SafeCare Data Management System-AfriDB. Eight core areas were assessed at baseline and end line, and compliance to quality health-care standards was compared. Outcomes from 40 facilities were accepted and analyzed. Overall scores increased in the treatment facilities compared to the control facilities, with strong evidence of improvement ( t = 5.28, P = .0004) and 11% average improvement, but no clear pattern of improvement emerged in the control group. The study demonstrated governance support and active community involvement offered potential for quality improvement in primary health-care facilities.

  13. A systematic review of knowledge sharing challenges and practices in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Shahin, Mojtaba; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    the data extracted from the reviewed primary studies. Results: Our findings revealed that knowledge sharing challenges and practices in GSD could be classi- fied in 6 main themes: management, team structure, work processes/practices, team cognition, social attributes and technology. In regard to contextual......Context: Global Software Development (GSD) presents significant challenges to share and understand knowledge required for developing software. Organizations are expected to implement appropriate practices to address knowledge-sharing challenges in GSD. With the growing literature on GSD and its...... and practices fall under the theme of “work practices”. (c) The technology related knowledge-sharing challenges are the least reported; we discussed the available technologies for sup- porting knowledge sharing needs in GSD. (d) The organizational contextual information is missing from a large number of studies...

  14. Emotion Regulation Characteristics Development in Iranian Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Emotion regulations refer to the ability of experiencing emotions as a basic human capacity and the experience of the basic emotions happiness, anger, sadness and fear are considered as reular characteristics among nations. In school-age children, problems in socioemotional development typically shows themselves as challenging, socially disruptive paterns of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to understand Emotion Regulation characteristics in Iranian primary school pupils and whether Iranian children enable to identify common emotions. Methods: Participants included 900 children, 9 to 10 years, from elementary schools from 21 provinces in Iran. In pilot work we presented 200 children with four hypothetical vignettes of the kind typically used in display rule research. In the main study children’s knowledge regarding hiding their emotions was assessed through a structured interview. The participants were presented with the interview questions after the vignettes. The answers were coded by two people and the interrater reliability was high. The children were assessed on the basis of four common emotions:Happiness, Anger,Fear,and, Sadness. Results: The analysis of the data indicated that: 1 all children were enabled to identify and differentiate all four emotions from each other, most of students hide their happiness, anger, fear and sadness, they hide their emotions in specific situation such as school and home, hide happiness and anger against peers and hide fear and sadness in front of adults. Discussion: The study indicates that Iranian children not only differ from other culture peers in the amount of display rule use in daily life, but also in the situations they report using it and their motives for doing so they suppress their overall emotions more frequently, especially in presence of family and for pro-social and self-protective reasons. These findings provides the basic knowledge about Iranian children

  15. Challenges to the Indicators on Science, Technology and Innovation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2006-01-01

    The paper attempts to define the challenges to the indicators on science, technology and innovation development which result from the contemporary dynamics of the global knowledge based economy progress and the pursued challenges of identification of the specific national priority dimensions for public funding research and innovation projects on the case of Bulgaria. It is argued that recent the most widespread methodologies of positioning science, technology and innovation indicators do not ...

  16. Implementing EHR in a developing country: potential challenges and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tanko, Abdulai

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries are slow adopters of new technologies, particularly with regards to the health services of these countries. This study explores the data collection and management challenges in a Ghanaian hospital using an interpretative case study approach and proposes implementing an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system as a solution to these challenges. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Actor Network Theory (ANT) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) are used in discussi...

  17. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  18. Challenges in energy supply and infrastructural development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the overall, developing countries must address the eminent energy challenges and invest more towards energy security as the key to industrialization and economic development. National energy mix must also be diversified to cover alternative fuels and renewable energy sources to ensure sustainability. Keywords: ...

  19. Barriers and challenges of educational development in China: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational inequality and inequity has been the cry of all stakeholders in the educational development in every country. China is of no exception. The barriers of education development in China are gradually being uprooted by solid and sound policies. That notwithstanding, there are still few challenges that demands a ...

  20. IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyenim, J.B.; Gupta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing

  1. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Editorial. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in. Developing Countries. For justifiable reasons, the health of women in developing countries is presently an important.

  2. Culture and the Challenges of Development in Africa: Towards A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures, altitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty. However, the paper argues that the cultural dimension is a long-neglected aspect of development; the challenge, ...

  3. New developments in seismic analysis of primary and secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Primary and secondary systems often must be analyzed using decoupled models. This paper presents recent advances made at NCSU in the seismic analysis of these systems. Algorithms are presented by which coupled mode shapes and frequencies can be evaluated without performing a new eigenvalue solution, given the mode shapes and frequencies of the decoupled models. Simple and accurate equations are presented to predict changes in frequencies and responses. With the coupled mode shapes and frequencies, one can obtain any primary or secondary response directly from the input spectrum. Alternatively, one can develop instructure spectra at various locations in the primary system accounting for the primary-secondary system interaction. Correlation between the support motions is also generated. Equations are presented for evaluating complex mode shapes and frequencies of coupled systems when due to unequal damping values of primary and secondary systems, the coupled system becomes nonproportionally damped. Recent progress, in case of tuned systems is also reported

  4. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri: an old enemy presenting new challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First discovered in 1899, Naegleria fowleri is a protist pathogen, known to infect the central nervous system and produce primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. The most distressing aspect is that the fatality rate has remained more than 95%, despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Although rare worldwide, most cases have been reported in the United States, Australia, and Europe (France. A large number of cases in developing countries go unnoticed. In particular, religious, recreational, and cultural practices such as ritual ablution and/or purifications, Ayurveda, and the use of neti pots for nasal irrigation can contribute to this devastating infection. With increasing water scarcity and public reliance on water storage, here we debate the need for increased awareness of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis and the associated risk factors, particularly in developing countries.

  5. Challenging the Science Curriculum Paradigm: Teaching Primary Children Atomic-Molecular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Carole; Donovan, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Solutions to global issues demand the involvement of scientists, yet concern exists about retention rates in science as students pass through school into University. Young children are curious about science, yet are considered incapable of grappling with abstract and microscopic concepts such as atoms, sub-atomic particles, molecules and DNA. School curricula for primary (elementary) aged children reflect this by their limitation to examining only what phenomena are without providing any explanatory frameworks for how or why they occur. This research challenges the assumption that atomic-molecular theory is too difficult for young children, examining new ways of introducing atomic theory to 9 year olds and seeks to verify their efficacy in producing genuine learning in the participants. Early results in three cases in different schools indicate these novel methods fostered further interest in science, allowed diverse children to engage and learn aspects of atomic theory, and satisfied the children's desire for intellectual challenge. Learning exceeded expectations as demonstrated in the post-interview findings. Learning was also remarkably robust, as demonstrated in two schools 8 weeks after the intervention and, in one school, 1 year after their first exposure to ideas about atoms, elements and molecules.

  6. Challenges on innovations of newly-developed safety analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yanhua; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of safety analysis method, the safety analysis codes meet more challenges. Three challenges are presented in this paper, which are mathematic model, code design and user interface. Combined with the self-reliance safety analysis code named COSINE, the ways of meeting these requirements are suggested, that is to develop multi-phases, multi-fields and multi-dimension models, to adopt object-oriented code design ideal and to improve the way of modeling, calculation control and data post-processing in the user interface.

  7. Multicultural development in human services agencies: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20 practitioners experienced in MCOD. Qualitative analysis revealed four challenges--socioeconomic environment, organizational dynamics, conceptualization of the change effort, and consultant competence; and four solutions--collaborative environmental relations, leadership development, assessment and planning, and consultant selection. Results suggest the complexities of MCOD and ways that human services agencies can sustain such efforts.

  8. Challenges on innovations of newly-developed safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Zhang, Hao [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing (China). Beijing Future Science and Technology City

    2016-05-15

    With the development of safety analysis method, the safety analysis codes meet more challenges. Three challenges are presented in this paper, which are mathematic model, code design and user interface. Combined with the self-reliance safety analysis code named COSINE, the ways of meeting these requirements are suggested, that is to develop multi-phases, multi-fields and multi-dimension models, to adopt object-oriented code design ideal and to improve the way of modeling, calculation control and data post-processing in the user interface.

  9. Challenges and prospects for power development in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.R.

    1994-01-01

    Formulating innovative power development strategies to provide adequate, affordable and reliable services to meet Africa's growing population and developing demands is a major challenge. The development of its huge energy resource base will be limited by its inability to access investment funds and by general concerns for the environment. Institutional and policy reform, exploitation of continued progress on demand-side options, and conservation and diversification of energy resources provide opportunities for meeting future demand. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  11. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  12. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated...... with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number...

  13. 0.20-m (8-in.) primary burner development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Young, D.T.; Rode, J.S.

    1977-12-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) utilize graphite-base fuels. Fluidized-bed burners are being employed successfully in the experimental reprocessing of these fuels. The primary fluidized-bed burner is a unit operation in the reprocessing flowsheet in which the graphite moderator is removed. A detailed description of the development status of the 0.20-m (8-in.) diameter primary fluidized-bed burner as of July 1, 1977 is presented. Experimental work to date performed in 0.10; 0.20; and 0.40-m (4, 8, and 16 in.) diameter primary burners has demonstrated the feasibility of the primary burning process and, at the same time, has defined more clearly the areas in which additional experimental work is required. The design and recent operating history of the 0.20-m-diameter burner are discussed, with emphasis placed upon the evolution of the current design and operating philosophy

  14. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Hogland, W

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that

  15. Challenges and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demands and raise incomes while protecting the environment for future generations. Agricultural biotechnology has the potential to play a large role toward this achievement. Sadly, this opportunity remains a mirage for most developing societies because of numerous challenges that prevent them from benefiting from the ...

  16. A step towards development of aid for visually challenged

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The work done towards developing a visual aid to help visually challenged people is described in this paper. An ultrasonic device is used for measuring the distance to a nearby object and SIFT algorithm based approach is used for object recognition from the captured image. Features of the recognized object as well as the ...

  17. The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin; Næss, Petter; Yao, Yinmei

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is how the challenge of sustainable mobility has been dealt with in urban planning and urban development in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Hangzhou (China). The two metropolises have followed different trajectories in their land use and transport...

  18. Language development: Progress and challenges in a multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some such challenges discussed include issues like language selection for development, absence of clear language policy and the important issue of attitudes of respective language communities towards language research programmes. The article also looks at how the project and the institute have managed to make ...

  19. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  20. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years provides…

  1. Knowledge management challenges in new business development : Case study observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hans; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Kirschbaum, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper's focus is on the knowledge management challenges that come along with technology-based new business development (NBD). NBD thrives upon the exploration of knowledge, under radical uncertainty. Furthermore, existing knowledge may both enable and constrain the radical innovation process.

  2. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  3. Perceived challenges in business development of smallholder dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairy farmers face various challenges in developing their businesses. The current literature identifies several constraints towards a more efficient dairy sector that relate mostly to on-farm management practices. The available studies analyze constraints mostly from the objective viewpoint of the researcher, whereas very ...

  4. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, KC Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the earl...

  5. Lifestyle counseling in primary care: opportunities and challenges for changing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Joan; Valli, Michel; Ferrier, Suzanne; MacLeod, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Many patients today have health concerns related to lifestyle factors. This has created a situation where physicians are regularly confronted with the challenge of how to conduct lifestyle counseling with patients. Specific strategies can enable physicians to more effectively navigate this complex area of communication with patients, improving patient response in adopting healthy behaviours and increasing physician satisfaction with this task. To evaluate the impact of a lifestyle counseling workshop incorporating the motivational enhancement and transtheoretical models upon primary care clinicians' counseling practice patterns, especially communication and counseling skills, and attitudes toward lifestyle counseling. This study used a mixed method research design. Forty-three clinicians completed a post-workshop evaluation and identified intended changes to practice following the workshop. Twelve participated in interviews several months later to explore the kinds of changes made and influences upon them. Forty-one (95.3%) questionnaire respondents reported an intention to change their practice. Main changes reported were: asking more questions, listening more, assessing patients' readiness to change, tailoring counseling to patients' readiness to change. They seemed to have acquired and retained new knowledge and most were able to apply the new skills in their practices. Many reported feeling more comfortable and/or confident when interacting with patients in need of lifestyle change. But, time constraints, comfort with current skills, lack of self-efficacy, and fears of missing opportunities to influence patients, moderated participants' ability to adopt and maintain new approaches. While primary care clinicians can successfully learn specific lifestyle counseling skills and incorporate them into their practice following a two-hour evidence-based workshop, individual, educational and system factors can interfere.

  6. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  7. Developing primary health care and public health competencies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen E Knight

    community-based programme within the undergraduate medical curriculum, which aims to develop primary ... educational imperatives, namely improving medical students' ... Selectives is an innovative longitudinal, ... assessments of students in the Selectives module is the collective .... health and well-being of individuals,.

  8. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods.

  9. Piagetian Cognitive Development and Primary Process Thinking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulach, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-seven middle-class white children, ages 5-8, were tested on eight Piagetian tasks and the Rorschach test, and divided into preoperational, transitional, and concrete operational groups. Measures of primary process vs. secondary process thinking were found to be related to the Piagetian stages of development. (GDC)

  10. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Suênia Fidelis de MESQUITA-GUIMARÃES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl. The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17: Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone; Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor; Apple puree (Nestlé; Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult; and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey’s test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001. Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  11. Primary Care Practices’ Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Dorr, David A.; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C. Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Hall, Jennifer D.; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I.; McConnell, K. John; Nichols, Len M.; Nease, Donald E.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Wu, Winfred Y.; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N.; Phillips, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Duffy, F. Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.

    2018-01-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports—but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures. PMID:29608365

  12. Primary Care Practices' Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J; Dorr, David A; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I; McConnell, K John; Nichols, Len M; Nease, Donald E; Edwards, Samuel T; Wu, Winfred Y; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N; Phillips, Robert L; Rasmussen, Luke V; Duffy, F Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2018-04-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports-but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures.

  13. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  14. Usability challenges in an Ethiopian software development organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Yvonne; Kifle, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Usability and user centered design (UCD) are central to software development. In developing countries, the gap between IT development and the local use situation is larger than in western countries. However, usability is neither well addressed in software practice nor at the policy making level...... in Ethiopia. Software practitioners focus on functional requirements, meeting deadlines and budget. The software development industry in Ethiopia is in its early stage. The article aims at understanding usability practices in an Ethiopian software development company. Developers, system analysts, product...... configuration, their experience, cultural knowledge and common sense regarding the users' situation guided the design. Prototypes and fast delivery of working versions helped in getting user feedback even if early user focus proved to be a challenge as communication between developers and users suffered from...

  15. Development of water chemistry diagnosis system for BWR primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a water chemistry diagnosis system for BWR primary loop has been developed. Its purposes are improvement of water chemistry control and reduction of the work burden on plant chemistry personnel. It has three main features as follows. (1) Intensifying the observation of water chemistry conditions by variable sampling intervals based on the on-line measured data. (2) Early detection of water chemistry data trends using a second order regression curve which is calculated from the measured data, and then searching the cause of anomaly if anything (3) Diagnosis of Fe concentration in feedwater using model simulations, in order to lower the radiation level in the primary system. (author)

  16. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  17. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  18. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  19. Cultural Challenges in Developing E-Learning Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Amir Azer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is an important component of any nation’s development process. Society has been credited with creating technology, but technology is simultaneously creating society. One of the key benefits of such technology creation includes learning and curriculum development, which is otherwise referred to as e-leaning, and more appropriately referred to as global e-learning. Global e-learning raises some implications, which include communication, culture, and technology, that must be addressed before successful implementation and outcome can occur. In this paper, we discuss cultural related issues such as culture influence on e-learning and the dimensions of cultural variability. In addition, we present the main challenges to provide e-learning opportunities. Finally, a case study for facing the cultural challenges is presented; this will be followed by concluding remarks at the end of this paper.

  20. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya- perspectives of primary care health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspecti...

  1. Loss of life estimation – Review, developments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonkman S.N. (Bas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview and review of methods developed for loss of life estimation in flood risk assessment. These methods range from empirical to simulation based approaches that are used to support flood risk analyses and emergency management. Similarities and differences between the modelling approaches, input and output types and applications are discussed. Challenges to the field are summarized, including empirical data collection for validation and benchmarking and comparison studies.

  2. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN GW

    2007-01-01

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents

  3. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RYAN GW

    2007-09-24

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents.

  4. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  5. Developing a research agenda for patient safety in primary care. Background, aims and output of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M; Verstappen, Wim; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a supplement to The European Journal of General Practice, bringing together a body of research focusing on the issue of patient safety in relation to primary care. The supplement represents the outputs of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care, which was a four-year (2009-2013) coordination and support action funded under the Framework 7 programme by the European Union. Being a coordination and support action, its aim was not to undertake new research, but to build capacity through engaging primary care researchers and practitioners in identifying some of the key challenges in this area and developing consensus statements, which will be an essential part in developing a future research agenda. This introductory article describes the aims of the LINNEAUS collaboration, provides a brief summary of the reasons to focus on patient safety in primary care, the epidemiological and policy considerations, and an introduction to the papers included in the supplement.

  6. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  7. Management of Primary Care: a challenge for international cooperation in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo; Figueiredo, Maria Cristina Botelho de; Porto, Celina Santos Boga Marques

    2017-07-01

    The need to resolve immediate problems in basic healthcare systems and the decisions that must be made in the daily management of healthcare centers must reach beyond awareness of common sense, and be reinforced by the evidence sought in scientific knowledge that will provide a new look at the facts and phenomena that happen on a daily basis. This article examines an experience of triangular cooperation in health between Angola, Brazil and Japan, which took place in Luanda, Angola between 2011 and 2014. The "Project to Strengthen the Healthcare Through the Development of Human Resources at the Josina Hospital and in other Healthcare Services, and to Revitalize Primary Healthcare in Angola (ProForsa)", with the involvement of Fiocruz as the party executing the primary healthcare component. This is an innovative role in technical cooperation as a tool of political action. A training program with multiple possibilities enabled technical-political partnerships in an approach for "structuring cooperation in health". The article analyzes how interventions in international cooperation in health management may create scientific evidence that, together with the local political context, can transform organizational elements such as healthcare centers, their clinical management and physical infrastructure.

  8. Challenges to the development of complex virtual reality surgical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, N E; Røtnes, J S

    2006-11-01

    Virtual reality simulation in surgical training has become more widely used and intensely investigated in an effort to develop safer, more efficient, measurable training processes. The development of virtual reality simulation of surgical procedures has begun, but well-described technical obstacles must be overcome to permit varied training in a clinically realistic computer-generated environment. These challenges include development of realistic surgical interfaces and physical objects within the computer-generated environment, modeling of realistic interactions between objects, rendering of the surgical field, and development of signal processing for complex events associated with surgery. Of these, the realistic modeling of tissue objects that are fully responsive to surgical manipulations is the most challenging. Threats to early success include relatively limited resources for development and procurement, as well as smaller potential for return on investment than in other simulation industries that face similar problems. Despite these difficulties, steady progress continues to be made in these areas. If executed properly, virtual reality offers inherent advantages over other training systems in creating a realistic surgical environment and facilitating measurement of surgeon performance. Once developed, complex new virtual reality training devices must be validated for their usefulness in formative training and assessment of skill to be established.

  9. Learning challenges and sustainable development: A methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland. The method, based on Activity Theory, combines historical analysis with qualitative analysis of need expressions in discourse data. The method linking local and subjective need expressions with general historical analysis is a promising way to overcome the gap between the individual and society, so much needed in research for sustainable development. Dialectically informed historical frameworks have practical value as tools in collaborative negotiations and participatory designs for sustainable development. The simultaneous use of systemic and subjective perspectives allows researchers to manage the complexity of practical work activities and to avoid too simplistic presumptions about sustainable development.

  10. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  11. Hypertension in Developing Countries: A Major Challenge for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen Ibrahim, M

    2018-05-01

    Outline recent epidemiologic data regarding hypertension in developing countries, distinguish differences from developed countries, and identify challenges in management and future perspectives. Increased sugar intake, air and noise pollution, and low birth weight are emerging hypertension risk factors. The major challenges in management are difficulties in accurate diagnosis of hypertension and adequate blood pressure control. In contrast to developed countries, hypertension prevalence rates are on the rise in developing countries with no improvement in awareness or control rates. The increasing burden of hypertension is largely attributable to behavioral factors, urbanization, unhealthy diet, obesity, social stress, and inactivity. Health authorities, medical societies, and drug industry can collaborate to improve hypertension control through education programs, public awareness campaigns, legislation to limit salt intake, encourage generic drugs, development and dissemination of national guidelines, and involving nurses and pharmacists in hypertension management. More epidemiologic data are needed in the future to identify reasons behind increased prevalence and poor blood pressure control and examine trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. National programs for better hypertension control based on local culture, economic characteristics, and available resources in the population are needed. The role of new tools for hypertension management should be tested in developing world.

  12. Urban Big Data and Sustainable Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities are perhaps one of the most challenging and yet enabling arenas for sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs emphasize the need to monitor each goal through objective targets and indicators based on common denominators in the ability of countries to collect and maintain relevant standardized data. While this approach is aimed at harmonizing the SDGs at the national level, it presents unique challenges and opportunities for the development of innovative urban-level metrics through big data innovations. In this article, we make the case for advancing more innovative targets and indicators relevant to the SDGs through the emergence of urban big data. We believe that urban policy-makers are faced with unique opportunities to develop, experiment, and advance big data practices relevant to sustainable development. This can be achieved by situating the application of big data innovations through developing mayoral institutions for the governance of urban big data, advancing the culture and common skill sets for applying urban big data, and investing in specialized research and education programs.

  13. Historicizing Teaching in Awgni as a Mother Tongue Language at Primary Schools of Awi Nationality Administrative Zone: Challenges and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…

  14. Challenges to the Implementation of PLAP in Primary Schools: Perceptions of ZOU Bachelor of Educational Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Kurebwa; Mabhanda, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the challenges that impact on the implementation of PLAP in the Primary schools. The research was conducted with teachers who study towards the BEd Management degree with Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in the Midlands Region. The study used a qualitative research approach and collected data through open ended questionnaires and…

  15. Accident tolerant fuel cladding development: Promise, status, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, Kurt A.

    2018-04-01

    The motivation for transitioning away from zirconium-based fuel cladding in light water reactors to significantly more oxidation-resistant materials, thereby enhancing safety margins during severe accidents, is laid out. A review of the development status for three accident tolerant fuel cladding technologies, namely coated zirconium-based cladding, ferritic alumina-forming alloy cladding, and silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite cladding, is offered. Technical challenges and data gaps for each of these cladding technologies are highlighted. Full development towards commercial deployment of these technologies is identified as a high priority for the nuclear industry.

  16. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  17. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  18. The use of routinely collected computer data for research in primary care: opportunities and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusignan, S. de; Weel, C. van

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Routinely collected primary care data has underpinned research that has helped define primary care as a specialty. In the early years of the discipline, data were collected manually, but digital data collection now makes large volumes of data readily available. Primary care informatics

  19. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable...... environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...... developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...

  20. Developing consumer involvement in rural HIV primary care programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamary, Edward M; Toevs, Kim; Burnworth, Karla B; Becker, Lin

    2004-06-01

    As part of a broader medical and psychosocial needs assessment in a rural region of northern California, USA, five focus groups were conducted to explore innovative approaches to creating a system of consumer involvement in the delivery of HIV primary care services in the region. A total of five focus groups (n = 30) were conducted with clients from three of five counties in the region with the highest number of HIV patients receiving primary care. Participants were recruited by their HIV case managers. They were adults living with HIV, who were receiving health care, and who resided in a rural mountain region of northern California. Group discussions explored ideas for new strategies and examined traditional methods of consumer involvement, considering ways they could be adapted for a rural environment. Recommendations for consumer involvement included a multi-method approach consisting of traditional written surveys, a formal advisory group, and monthly consumer led social support/informal input groups. Specific challenges discussed included winter weather conditions, transportation barriers, physical limitations, confidentiality concerns, and needs for social support and education. A multiple-method approach would ensure more comprehensive consumer involvement in the programme planning process. It is also evident that methods for incorporating consumer involvement must be adapted to the specific context and circumstances of a given programme.

  1. Challenges in the development of market-based pipeline investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bassenheim, G.; Mohitpour, M.; Klaudt, D.; Jenkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The challenges, risks and uncertainties that the natural gas industry faces in developing market-based pipeline projects were discussed. Market-based pipeline investments are fundamentally different from user-driven projects. Market-based projected involve finding enough energy users and linking them with a pipeline infrastructure to viable supplies of natural gas. Each unique project is developed individually and requires a strong corporate vision and support before it can be successfully implemented. The three phases of a pipeline investment include the business development phase, the project development phase, and the implementation/operations phase. Market-based companies will need a clear vision for long-term goals and the desire to succeed. The company will have to prepare a detailed strategy and policies that clearly define geographic areas of operations, risk tolerance, availability of capital and expected project performance. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Renewable energies and the challenge for a sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After a presentation of some basic definitions and data (locations, assessment, utilisation), this collective report proposes a first set of contributions about perspectives for renewable energies: their role in middle- and long-term world scenarios, their relationship with greenhouse effect, the relentless technological pursuit through the example of hydrogen. A second set of contributions deals with the relationship between renewable energies and sustainable development: in northern countries (an environmental responsibility and a society issue), in southern countries (the challenge of access to energy), the promotion of renewable energies in the North-South cooperation, the chaotic decentralized electrification program in South Africa, the relationship between energy and struggle against poverty, the search for instruments to stimulate renewable electricity development, the sociological constraints to renewable energy development, the sustainable development at the service of new industries in countries of the North

  3. Sustainable development: challenges and opportunities for the natural sciences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Fishman, R.; Anttila-Hughes, J. K.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development -- equitably improving global human welfare while ensuring that the environment is preserved for future generations - demand research at the nexus of the social and natural sciences. Massive and inevitable changes in climate, ecosystem functions, and human interaction with the environment will perturb societies throughout the world in different ways over the coming century. The changes faced by poor societies and their ability to cope differs markedly from those that face the richest. Yet in all regions the dynamic interaction of social and natural drivers will govern the prospects for human welfare and its improvement. Developing an understanding of these phenomena will require field research together with analytical and modeling capabilities that couple physical and social phenomena, allowing feedback between the two to manifest and permit forecasting over long time scales. Heterogeneous income and population growth further complicate this need through their consequences for food security, migration, resource allocation, and conflict. In this contribution, we identify some key concepts of sustainable development, open research questions and outline how scientific research might engage this emerging discipline. Using recent examples of interaction, we discuss the opportunities and challenges facing the further development of this dialogue.

  4. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    within six months of the first phone calls. Although physicians viewed the health ambassadors positively, they found the study to be time intensive and resource intensive, especially as this work was additional to usual clinical duties.Discussion: Using South Asian lay health educators embedded within primary care practices to telephone patients in their own languages showed promise in this study to increase awareness about willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake, but it was also time intensive and resource intensive with numer­ous challenges. Future quality improvement efforts should further develop the phone call invitation process, as well as explore how to provide infrastructure for lay health educator training and time. Keywords: quality improvement, cancer screening, ethnicity, health equity, health promotion, primary care

  5. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-02-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius A Vaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues.

  7. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Julius A; Patnaik, Ashis

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues.

  8. Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented renewable energy program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in renewable energy program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming barriers that hinder expansion of renewable energy technologies still remains as a big challenge to stake holders involved in promotion of renewable energy resources in developing countries. In this respect, developing countries need to re-examine their environmental policy for promotion of renewable energy technologies in order to define its role in revitalization of their economics. This paper reviews by policy incentives for promotion of renewable energy technologies in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Setting-up international collaborative business ventures between local industry in Iran and companies in developed countries is proposed as an implementation strategy that will appropriate diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the country. An organizational framework that may help to attain this objective is discussed and a structural model for renewable energy business partnership is presented. It is concluded that with appropriate policy formulations and strategies, renewable energy technologies can bring about the required socio-economic development in Iran

  9. Development and validation of the primary care team dynamics survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71-0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  11. Accomplishments and challenges in development of an autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, A.; Saiki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Okusa, K.; Suda, K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying an autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants in which AI plays key roles as an alternative of plant operators and traditional controllers. In contrast with past studies dedicated to assist the operators, the ultimate target of development of the autonomous operation system is to operate the nuclear plants by AI. To realize humanlike decision-making process by means of AI, the authors used a model-based approach from multiple viewpoints and methodology diversity. A hierarchical distributed cooperative multi-agent system configuration is adopted to allow to incorporate diversified methodologies and to dynamically reorganize system functions. In the present paper, accomplishments to date in the course of the development are described. Challenges for developing methodologies to attain dynamic reorganization are also addressed. (author)

  12. Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Popov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the historical development of vocational literacy in basic education and Non-Formal Vocational Education (NFVE in Mozambique, as well as current challenges and contradictions. The theoretical lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT is employed in the study. Methodologically the study was executed through an analysis of oral, printed and e-resources produced by the main stakeholders and also the reflective experiences of the authors in their extensive educational work in the country. The findings reveal poorly developed vocational literacy education in schools and non-formal settings in spite of recurrent political declarations about its importance. There is a strong dependence by formal and particularly NFVE sectors on the technical and financial support provided by international organisations. Vocational literacy courses are characterized by a lack of adequate equipment and poor practice. As a consequence, theoretical or elementary forms of vocational knowledge are dominant in the courses, resulting in the dissatisfaction of both learners and educators. Vocational literacy development proved to be a complex field that faces many challenges and ischaracterised by diverse internal contradictions.

  13. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  14. Challenges in the development of therapeutics for narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sarah Wurts; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that afflicts 1 in 2000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy-a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by positive emotions. Features of narcolepsy include dysregulation of arousal state boundaries as well as autonomic and metabolic disturbances. Disruption of neurotransmission through the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) system, usually by degeneration of the HCRT-producing neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, results in narcolepsy. The cause of Hcrt neurodegeneration is unknown but thought to be related to autoimmune processes. Current treatments for narcolepsy are symptomatic, including wake-promoting therapeutics that increase presynaptic dopamine release and anticataplectic agents that activate monoaminergic neurotransmission. Sodium oxybate is the only medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that alleviates both sleep/wake disturbances and cataplexy. Development of therapeutics for narcolepsy has been challenged by historical misunderstanding of the disease, its many disparate symptoms and, until recently, its unknown etiology. Animal models have been essential to elucidating the neuropathology underlying narcolepsy. These models have also aided understanding the neurobiology of the Hcrt system, mechanisms of cataplexy, and the pharmacology of narcolepsy medications. Transgenic rodent models will be critical in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of narcolepsy, particularly efforts directed to overcome challenges in the development of hypocretin replacement therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  16. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  17. Development of an allergy management support system in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flokstra - de Blok BMJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bertine MJ Flokstra - de Blok,1,2 Thys van der Molen,1,2 Wianda A Christoffers,3 Janwillem WH Kocks,1,2 Richard L Oei,4 Joanne NG Oude Elberink,2,4 Emmy M Roerdink,5 Marie Louise Schuttelaar,3 Jantina L van der Velde,1,2 Thecla M Brakel,1,6 Anthony EJ Dubois2,5 1Department of General Practice, 2GRIAC Research Institute, 3Department of Dermatology, 4Department of Allergology, 5Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Allergy, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 6Teaching Unit, Department of Social Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Management of allergic patients in the population is becoming more difficult because of increases in both complexity and prevalence. Although general practitioners (GPs are expected to play an important role in the care of allergic patients, they often feel ill-equipped for this task. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an allergy management support system (AMSS for primary care. Methods: Through literature review, interviewing and testing in secondary and primary care patients, an allergy history questionnaire was constructed by allergists, dermatologists, GPs and researchers based on primary care and specialists’ allergy guidelines and their clinical knowledge. Patterns of AMSS questionnaire responses and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE-test outcomes were used to identify diagnostic categories and develop corresponding management recommendations. Validity of the AMSS was investigated by comparing specialist (gold standard and AMSS diagnostic categories. Results: The two-page patient-completed AMSS questionnaire consists of 12 (mainly multiple choice questions on symptoms, triggers, severity and medication. Based on the AMSS questionnaires and sIgE-test outcome of 118 patients, approximately 150 diagnostic categories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, food allergy, hymenoptera allergy and other

  18. Development of Hyperthyroidism Following Primary Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hua Chung

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism is uncommon, and only a few documented cases have been reported. Alterations in thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies in serum are currently considered to play the main role in the pathophysiology, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old man with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia. Thyroid function tests showed primary hypothyroidism with a high anti-microsomal antibody titer (1:6,400. The patient experienced weight loss and exophthalmos 6 years later. Serum thyroid hormone levels were increased and thyroxine treatment was discontinued, but the patient remained thyrotoxic 2 months later. 131I thyroid uptake was 40.9% at 24 hours, and bilateral thyroid lobes were not enlarged with diffuse radioactivity. Six months later, the patient was still thyrotoxic and therapy with methimazole 10 mg/day was started. He is now taking methimazole and is euthyroid.

  19. Use of primary corticosteroid injection in the management of plantar fasciopathy: is it time to challenge existing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Paul; Beeson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is characterized by degeneration of the fascia at the calcaneal enthesis. It is a common cause of foot pain, accounting for 90% of clinical presentations of heel pathology. In 2009-2010, 9.3 million working days were lost in England due to musculoskeletal disorders, with 2.4 million of those attributable to lower-limb disorders, averaging 16.3 lost working days per case. Numerous studies have attempted to establish the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections in the management of PF. Earlier studies have not informed clinical practice. As the research base has developed, evidence has emerged supporting clinical efficacy. With diverse opinions surrounding the etiology and efficacy debate, there does not seem to be a consensus of opinion on a common treatment pathway. For example, in England, the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence does not publish strategic guidance for clinical practice. Herein, we review and evaluate core literature that examines the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injection as a treatment for PF. Outcome measures were wide ranging but largely yielded results supportive of the short- and long-term benefits of this modality. The analysis also looked to establish, where possible, "proof of concept." This article provides evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections, in particular those guided by imaging technology. The evidence challenges existing orthodoxy, which marginalizes this treatment as a secondary option. This challenge is supported by recently revised guidelines published by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons advocating corticosteroid injection as a primary treatment option.

  20. The Challenges of Primary Sources, Collaboration, and the K-16 Elizabeth Murray Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia; Neumann, David

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of primary sources in the history and social studies classroom has been increasingly promoted as a necessary and welcome practice, one designed to improve the quality of history education and to encourage student interest and engagement. Although some K-12 educators have been wary of adopting the use of primary sources,…

  1. Challenges to creating primary care teams in a public health centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNP) is essential to the provision of quality primary care in the South African context. The Worcester Community Health Centre (CHC) is situated in a large town and offers primary care to the rural Breede Valley Sub-District of the Western ...

  2. Treatment Challenges of a Primary Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Causing Recurrent Ischemic Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Strambo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are a rare cause of embolic stroke; surgical and endovascular therapy options are debated and long-term complication may occur. Case Report. A 53-year-old man affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 came to our attention for recurrent vertebrobasilar embolic strokes, caused by a primary giant, partially thrombosed, fusiform aneurysm of the left extracranial vertebral artery. The aneurysm was treated by endovascular approach through deposition of Guglielmi Detachable Coils in the proximal segment of the left vertebral artery. Six years later the patient presented stroke recurrence. Cerebral angiography and Color Doppler Ultrasound well characterized the unique hemodynamic condition developed over the years responsible for the new embolic event: the aneurysm had been revascularized from its distal portion by reverse blood flow coming from the patent vertebrobasilar axis. A biphasic Doppler signal in the left vertebral artery revealed a peculiar behavior of the blood flow, alternately directed to the aneurysm and backwards to the basilar artery. Surgical ligation of the distal left vertebral artery and excision of the aneurysm were thus performed. Conclusion. This is the first described case of NF1-associated extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with recurrent embolic stroke. Complete exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood circulation is advisable to achieve full resolution of the embolic source.

  3. Efficiency of management of sustainable developmentchallenges, problems, barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses such issues as the importance of efficiency management of sustainable development. In the authors’ opinion, this matter is currently topical subject due to, among others, on the still high costs of irrational management in the field. Dynamically changing environment forces to search for new solutions for efficiency management of sustainable development, and unfortunately, in many countries it is still a significant problem. For some countries, the efficiency management of sustainable development is difficult. It should be noted that the problem with the inaction of relevant activities of the countries in the field of development of efficiency management of sustainability development will grow, because globalization makes it necessary to generate new solutions emerging to date problems. Facing each country there are so many challenges in the field. However, some countries are aware of the seriousness of the problem and therefore take a number of measures in this regard, often regardless of the amount of costs. This has an impact on their competitiveness. Apparent is also increasing incorporation of new original solutions in the field of sustainable development management.

  4. Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavik Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining and measuring organizational culture (OC is of paramount importance to organizations because a strong culture could potentially increase service quality and yield sustainable competitive advantages. However, such process could be challenging to managers because the scope of OC has been defined differently across disciplines and industries, which has led to the development of various scales for measuring OC. In addition, previously developed OC scales may also not be fully applicable in the hospitality and tourism context. Therefore, by highlighting the key factors affecting the business environment and the unique characteristics of hospitality industry, this paper aims to align the scope of OC closely with the industry and to put forth the need for a new OC scale that accurately responds to the context of the hospitality industry.

  5. Biomass energy development in California: Accomplishments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The recent and rapid growth of biomass power development in California has created the largest contiguous biomass fueled electrical generating capacity in U.S. This growth has been fostered by resource availability, federal (PURPA) incentives, and the entrepeneurial response of independent power producers. California's environment has benefited from reduced air emissions, wildfire suppression, landfill reduction and the sequestering of carbon. The state has benefited economically through capital investment, employment for several thousand, and the generation of over $100 million in state and local tax revenues. Along with the benefits have come serious challenges brought about largely due to changes in the utility and regulatory environment. These changes threaten the continued existence and economic viability of the developed biomass power industry in California and threatens to establish national precedents. Specific issues are identified and recommended actions are presented

  6. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  7. The process of developing audiovisual patient information: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Catherine; McCreaddie, May

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this project was to produce audiovisual patient information, which was user friendly and fit for purpose. The purpose of the audiovisual patient information is to inform patients about randomized controlled trials, as a supplement to their trial-specific written information sheet. Audiovisual patient information is known to be an effective way of informing patients about treatment. User involvement is also recognized as being important in the development of service provision. The aim of this paper is (i) to describe and discuss the process of developing the audiovisual patient information and (ii) to highlight the challenges and opportunities, thereby identifying implications for practice. A future study will test the effectiveness of the audiovisual patient information in the cancer clinical trial setting. An advisory group was set up to oversee the project and provide guidance in relation to information content, level and delivery. An expert panel of two patients provided additional guidance and a dedicated operational team dealt with the logistics of the project including: ethics; finance; scriptwriting; filming; editing and intellectual property rights. Challenges included the limitations of filming in a busy clinical environment, restricted technical and financial resources, ethical needs and issues around copyright. There were, however, substantial opportunities that included utilizing creative skills, meaningfully involving patients, teamworking and mutual appreciation of clinical, multidisciplinary and technical expertise. Developing audiovisual patient information is an important area for nurses to be involved with. However, this must be performed within the context of the multiprofessional team. Teamworking, including patient involvement, is crucial as a wide variety of expertise is required. Many aspects of the process are transferable and will provide information and guidance for nurses, regardless of specialty, considering developing this

  8. Ethical challenges in developing drugs for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Felix; Banayan, David; Boley, Randy; Karnik, Niranjan

    2017-05-01

    As the classification of mental disorders advances towards a disease model as promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), there is hope that a more thorough neurobiological understanding of mental illness may allow clinicians and researchers to determine treatment efficacy with less diagnostic variability. This paradigm shift has presented a variety of ethical issues to be considered in the development of psychiatric drugs. These challenges are not limited to informed consent practices, industry funding, and placebo use. The consideration for alternative research models and quality of research design also present ethical challenges in the development of psychiatric drugs. The imperatives to create valid and sound research that justify the human time, cost, risk and use of limited resources must also be considered. Clinical innovation, and consideration for special populations are also important aspects to take into account. Based on the breadth of these ethical concerns, it is particularly important that scientific questions regarding the development of psychiatric drugs be answered collaboratively by a variety of stakeholders. As the field expands, new ethical considerations will be raised with increased focus on genetic markers, personalized medicine, patient-centered outcomes research, and tension over funding. We suggest that innovation in trial design is necessary to better reflect practices in clinical settings and that there must be an emphasized focus on expanding the transparency of consent processes, regard for suicidality, and care in working with special populations to support the goal of developing sound psychiatric drug therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges of developing and conducting clinical trials in rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Lucas; Goldsmith, Jonathan C; Temple, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Rare disease drug development is a rapidly expanding field. Clinical researchers in rare diseases face many challenges when conducting trials in small populations. Disease natural history is often poorly understood and the ability to detect clinically meaningful outcomes requires understanding of their rate of occurrence and variability, both of which contribute to difficulties in powering a study. Standard trial designs are not optimized to obtain adequate safety and efficacy data from small numbers of patients, so alternative designs (enrichment, crossover, adaptive, N-of 1) need to be considered. The affected patients can be hard to identify, especially early in the course of their disease, are generally geographically dispersed, and are often children. Trials are frequently conducted on an international scale and may be subject to complex or multiple regulatory agency oversights and may be affected by local customs, cultures, and practices. A basic understanding of the FDA programs supporting development of drugs for rare diseases is provided by this review and the role of early consultation with the FDA is emphasized. Of recent FDA New Molecular Entities (NME) approvals, 41% (17 approvals) in 2014, 47% (21 approvals) in 2015, and 41% (9 approvals) in 2016 were for rare disease indications. Through effective interactions and collaborations with physicians, institutions, and patient groups, sponsors have been successful in bringing new treatments to market for individuals affected by rare diseases. Challenges to drug development have been overcome through the focused efforts of patients/families, non-profit patient advocacy groups, drug developers, and regulatory authorities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Leadership theory: implications for developing dental surgeons in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2011-02-12

    The development of leadership in healthcare has been seen as important in recent years, particularly at the clinical level. There have been various specific initiatives focusing on the development of leadership for doctors, nurses and other health care professions: for example, a leadership competency framework for doctors, the LEO programme and the RCN clinical leadership programme for nurses. The NHS has set up a Leadership Council to coordinate further developments. However, there has not been the same focus in dentistry, although the recent review of NHS dental services (Steele review) has proposed a need for leadership initiatives in NHS dentistry as a medium-term action. Central to this will be a need to focus on the leadership role for dental surgeons. Leadership is all the more important in dentistry, given the change of government and the policy of retrenchment, major public sector reform, the emergence of new organisations such as new commissioning consortia, possible changes to the dental contract, new ways of working, and changes to the profession such as the requirements for the revalidation of dental surgeons. The question is: which leadership theory or approach is best for dental surgeons working in primary care? This paper builds on earlier work exploring this question in relation to doctors generally, and GPs, in particular, and planned work on nurses. It will seek to address this question in relation to dental surgeons working in primary care.

  11. Energy and sustainable development : challenges, risks and leeway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable development is a major challenge facing humanity in this new millennium. Demographers have predicted that it will take approximately 100 years for our planet to reach demographic maturity, implying there is only that amount of time to find solutions to sustainable development. Problems related to energy needs and environment are influenced by factors such as: (1) population increase, (2) required access to development and urbanization, and (3) continuation by the Northern countries to consume goods and services. We are also challenged by four major risk factors concerning energy: (1) risk of depletion of fossil resources such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, (2) global warming caused by greenhouse gases, (3) risk from the utilization of nuclear energy, and (4) risk of intense utilization of potential agricultural lands for energy production. In the past 50 years, we have relied too much on the production of energy, and this approach has not yielded a satisfactory solution. Two types of scenarios were proposed for 2050. The first type is based on development through an abundance of energy, where the risks are unavoidable. The only differences between each scenario in this category is the increase or decrease of one risk factor to the detriment of the others. The second type of scenario is based on development through the control of energy requirements. Six scenarios proposed by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis and National Scientific Research Centre were compared. In each scenario, the world was subdivided into 11 geographical regions and based on world populations of 8 billion in 2020, and 10 billion in 2050, as well as very similar economic growth predictions. Results indicated that the main differentiating factor was volume of energy rather than type of energy resource. Greenhouse gases increase, as do the amounts of nuclear wastes. It became clear that energy conservation measures have the potential to help us achieve

  12. Developing primary care in Hong Kong: evidence into practice and the development of reference frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sian M; Lee, Jeff P M

    2012-10-01

    Enhancing primary care is one of the proposals put forward in the Healthcare Reform Consultation Document "Your Health, Your Life" issued in March 2008. In 2009, the Working Group on Primary Care, chaired by the Secretary for Food and Health, recommended the development of age-group and disease-specific primary care conceptual models and reference frameworks. Drawing on international experience and best evidence, the Task Force on Conceptual Model and Preventive Protocols of the Working Group on Primary Care has developed two reference frameworks for the management of two common chronic diseases in Hong Kong, namely diabetes and hypertension, in primary care settings. Adopting a population approach for the prevention and control of diabetes and hypertension across the life course, the reference frameworks aim to provide evidence-based and appropriate recommendations for the provision of continuing and comprehensive care for patients with chronic diseases in the community.

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S.; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. C...

  14. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS FOR TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin POSTELNICU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Romania has witnessed in recent years a sinuous evolution marked to a great extent by a multitude of private initiatives and to a lesser extent by strategic coordination at governmental and regional level, respectively. The development of tourism is somewhat chaotic and unplanned, devoid of any inclusive, holistic vision concerning the correlation between transport infrastructure investments and investments in accommodation and tourist destinations. This led to a paradoxical situation in which areas with great tourism potential (e.g. the Danube Delta are hardly accessible to foreign tourists/tourists from faraway regions. The attraction of such tourists is accomplished by primitive means, without any strategic thinking or appropriate planning. The authorities’ great disinterest and disengagement notwithstanding, Romania as a tourist destination possesses some major advantages stemming from its high potential for development in various directions. Entire tourism sectors (spa-based, mountain, cultural tourism etc. are not yet exploited at maximum capacity while tourism initiatives undertaken by various entities are not sufficiently developed. In this paper, the authors attempt to highlight the main strategic development directions of tourism in Romania, pointing to Romania’s major advantages as a tourist destination and drawing attention to the primary courses of action that must carefully be considered by decision makers in developing a viable tourism strategy.

  15. Challenges And Opportunities For Coal Gasification In Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    Coal gasification for chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels production can fulfil an important strategic need in those developing countries where coal is the primary fuel source and oil and gas energy security is an issue. At the same time, the establishment of major projects in such countries can be problematical for a number of technical and economic reasons, although it is encouraging that some projects appear to be moving forward. There are two developing countries where coal conversion projects to produce chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels have been taken forward strongly. The first is South Africa, which established the world's only commercial-scale coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg respectively. The other is China, where there is a major gasification-based coal conversion development and deployment programme that is set to become a significant, large-scale commercial element in the nation's energy development plans. This will provide further major opportunities for the deployment of large-scale coal gasification technologies, various syngas conversion units and catalysts for the subsequent production of the required products. The role of China is likely to be critical in the dissemination of such technologies to other developing countries as it can not only provide the technical expertise but also financially underpin such projects, including the associated infrastructure needs.

  16. Challenges and opportunities in building a sustainable rural primary care workforce in alignment with the Affordable Care Act: the WWAMI program as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M; Ballweg, Ruth A; Cosgrove, Ellen M; Engle, Kellie A; Robinson, Lawrence R; Rosenblatt, Roger A; Skillman, Susan M; Wenrich, Marjorie D

    2013-12-01

    The authors examine the potential impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on a large medical education program in the Northwest United States that builds the primary care workforce for its largely rural region. The 42-year-old Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WWAMI) program, hosted by the University of Washington School of Medicine, is one of the nation's most successful models for rural health training. The program has expanded training and retention of primary care health professionals for the region through medical school education, graduate medical education, a physician assistant training program, and support for practicing health professionals.The ACA and resulting accountable care organizations (ACOs) present potential challenges for rural settings and health training programs like WWAMI that focus on building the health workforce for rural and underserved populations. As more Americans acquire health coverage, more health professionals will be needed, especially in primary care. Rural locations may face increased competition for these professionals. Medical schools are expanding their positions to meet the need, but limits on graduate medical education expansion may result in a bottleneck, with insufficient residency positions for graduating students. The development of ACOs may further challenge building a rural workforce by limiting training opportunities for health professionals because of competing demands and concerns about cost, efficiency, and safety associated with training. Medical education programs like WWAMI will need to increase efforts to train primary care physicians and increase their advocacy for student programs and additional graduate medical education for rural constituents.

  17. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  18. Commentary: Pediatric eHealth Interventions: Common Challenges During Development, Implementation, and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ric G.; Connelly, Mark A.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Ritterband, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of common challenges that pediatric eHealth researchers may encounter when planning, developing, testing, and disseminating eHealth interventions along with proposed solutions for addressing these challenges. Methods The article draws on the existing eHealth literature and the authors’ collective experience in pediatric eHealth research. Results and conclusions The challenges associated with eHealth interventions and their proposed solutions are multifaceted and cut across a number of areas from eHealth program development through dissemination. Collaboration with a range of individuals (e.g., multidisciplinary colleagues, commercial entities, primary stakeholders) is the key to eHealth intervention success. To ensure adequate resources for design, development, and planning for sustainability, a number of public and private sources of funding are available. A study design that addresses ethical concerns and security issues is critical to ensure scientific integrity and intervention dissemination. Table I summarizes key issues to consider during eHealth intervention development, testing, and dissemination. PMID:24816766

  19. Commentary: pediatric eHealth interventions: common challenges during development, implementation, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Steele, Ric G; Connelly, Mark A; Palermo, Tonya M; Ritterband, Lee M

    2014-07-01

    To provide an overview of common challenges that pediatric eHealth researchers may encounter when planning, developing, testing, and disseminating eHealth interventions along with proposed solutions for addressing these challenges. The article draws on the existing eHealth literature and the authors' collective experience in pediatric eHealth research. The challenges associated with eHealth interventions and their proposed solutions are multifaceted and cut across a number of areas from eHealth program development through dissemination. Collaboration with a range of individuals (e.g., multidisciplinary colleagues, commercial entities, primary stakeholders) is the key to eHealth intervention success. To ensure adequate resources for design, development, and planning for sustainability, a number of public and private sources of funding are available. A study design that addresses ethical concerns and security issues is critical to ensure scientific integrity and intervention dissemination. Table I summarizes key issues to consider during eHealth intervention development, testing, and dissemination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Challenges and solutions in natural gas engine development and productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Izanloo, Hossein [Irankhodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO) (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    As an alternative fuel, natural gas is generally accepted for internal combustion engines and some developments have been conducted in order to adopt it for the road vehicles and stationary applications. Foresights shows natural gas vehicles will be a part of the future transportation technology regarding to their mid and long-term benefits. Therefore inherent problems of natural gas engine technology should be overcome to produce a competitive engine. In this paper major problems and their possible solutions in developing and producing natural gas engine for passenger cars are detailed and discussed. Challenging materials are sorted and presented in two categorizes: technical and econo-strategical problems. In the technical section major difficulties faced in components or systems of natural gas engine are analysed in different aspects of design, validation, and production. In addition problems arisen from the fuel characteristics which influence the function and durability of engine are argued. Subjects like freezing in gas regulator, cold start fuel injection, gas leakage, impurities within compressed natural gas, variation in fuel composition, thermo-mechanics of cylinder head and block, wear of valve seat inserts, spark plug erosion, back-fire phenomenon, engine oil quality requirement, low power density and mileage are described. In the econo-strategical discussion, challenges like limited gas distribution infrastructure, lack of specific manufacturing standards and codes, and non-dedicated emission standards are explained. In both part of the paper a comprehensive view is extended to clarify the effect, risk and solutions of each problem. Due to the fact that almost all information and analysis presented in this paper are based on the experience of developing a natural gas engine family, and an extensive literature review, discussions and conclusions could be useful as a guide line for future natural gas engine projects. (orig.)

  1. Practices and Challenges in the Provision of Pre-Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 10(1), Serial ... This study concludes that only few schools in Monduli district provided pre-primary ... 1990). Hallinger (1992) asserts that one way to create education change is to improve.

  2. Diagnostic challenges in primary brain stem glioblastoma multiform; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taimur Malik, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem gliomas are rare form of primary brain tumors in adult and represent <2% of gliomas. Glioblastomas (GBM are much less common in pediatric patients; adult GBM vary in presentation and response to therapy, and generally have a very poor prognosis. GBM is less common in the brainstem, comprising <2% gliomas and there is therefore limited data available to provide a standard of care. Here we present a case report of a patient who presented with aggressive primary pontine GBM.

  3. Communication Challenges: A Qualitative Look at the Relationship Between Pediatric Hospitalists and Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Lauren G; Sherman, Susan N; DeBlasio, Dominick; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) and hospitalists endorse the importance of effective communication yet studies illustrate critical communication problems between these 2 provider types. Our objective was to develop deeper insight into the dimensions of and underlying reasons for communication issues and determine ways to improve communication and remove barriers by eliciting the perspectives of pediatric PCPs and hospitalists. Using qualitative methods, 2 sets of focus groups were held: 1) mix of local PCPs serving diverse populations, and 2) hospitalists from a free-standing, pediatric institution. The open-ended, semistructured question guides included questions about communication experiences, patient care responsibilities, and suggestions for improvement. Using inductive thematic analysis, investigators coded the transcripts, and resolved differences through consensus. Six PCP (n = 27) and 3 hospitalist (n = 15) focus groups were held. Fifty-six percent of PCPs and 14% of hospitalists had been practicing for >10 years. Five major themes were identified: problematic aspects of communication, perceptions of provider roles, push-pull, postdischarge responsibilities/care, and proposed solutions. Aspects of communication included specific problem areas with verbal and written communication. Perceptions of provider roles highlighted the issue of PCPs feeling devalued. Push-pull described conflicting expectations about a counterpart's role and responsibilities. Postdischarge responsibilities/care addressed unclear responsibilities related to patient follow-up. Proposed solutions were suggested for ways to improve communication. Deficiencies in communication hinder successful collaboration and can cause tension between providers in inpatient and outpatient settings. Understanding specific issues that contribute to poor communication like perceptions about provider roles is critical to improving relationships and facilitating combined efforts to improve patient care

  4. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, “isolate, inactivate, and inject” the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.

  5. Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Gerard J.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Thomas G.; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The “Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy” session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials. PMID:25148426

  6. Challenges and future in vaccines, drug development, and immunomodulatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials.

  7. Viticulture – Challenge for Tourism Development (Znojmo Case Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, which deals with the issue whether the viticulture can be the challenge for tourism development, is based on research conducted in Znojmo case study area (the Czech Republic. It starts with general introduction of wine tourism concept based on the selected results of the previous scientific researches. The second part of the article brings description of the methods and brief characterisation of case study area. The third part pays attention to the analyses of the selected statistical data showing importance of viticulture for the case study area. The main fourth part is focused on selected activities which are connected with projects developing wine tourism (especially vineyards and vine festivals, where cooperation of different actors is necessary and continues by analysing of the potential of more intensive development of wine tourism on example of the important actor in case study area – wine producer Znovín Znojmo. The conducted research shows strong local embededness and association of company with the tourism industry. The article concludes with general recommendations, which emphasize the importance of effective partnership of the different actors by successful development of wine tourism.

  8. Girassol I. Girassol development: project challenges and reservoir uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancelin, J.P.; Pelleau, R.; Serceau, A. [TotalFinaElf, la Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-10-01

    The Girassol Field is located 210 km northwest of Luanda, the Angolan capital, and about 150 km from shore. Girassol was the first discovery made in the prolific Block 17. This was followed by Dalia, Rosa, Lirio, Jasmim, Cravo, Orchidea, etc. April 1996: Girassol field is discovered on Block 17 in deep waters, offshore Angola. July 1998: The Girassol development project is approved by all parties. December 2001: Less than three and a half years after approval, Girassol comes on-stream. By the end of 2001, daily production is 100000 b/d with the production plateau of 200000 b/d to be reached by April 2002. The reservoir, located in 1,400 m water depth, is large (10 km by 14 km). Estimated oil in place is 1,550 mmbbls with recoverable reserves put at 725 mmbbls. The oil quality of 32 deg API is close to Brent specifications. The Girassol development scheme is based on 39 sub-sea wells - 23 oil producers, 14 water injectors and two gas injectors. The field will be developed in two phases: the first phase, completed in December 2001, includes 11 wells - eight oil producers, two water injectors and one gas injector. The second phase development is ongoing and will be completed mid-2003. The overall investment for the two phases of the Girassol development is US$ 2.8 bn. The Girassol project team had to fulfill three main objectives: first priority was given to technical quality; second priority was to closely monitor the development budget and contain the final cost; third priority was to achieve first oil as early as possible. Describe the Girassol reservoir and explain the main subsurface uncertainties; describe the selected development scheme; explain Girassol's major challenges; describe the contractual strategy information on cost, schedule and the project organisation are given. (authors)

  9. Management of primary adrenal insufficiency: Review of current clinical practice in a developed and a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  10. Management of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Review of Current Clinical Practice in a Developed and a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma; Lakhani, Om J

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs) and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  11. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  12. Current state and challenges in developing oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Ramirez, Julia E; Sharpe, Lindsey A; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-05-15

    While vaccination remains the most cost effective strategy for disease prevention, communicable diseases persist as the second leading cause of death worldwide. There is a need to design safe, novel vaccine delivery methods to protect against unaddressed and emerging diseases. Development of vaccines administered orally is preferable to traditional injection-based formulations for numerous reasons including improved safety and compliance, and easier manufacturing and administration. Additionally, the oral route enables stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses at both systemic and mucosal sites to establish broader and long-lasting protection. However, oral delivery is challenging, requiring formulations to overcome the harsh gastrointestinal (GI) environment and avoid tolerance induction to achieve effective protection. Here we address the rationale for oral vaccines, including key biological and physicochemical considerations for next-generation oral vaccine design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  14. Complex Challenges in the Less-Developed World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    The developing world faces special challenges in a changing climate. The immediate impacts of possible increased precipitation, more frequent and severe hazard events and sea-level rise are compounded by lack of resources and, often, rapidly growing populations. We examine the concept that the society that learns to deal with hazards in the current climate will be best placed to deal with possibly more frequent and more intense hazards in the future. We use as an example the conundrum facing Bangladesh where global sea-level rise is exaggerated by delta subsidence of river sediment. Sedimentation is expected to increase with increased river flow. We explore how authorities may deal with these multifaceted threats and how they need to carefully thread a strategy that leads to solutions and not exaggerations of the problem.

  15. Functional imaging and the cerebellum: recent developments and challenges. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Recent neuroimaging developments allow a better in vivo characterization of the structural and functional connectivity of the human cerebellum. Ultrahigh fields, which considerably increase spatial resolution, enable to visualize deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebello-cortical sublayers. Tractography reconstructs afferent and efferent pathway of the cerebellum. Resting-state functional connectivity individualizes the prewired, parallel close-looped sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective networks passing through the cerebellum. These results are un agreement with activation maps obtained during stimulation functional neuroimaging or inferred from neurological deficits due to cerebellar lesions. Therefore, neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that cerebellum constitutes a general modulator involved in optimizing mental performance and computing internal models. However, the great challenges will remain to unravel: (1) the functional role of red and bulbar olivary nuclei, (2) the information processing in the cerebellar microcircuitry, and (3) the abstract computation performed by the cerebellum and shared by sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective domains.

  16. Protein based therapeutic delivery agents: Contemporary developments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liming; Yuvienco, Carlo; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-07-01

    As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics, gene therapies, protein biologics and cells. Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic, a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery. This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process development report: 0.40-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables

  18. The challenge of developing ethical guidelines for a research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism Development in Ulithi Atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ongaro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the tourism potential of Ulithi Atoll, in the Federated States of Micronesia. It identifies possibilities for sustainable tourism development, while taking into account the major issues that threaten the environment, the cultural integrity and the future of the local community. Through a review of existing research and an assessment of the web presence, the study develops a diagnosis of the current situation of the tourism sector in the destination. The tourism potential of Ulithi mainly relies on its beautiful physical environment and authentic cultural heritage, but it is still largely untapped due to limited development. Tourism represents a strategic tool for the economic growth and empowerment of Ulithi community. Presently, however, the atoll’s biggest problem is the recovery from the recent disastrous Typhoon Maysak. Other pressing challenges are climate change and the erosion of traditional knowledge. The study identifies ecotourism and voluntourism as key niche market opportunities for the destination. Encouraging greater participation among the stakeholders and a concrete commitment to sustainability within the strategic plans are some of the recommendations that aim to build the tourism industry in a way that supports the local culture, the natural resources and the way of life.

  20. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  1. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Nyasha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these reforms. As a result of the reforms, the Australian stock market has developed in terms of the number of listed companies, the market capitalisation, the total value of stocks traded, and the turnover ratio. Although the stock market in Australia has developed remarkably over the years, and was spared by the global financial crisis of the late 2000s, it still faces some challenges. These include the increased economic uncertainty overseas, the downtrend in global financial markets, and the restrained consumer confidence in Australia.

  2. Developing a response to family violence in primary health care: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye

    2016-08-20

    Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective

  3. The challenges of boundary spanners in supporting inter-organizational collaboration in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Joensen, Anne Sofie Kjær; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    the municipalities and general practice. Methods: The study is based on semi-structured interviews with ten general practitioners acting as municipal practice consultants in the Capital Region of Denmark. The transcribed interviews were analyzed in several steps organizing the material into a set of coherent...... and distinct categories covering the different types of challenges experienced by the informants. Results: The main challenges of the general practitioners acting as boundary spanners were: 1) defining and negotiating the role in terms of tasks and competencies; 2) representing and mobilizing colleagues...

  4. Dopamine signaling and myopia development: What are the key challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Pardue, Machelle T; Iuvone, P Michael; Qu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development. This review will revisit several key points of evidence for and against DA mediating light control of myopia: 1) the causal role of extracellular retinal DA levels, 2) the mechanism and action of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and 3) the roles of cellular/circuit retinal pathways. We examine the experiments that show causation by altering DA, DA receptors and visual pathways using pharmacological, transgenic, or visual environment approaches. Furthermore, we critically evaluate the safety issues of a DA-based treatment strategy and some approaches to address these issues. The review identifies the key questions and challenges in translating basic knowledge on DA signaling and myopia from animal studies into effective pharmacological treatments for myopia in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a Model of Teaching English to Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarsih Madya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the auspices of the Centre for Curriculum Decelopment, a three-cycle action research study was carried out in three primary schools in Yogyakarta with the aim of developing a model of teaching English to primary school students. The model consists of five parts: Opening, Content Focus, Language Focus, Communication Focus, and Closing. The model, requiring that learning tasks involve active participation of students, both physically and mentally, supported by the use of media suitable for young learners, was developmentally fully implemented. The results showed that efforts were mostly made to establish teacher-student rapport in the first cycle, in which success in classroom management was gradually reached. This led to the easier second cycle, which was characterized by increasing teacher talk (classroom English, the use of interesting media, and more active students' participation in the tasks involving various games which successfully elicited students' English. All of this was solidified in the third cycle. The conclusion is that with the three aspects being focused successively, teacher-student good rapport being established, various media being used, and competing and cooperative tasks being assigned in balance, joyful and effective learning is likely to occur.

  6. Raising Awareness of Urban Environment Development in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Maja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, excessive efforts have been made to increase the city’s attractiveness and its international positioning. Also studies on the so-called city destination branding are on the rise. Theorists, as Ramirez (2001, Marzano and Scott (2009, among many others, are discussing different aspects of this complex process. Many approaches and strategies are dealing with the positioning of urban environments and city destinations, trying to provide at least some partial answers about achieving this objective. With proper marketing and branding, cities can do a lot to attract tourists and visitors. For successful city marketing and branding and for the successful long-term positioning of the destination in general, it is necessary to involve the key stakeholders and collaborate with as many as possible despite the fact that the branding of a city destination (or any destination for that matter is a complex process. It is significant that all the stakeholders, who are always carriers of different interests, are invited to collaborate in the planning of the tourism development and tourism development strategies, from the government, the private sector, schools etc. It is also important to involve the citizens, who can provide a valuable opinion about the environment they live in – what they like about their environment, what suggestion would they give to tourists about gastronomy, attractions, shops, events, etc. It is significant that citizens are proud of their urban environment, that they know their own environment, and that they have the motivation for the involvement in the process of improvement of their home environment (through projects, discussions, etc.. It is impossible to create attractive urban environments or cities if residents do not have a positive opinion about the place they live in. That is why it is essential for the education institutions at all levels, but especially for the institutions at the primary levels to

  7. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  8. A Proactive and Responsive Bio-Psychosocial Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviour in Mainstream Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lorraine O. B.; Senior, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Research in the area of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and teacher's struggle to respond to challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms, has consistently highlighted the need for proventative and responsive approaches within a continuum of support. This study aims to, firstly, investigate what proactive and reactive strategies…

  9. Gifted Females: Teachers, Nurses and Astronauts; A Unit on Gender Issues; PEAC: Primary Extension and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carole C.

    1994-01-01

    Gifted girls (ages 10-12) in Western Australia participated in a gender issues course to promote self-esteem and gender identity, challenge traditional beliefs, and raise political awareness of antisexism. The course focused on expression of shared experiences; the Greek myth of Pandora; stereotypes in television programs, literature, and greeting…

  10. Psychosocial Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Public Primary Schools: Challenges and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa; Pillay, Jace

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) with regard to their education and living. However, relatively few studies have documented the psychosocial support provided for OVC in public primary schools to enhance their psychosocial well-being. This study therefore contributes to the understanding of the challenges…

  11. Primary care and behavioral health practice size: the challenge for health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark S; Leader, Deane; Un, Hyong; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the size profile of US primary care and behavioral health physician practices since size may impact the ability to institute care management processes (CMPs) that can enhance care quality. We utilized 2009 claims data from a nationwide commercial insurer to estimate practice size by linking providers by tax identification number. We determined the proportion of primary care physicians, psychiatrists, and behavioral health providers practicing in venues of >20 providers per practice (the lower bound for current CMP practice surveys). Among primary care physicians (n=350,350), only 2.1% of practices consisted of >20 providers. Among behavioral health practitioners (n=146,992) and psychiatrists (n=44,449), 1.3% and 1.0% of practices, respectively, had >20 providers. Sensitivity analysis excluding single-physician practices as "secondary" confirmed findings, with primary care and psychiatrist practices of >20 providers comprising, respectively, only 19.4% and 8.8% of practices (difference: Pestimate practice census for a high-complexity, high-cost behavioral health condition; only 1.3-18 patients per practice had claims for this condition. The tax identification number method for estimating practice size has strengths and limitations that complement those of survey methods. The proportion of practices below the lower bound of prior CMP studies is substantial, and care models and policies will need to address the needs of such practices and their patients. Achieving a critical mass of patients for disorder-specific CMPs will require coordination across multiple small practices.

  12. Grave's Disease and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis—An Unusual and Challenging Association

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shiran; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar; Venkatakrishnan, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Jaundice in Grave's diseases is uncommon, but when it does occur, complication of thyrotoxicosis (heart failure/infection) or intrinsic liver disease should be considered. Grave's disease can cause asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, jaundice and rarely acute liver failure. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. The cause of jaundice in Grave's disease is multifactorial.

  13. Grave's Disease and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis-An Unusual and Challenging Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shiran; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar; Venkatakrishnan, Leela

    2014-03-01

    Jaundice in Grave's diseases is uncommon, but when it does occur, complication of thyrotoxicosis (heart failure/infection) or intrinsic liver disease should be considered. Grave's disease can cause asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, jaundice and rarely acute liver failure. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. The cause of jaundice in Grave's disease is multifactorial.

  14. Development of mini-LIA and primary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Cheng; Liao Shuqing; Zheng Shuxin; Lin Yuzheng; Tang Chuanxiang; Jing Xiaobing; Mu Fan; Pan Haifeng; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Mini-LIA is a miniature of a linear induction accelerator developed by China Academy of Engineering Physics and Tsinghua University in 2007. It has been constructed with a thermionic cathode in an electron injector and a metglas core in the induction accelerator cavities. A double-pulsed electron beam was produced for the first time in China on the Mini-LIA with a thermionic cathode in the electron gun and a metglas core in the induction accelerator cavities. A double-pulsed beam current of more than 1.1A was obtained on condition of 80 kV double-pulsed high voltage produced by pulsed power system supplying to the injector and accelerating modules. Some primary experiments for measuring the parameters of Mini-LIA has been performed, and some beam characterizations of Mini-LIA are presented. Further improvement is underway. (authors)

  15. Current status of syphilis vaccine development: need, challenges, prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Caroline E; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2014-03-20

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Despite inexpensive and effective antibiotic therapy, syphilis remains a prevalent disease in developing countries and has re-emerged as a public health threat in developed nations. In addition to the medical burden imparted by infectious syphilis, congenital syphilis is considered the most significant infectious disease affecting fetuses and newborns worldwide, and individuals afflicted with syphilis have an enhanced risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. The global disease burden of syphilis and failure of decades of public health efforts to stem the incidence of disease highlight the need for an effective syphilis vaccine. Although challenges associated with T. pallidum research have impeded understanding of this pathogen, the existence of a relevant animal model has enabled insight into the correlates of disease protection. Complete protection against infection has been achieved in the animal model using an extended immunization regimen of γ-irradiated T. pallidum, demonstrating the importance of treponemal surface components in generation of protective immunity and the feasibility of syphilis vaccine development. Syphilis is a prime candidate for development of a successful vaccine due to the (1) research community's accumulated knowledge of immune correlates of protection; (2) existence of a relevant animal model that enables effective pre-clinical analyses; (3) universal penicillin susceptibility of T. pallidum which enhances the attractiveness of clinical vaccine trials; and (4) significant public health benefit a vaccine would have on reduction of infectious/congenital syphilis and HIV rates. Critical personnel, research and market gaps need to be addressed before the goal of a syphilis vaccine can be realized, including recruitment of additional researchers to the T. pallidum research field with a proportional increase in research funding

  16. Meeting the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition still remains one of the major public health challenges, particularly in developing countries. Major risk factors for undernutrition such as suboptimal breastfeeding and micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A and zinc) are responsible for more than one-third of all under five child deaths and 11% of the global total disease burden. Several strategies have been employed to supplement micronutrients. These include education, dietary modification, food provision, supplementation and fortification either alone or in combination. Supplementation is the most widely practiced intervention while fortification can also be a potentially cost-effective public health intervention and target a larger population through a single strategy. Universal coverage with the full bundle of interventions including micronutrient provision, complementary foods, treatments for worms and diarrheal diseases and behavior change programs package could be the way forward in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Bio-fortification and agricultural interventions including home and school gardening are relatively newer strategies and require further research as they have the potential to impact nutritional status of populations at large. Effectiveness of the various interventions is well recognized; however, consensus needs to be built around approaches to scale up coverage and delivery strategies to reduce disparities and provide equitable access. Future studies should focus on evaluating various approaches to address malnutrition with a standard methodology and defined outcomes. This will help gauge the actual morbidity and mortality impacts of these specific interventions and the long-term viability of these programs. On a broader scale, strategies to address food insecurity and poverty alleviation are the key as these are complex sustainable development issues, linked to health through malnutrition, but also to sustainable economic development, environment and trade.

  17. Sustainability Challenge of Micro Hydro Power Development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didik, H.; Bambang, P. N.; Asep, S.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Rural electrification using renewable energy is the best choice for many locations that far away from national grid. Many renewable energy project have been built for rural electrification such as micro hydro power plant (MHPP) and solar photovoltaic (SPV). Sustainability still the main challenge of off-grid renewable energy development for off-grid rural electrification in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to review sustainability of micro hydro power development in Indonesia. The research method was done by field observation, interview with MHPP management, and reviewing some research about MHPP in Indonesia. Sustainability issues include various aspects that can be classified into 5 dimensions: technical, economic, socio-cultural, institutional, and environmental. In technical factors that lead to sustainability problem are: improper MHPP design and construction, improper operation and maintenance, availability of spare parts and expertise. In the economic dimension are generally related to: low electricity tariff and utilization of MHPP for productive use. In the social dimension are: the growth of consumer’s load exceeding the capacity, reduced number of consumers, lack of external institutional support. In the institutional side, it is generally related to the ability of human resources in managing, operating and maintaining of MHPP. Environmental factors that lead the sustainability problems of MHPP are: scarcity of water discharge, conflict of water resources, land conversion over the watershed, and natural disasters.

  18. Occupational allergy as a challenge to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzynski, Konrad; Palczynski, Cezary

    2004-05-20

    A steady increase in the incidence of allergic diseases can be observed since 1950s. For such atopic diseases as bronchial asthma, pollinosis or atopic dermatitis, a significantly increased morbidity rate in the general population has been found. Strikingly enough, the highest prevalence of asthma and allergy was recorded in highly developed countries. It can thus be assumed that the high rate of asthma may be an attribute of the post-industrial societies. The prevalence of occupational allergies is thought to be in direct proportion to the rate with which allergies occur in the general population. In view of the changing environment and lifestyles in the developing countries, their communities are expected to be faced with similar negative epidemiological effects concerning allergies. To counteract the spreading of negative health effects, the following measures need to be undertaken: 1. Limitation of exposure to strong allergens. 2. Modification of the training curriculum for medical personnel and of health service infrastructure, according to new tasks and challenges. 3. Considering a possibility of introducing a system of surveillance over occupational allergies and asthma, like the Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease (SWORD) system implemented in UK. This system ensures effective cooperation between specialists in preventive medicine, occupational hygiene services and research workers dealing with occupational health that enables prompt response to emerging hazards.

  19. Examining the Role of Primary Care Physicians and Challenges Faced When Their Patients Transition to Home Hospice Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Ariel; Phongtankuel, Veerawat; Lampa, Katherine; Reid, M C; Eiss, Brian M; Bhatia, Sonica; Adelman, Ronald D

    2018-04-01

    The transition into home hospice care is often a critical time in a patient's medical care. Studies have shown patients and caregivers desire continuity with their physicians at the end of life (EoL). However, it is unclear what roles primary care physicians (PCPs) play and what challenges they face caring for patients transitioning into home hospice care. To understand PCPs' experiences, challenges, and preferences when their patients transition to home hospice care. Nineteen semi-structured phone interviews with PCPs were conducted. Study data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Participants included PCPs from 3 academic group practices in New York City. Measured: Physician recordings were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Most PCPs noted that there was a discrepancy between their actual role and ideal role when their patients transitioned to home hospice care. Primary care physicians expressed a desire to maintain continuity, provide psychosocial support, and collaborate actively with the hospice team. Better establishment of roles, more frequent communication with the hospice team, and use of technology to communicate with patients were mentioned as possible ways to help PCPs achieve their ideal role caring for their patients receiving home hospice care. Primary care physicians expressed varying degrees of involvement during a patient's transition to home hospice care, but many desired to be more involved in their patient's care. As with patients, physicians desire to maintain continuity with their patients at the EoL and solutions to improve communication between PCPs, hospice providers, and patients need to be explored.

  20. The promises and challenges of future reactor system developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    improved economy when compared to currently the existing plants. The APR 1400 has been developed since 1991 and it is expected that its first commercial operation will be in 2012. In the short term by 2011, the APR-1400 design will be improved from the viewpoints of safety, economics and performance. We are also developing a small integral reactor SMART, which is a promising advanced small and medium-size power category of nuclear reactors. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of new innovative design features and proven technologies aimed at achieving a highly enhanced safety and improved economics. SMART is purposed for dual applications such as for seawater desalination and electricity generation. Since the SMART technology is technically sound and has sufficient economics, the SMART desalination plant has good prospects of being deployed as a nuclear desalination plant. We are also actively participating in the GEN IV collaboration (GIF: GEN IV International Forum) for a VHTR and a SFR technology development. Through close collaboration with GIF, a proliferation-resistant SFR technology will be developed based on KALIMAER for an effective uranium utilization and waste minimization. Also a high temperature reactor is currently under development to demonstrate a nuclear based hydrogen production technology. Korea is really looking ahead by developing new generation of advanced nuclear reactor systems for a sustainable development, economical benefits, a clean environment and public confidence. In this paper, Korean nuclear reactor technology development program is described together with lessons learned from self-reliance in nuclear reactor technology. In addition, this paper presents the status of the next generation reactor system development program and the future reactor system development program for addressing these challenges

  1. The effectiveness of development programming strength in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Khudolii

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of optimizing development strength in primary school children. The purpose of the program is to validate the technology development strength abilities in the classroom physical education at school. A program of strength training by taking into account the effects of power loads. Found that the use of the combined method (option I makes it possible to obtain positive results in force readiness school classes 2-4 through 3-9 sessions. The combined method (option II significantly affects the dynamics of the forces of the local group of muscles. The use of mobile gaming allows for a higher level of emotional strength to develop the ability of students. The dynamics of power indices (option II significantly affects operation: dynamic method - 25-45 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of maximum effort - 18-30 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds method of isometric effort - 15-25 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of repeated efforts - 36-60 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds.

  2. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of development programming strength in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of optimizing development strength in primary school children. The purpose of the program is to validate the technology development strength abilities in the classroom physical education at school. A program of strength training by taking into account the effects of power loads. Found that the use of the combined method (option I makes it possible to obtain positive results in force readiness school classes 2-4 through 3-9 sessions. The combined method (option II significantly affects the dynamics of the forces of the local group of muscles. The use of mobile gaming allows for a higher level of emotional strength to develop the ability of students. The dynamics of power indices (option II significantly affects operation: dynamic method - 25-45 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of maximum effort - 18-30 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds method of isometric effort - 15-25 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of repeated efforts - 36-60 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds.

  4. Dengue vaccines: Challenges, development, current status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus (DENV is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The clinical spectrum of dengue, caused by any of the four serotypes of DENV, ranges from mild self-limiting dengue fever to severe dengue, in the form dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Increased rates of hospitalization due to severe dengue, during outbreaks, result in massive economic losses and strained health services. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, control of transmission of DENV by vector management is the sole method available for decreasing dengue-associated morbidity. Since vector control strategies alone have not been able to satisfactorily achieve reduction in viral transmission, the implementation of a safe, efficacious and cost-effective dengue vaccine as a supplementary measure is a high public health priority. However, the unique and complex immunopathology of dengue has complicated vaccine development. Dengue vaccines have also been challenged by critical issues like lack of animal models for the disease and absence of suitable markers of protective immunity. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under phases of development, including live attenuated virus vaccines, live chimeric virus vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines and viral-vectored vaccines. Although some vaccine candidates have progressed from animal trials to phase II and III in humans, a number of issues regarding implementation of dengue vaccine in countries like India still need to be addressed. Despite the current limitations, collaborative effects of regulatory bodies like World Health Organization with vaccine manufacturers and policy makers, to facilitate vaccine development and standardize field trials can make a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine a reality in near future.

  5. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana, E-mail: l.abarca.guerrero@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Ger, E-mail: g.j.maas@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hogland, William, E-mail: william.hogland@lnu.se [School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information

  6. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stakeholders. ► Factors affecting performance waste management systems. ► Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders’ action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems’ failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems

  7. Thailand: Infrastructure Development and Challenges to Launch Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinmeesuke, Sirichai

    2011-01-01

    In June 2007, the cabinet passed a resolution for Thailand's Power Development Plan (PDP 2007). It was mentioned in the plan that Thailand will have 2 x 1,000 MWe nuclear power plants in 2020 and another 2 x 1,000 MWe in 2021. The PDP 2007 was revised in March 2009 and it was agreed to change the nuclear power generation to only 1 x 1,000 MWe in 2020 and 2021 respectively due to the large excess capacity at present. Many activities related to development of infrastructures in order to support electricity generation using nuclear power are being executed. Milestones for nuclear power program implementation has been developed using the IAEA document 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power' with some amendment/additions to suit the country situation. According to the schedule, a lot of activities related to infrastructure establishment, feasibility study, utility preparation and public education and participation are being performed. Within the year 2011, various issues such as legal and regulatory systems and international commitment, industrial and commercial infrastructure, technology transfer and human resource development, safety and environmental protection, public information and public acceptance, preparation of the nuclear power utility establishment, etc. must be solved out and undertaken to assure the cabinet to make final decision to go nuclear. There are many challenges for Thailand embarking of the nuclear power programme. It is essential to plan for the establishment of a regulatory body at the national level to support and regulate the nuclear power plant industry. Currently, the application for a license and the monitoring of a power plant are administered by the authorities of various agencies under different ministries; hence the process is very time-consuming and overlaps with one another. The approach that the regulatory body and the authorities to issue licenses relevant to the nuclear power plant operation

  8. Primary Bladder Neurofibroma: A Rare Case with Clinical Implications and Diagnostic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Srikanth; Naik, Ramadas; Bukelo, Maryann Margaret; Rai, Sharada; Prabhu, Laxman

    2015-09-01

    Neurofibroma of the genito-urinary tract is rare. Urinary bladder is the commonest organ involved in cases of urinary tract involvement. Patients present early in life and there is male preponderance. We discuss here a case of primary neurofibroma of the urinary bladder in a 52-year-male presenting with haematuria, irritative bladder symptoms and pelvic mass. Cystoscopy showed a swelling in the left lateral wall. A transurethral biopsy revealed neurofibroma of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis.

  9. Grave's Disease and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis—An Unusual and Challenging Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shiran; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar; Venkatakrishnan, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Jaundice in Grave's diseases is uncommon, but when it does occur, complication of thyrotoxicosis (heart failure/infection) or intrinsic liver disease should be considered. Grave's disease can cause asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, jaundice and rarely acute liver failure. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. The cause of jaundice in Grave's disease is multifactorial. PMID:25755537

  10. Genetics in primary health care and the National Policy on Comprehensive Care for People with Rare Diseases in Brazil: opportunities and challenges for professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Débora Gusmão; de Paula, Pamela Karen; de Araujo Rodrigues, Stephania; da Silva de Avó, Lucimar Retto; Germano, Carla Maria Ramos; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva

    2015-07-01

    As discoveries regarding the genetic contribution to disease have grown rapidly, health care professionals are expected to incorporate genetic and genomic perspectives into health education and practice. Genetic competencies common to all health professionals have been identified by the US National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics (NCHPEG), which defined the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to achieve these competencies. The aim of this study is to analyze genetic competencies of primary health care professionals in Brazil. It is a descriptive survey study, whereby doctors, nurses, and dentists were invited to participate by answering a questionnaire including 11 issues based on competencies established by the NCHPEG. Data were presented as percentages. Differences between groups of participants were assessed by the Fisher exact test, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results showed that concerning knowledge, about 80 % of the participants recognized basic genetics terminology, but practitioners had difficulty in identifying patterns of inheritance. Regarding clinical skills, practitioners were able to recognize facial dysmorphias and identify situations where referral of patients to specialists was necessary. Nevertheless, there were challenges in the process of valuing and gathering information about family history. Regarding attitudes, 68.9 % of the participants thought about the comprehensiveness of care but faced challenges in counselling parents. The results of this study may contribute to developing an ongoing education program for primary health care professionals, leading to a strategy to overcome the challenges of including genetics in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  11. Locoregional Recurrent or Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer: Management Strategies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stuart J; Heron, Dwight E; Stenson, Kerstin; Ling, Diane C; Vargo, John A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with locoregional recurrent or second primary head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been guided by well-reasoned principles and informed by carefully tested chemotherapy and radiation regimens. However, clinical decision making for this population is complicated by many factors. Although surgery is generally considered the treatment of choice for patients with HNSCC with recurrent disease or new second primary disease in a previously irradiated field, operability of cases is not always straightforward. Postoperative treatment is frequently warranted but carries significant risk. In addition, the rapid rise in the incidence of HPV-associated HNSCC raises the question of whether established treatment paradigms should be re-examined in this population of patients with a much better prognosis than the non-HPV population. Furthermore, new radiation techniques and new systemic agents show early promising results in recent clinical studies, suggesting potential for practice-changing effects in the future management of this disease. This article examines each of the treatment modalities used in the care of patients with HNSCC with recurrent or new second primary disease and provides a perspective to aid clinicians in the management of this disease.

  12. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  13. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers.

  14. Technical Challenges in Developing Software to Collect Twitter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chudnov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two years, George Washington University Libraries developed Social Feed Manager (SFM, a Python and Django-based application for collecting social media data from Twitter. Expanding the project from a research prototype to a more widely useful application has presented a number of technical challenges, including changes in the Twitter API, supervision of simultaneous streaming processes, management, storage, and organization of collected data, meeting researcher needs for groups or sets of data, and improving documentation to facilitate other institutions’ installation and use of SFM. This article will describe how the Social Feed Manager project addressed these issues, use of supervisord to manage processes, and other technical decisions made in the course of this project through late summer 2014. This article is targeted towards librarians and archivists who are interested in building collections around web archives and social media data, and have a particular interest in the technical work involved in applying software to the problem of building a sustainable collection management program around these sources.

  15. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  16. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Re-thinking Innovation in Organizations in the Industry 4.0 Scenario: New Challenges in a Primary Prevention Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bucci, Ornella; Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2018-01-01

    In organizations, innovation is considered a relevant aspect of success and long-term survival. Organizations recognize that innovation contributes to creating competitive advantages in a more competitive, challenging and changing labor market. The present contribution addresses innovation in organizations in the scenario of Industry 4.0, including technological innovation and psychological innovation. Innovation is a core concept in this framework to face the challenge of globalized and fluid labor market in the 21st century. Reviewing the definition of innovation, the article focuses on innovative work behaviors and the relative measures. This perspective article also suggests new directions in a primary prevention perspective for future research and intervention relative to innovation and innovative work behaviors in the organizational context.

  18. Studies on herd-immunity and primary versus secondary infection of VHSV in challenge and vaccination trials with rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil; Lorenzen, Niels

    as well as selective breeding, i.e. the more non-susceptible individuals in a population, the lower the risk of disease among susceptible individuals. Thus as part of a recent field trial with a VHS-DNA-vaccine vaccinated as well as naïve fish from a Danish fish farm were brought to the laboratory......Abstract for Scofda meeting 4-5.11.09 Studies on herd-immunity effect and primary versus secondary infection of VHSV by Ellen Lorenzen, Torben Eigil Kjær & Niels Lorenzen, National Veterinary Laboratory, Århus The phenomenon of “herd-immunity” is one of the basal principles behind vaccination...... at a size of 24g to be subjected to an experimental challenge with VHSV. The setup included 7 aquaria with 100 fish in each: 2 aquaria with 100 vaccinated fish (+VHS-challenge), 2 aquaria with 100 naïve fish (+ VHS-challenge), 2 aquaria with 50 vaccinated + 50 naïve fish (+VHS-challenge), and 1 aquarium...

  19. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Administrative Challenges to the Integration of Oral Health With Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Hannah L.; Randolph, Courtney; Gano, Laura; Kochhar, Komal

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate access to preventive oral health services contributes to oral health disparities and is a major public health concern in the United States. Federally Qualified Health Centers play a critical role in improving access to care for populations affected by oral health disparities but face a number of administrative challenges associated with implementation of oral health integration models. We conducted a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with health care executives to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of successful oral health integration in Federally Qualified Health Centers. Four themes were identified: (1) culture of health care organizations; (2) operations and administration; (3) finance; and (4) workforce. PMID:27218701

  1. Challenges in interdisciplinary weight management in primary care: lessons learned from the 5As Team study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, J; Osunlana, A M; Ogunleye, A A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, research is directed at advancing methods to address obesity management in primary care. In this paper we describe the role of interdisciplinary collaboration, or lack thereof, in patient weight management within 12 teams in a large primary care network in Alberta, Canada. Qualitative data for the present analysis were derived from the 5As Team (5AsT) trial, a mixed-method randomized control trial of a 6-month participatory, team-based educational intervention aimed at improving the quality and quantity of obesity management encounters in primary care practice. Participants (n = 29) included in this analysis are healthcare providers supporting chronic disease management in 12 family practice clinics randomized to the intervention arm of the 5AsT trial including mental healthcare workers (n = 7), registered dietitians (n = 7), registered nurses or nurse practitioners (n = 15). Participants were part of a 6-month intervention consisting of 12 biweekly learning sessions aimed at increasing provider knowledge and confidence in addressing patient weight management. Qualitative methods included interviews, structured field notes and logs. Four common themes of importance in the ability of healthcare providers to address weight with patients within an interdisciplinary care team emerged, (i) Availability; (ii) Referrals; (iii) Role perception and (iv) Messaging. However, we find that what was key to our participants was not that these issues be uniformly agreed upon by all team members, but rather that communication and clinic relationships support their continued negotiation. Our study shows that firm clinic relationships and deliberate communication strategies are the foundation of interdisciplinary care in weight management. Furthermore, there is a clear need for shared messaging concerning obesity and its treatment between members of interdisciplinary teams. © 2016 World Obesity.

  2. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other Language learners in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie O'Connor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  3. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  4. Development of softcopy environment for primary color banding visibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungseok; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2008-01-01

    Fine-pitch banding is one of the most unwanted artifacts in laser electrophotographic (EP) printers. It is perceived as a quasiperiodic fluctuation in the process direction. Therefore, it is essential for printer vendors to know how banding is perceived by humans in order to improve print quality. Monochrome banding has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers; but there is no literature that deals with the banding of color laser printers as measured from actual prints. The study of color banding is complicated by the fact that the color banding signal is physically defined in a three-dimensional color space, while banding perception is described in a one-dimensional sense such as more banding or less banding. In addition, the color banding signal arises from the independent contributions of the four primary colorant banding signals. It is not known how these four distinct signals combine to give rise to the perception of color banding. In this paper, we develop a methodology to assess the banding visibility of the primary colorant cyan based on human visual perception. This is our first step toward studying the more general problem of color banding in combinations of two or more colorants. According to our method, we print and scan the cyan test patch, and extract the banding profile as a one dimensional signal so that we can freely adjust the intensity of banding. Thereafter, by exploiting the pulse width modulation capability of the laser printer, the extracted banding profile is used to modulate a pattern consisting of periodic lines oriented in the process direction, to generate extrinsic banding. This avoids the effect of the halftoning algorithm on the banding. Furthermore, to conduct various banding assessments more efficiently, we also develop a softcopy environment that emulates a hardcopy image on a calibrated monitor, which requires highly accurate device calibration throughout the whole system. To achieve the same color appearance as the hardcopy

  5. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  6. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2011-02-01

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant sense of

  7. Issues and Challenges in the Development of Entrepreneurship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    sociology, and teacher education as well as business education. It prepares and builds ... global economic crisis and its energy crisis requires graduates who will be .... today when the world is confronted with big challenges that extend well.

  8. Nigeria's Development Challenges in a Digitalized Global Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the rising knowledge intensity that permeates every aspect of life, Nigeria ... and power supply, widespread insecurity, poverty and high illiteracy level. In other to overcome these challenges, the paper recommends among others sound ...

  9. Generation of global political priority for early childhood development: the challenges of framing and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawar, Yusra Ribhi; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2017-01-07

    Despite progress, early childhood development (ECD) remains a neglected issue, particularly in resource-poor countries. We analyse the challenges and opportunities that ECD proponents face in advancing global priority for the issue. We triangulated among several data sources, including 19 semi-structured interviews with individuals involved in global ECD leadership, practice, and advocacy, as well as peer-reviewed research, organisation reports, and grey literature. We undertook a thematic analysis of the collected data, drawing on social science scholarship on collective action and a policy framework that elucidates why some global initiatives are more successful in generating political priority than others. The analysis indicates that the ECD community faces two primary challenges in advancing global political priority. The first pertains to framing: generation of internal consensus on the definition of the problem and solutions, agreement that could facilitate the discovery of a public positioning of the issue that could generate political support. The second concerns governance: building of effective institutions to achieve collective goals. However, there are multiple opportunities to advance political priority for ECD, including an increasingly favourable political environment, advances in ECD metrics, and the existence of compelling arguments for investment in ECD. To advance global priority for ECD, proponents will need to surmount the framing and governance challenges and leverage these opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Primary care: A definition of the field to develop research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga-Gérard, A

    2018-03-01

    Research in the field of primary care has dramatically increased in France in recent years, especially since 2013 with the introduction of primary care as a thematic priority for research proposals launched by the Ministry of Health (Direction générale de l'offre de soins). The RECaP (Research in Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health) network is a French research network supported by Inserm, which recently implemented a specific working group focusing on research in primary care, based on a multidisciplinary approach. Researchers from different specialties participate in this group. The first aim of the group was to reach a common definition of the perimeter and of the panel of healthcare professionals and structures potentially involved in the field of primary care. For this purpose, a selection of different data sets of sources defining primary care was analyzed by the group, each participant collecting a set of sources, from which a synthesis was made and discussed. A definition of primary care at different levels (international, European and French) was summarized. A special attention was given to the French context in order to adapt the perimeter to the characteristics of the French healthcare system, notably by illustrating the different key elements of the definition with the inclusion of primary care actors and the type of practice premises. In conclusion, this work illustrates the diversity of primary care in France and the potential offered for research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking

  12. Developing a prioritisation framework in an English Primary Care Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fordham Richard J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the English NHS, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs are required to commission health services, to maximise the well-being of the population, subject to the available budget. There are numerous techniques employed to make decisions, some more rational and transparent than others. A weighted benefit score can be used to rank options but this does not take into account value for money from investments. Methods We developed a weighted benefit score framework for use in an English PCT which ranked options in order of 'cost-value' or 'cost per point of benefit'. Our method differs from existing techniques by explicitly combining cost and a composite weighted benefit score into the cost-value ratio. Results The technique proved readily workable, and was able to accommodate a wide variety of data and competing criteria. Participants felt able to assign scores to proposed services, and generate a ranked list, which provides a solid starting point for the PCT Board to discuss and make funding decisions. Limitations included potential for criteria to be neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive and the lack of an interval property in the benefit score limiting the usefulness of a cost-value ratio. Conclusion A technical approach to decision making is insufficient for making prioritisation decisions, however our technique provides a very valuable, structured and informed starting point for PCT decision making.

  13. Meeting the flow assurance challenges of deep water developments - from CAPEX development to field start up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.M.; Feasey, N.D. [National Aluminium Company Ltd. (Nalco), Cheshire (United Kingdom); Afonso, M.; Silva, D. [NALCO Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As oil accumulations in easily accessible locations around the world become less available developments in deeper water become a more common target for field development. Deep water projects, particularly sub sea development, present a host of challenges in terms of flow assurance and integrity. In this paper the focus will be on the chemical control of flow assurance challenges in hydrate control, scale control and wax/asphaltene control within deep water (>750 meter) developments. The opportunities for kinetic hydrate control vs. conventional thermodynamic hydrate control will be outlined with examples of where these technologies have been applied and the limitations that still exist. The development of scale control chemical formulations specifically for sub sea application and the challenges of monitoring such control programs will be highlighted with developments in real time and near real time monitoring. Organic deposit control (wax/asphaltene) will focus on the development of new chemicals that have higher activity but lower viscosity than currently used chemicals hence allowing deployment at colder temperatures and over longer distances. The factors that need to be taken into account when selecting chemicals for deep water application will be highlighted. Fluid viscosity, impact of hydrostatic head on injectivity, product stability at low temperature and interaction with other production chemicals will be reviewed as they pertain to effective flow assurance. This paper brings learning from other deep water basins with examples from the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa and Brazil, which will be used to highlight these challenges and some of the solutions currently available along with the technology gaps that exist. (author)

  14. Opportunities and challenges of interdisciplinary research career development: implementation of a women's health research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Smith, Yolanda R; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-03-01

    A key component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research is the development of interdisciplinary research teams. How best to teach and foster interdisciplinary research skills has not been determined. An effort at promoting interdisciplinary research was initiated by the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) at NIH in 1999. The following year, 12 academic centers were funded to support 56 scholar positions for 2-5 years under Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH). A second cohort of 12 centers, called BIRCWH II, was funded in 2002. In this paper, we present the experience of the University of Michigan BIRCWH program, including a practical approach to dealing with the challenges and opportunities of interdisciplinary research training. Scholars are mentored not only by their primary research advisor but also by a three-person mentor team as well as by their peers. All scholars and a core of supportive faculty meet regularly to discuss interdisciplinary research career development and approaches to apply knowledge in new ways. Of the original cohort of 10 scholars at the University of Michigan, 7 have achieved independent research funding. Challenges include arranging times to meet, developing a common language and knowledge base, dealing proactively with expectations and misunderstandings, focusing on a conceptual model, and providing timely feedback.

  15. The Role and Challenges of Rural Tourism Development in Transition Countries: Montenegro Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Moric

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is widely promoted as an efficient means of counteracting the social, economic and environmental challenges facing rural areas, primarily those associated with the decline of traditional agrarian industries. In line with this, the objective of this paper is to investigate the role and key challenges of rural tourism development in Montenegro as typical transitional economy. Using the extensive literature, available secondary and primary data collected from rural tourism operators, this paper throws light on the main components and issues about current situation in rural areas and rural tourism in Montenegro. Key findings indicate that three key factors of future success should be pulled out, as follows: support from government and international and/or national bodies/organizations, development of new and diversification of present tourist offers in rural areas and enhancement of government policy in the area of entrepreneurship and starting-up of new businesses in rural areas. Regarding practical implications, this paper provide the guidance and ideas for further rural and tourism development in Montenegro.

  16. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES FOR E-LEARNING DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PAYAM NOOR IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz MOHAMADZADEH (Correspond author,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher education in Iran is confronting with several challenges; Some of them are increasing demand for education and insufficiency of current programs to meet the growing needs, emerging information age and the necessity of achieving information literacy, speed up in knowledge production and the necessity of development of a lifelong and continuous training system, necessity of considering to user orientation and extending educational justice. It is assumes that a high performance e-learning system can overcome to the mentioned problems. E-learning is main component of educational systems in 21st century. It removes time and place restrictions and creates economical benefits, and makes available lifelong learning opportunity for all. The primary purpose of this study was to identify challenges of electronic learning development in Payam Noor University of Ardabil province of Iran to present feasible solutions for establishing a suitable e-learning system. Descriptive survey design for data collection was adopted in this study. The population of this study was consisted of 600 instructors and faculty members. A sample of 160 faculty member was selected by using random sampling method. Results show that barriers such as incompatibility of contents and methods, skill unavailability, attitudinal hampering, cultural barriers, infrastructural obstacles, encouraging and credit barriers as well as barriers related to incorporating e- learning into traditional education systems were the main challenges of e-learning in the Payam Noor University. Also results revealed that factors such as educational effectiveness in e- learning, policy making, university's technical and social support of e- learning, financial support and expansion of income earning for instructors and faculty members, improving working conditions, foreign language skill and faculty members interest in professional development were the most important factors in developing e-learning in

  17. Teacher as a Key Role Player to Induce Quality Education: Challenges and Prospects of Primary Schools in Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishigu, Aweke

    2016-01-01

    There is no question that Ethiopia registered an extraordinary achievement in terms of increasing student enrolment, but quality education still remains a challenge and is becoming a bottleneck for the country. The efforts made to improve quality through Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP) are promising. But those changes are worse doing if…

  18. Challenges and opportunities for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forray, Carlos; Buller, Raimund

    2017-11-01

    In spite of the significant impact that the serendipitous discovery of drugs with antipsychotic properties had on the care of patients with psychotic disorders, there are significant challenges when aiming at therapeutic goals such as remission, recovery, improved health-related quality of life and functioning. The efficacy and effectiveness of existing antipsychotic drugs fail to address the full spectrum of symptoms and functional deficits that currently prevent patients with psychotic disorders from achieving fulfilling lives. The study of the pharmacological mechanism of action has increased our knowledge on molecular targets and brain circuits related to the antipsychotic properties of this drug class. However, our understanding of how these molecular targets and brain circuits relate to other aspects of disease pathophysiology like cognitive impairment and negative symptoms is incomplete although these are significant clinical unmet needs. Currently, there is still an important knowledge gap between psychopathology and pathophysiology in schizophrenia research. This may have contributed to some recent costly failures of large clinical development programs for drugs targeted at glutamatergic function and nicotinic receptors. The lack of success of these pharmacological approaches to achieve clinical validation raises important questions concerning the underlying hypothesis that guided the choice of molecular targets, and about the predictive validity of translational models that supported the rationale for testing these drugs in clinical studies. From a clinical perspective there is a need to more strongly consider the disease heterogeneity linked to the use of the current diagnostic classification of subjects and to the validity of the psychopathological constructs and assessments that are used to assess clinical outcomes. A paradigm shift in the development of drugs for schizophrenia is needed. This will require among other addressing: the shortcomings of a

  19. The Actual and Potential Participation of Primary School Pupils at Parents' Evenings: A Challenge to the Established Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    As curricular development in Scotland espoused the importance of pupil participation, the extent to which this has been embedded across teachers' pedagogy into assessment and reporting practices warranted investigation. This article reports a mixed-methods study with parents, pupils and teachers from three Scottish primary schools that examined…

  20. Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 NANOLCA Symposium, "Safety issues and regulatory challenges of nanomaterials", San Sebastian, Spain, 3-4 May 2012 Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive...

  1. Developing sustainability and self-reliance: Challenges and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Many nuclear institutions in the world, especially the developing countries, are heavily dependent on the financing provided by the government for their activities. In August 2000, Malaysia in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized a Regional Seminar on Strategies and Approaches towards Self-reliance and Sustainability of National Nuclear Institutions (NNIs). As a result of the forum and deliberation of the seminar, there is now a greater awareness among the member states that there should be a paradigm shift in the thinking of policy and decision makers. The main challenges and limitations faced by these policy and decision makers are firstly, in order that nuclear institutions to stay relevant in the context of mainstream socio-economic development, the NNIs must generate revenue to achieve self-reliance and sustainability. Secondly, the need for the NNIs to fulfil social obligations, i.e., provision of reasonably good and low cost technology to support food and agriculture production; health care system; safe industrial development and clean environment. Thirdly, to improve the image and acceptance of nuclear technology by the consumers and public in the face of proliferation of nuclear-arms race. Malaysia has been successful in addressing these conflicting requirements and challenges, i.e. generating revenue for sustainability and at the same time providing services and consultancy at a reasonable rate. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) is now 30% sustainable in terms of operational costs via provision of services and consultancies to both private and government agencies. Technical services are provided in the areas of Industrial Technology (e.g. ND evaluation); Radiation Processing Services (e.g., medical product sterilization and food and herbal irradiation, and cross-linking of wire and cables); Dosimetry Services for personal and radiation equipment (e.g. personal dosimetry

  2. Genetics of primary ovarian insufficiency: new developments and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingying; Jiao, Xue; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by marked heterogeneity, but with a significant genetic contribution. Identifying exact causative genes has been challenging, with many discoveries not replicated. It is timely to take stock of the field, outlining the progress made, framing the controversies and anticipating future directions in elucidating the genetics of POI. A search for original articles published up to May 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar, identifying studies on the genetic etiology of POI. Studies were included if chromosomal analysis, candidate gene screening and a genome-wide study were conducted. Articles identified were restricted to English language full-text papers. Chromosomal abnormalities have long been recognized as a frequent cause of POI, with a currently estimated prevalence of 10-13%. Using the traditional karyotype methodology, monosomy X, mosaicism, X chromosome deletions and rearrangements, X-autosome translocations, and isochromosomes have been detected. Based on candidate gene studies, single gene perturbations unequivocally having a deleterious effect in at least one population include Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), and Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation on the X chromosome; Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), Folliculogenesis specific bHLH transcription factor (FIGLA), Newborn ovary homeobox gene (NOBOX), Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 (NR5A1) and Nanos homolog 3 (NANOS3) seem likely as well, but mostly being found in no more than 1-2% of a single population studied. Whole genome approaches have utilized genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to reveal loci not predicted on the basis of a candidate gene, but it remains difficult to locate causative genes and susceptible loci were not always replicated. Cytogenomic methods (array CGH) have identified other regions of interest but studies have not shown

  3. Challenging pseudoscientific and paranormal beliefs held by some pre-service primary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happs, John C.

    1991-12-01

    The widespread public acceptance of many paranormal and pseudoscientific claims should be of some concern to science educators who are striving to produce a scientifically literate community. There is ample evidence to show that students at all levels of our education system believe in aspects of pseudoscience based on claims and assumptions that are in conflict with accumulated scientific knowledge and a rigorous methodology. A survey was designed to assess primary and secondary science teacher-trainees' views. Afterwards 60 students were introduced to the notion of a ‘fair test’ and what constitutes ‘evidence’. Demonstrations of psychic powers were provided and a video shown of professional water-diviners repeatedly failing to locate water under controlled conditions. A re-survey, 3 months later, indicated a rejection of many prior beliefs. However, almost half of the group retained their beliefs in miracles and E.S.P. whilst more than 40% retained their belief in visitors from outer space and that the solar system was created by a supernatural force.

  4. New insights into molecular diagnostic pathology of primary liver cancer: Advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wen-Ming; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-11-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with increasing incidence and accounts for the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Traditional morphopathology primarily emphasizes qualitative diagnosis of PLC, which is not sufficient to resolve the major concern of increasing the long-term treatment efficacy of PLC in clinical management for the modern era. Since the beginning of the 21st century, molecular pathology has played an active role in the investigation of the evaluation of the metastatic potential of PLC, detection of drug targets, prediction of recurrence risks, analysis of clonal origins, evaluation of the malignancy trend of precancerous lesions, and determination of clinical prognosis. As a result, many new progresses have been obtained, and new strategies of molecular-pathological diagnosis have been formed. Moreover, the new types of pathobiological diagnosis indicator systems for PLC have been preliminarily established. These achievements provide valuable molecular pathology-based guide for clinical formulation of individualized therapy programs for PLC. This review article briefly summarizes some relevant progresses of molecular-pathological diagnosis of PLC from the perspective of clinical translational application other than basic experimental studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The challenge of the approach to oral cancer in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Augusto Noro

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the performance of dentists in public health about mouth cancer. A cross-sectional study was performed whit 121 dentists from Fortaleza Health Department, interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire. The study did not identify statistically significant difference regarding the ability to perform biopsy by gender, year of graduation, expertise or time of public service. Only 22 professionals (18.2% reported being able to perform biopsies and 13 (10.7% would do so at the Family Health Unit. The reference and counter-reference system, by including another stage in patient care, increase the possibility of absenteeism from patient to health service. Although clearly identify the relevance of oral cancer mortality in the population, the vast majority of dentists is not equipped to perform the biopsy as a routine activity. Whereas the vast majority of biopsies of the oral tissues is performed as an outpatient, low technological complexity to perform the procedure and the effectiveness of biopsy in the early diagnosis of oral cancer, it is essential to hold this procedure in primary care, what can effectively contribute to decreasing mortality from oral cancer.

  6. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the sinonasal tract in adults: A challenging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Davide; Mattavelli, Davide; Redaelli De Zinis, Luca O; Accorona, Remo; Morassi, Maria L; Facchetti, Fabio; Ferrari, Vittorio; Farina, Davide; Bertulli, Rossella; Nicolai, Piero

    2017-03-01

    Sinonasal localization of Ewing's sarcoma in adults is an exceedingly rare event. The clinical records of 5 patients with primary sinonasal Ewing's sarcoma treated from 1992 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. All pathologic slides were reviewed by 2 experienced pathologists. All patients underwent multimodality treatments. Median age was 36 years (range, 25-52 years). At referral, 2 patients had the original diagnosis changed by review of the histologic slides. Tumors were classified as T4aN0M0 (4 patients) and T2N0M0 (1 patient). Median follow-up was 110 months (range, 70-139 months). Only 1 patient, who started treatment elsewhere based on an incorrect histologic diagnosis, experienced multiple recurrences and eventually died of widespread metastasis. Correct pathologic diagnosis can have a crucial impact on treatment planning and outcome. Multimodality therapy is the key for long-term successful results. Because of the rarity of the tumor, referral to highly experienced care centers is strongly recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: E45-E50, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adult education and the challenges of regional development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region......Adult education is governed at many levels – internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions......’s peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge – for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational...

  8. Developments and challenges in the utilisation of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, A.K.; StJohn, D.H.; Dunlop, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium's largest growth market, the automotive industry, is providing many challenges that have to be met if the metal is to reach its full potential as a significant structural material for light weight vehicles. The paper outlines these challenges and describes the current situation with respect to alloys, properties, manufacturing processes and recycling. It is emphasised that concerted R and D is required along the whole value-adding chain, from metal producer to end-user, if magnesium is to achieve its full potential

  9. Bursaries, writing grants and fellowships: a strategy to develop research capacity in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners and other primary health care professionals are often the first point of contact for patients requiring health care. Identifying, understanding and linking current evidence to best practice can be challenging and requires at least a basic understanding of research principles and methodologies. However, not all primary health care professionals are trained in research or have research experience. With the aim of enhancing research skills and developing a research culture in primary health care, University Departments of General Practice and Rural Health have been supported since 2000 by the Australian Government funded 'Primary Health Care Research Evaluation and Development (PHCRED Strategy'. A small grant funding scheme to support primary health care practitioners was implemented through the PHCRED program at Flinders University in South Australia between 2002 and 2005. The scheme incorporated academic mentors and three types of funding support: bursaries, writing grants and research fellowships. This article describes outcomes of the funding scheme and contributes to the debate surrounding the effectiveness of funding schemes as a means of building research capacity. Methods Funding recipients who had completed their research were invited to participate in a semi-structured 40-minute telephone interview. Feedback was sought on acquisition of research skills, publication outcomes, development of research capacity, confidence and interest in research, and perception of research. Data were also collected on demographics, research topics, and time needed to complete planned activities. Results The funding scheme supported 24 bursaries, 11 writing grants, and three research fellows. Nearly half (47% of all grant recipients were allied health professionals, followed by general practitioners (21%. The majority (70% were novice and early career researchers. Eighty-nine percent of the grant recipients were

  10. General practice education and training in southern China: recent development and ongoing challenges under the health care reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia-Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available China has launched a general practice (GP-orientated primary care reform in 2009 to develop a more productive, coordinated, and cost-effective system to maintain and improve the health and wellbeing of one-fifth of the world population. The restructure of the health care system with a focus on primary care requires practitioners working on GP as gatekeepers for service delivery that is responsive to the needs of people. It is particularly prioritised to establish a sound education and training system to ensure that the competencies of practitioners are aligned with local health care needs. This article aims to provide a brief review of the development of GP, including exemplary model of education and training currently implemented in southern China, as well as the challenges to be addressed in the next step. There is a shortage of well-trained and qualified general practitioners in China where more than half of the licensed clinicians in primary care are educated below the undergraduate level. Although there is a stepwise increase in recognition that the capacity of GP is pivotal to the success of primary care development in China, challenges coming from resource restriction, rural and urban disparity, social attitude, and community involvement are highlighted as major bottlenecks that currently hinder the rapid development of GP in China. Supportive policy and guidelines are necessary to build up strong GP recognition and ensure adequate resources to underpin a robust primary care system to deliver affordable and effective health care services for the world’s largest population. It might share some similar experiences with other countries that are struggling to develop a GP-based primary care system.

  11. General practice education and training in southern China: recent development and ongoing challenges under the health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H H X; Wang, J J; Zhou, Z H; Wang, X W; Xu, L

    2013-01-01

    China has launched a general practice (GP)-orientated primary care reform in 2009 to develop a more productive, coordinated, and cost-effective system to maintain and improve the health and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. The restructure of the health care system with a focus on primary care requires practitioners working on GP as gatekeepers for service delivery that is responsive to the needs of people. It is particularly prioritised to establish a sound education and training system to ensure that the competencies of practitioners are aligned with local health care needs. This article aims to provide a brief review of the development of GP, including exemplary model of education and training currently implemented in southern China, as well as the challenges to be addressed in the next step. There is a shortage of well-trained and qualified general practitioners in China where more than half of the licensed clinicians in primary care are educated below the undergraduate level. Although there is a stepwise increase in recognition that the capacity of GP is pivotal to the success of primary care development in China, challenges coming from resource restriction, rural and urban disparity, social attitude, and community involvement are highlighted as major bottlenecks that currently hinder the rapid development of GP in China. Supportive policy and guidelines are necessary to build up strong GP recognition and ensure adequate resources to underpin a robust primary care system to deliver affordable and effective health care services for the world's largest population. It might share some similar experiences with other countries that are struggling to develop a GP-based primary care system.

  12. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES FOR E-LEARNING DEVELOPMENT IN THE PAYAME NOOR UNIVERSITY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz MOHAMADZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education in Iran is confronting with several challenges; some of them are increasing demand for education and insufficiency of current programs to meet the growing needs, emerging information age and the necessity of achieving information literacy, and extending educational justice. It is assumes that a high performance e-learning system can overcome to the mentioned problems. It removes time and place restrictions and creates economical benefits, and makes available lifelong learning opportunity for all. The primary purpose of this study was to identify challenges of electronic learning development in Payame Noor University of Iran to present feasible solutions for establishing a suitable e-learning system. Descriptive survey design for data collection was adopted in this study. The population of this study was consisted of 600 instructors and faculty members. A sample of 160 faculty member was selected by using random sampling method. Results show that barriers such as incompatibility of contents and methods, skill unavailability, attitudinal hampering, cultural barriers, infrastructural obstacles, encouraging and credit barriers as well as barriers related to incorporating e- learning into traditional education systems were the main challenges of e-learning in the Payame Noor University. Also results revealed that factors such as educational effectiveness in e- learning, policy making, university's technical and social support of e- learning, financial support and expansion of income earning for instructors and faculty members, improving working conditions, foreign language skill and faculty members interest in professional development were the most important factors in developing e-learning in Payame Noor university of Iran.

  13. The skill development temporary location with focus professional on the formation of the primary master

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rojas González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of skills as part of the integral formation of the primary teacher is today one of the main challenges in initial formation. In particular, to promote the development of the temporal location skill, it becomes a learning problem at the same time as a professional problem, so that they can understand the past, to understand the present and project the future, with modes of action consistent with social demands. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the study carried out on the current state of this process of development of the temporary location skill with a professional focus in the career Degree in Primary Education, at the University of Pinar del Río. For this, methods such as the historical-logical, the documentary analysis, the interview with teachers, the survey of teachers in training and the observation of classes were used, which allowed to verify the current state of said process in the initial formation of the primary teacher, taking as a methodological basis the dialectical-materialist method. From the systematization carried out it was possible to know that the subject has been little addressed, in the particular context of this professional in the undergraduate. In the historical evolution of the various curricula, the appropriation of the internal structure of this skill on the part of the students has not yet been achieved, which significantly limits the pertinence of the training process, negatively affecting the fact that students appropriate historical content and develop historical reasoning.

  14. [Medical education and communication in primary pain treatment: clinical relevance and pedagogic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, H-G; Pielsticker, A

    2013-06-01

    The term education can be understood here as informing the patient about the symptoms of the disease and the treatment. Patients with chronic pain require comprehensible information from the physician and beyond that esteem, encouragement and participation in decision-making processes. A successful patient-physician interaction is a quality ensuring element of the first degree. Imparting information in this context is of special importance which is not only derived from legal and ethical obligations but also from the scientifically proven therapeutic efficacy. A successful communication and relaying of information promotes motivation (compliance) and therapeutic effectiveness from both parties. Comprehensible explanations on biopsychosocial pain, interdisciplinary diagnostics and multimodal pain therapy reduce misunderstandings, false expectations and premature termination of therapy. The explanation of the biopsychosocial pain model opens for the patient a holistic view of the phenomenon of chronic pain and promotes self-help strategies. The question as to how and what should be imparted is not only a question of temporal resources but also represents a pedagogic challenge. The contents and experience imparted in the education are only substantially effective if they lead to a feeling of being personally affected due to being close to real life and plausibility and if the resulting multimodal treatment options can be implemented in the daily routine. The communicative duties of a physician are demanding and require practical training as can be reflected and practiced in the form of train-the-trainer seminars, workshops and Balint groups. It has been proven that competence in counselling techniques also has a positive effect on the experience of the physician in his profession. Pain patients can profit from information flyers, internet and interactive computer-based consulting systems if they fulfil basic standards, including topicality, neutrality, biopsychosocial

  15. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  16. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Preschool Gifted Education: Perceived Challenges Associated with Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…

  18. Capacity Building for School Development: Current Problems and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical discussion on the current problems and future challenges of school capacity building in early childhood education (ECE), aiming to highlight some key areas for future research. In recent years, there has been a notable policy shift from monitoring quality through inspection to improving quality through school…

  19. Leadership Development in Agricultural Economics: Challenges for Academic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Crafting and executing strategy are key tasks to be carried out by a manager of an enterprise. Unit leaders are managers of an academic enterprise called a department. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of information collected from interviews with unit leaders of departments of agricultural economics and discuss challenges being faced by these unit leaders in March 2009.

  20. A medical student in private practice for a 1-month clerkship: a qualitative exploration of the challenges for primary care clinical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Juge, Virginie; Pereira Miozzari, Anne Catherine; Rieder, Arabelle; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Sommer, Johanna; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2018-01-01

    The predicted shortage of primary care physicians emphasizes the need to increase the family medicine workforce. Therefore, Swiss universities develop clerkships in primary care physicians' private practices. The objective of this research was to explore the challenges, the stakes, and the difficulties of clinical teachers who supervised final year medical students in their primary care private practice during a 1-month pilot clerkship in Geneva. Data were collected via a focus group using a semistructured interview guide. Participants were asked about their role as a supervisor and their difficulties and positive experiences. The text of the focus group was transcribed and analyzed qualitatively, with a deductive and inductive approach. The results show the nature of pressures felt by clinical teachers. First, participants experienced the difficulty of having dual roles: the more familiar one of clinician, and the new challenging one of teacher. Second, they felt compelled to fill the gap between the academic context and the private practice context. Clinical teachers were surprised by the extent of the adaptive load, cognitive load, and even the emotional load involved when supervising a trainee in their clinical practice. The context of this rotation demonstrated its utility and its relevance, because it allowed the students to improve their knowledge about the outpatient setting and to develop their professional autonomy and their maturity by taking on more clinical responsibilities. These findings show that future training programs will have to address the needs of clinical teachers as well as bridge the gap between students' academic training and the skills needed for outpatient care. Professionalizing the role of clinical teachers should contribute to reaching these goals.

  1. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  2. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  3. Development of a monitoring instrument to assess the performance of the Swiss primary care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Sonja T; Pittet, Valérie; Cornuz, Jacques; Senn, Nicolas

    2017-11-29

    The Swiss health system is customer-driven with fee-for-service paiement scheme and universal coverage. It is highly performing but expensive and health information systems are scarcely implemented. The Swiss Primary Care Active Monitoring (SPAM) program aims to develop an instrument able to describe the performance and effectiveness of the Swiss PC system. Based on a Literature review we developed a conceptual framework and selected indicators according to their ability to reflect the Swiss PC system. A two round modified RAND method with 24 inter-/national experts took place to select primary/secondary indicators (validity, clarity, agreement). A limited set of priority indicators was selected (importance, priority) in a third round. A conceptual framework covering three domains (structure, process, outcome) subdivided into twelve sections (funding, access, organisation/ workflow of resources, (Para-)Medical training, management of knowledge, clinical-/interpersonal care, health status, satisfaction of PC providers/ consumers, equity) was generated. 365 indicators were pre-selected and 335 were finally retained. 56 were kept as priority indicators.- Among the remaining, 199 were identified as primary and 80 as secondary indicators. All domains and sections are represented. The development of the SPAM program allowed the construction of a consensual instrument in a traditionally unregulated health system through a modified RAND method. The selected 56 priority indicators render the SPAM instrument a comprehensive tool supporting a better understanding of the Swiss PC system's performance and effectiveness as well as in identifying potential ways to improve quality of care. Further challenges will be to update indicators regularly and to assess validity and sensitivity-to-change over time.

  4. The discovery and development of HIV therapy: the new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Federico Perno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapy of HIV infection has been dramatically improved over the years, and allowed the achievement of unexpected results. The availability of many drugs, and the knowledge of HIV related pathogenesis, helped in selecting highly effective antiviral therapies, yet today a major challenge stands, that is the selection of the best regimen(s in clinical practice. In this frame, evidence-based medicine remains a cornerstone of modern medicine, but its structure needs to be adapted to the new challenges, made by an excess of information (not always fully reliable, by highly sophisticated statistical systems that may overlook the clinical practice despite their ability to define the statistical significance, and the limited number of independent controlled studies. The revision of the criteria of evidence-based medicine, and their adaptation to the new tools available, may allow a better contribution to the definition of the best therapy for each single patient.

  5. Development and validation of challenge materials for double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, BJ; Bijleveld, CMA; van der Heide, S; Beusekamp, BJ; Wolt-Plompen, SAA; Kukler, J; Brinkman, J; Duiverman, EJ; Dubois, AEJ

    Background: The use of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. Despite this, materials and methods used in DBPCFCs have not been standardized. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate

  6. A medical student in private practice for a 1-month clerkship: a qualitative exploration of the challenges for primary care clinical teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller-Juge V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Muller-Juge, Anne Catherine Pereira Miozzari, Arabelle Rieder, Jennifer Hasselgård-Rowe, Johanna Sommer, Marie-Claude Audétat Unit of Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Purpose: The predicted shortage of primary care physicians emphasizes the need to increase the family medicine workforce. Therefore, Swiss universities develop clerkships in primary care physicians’ private practices. The objective of this research was to explore the challenges, the stakes, and the difficulties of clinical teachers who supervised final year medical students in their primary care private practice during a 1-month pilot clerkship in Geneva.Methods: Data were collected via a focus group using a semistructured interview guide. Participants were asked about their role as a supervisor and their difficulties and positive experiences. The text of the focus group was transcribed and analyzed qualitatively, with a deductive and inductive approach.Results: The results show the nature of pressures felt by clinical teachers. First, participants experienced the difficulty of having dual roles: the more familiar one of clinician, and the new challenging one of teacher. Second, they felt compelled to fill the gap between the academic context and the private practice context. Clinical teachers were surprised by the extent of the adaptive load, cognitive load, and even the emotional load involved when supervising a trainee in their clinical practice. The context of this rotation demonstrated its utility and its relevance, because it allowed the students to improve their knowledge about the outpatient setting and to develop their professional autonomy and their maturity by taking on more clinical responsibilities.Conclusion: These findings show that future training programs will have to address the needs of clinical teachers as well as bridge the gap between students’ academic training and the skills needed for

  7. The challenges of primary health care nurse leaders in the wake of New Health Care Reform in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvoll, Wivi-Ann; Sæterstrand, Torill; McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2016-01-01

    The local municipality, whose management style is largely inspired by the New Public Management (NPM) model, has administrative responsibilities for primary health care in Norway. Those responsible for health care at the local level often find themselves torn between their professional responsibilities and the municipality's market-oriented funding system. The introduction of the new health care reform process known as the Coordination Reform in January 2012 prioritises primary health care while simultaneously promoting a more collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to health care. Nurse leaders experience constant cross-pressure in their roles as members of the municipal executive team, the execution of their professional and administrative duties, and the overall political aims of the new reform. The aim of this article is to illuminate some of the major challenges facing nurse leaders in charge of nursing homes and to draw attention to their professional concerns about the quality of nursing care with the introduction of the new reform and its implementation under NPM-inspired municipal executive leadership. This study employs a qualitative design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 nurse leaders in 10 municipalities, with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach used for data analysis and interpretation. Findings highlighted the increasingly complex challenges facing nurse leaders operating in the context of the municipality's hierarchical NPM management structure, while they are required to exercise collaborative professional interactions as per the guidelines of the new Coordination Reform. The interview findings were interpreted out of three sub-themes 1) importance of support for the nurse leader, 2) concerns about overall service quality, and 3) increased tasks unrelated to nursing leadership. The priorities of municipal senior management and the focus of the municipality's care service need clarification in the light of this reform. The voices

  8. Challenges in the Implementation of Green Home Development in Malaysia: Perspective of Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Rumaizah Mohd; Halim, Ahmad Hafizi Abd; Yunus, Julitta

    2017-12-01

    The construction industry is the main contributor to Malaysian economic growth. One of the main sectors to be highlighted by the Government is housing sector. The population in Malaysia is increasing year by year, thus the demand for houses also rises significantly. However, the fulfilment of basic needs for people normally gives the adverse impacts to the environment. Green home concept is introduced with a purpose to create an acceptable standard of living as well as to preserve nature from destruction, whilst to promote efficiency of energy, water and other natural resources. The study aims to identify current level of awareness and understanding regarding the Green Home concept, together with identifying the challenges that contribute to lack of initiatives in implementation of green home development. This study utilizes the qualitative methodology utilising interviews with housing developers operating in Klang Valley. 20 respondents were interviewed with a semi-structured interview. This study found that level of awareness and understanding on green home concept among construction players and public is low to moderate level. However, it shows improvement in terms of its implementation with all respondents agreed that cost factor is greatest challenge to its implementation. Other challenges identified from the study are low awareness and understanding among construction players and public, low demand for green home, and lack of Government enforcement and initiatives. The study is eventually intended to enhance and improve the sustainable practice in Malaysian’s construction industry.

  9. challenges and prospects of the millennium development goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MISS ANIETIE

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is one significant break through in development policy. ... objective of this paper is to justify the status of sustainable development in Nigeria vis-a-vis ..... sectors, particularly in health, education and.

  10. Literature Circles and Primary Pupils' Literacy Development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literacy goal of primary education system appears to be eluding Nigerians in spite of government's consistent reforms in the sector. Educators are worried about the increasingly low literacy attainment of school leavers, some of whom cannot read, write or converse meaningfully in the English Language. A few of them ...

  11. The development of metacognition in primary school learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B; Jansen, M; Reezigt, G; Jansen, G.G.H.

    Constructivist ideas have influenced recent major innovations in Dutch secondary education and new curricula for reading and math in primary education, for example, pay much more attention to metacognition than before. In our study, we compared the growth of student metacognition in varying learning

  12. Developing Pedagogical Practices in Myanmar Primary Schools: Possibilities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Frank; Stoff, Christian; Aung, Wan; Elliott, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a baseline study of pedagogic practices used by Myanmar primary teachers in the teaching of mathematics and Myanmar language at Grades 3 and 5. The main purpose of the baseline study was to inform the design of teacher education programmes and allow for subsequent evaluations of interventions designed to improve…

  13. Developing classroom formative assessment in dutch primary mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E.G.; Suhre, C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students’ understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers’ formative

  14. Collaborative Lesson Planning as Professional Development for Beginning Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes how one beginning primary grade teacher benefited from collaborative lesson-planning meetings with her grade-level colleagues. The teacher accumulated knowledge of curriculum, pedagogy, and professional contexts as she participated in planning meetings each week during her first year of teaching. Furthermore,…

  15. Community participation in health service reform: the development of an innovative remote Aboriginal primary health-care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John; Carroll, Vicki; Carter, Maureen; O'Brien, Tim; Erlank, Carol; Mansour, Rafik; Smith, Bec

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the reorientation of a remote primary health-care service, in the Kimberley region of Australia, its impact on access to services and the factors instrumental in bringing about change. A unique community-initiated health service partnership was developed between a community-controlled Aboriginal health organisation, a government hospital and a population health unit, in order to overcome the challenges of delivering primary health care to a dispersed, highly disadvantaged Aboriginal population in a very remote area. The shared goals and clear delineation of responsibilities achieved through the partnership reoriented an essentially acute hospital-based service to a prevention-focussed comprehensive primary health-care service, with a focus on systematic screening for chronic disease, interdisciplinary follow up, health promotion, community advocacy and primary prevention. This formal partnership enabled the primary health-care service to meet the major challenges of providing a sustainable, prevention-focussed service in a very remote and socially disadvantaged area.

  16. The challenge of tetradic relationships in medically interpreted pediatric primary care visits: A descriptive study of communication practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A; Escobar-Gomez, M; Davis, B H; Roberts, J R; O'Brien, E S; Hinton, E; Darden, P M

    2016-04-01

    To examine spoken interactions between pediatricians and community-based interpreters speaking with adolescents and parents with Limited English proficiency (LEP) in primary care to identify the challenges of interpreting in a four-person or tetradic visit, its sources of co-constructed errors, and specific practices for educational intervention. As part of a larger study of vaccine decision-making at six clinical sites in two states, this descriptive study used discourse analysis to examine 20 routine primary care visits in a Latino Clinic in interactions between adolescents, parents, community-based interpreters, and pediatricians. Specific patterns of communication practices were identified that contributed to inaccuracies in medical interpretation Practices needing improvement were tallied for simple frequencies and included: omissions; false fluency; substitutions; editorializing; added clarification, information, or questions; medical terminology; extra explanation to mother; and, cultural additions. Of these speaking practices, omissions were the most common (123 out of 292 total) and the most affected by pediatricians. The dynamics of both pediatricians and interpreters contributed to identification of areas for improvement, with more adolescent participation in bilingual than monolingual visits. These observations provide opportunities for mapping a communication skills training intervention based on observations for future testing of an evidence-based curriculum. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    not been sustained. While there is evidence of pupils developing a range of scientific enquiry skills through the project, the extent to which their interpretation of data improved is unclear. All participating schools made greater use of scientific data than before the project to develop their environmental education. Conclusions: The project has demonstrated the potential of combining datalogging with GPS technology to support challenging, motivating and relevant scientific enquiry. Primary teachers require targeted technical and pedagogical support to maximise learning benefits for pupils.

  18. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent's well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment.

  19. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. PMID:29535564

  20. Introducing sustainable development: challenges and opportunities for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The World Energy Council held its 19. world congress in Sydney (Australia) from September 5 to 9 2004, focusing on the theme 'Delivering sustainability: challenges and opportunities for the energy industry'. More than 2500 participants from all around the world attended the presentations, round table sessions, seminars and exhibitions. In this article, we will be featuring the conclusions from the congress. The next conference will be held from November 11 to 15 2007 in Rome (Italy) on the theme of 'The security and quality of energy supplies'. (authors)

  1. Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.

  2. Underestimating the toxicological challenges associated with the use of herbal medicinal products in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S

    2013-01-01

    Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.

  3. Occupational Stress and Professional Development of Primary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Modrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The occupation of primary school teachers is considered one of the most stressful professions. The survey was used to determine the incidence of stress in 110 primary school teachers in urban and rural schools in Slovenia, depending on seniority. Its aim was to learn about stress symptoms, stressful situations and strategies to manage stress among teachers. The results show that teachers evaluate their work as a very responsible one and in majority do not think about changing their job. Teachers most often perceive physical and emotional symptoms of stress. They are faced with stressful situations when working with pupils, at their professional work, and in relations with colleagues, school management, and parents. When difficulties arise in their work, teachers most often turn for help to a colleague or the school management; and they manage their stress by going for a walk and talking to their friends.

  4. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Nguyen, Quang D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture. PMID:28676790

  5. Challenges in the management of glaucoma in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nadeem Hafeez; Ayub, Muhammad Hammad; Ali, Muhammad Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy characterized by normal to raised intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field defects, loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, thinning of the neuroretinal rim, and cupping of the optic disc. IOP reduction by medical, laser, or surgical therapies remains the only clinically proven treatment of glaucoma. The challenges in glaucoma management are diverse. They include early detection and diagnosis, setting of appropriate target IOP, choice of treatment, monitoring of quality of life and sight, and compliance with the treatment. Early diagnosis can be made by assessing optic nerve structure using imaging devices and optic nerve function through perimetry. Reducing IOP and controlling its fluctuations are considered to be the most important factors in limiting progression of glaucoma. Selection of the best suitable therapy out of medical, surgical, or laser treatment options is yet another management challenge. Patients suffering from glaucoma experience poor quality of life owing to the diagnosis itself, functional visual loss, inconvenience and cost of treatment, and side effects of treatment. All these factors lead to poor compliance, adherence, and persistence to treatment, and further progression of the disease. It is, therefore, important that ophthalmologists keep all the aforementioned factors in mind when managing patients with glaucoma.

  6. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  7. Greening of electricity in Europe: challenges and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Koefoed, Anne Louise

    2003-01-01

    Against the background of underlying ecological challenges and rapid de-regulation of energy markets, the article explores commercial and political dimensions of greening of electricity in Europe. The article has a dual economic and political focus: From a commercial point of view it argues that the European green electricity approaches can be sorted into two types based on a classical distinction between standardised commodification and specialised segmentation. From a political point of view, it argues that the European green electricity approaches can be sorted into two categories, EU- and nationally-orientated renewable energy policies. Drawing on examples from the other case studies presented in this volume, supplemented with other material, the article analyses greening of electricity industry under various market-politics combinations and discusses strengths and weaknesses of each approach as it is applied in the European context. In a final section the article relates the discussion of political and commercial organisation of greening of electricity industry to underlying ecological challenges and the need for a locational differentiation of greening policies

  8. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  9. Primary health care: a necessity in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaezi Okpokoro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resource limited countries continue to be plagued with rising prevalence of malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS as well as other emerging diseases despite the huge financial support provided by bilateral and multilateral agencies to combat these diseases. While progress may have been made in reducing the global burden caused by these diseases on one hand, there has also been a weakening of the primary health care facility on the other hand which was the hallmark to the Alma Ata declaration of 1978. More attention has been placed on our global health needs while the diverse health needs of every community have been neglected. This fatal neglect at the community level highlights the need for the provision of specialize primary health care (PHC facilities which should not only be affordable, accessible and available, but be appropriate to the priority health needs of the community, especially at the rural level. Hence specialized PHC facilities will be tailored to meet the most pressing health needs of the communities it covers among other diseases. Consequently, this innovative approach will not only strengthen the primary health care system by improving wellbeing especially at the rural level but will also improve the outcome of vertical program at communities where it is most needed.

  10. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  11. The Challenge of Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Development Goals1, the successor framework to the Millennium .... agencies will be required to help devise metrics, establish .... the data, the quality of the data and the capacity to measure them. .... [Article] World Development. 2009 ...

  12. Challenges of managing the development of breakthrough products in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Parry, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a contingency model and hypothesize that increases in product innovativeness weaken the influence of product synergies and development proficiencies on product performance. We incorporate these hypotheses in a path model linking measures of product synergy, development proficiency,

  13. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production....

  14. Small Hydropower Development in Rwanda: Trends, Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey, Gasore; Zimmerle, Daniel; Ntagwirumugara, Etienne

    2018-04-01

    The Rift Valley region of Sub-Saharan Africa represents a promising area for the development of small (facilities constructed after 2007 are connected to off-grid systems. The study provides an overview of the economic incentives for developing small hydropower systems in Rwanda and the potential contribution of that development to Rwanda’s electrification goals.

  15. Food Insecurity: Challenges of Agricultural Extension in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emphasis on accelerated agricultural development by developing countries was meant to achieve food security. However, food insecurity has remained a problem throughout much of the developing world and is the result of such factors as slow (as well as highly variable) growth in domestic food production, rapid ...

  16. Development and Exemplification of a Model for Teacher Assessment in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. J.; Earle, S.; McMahon, K.; Howe, A.; Collier, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science project is funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust and based at Bath Spa University. The study aims to develop a whole-school model of valid, reliable and manageable teacher assessment to inform practice and make a positive impact on primary-aged children's learning in science. The model is based on a…

  17. Exploring informal workplace learning in primary healthcare for continuous professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynes, Viktoria; Kerr, Micky; Treasure-Jones, Tamsin

    2017-07-01

    All health and social care professionals learn on the job through both formal and informal learning processes, which contributes to continuous professional development (CPD). This study explored workplace learning in General Practices, specifically looking at the role of informal learning and the workplace practices that appear to support or restrict that learning, as well as how technology was integrated into these learning processes. Three focus groups with general practitioners, practice nurses, managerial and administrative staff were conducted followed by twelve individual semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from the focus groups. Three observations of multi-disciplinary team meetings were used to establish potential team-based learning activities. Triggers for informal workplace learning included patients presenting challenging or unusual conditions; exposure to others' professional practice; and policy driven changes through revised guidance and protocols. By exploring how these triggers were acted upon, we identified mechanisms through which the primary care workplace supports or restricts informal learning through working practices, existing technologies and inter-professional structures. Informal workplace learning was identified as arising from both opportunistic encounters and more planned activities, which are both supported and restricted through a variety of mechanisms. Maximising informal learning opportunities and removing barriers to doing so should be a priority for primary care practitioners, managers and educators.

  18. The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Garfield, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Research in statistics education is an emerging field, with much of the work being published in diverse journals across many disciplines. Locating and synthesizing this research is often a challenging task, as is connecting the research literature to practical issues of teaching and assessing students. This book is unique in that it collects, presents, and synthesizes cutting edge research on different aspects of statistical reasoning and applies this research to the teaching of statistics to students at all educational levels. Unlike other books on how to teach statistics, or educational materials to help students learn statistics, this book presents the research foundation on which teaching should be based. The chapters in this volume are written by the today's leading researchers in statistics education. This volume will prove of great value to mathematics and statistics education researchers, statistics educators, statisticians, cognitive psychologists, mathematics teachers, mathematics and statistics cur...

  19. Developments and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana G. Costa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, often associated with other psychiatric comorbidities, functional impairments, and poor long-term outcomes. The objective of this selected review is to describe current advances and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. The disorder is associated with neurobiological underpinnings and is highly heterogeneous in various aspects, such as symptom profiles, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and genetic features. The efficacy and safety of short-term pharmacological treatments across the life cycle is well studied, but further research investigating long-term treatment, impact of treatment in preschoolers, and non-pharmacological interventions is needed. Future research is also needed to better characterize the neurodevelopmental pathways of the disorder, linking clinical and neurobiological information, less investigated populations, and new interventions.

  20. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floros GD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Floros 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. Keywords: adolescence, gambling disorder

  1. The challenge of education and learning in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Michael; Brannen, Conner; Glennerster, Rachel

    2013-04-19

    Across many different contexts, randomized evaluations find that school participation is sensitive to costs: Reducing out-of-pocket costs, merit scholarships, and conditional cash transfers all increase schooling. Addressing child health and providing information on how earnings rise with education can increase schooling even more cost-effectively. However, among those in school, test scores are remarkably low and unresponsive to more-of-the-same inputs, such as hiring additional teachers, buying more textbooks, or providing flexible grants. In contrast, pedagogical reforms that match teaching to students' learning levels are highly cost effective at increasing learning, as are reforms that improve accountability and incentives, such as local hiring of teachers on short-term contracts. Technology could potentially improve pedagogy and accountability. Improving pre- and postprimary education are major future challenges.

  2. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  3. The Spanish National Forest Inventory: history, development, challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iciar Alberdi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important to have a statistically robust forest information data base which can be updated and can provide long-term information. National Forest Inventories (NFI provide one of the best large-scale sources of information, and therefore are a cornerstone of forest policies. The scopes of NFIs, which are the primary source of data for national and large-area assessments, has been broadened to include new variables to meet increasing information requirements. This paper describes the history, methodology and guidance of Spanish NFI and international requirements. The current objectives are determined by analysing future perspectives and possible direction of future assessments. These objectives include harmonization of NFI, open data source and to broaden the number of field variables monitored (multi-objective inventory in order to effectively fulfil information requirements.

  4. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  5. Pharmacovigilance in developing countries (part I): importance and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Shaimaa; Zaghloul, Iman; Roberti, Anne Marie

    2017-12-16

    The thalidomide disaster was the significant historical event that acted as a catalyst for pharmacovigilance activity. Following this event developed countries initiated drug monitoring systems that evolved and now extend their scope to broader drug-related safety issues; however, this was not the case in developing countries. Pharmacovigilance is still a relatively new concept with low priority in developing countries although various issues are raising concerns that magnify the need for systems to monitor post marketing drug safety in these countries. This article analyzes the barriers to introducing robust pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries.

  6. High Performance Computing (HPC) Challenge (HPCC) Benchmark Suite Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dongarra, J. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The applications of performance modeling are numerous, including evaluation of algorithms, optimization of code implementation, parallel library development, and comparison of system architectures...

  7. Challenges in developing human resources for nuclear safety in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsi, Louisa [National Nuclear Regulator, PO BOX 7106, 00046 Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Challenges in developing Human Resources for nuclear safety in South Africa ESKOM Holding Limited which is the South African Government owned utility, operates over 10 power stations. The total installed is about 40 GW, and nuclear contributes only 6 percent. The existing nuclear power station, Koeberg NPP, is comprised of two 900 MW(e) units at the South African west coast near Cape Town. The South African Government has a policy to increase the share of nuclear in the generation mix from 6 percent to 15 percent before the year 2020. The challenge is that there have been a 'greying' of nuclear experts and a shrinking of nuclear engineering and science departments. As a consequence of this, ESKOM has realized that a large number of young engineers and scientists would have to be recruited and then trained in South Africa and abroad. Some people, especially high performers in the industry are continually looking for new challenges and opportunities and though it is important in the nuclear industry to retain these key staff members it have proved to be a serious challenge. The nuclear industry had to consider their national training infrastructures and the South African government in partnership with ESKOM, NECSA and PBMR has started a process of funding university chairs in reactor engineering and allied subjects. These departments undertake research and provide training for the South African nuclear industry. The recruitment process has initially involved the transfer of personnel from ESKOM, NECSA as well as direct recruitment from the market. The primary recruitment process going forward will be from universities and other Further Education Training (FET) institutions with a focus on ESKOM and PBMR providing the specific nuclear training. In this regard, both ESKOM and PBMR provide bursaries, project work and other assistance to selected candidates. Upon completion of studies, the specific training is provided both in-house and with partner national

  8. Challenges in developing human resources for nuclear safety in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsi, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in developing Human Resources for nuclear safety in South Africa ESKOM Holding Limited which is the South African Government owned utility, operates over 10 power stations. The total installed is about 40 GW, and nuclear contributes only 6 percent. The existing nuclear power station, Koeberg NPP, is comprised of two 900 MW(e) units at the South African west coast near Cape Town. The South African Government has a policy to increase the share of nuclear in the generation mix from 6 percent to 15 percent before the year 2020. The challenge is that there have been a 'greying' of nuclear experts and a shrinking of nuclear engineering and science departments. As a consequence of this, ESKOM has realized that a large number of young engineers and scientists would have to be recruited and then trained in South Africa and abroad. Some people, especially high performers in the industry are continually looking for new challenges and opportunities and though it is important in the nuclear industry to retain these key staff members it have proved to be a serious challenge. The nuclear industry had to consider their national training infrastructures and the South African government in partnership with ESKOM, NECSA and PBMR has started a process of funding university chairs in reactor engineering and allied subjects. These departments undertake research and provide training for the South African nuclear industry. The recruitment process has initially involved the transfer of personnel from ESKOM, NECSA as well as direct recruitment from the market. The primary recruitment process going forward will be from universities and other Further Education Training (FET) institutions with a focus on ESKOM and PBMR providing the specific nuclear training. In this regard, both ESKOM and PBMR provide bursaries, project work and other assistance to selected candidates. Upon completion of studies, the specific training is provided both in-house and with partner national and

  9. Governance and Challenges of Development in Nigeria: Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cursory look at Nigerian situation shows that despite the enormity of the resources needed for any country's development which Nigeria has in abundance, sustainable development has eluded the nation. This is as a result of Nigerian leaders' inability to account to the led despite government's efforts to arrest the situation.

  10. Leadership Identity Development: Challenges in Applying a Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.; Wagner, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The leadership identity development (LID) grounded theory (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005) and related LID model (Komives, Longerbeam, Owen, Mainella, & Osteen, 2006) present a framework for understanding how individual college students develop the social identity of being collaborative, relational leaders…

  11. The challenges of migration and technological development in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically studies he problems posed by migration and technological development in Africa. Migration and African technological development have been two paradoxical or polarized contemporary issues even in our 21st century Africa. Migration if not properly controlled has a deleterious implication that can ...

  12. Process development report: 0.20-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1978-09-01

    HTGR reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite, separating the fissile and fertile particles, crushing and burning the SiC-coated fuel particles to remove the remainder of the carbon, dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials, and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel elements is accomplished in a primary burner. This is a batch-continuous, fluidized-bed process utilizing above-bed gravity fines recycle. In gas-solid separation, a combination of a cyclone and porous metal filters is used. This report documents operational tests performed on a 0.20-m primary burner using crushed fuel representative of both Fort St. Vrain and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cores. The burner was reconstructed to a gravity fines recycle mode prior to beginning these tests. Results of two separate and successful 48-hour burner runs and several short-term runs have indicated the operability of this concept. Recommendations are made for future work

  13. The Challenge of Urban and Regional Development in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjo Suminto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of development is part of the overall national task carried out along governance. This task has been entrusted to the government as a gradual long-term task, planning, and sustainable. Implied in it, the intention to achieve a better state. Contained within the dimension of time setting goals, achieving goals, and overall utilization of benefits for citizens throughout the country. Enshrined also be aware that there will be found a variety of difficulties, limitations, and problems that must be solved. The problems of urban development in Indonesia can be viewed from two approaches, namely macro and micro approaches. A macro approach urban problems are reviewed in the context of the region (national scale. While the approach is seen as a micro city neighborhoods. This problem is closely related to the natural growth of the city population and population migration. Based on research on urban and regional development, it can be concluded: 1 the problem of urbanization of rural and small towns to large cities should be addressed; 2 urban spatial arrangements should be improved to do with increasingly limited land for development and urban development; 3 the provision of facilities and infrastructure of the city, city management, and financing of urban development, integration between government, society, and the private sector should be increased; 4 study of urban models that can accommodate all the problems of the city should be developed continuously.

  14. International product developmentChallenges in knowledge sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and internationalization are two important concepts in the corporate world today. Knowledge is companies' most important resource, and internationalization is a factor which affects all areas of management - particularly product development. The development of successful products...... for the international market rests on a company's ability to cooperate and to share knowledge. In order to develop products for the international market, companies must be capable of expanding knowledge sharing across geographical and professional divides. This is the focus of a new MAPP PhD dissertation....

  15. Provision of dysphagia services in a developing nation: Infrastructural challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa Kamal, Rahayu; Ward, Elizabeth Celeste; Cornwell, Petrea; Sharma, Shobha

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of the current study was to explore infrastructure issues that may be barriers to the establishment and improvement of dysphagia services in Malaysia compared to settings with established dysphagia management services (i.e. Queensland, Australia). A mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative data was used to increase credibility, validity and comprehensiveness of the results. Thirty-eight hospitals (Malaysia = 21, Queensland = 17) participated in Phase 1 (quantitative component) of the study involving completion of an infrastructure checklist by a speech-language pathologist from each hospital regarding availability of networking and communication, staffing and financial support, facilities and documentation of guidelines for dysphagia management. Subsequently, eight sub-samples from each cohort were then involved in Phase 2 (qualitative component) of the study involving a semi-structured interview on issues related to the impact of infrastructure availability or constraints on service provision. The current study reveals that multiple challenges exist with regard to dysphagia services in Malaysian government hospitals compared to Queensland public hospitals. Overall, it was identified that service improvement in Malaysia requires change at a systems and structures level, but also, more importantly, at the individual/personal level, particularly focusing on the culture, behaviour and attitudes among the staff regarding dysphagia services.

  16. Challenges in the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    As a member of Esri's Geoportal Server team for the past six years, I have been involved in hundreds of customer portal, geoportal, and spatial data infrastructure implementations. Our team's goal for each implementation is - of course- for it to be successful. A successful data portal can be defined by a number of indicators. The foremost measure of success is that the target end users are able to easily find and access data that meets their needs. Other indicators are effectiveness of the user interface, interoperability mechanisms to enhance discoverability and usability across contexts, compliance with data sharing mandates, extendibility/portability of the system as technology evolves, and staff expertise to maintain the system. Further, some data portals have not only been successful by these measures but have also challenged and expanded the state of the art in the areas of discovery, access, and managing data. This talk will address models, principles, and best practices for deploying data portals that are successful by these measures, identify examples of excellence in the field, and discuss upcoming advances in portal technology to support scientists in sharing their work.

  17. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  18. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  19. [School absenteeism: Preliminary developments and maintaining persisting challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A first step when considering school absenteeism is to understand the meaning and definition of the term. School absenteeism encompasses several terms such as school refusal, truancy and school phobia, all of which have been used inconsistently and confusingly in the past. Furthermore, the question of how many days of absence can be seen as problematic remains unclear. Due to these definitional problems, available data is inconsistent. Therefore, the prevalence rates of school absenteeism can only be estimated (about 5 % of all students). School absenteeism affects not only individual students, but also family, school and society structures. In order to establish appropriate support and intervention programs, a multimodal as well as an individual approach should be considered to address this interdependency. The primary goal, however, should be the students’ resumption of a regular school attendance, which requires a strong cooperation between parents, schools, youth welfare services and psychotherapeutic offers. If therapeutic interventions are required, it is highly recommended to start with outpatient treatment. If school attendance still remains irregular an inpatient treatment should follow.

  20. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control - usual care), Group B (Intervention), or Group C (Short Intervention). Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01), and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index) scores (P=0.91). There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention), and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care). Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  1. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajorek B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control – usual care, Group B (Intervention, or Group C (Short Intervention. Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Results: Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively, improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01, and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index scores (P=0.91. There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention, and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care. Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. Conclusion: A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  2. Challenges and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... associated with the technology are diverse questions of safety, ethics, and welfare. The review ..... to adopt the new innovation in order to achieve food security. ..... quite trivial inventions and developments, which fall short.

  3. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing. ... In doing so, the book examines the underlining international developmental, ethical, economic, and political issues shaping ...

  4. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  5. Challenges and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... the technology are: an increase in the productivity of tropical ... development and training, public-private sector collaboration, intellectual property management, and ..... provide the public with factual information on the nature.

  6. USAGE OF SELECTED RESOURCES FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN MAINSTREAM PRIMARY SCHOOLS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FROM A KENYAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Buhere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effectiveness of the use of selected teaching/learning resources in the implementation of Inclusive Education (I.E for Special Needs Education (SNE learners in mainstream primary schools. Focusing on the organisational effectiveness of the school management in meeting the needs of Special needs Learners, research questions explored the following: the availability of the selected teaching/learning resources, effectiveness of the use of available teaching /learning for Inclusive Education, challenges in the use of available teaching/learning resources and possible improvements with regard to the implementation of Inclusive Education for Special Needs Learners in mainstream primary schools. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Out of 150 schools that had integrated Special Needs Learners in Bungoma Count, Kenya, 20% were stratified, proportionately and randomly sampled. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the participants; head teachers, regular, and special teachers. The sample comprised of 30 head teachers, 120 regular teachers and 8 special teachers (total 158. Data were collected using questionnaires for 30 head teachers, 120 regular teachers, interview schedules for 8 special teachers and observation schedule. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study findings reveal that the integration of inclusive education has not been accompanied by support structures; educators lack the knowledge in handling the available resources, the available learning resources are inadequate and inappropriate. The study recommends that Ministry of education and school managers can implement inclusion smoothly and effectively through a variety of vehicles including in-service opportunities, professional support groups, mentoring activities, monitoring the degree of collaboration between general and special educators and improving the school setting to accommodate learner diversity. In addition, the government should

  7. Cultural Challenges in Developing E-Learning Content

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Amir Azer; Ahmed Mostafa El-Sherbini

    2011-01-01

    Education is an important component of any nation’s development process. Society has been credited with creating technology, but technology is simultaneously creating society. One of the key benefits of such technology creation includes learning and curriculum development, which is otherwise referred to as e-leaning, and more appropriately referred to as global e-learning. Global e-learning raises some implications, which include communication, culture, and technology, that must be addressed ...

  8. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  9. Opportunities and challenges within urban health and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Loft, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals mark aunique window of opportunity for both human and planetaryhealth. With rising life expectancy and rapidly expanding urbanpopulations exposed to pollution and sedentary lifestyles, thereis a greater focus on reducing the gap between life...... expectancyand number of healthy years lived, whilst limiting anthropogenicactivities contributing to pollution and climate change. Thus,urban development and policies, which can create win–winsituations for our planet and human health, falls into the realmand expertise of public health. However, some...

  10. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  11. Challenges in the clinical development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Valentina; French, Jacqueline A; Perucca, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the current availability in the market of over two dozen antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about one third of people with epilepsy fail to achieve complete freedom from seizures with existing medications. Moreover, currently available AEDs have significant limitations in terms of safety, tolerability and propensity to cause or be a target for clinically important adverse drug interactions. A review of the evidence shows that there are many misperceptions about the viability of investing into new therapies for epilepsy. In fact, there are clear incentives to develop newer and more efficacious medications. Developing truly innovative drugs requires a shift in the paradigms for drug discovery, which is already taking place by building on greatly expanded knowledge about the mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis, seizure generation, seizure spread and development of co-morbidities. AED development can also benefit by a review of the methodology currently applied in clinical AED development, in order to address a number of ethical and scientific concerns. As discussed in this article, many processes of clinical drug development, from proof-of-concept-studies to ambitious programs aimed at demonstrating antiepileptogenesis and disease-modification, can be facilitated by a greater integration of preclinical and clinical science, and by application of knowledge acquired during decades of controlled epilepsy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naumova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the current state and prospects of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine based on qualitative and quantitative SWOT analysis, taking into account the synergy between the opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses of the object are suggested and conducted in the article. The expert survey method was applied to evaluate the factors are identified through SWOT analysis.The priority areas of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine had been identified on the basis of the sophisticated matrix of the SWOT- analysis. The overriding objectives of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine are making public authorities as well as civil society aware of the solutions required for the problems of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine through media and communications.The adoption of the Act on social entrepreneurship and its support at the national, regional and local level; the formulation and adoption of the special long-term development programmes to promote social entrepreneurship, introduce legislation to set up a specific registration system for social enterprises, including the regularly monitoring of their activities - the measures are necessary to achieve more effective implementation and increasing the scope and scale of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine.The establishment of the education programmes in the field of social entrepreneurship in the universities, organizing and conduction of teaching workshops, trainings, and courses on social entrepreneurship for the wide public - would give new impetus to the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as the source of the citizens' initiatives.

  13. Shutdown Chemistry Process Development for PWR Primary System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.B. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This study report presents the shutdown chemistry of PWR primary system to reduce and remove the radioactive corrosion products which were deposited on the nuclear fuel rods surface and the outside of core like steam generator channel head, RCS pipings etc. The major research results are the follows ; the deposition radioactive mechanism of corrosion products, the radiochemical composition, the condition of coolant chemistry to promote the dissolution of radioactive cobalt and nickel ferrite, the control method of dissolved hydrogen concentration in the coolant by the mechanical and chemical methods. The another part of study is to investigate the removal characteristics of corrosion product ions and particles by the demineralization system to suggest the method which the system could be operate effectively in shut-down purification period. (author). 19 refs., 25 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Opportunities and challenges for nuclear power development: the IAEA view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.A.; )

    2009-01-01

    More than fifty years ago, the International Atomic Energy Agency was established with the mission to accelerate and enlarge the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to ensure that it was not used for military purposes. Dr. Homi Bhabha, who chaired the preparatory meetings of the IAEA, shaped a carefully balanced mandate for the IAEA in 1956. Security and development were brought together as two aspects of the same ideal: 'Atoms for Peace'. However, not only 50 years ago, but even today humanity still faces the pressing need for development and the desire for a more effective system of international security. Energy is essential for development. Every aspect of development, such as poverty, hunger, health care and environment, requires energy. When these needs remain unaddressed, conflicts, violence, regional and global insecurity can occur.Technological innovation as a key factor in ensuring the long term sustainability of nuclear power has to be considered in conjunction with the institutional innovations that can help nuclear power introduction in developing countries. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) works to ensure that the future needs of all countries and developing countries in particular-are understood and taken into account when innovative nuclear systems such as small and medium-size reactor designs are evaluated and developed. These designs allow a more incremental investment and provide a better match to grid capacity and easily adapted to applications such as district heating and seawater desalination. Innovations in institutional area like regional cooperation in construction and operation, and new approaches as leasing, financing, taking-back policy, build-own-operate, need to be addressed

  15. Challenges with implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests at primary care facilities in a Ghanaian district: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Nana Yaa; Amuasi, John; Ansong, Daniel; Einsiedel, Edna; Menon, Devidas; Yanow, Stephanie K

    2016-02-27

    Rapid diagnostic Tests (RDTs) for malaria enable diagnostic testing at primary care facilities in resource-limited settings, where weak infrastructure limits the use of microscopy. In 2010, Ghana adopted a test-before-treat guideline for malaria, with RDT use promoted to facilitate diagnosis. Yet healthcare practitioners still treat febrile patients without testing, or despite negative malaria test results. Few studies have explored RDT implementation beyond the notions of provider or patient acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the factors directly influencing malaria RDT implementation at primary care facilities in a Ghanaian district. Qualitative interviews, focus groups and direct observations were conducted with 50 providers at six purposively selected primary care facilities in the Atwima-Nwabiagya district. Data were analysed thematically. RDT implementation was hampered by: (1) healthcare delivery constraints (weak supply chain, limited quality assurance and control, inadequate guideline emphasis, staffing limitations); (2) provider perceptions (entrenched case-management paradigms, limited preparedness for change); (3) social dynamics of care delivery (expected norms of provider-patient interaction, test affordability); and (4) limited provider engagement in policy processes leading to fragmented implementation of health sector reform. Limited health system capacity, socio-economic, political, and historical factors hampered malaria RDT implementation at primary care facilities in the study district. For effective RDT implementation providers must be: (1) adequately enabled through efficient allocation and management of essential healthcare commodities; (2) appropriately empowered with the requisite knowledge and skill through ongoing, effective professional development; and (3) actively engaged in policy dialogue to demystify socio-political misconceptions that hinder health sector reform policies from improving care delivery. Clear

  16. Global pharmaceutical regulation: the challenge of integration for developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Anthony; Sweet, Cassandra M

    2016-12-20

    This paper has set out to map the state of pharmaceutical regulation in the developing world through the construction of cross-national indices drawing from World Health Organization data. The last two decades have been characterized by deep changes for the pharmaceutical sector, including the complete transformation of intellectual property systems at the behest of the World Trade Organization and the consolidation of global active ingredient suppliers in China and India. Although the rules for ownership of medicine have been set and globally implemented, we know surprisingly little about how the standards for market entrance and regulation of pharmaceutical products have changed at the national level. How standardized are national pharmaceutical market systems? Do we find homogeneity or variation across the developing world? Are their patterns for understanding why some countries have moved closer to one global norm for pharmaceutical regulation and others have developed hybrid models for oversight of this sector? Access to medicine is a core tool in public health. This paper gauges the levels of standards in public and private generics markets for developing countries building on national-level pharmaceutical market surveys for 78 countries to offer three indicators of market oversight: State Regulatory Infrastructure, Monitoring the Private Market and Public Quality Control. Identifying the different variables that affect a state's institutional capacity and current standard level offers new insights to the state of pharmaceuticals in the developing world. It is notable that there are very few (none at the time of this paper) studies that map out the new global terrain for pharmaceutical regulation in the post-TRIPS context. This paper uses item response theory to develop original indicators of pharmaceutical regulation. We find remarkable resistance to the implementation of global pharmaceutical norms for quality standards in developing states and in

  17. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  18. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy- Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how governance policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that governance policies favoring economic development are heavily contributing to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  19. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on future Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy-Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how government policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that institutional policies favoring economic development contributing heavily to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  20. Developing disaster resilient housing in Vietnam challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive understanding on disaster resilient housing within the Vietnam context particularly and the developing world generally. The book has identified the root causes of housing vulnerability, restrictions to safe housing development, concepts of disaster resilient housing, key issues/factors implementers and building designers need to consider, and ways of achieving resilient housing outcomes in actual design projects. The design and development of disaster resilient housing has been framed into three main themes:  (i) community consultation, (ii) the role of built-environment professionals and (iii) design responses for resilience.   To achieve these themes, there is a variety of contextual and intervening conditions that need to be addressed and met to provide an enabling environment for promoting disaster resilient housing. These three themes are among the most arguable issues in recent debates and discussions, academically and practically, regarding disaster risk reduction ...

  1. Technological developments and safeguards instrumentation: Responding to new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Entering the 1990s, technological tools that were in the research and development stage not so long ago are changing the way inspectors are able to verify nuclear materials at many facilities around the world. Many new instruments - ranging from advanced video monitoring systems to miniature detectors and analysers - already are in place. In some cases, they have been custom-made for specific safeguards tasks, or for placement in locations, such as underwater storage pools for spent reactor fuel, where inspectors cannot go. Standing behind the development of many of these new safeguards instruments are a number of factors. They include: technological advances In computer related fields, such as microprocessing and electronics, and specific areas of instrumentation; technical developments in the nuclear industry and Efficiency improvements and efforts to reduce the costs of safeguards implementation

  2. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN ROMANIA. CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirila Lavinia Florentina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation is considered one of the most important drivers of development at present. Innovation is the tool that can help regions develop regardless of their natural resources and potential. The main purpose of the paper is to foster the innovation at regional level in Romania in order to determine and highlight the need of further measures to increase regional innovation and regional development of Romanian regions in the current context of getting out of the economic crises. Romania is subject of discrepancies not only at European level but at national level as well in terms of economic development and regional innovation. The research undertaken in the present paper is a qualitative research and followes the model proposed by the Group of Applied Economics in the study called Manual of regional competitiveness assessment, and in the study called Romania’s reindustrialization: policy and strategy, study commissioned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business, and uses regional indicators of the eight Romanian development regions in order to measure the Competitiveness Index based on three Indexes, namely Economic, Social and Innovation Index. The data used was collected from Romania’s National Institute of Statistic, National Centre of Prognosis and from the Eurostat database. The general objective is to enhance the great role of regional level in innovation and to sensitize the policy makers about the need to introduce a regional level in order to enforce regional innovation, the main way of improving regional competitiveness and regional development. The main findings reveal that the Romanian regions that invested more in innovation have a positive evolution in terms of economic growth over time so it is for the best of a region to invest in innovation, an aspect that should be taken into consideration by policy makers and private sector when planning the investments within a region.

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  4. The Development Round: Main Outcomes, Challenges and Implementation Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volomymyr Vashchenko

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon current issues in the development of a WTO-based multilateral trade system and the participation of the broadest possible range of nations in this system, with special attention to the agenda of the Fourth and Fifth Ministerial Conferences of WTO memberstates, progress on negotiations and their current status. Bottlenecks in specific areas of the negotiations that have arisen in the course of the discussions, the positions of groups and individual countries are also identified. The article outlines the possibilities of activating and accelerating efforts towards the completion of the liberalization of world trade as envisaged in the agenda of the Development Round.

  5. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN IT INDUSTRY: STATUS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А О Полушкина

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to features professional development in the IT industry and professionals. The article discusses the spectrum of areas related to information technology, development, sales and implementation of software (hereinafter - Software, technical support, control of existing products, information security and quality control of the product and the process of implementation, information consulting with the analysis and implementation of enterprise information product.Particular attention is paid to the processes of certification, corporate training in the information technology industry. Also in the article described general problems of IT specialists during trainings.

  6. Possible Challenges of Teacher Research for Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Widiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher research (i.e. action research has gained acceptance as a tool for teacher professional development. In spite of its increasing popularity in language classrooms, concerns have been raised in the implementation of teacher research, such as issues of quality, sustainability, the development of standards, and accessibility. In the Indonesian context, the unprofessional working conditions and the education background of most teachers have made it difficult for teachers to sustain and access research. Since changing the former appears beyond the aim of this article, it is suggested that teacher education institutions focus on the latter, revisiting the curriculum of teacher education to provide more research components

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND FDI IMPACT IN HOST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This survey analyses aspects of the relationship between FDI and sustainable development within the Romanian economy, focusing in particular on volume, dynamics and structure of FDI companies in Romania, impact on imports and exports as well as ratio between repatriated profit and profit reinvested in the host country. A series of proposals have been made for increasing the contribution of FDI in the sustainable development of Romania by attracting FDI in particular to the tradable sector and for increasing the favourable propagation effects to Romanian companies.

  8. "All We Did Was Things Like Forces and Motion?…": Multiple Discourses in the Development of Primary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna; Warwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted challenges associated with embracing an inquiry approach to science teaching for primary teachers, often associating these challenges with insecurity linked to the lack of content knowledge. We argue that in order to understand the extent to which primary student teachers are able to embrace science teaching…

  9. Universal health coverage and the health Sustainable Development Goal: achievements and challenges for Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha

    2016-09-01

    With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.

  10. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable development in Nigeria. However, several factors like corruption, poor communication channels, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, poor implementation framework and political instability has continued to ...

  11. Challenges in wireless bio-sensor based health development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, MT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ]. The research carried out at Roviera i Virgili University on bio- sensor development has shown that biosensors can detect bacteria at levels as low as 1 cell per 5 ml of water, allowing water to be tested for typhoid fever bacteria in only a few seconds [25...

  12. Sociotechnical Challenges of Developing an Interoperable Personal Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, G.L.; Longhurst, C.A.; Slayton, R.; Das, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze sociotechnical issues involved in the process of developing an interoperable commercial Personal Health Record (PHR) in a hospital setting, and to create guidelines for future PHR implementations. Methods This qualitative study utilized observational research and semi-structured interviews with 8 members of the hospital team, as gathered over a 28 week period of developing and adapting a vendor-based PHR at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford University. A grounded theory approach was utilized to code and analyze over 100 pages of typewritten field notes and interview transcripts. This grounded analysis allowed themes to surface during the data collection process which were subsequently explored in greater detail in the observations and interviews. Results Four major themes emerged: (1) Multidisciplinary teamwork helped team members identify crucial features of the PHR; (2) Divergent goals for the PHR existed even within the hospital team; (3) Differing organizational conceptions of the end-user between the hospital and software company differentially shaped expectations for the final product; (4) Difficulties with coordination and accountability between the hospital and software company caused major delays and expenses and strained the relationship between hospital and software vendor. Conclusions Though commercial interoperable PHRs have great potential to improve healthcare, the process of designing and developing such systems is an inherently sociotechnical process with many complex issues and barriers. This paper offers recommendations based on the lessons learned to guide future development of such PHRs. PMID:22003373

  13. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  14. The Challenges Of Integrating Population Issues Into Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamic is one of the prime factors for social, economic and technological change worldwide. As population size and composition change in an area, people have to adjust leading to innumerable alterations in the way society operates. The integration of population issues into development planning is crucial.

  15. The Work/Family Challenge: A Key Career Development Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnweiler, William M; Kahnweiler, Jennifer B.

    1992-01-01

    A few corporations are responding to the impact of family structural changes on workers' ability to balance their roles with flexible benefits and schedules and with training. Work/family issues are an integral part of career and life decision making and must be incorporated into the career development process. (SK)

  16. Institutional Challenges to Developing Metrics of Success in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    develop national policy and strategic goals. If an IW conflict has a 11 Richard L. Daft , Essentials...13 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory and Design (Mason, OH:Thomson Learning, 2003), 52. 14 Henry...37 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory & Design (Mason, OH: Thompson Learning, 2003), 52

  17. Prospects and challenges of ecotourism development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The country is eminently and abundantly blessed with ecotourism resources that if properly harnessed can generate a lot of revenue to the government as well as be a viable source of employment and means of livelihood to the local people. It, however, identifies problems that have bedevilled ecotourism development in ...

  18. Experiences and challenges in developing European soil hydrological databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, A.; Nemes, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Hiederer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES) database began in 1995 and was funded by the European Commission. The main aims of the project were to collate existing soil hydrological data held by Universities and Research Institutes into a single database and to use these data

  19. Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrachien, De D.; Feddes, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report gives an overview of current and future (time horizon 2025) drainage developments around the world. Moreover, the paper analyses the results of four of the most advanced global circulation models for assessing the hydrological impact of global warming, due to the greenhouse effect, on the

  20. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J

    2014-08-01

    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  1. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  2. Challenges in Developing XML-Based Learning Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auksztol, Jerzy; Przechlewski, Tomasz

    There is no doubt that modular design has many advantages, including the most important ones: reusability and cost-effectiveness. In an e-leaming community parlance the modules are determined as Learning Objects (LOs) [11]. An increasing amount of learning objects have been created and published online, several standards has been established and multiple repositories developed for them. For example Cisco Systems, Inc., "recognizes a need to move from creating and delivering large inflexible training courses, to database-driven objects that can be reused, searched, and modified independent of their delivery media" [6]. The learning object paradigm of education resources authoring is promoted mainly to reduce the cost of the content development and to increase its quality. A frequently used metaphor of Learning Objects paradigm compares them to Lego Logs or objects in Object-Oriented program design [25]. However a metaphor is only an abstract idea, which should be turned to something more concrete to be usable. The problem is that many papers on LOs end up solely in metaphors. In our opinion Lego or OO metaphors are gross oversimplificatation of the problem as there is much easier to develop Lego set or design objects in OO program than develop truly interoperable, context-free learning content1.

  3. Challenges in Smart Low-Temperature District Heating Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research and development shows that low temperature district heating (LTDH) system is economic feasible for low energy buildings and buildings at sparse areas. Coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed district heating (DH) networks, LTDH can reduce network heat loss by...

  4. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  5. Challenges of childhood obesity in a developing economy: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Obesity once considered a high income country's malady is now on the rise in most developing countries particularly in urban settings. Most of these ... Also obese children have higher risk of orthopaedic problems and psychological disturbances like low -self esteem and bullying. This can also lead to ...

  6. Leadership and Accountability: The Challenges of Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sizable number of scholars have argued that development in any nation is a function of a leadership that subscribes to the principles of accountability in government at various levels. This paper employs the methodology of historical research, which involves the analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant books, ...

  7. The Challenges in Developing VET Competencies in E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    A formative evaluation was begun of an innovative project funded by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to develop competencies and qualifications in e-commerce. The formative evaluation was designed to focus on inputs, processes, and interim outputs, identifying both good practice and areas for improvement. Findings to date…

  8. Challenges for developing biopesticides against Varroa destructor (Mesostigamata: Varroidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of the major pest of apiculture, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, using biopesticides would resolve many of the problems experienced with other forms of control, such as chemical control, hive manipulation or selection of resistant strains. Several research groups have developed and...

  9. Loss of life estimation-Review, developments and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Maaskant, B.; Kolen, B.; Needham, J. T Jason

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and review of methods developed for loss of life estimation in flood risk assessment. These methods range from empirical to simulation based approaches that are used to support flood risk analyses and emergency management. Similarities and differences between the

  10. ICT in building construction: prospects and challenges in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For century, humans have created structures but the American wonder which is technology, made what seems impossible possible. The traditional adobe buildings with thatched roof and mud block have been developed to the modern skyscraper. Today, a house can be built with insulation and can be inflated or deflated to ...

  11. Challenges in horizontal integration of eye care services into the pre-existing rural primary care structure: an operations research perspective from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi; Boniface Ikenna Eze; Obiekwe Okoye; Chimdi Memnofu Chuka-Okosa; Jude Obinna Shiweobi

    2017-01-01

    Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations ...

  12. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents, many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise. With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms (particularly bacteria) rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise.The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, carbapenemases (CREs) and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection.A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host. It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to

  13. E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sahadat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Sustainability is being prioritized for all development activities by integrating societal, economic, environmental, technological, cultural, and gender perspectives. Considering the adverse potential eco-toxicological impacts and diverse health effects of e-waste, an urgent global multilateral agreement is needed addressing its management (i.e., handling, storage, transportation, recycling, and final disposal, whether by land filling or incineration. Due to the global nature of the issue and the difficulty of establishing sustainable and environmentally sound processing of e-waste in low-income countries, multinational negotiation and collaboration is the only realistic solution. Furthermore, comprehensive global e-waste management and policies could help to off-set the hazards of e-waste and are the best approach for achieving sustainable development.

  14. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Salas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms.

  15. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sheilla Nyasha; Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these r...

  16. Innovation at tourism business:challenges and creativity for development

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako; Boskov, Tatjana; Filiposki, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Tourism firms operate in a business environment in which innovation is important for firm survival. In spite of this, there is an apparent lack of knowledge concerning innovation processes in tourism firms. This article combines considerations about tourism development, such a change in thinking about tourism can contribute to two important changes in the planning and management of tourism in regional destinations — the use of a different set of assessment criteria for...

  17. White space communication advances, developments and engineering challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a collection of major developments leading toward the implementation of white space technology - an emerging wireless standard for using wireless spectrum in locations where it is unused by licensed users. Some of the key research areas in the field are covered. These include emerging standards, technical insights from early pilots and simulations, software defined radio platforms, geo-location spectrum databases and current white space spectrum usage in India and South Africa.

  18. [The challenges of sustainable development in healthcare facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, François; Muret, Jane; Pauchard, Jean-Claude

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare and medical-social facilities have a major responsibility within society, that of the quality of care, but also that of developing a system of sustainable and socially-responsible health. This system must meet the three pillars which constitute such an approach: economic, social and environmental sustainability. Innovation remains central to the sustainable evolution of practices and the first results are now visible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  20. Developing a strong safety culture - a safety management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, M.; Gipson, G. P.; Williams, M.

    1995-01-01

    The approach is presented adapted by Nuclear Electric to build a strong safety culture through the development of its safety management system. Two features regarded as critical to a strong safety culture are: provision of effective communications to promote an awareness and ownership of safety among craft, and commitment to continuous improvement with a genuine willingness to learn from own experiences and those from others. (N.T.) 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Trikalis; Zisis Papanikolaou; Sofia Trikali

    2014-01-01

    Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary) and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five ...

  2. Development of forging technology for PWR primary piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, F.; Badeau, J.P.; Lambs, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give information on the changes in the design and manufacture of Primary Piping for electronuclear boilers of the Pressurized Water Reactor type (PWR) which has resulted in the making of one-piece forged lines including stub pipes and arcs. The optimization of these items is aimed at improving the life of the new power stations as well as guaranteeing their safety, while reducing inspection and maintenance requirements in service. The demonstration of the manufacturing feasibility has just been completed. It has taken material form in the installation, on the CIVAUX 1 section, of the first one-piece cold leg in the world. It will shortly be followed by the installation on the CIVAUX 2 section of a complete loop of bent forged pipes. Therefore, this new know-how is going to be incorporated in the French Rules (RCC-M) and can be directly taken into consideration both in the next work to be done and in the design and definition of a future nuclear reactor

  3. Development of clinically relevant implantable pressure sensors: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ingelin; Glott, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians.  Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported.

  4. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  5. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  6. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Melody; Edwards, Adrian; Marshall, Martin; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2006-06-19

    The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by practices increases.

  7. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Glyn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. Method A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. Results The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. Conclusion This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by

  8. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted on African children living in Africa.[13,14] The influence of ... breast development and menarche, and to determine the influence of nutrition and ethnicity ... 5 University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Corresponding ...

  9. Development of a primary diffusion source of organic vapors for gas analyzer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuna, M.; Demichelis, A.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of reference mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb) is a challenge for both environmental and clinical measurements. The calibration of gas analyzers for trace VOC measurements requires a stable and accurate source of the compound of interest. The dynamic preparation of gas mixtures by diffusion is a suitable method for fulfilling these requirements. The estimation of the uncertainty of the molar fraction of the VOC in the mixture is a key step in the metrological characterization of a dynamic generator. The performance of a dynamic generator was monitored over a wide range of operating conditions. The generation system was simulated by a model developed with computational fluid dynamics and validated against experimental data. The vapor pressure of the VOC was found to be one of the main contributors to the uncertainty of the diffusion rate and its influence at 10-70 kPa was analyzed and discussed. The air buoyancy effect and perturbations due to the weighing duration were studied. The gas carrier flow rate and the amount of liquid in the vial were found to play a role in limiting the diffusion rate. The results of sensitivity analyses were reported through an uncertainty budget for the diffusion rate. The roles of each influence quantity were discussed. A set of criteria to minimize the uncertainty contribution to the primary diffusion source (25 µg min-1) were estimated: carrier gas flow rate higher than 37.7 sml min-1, a maximum VOC liquid mass decrease in the vial of 4.8 g, a minimum residual mass of 1 g and vial weighing times of 1-3 min. With this procedure a limit uncertainty of 0.5% in the diffusion rate can be obtained for VOC mixtures at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb), making the developed diffusion vials a primary diffusion source with potential to become a new reference material for trace VOC analysis.

  10. Resilience and professional development for primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Dulc, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    A teacher’s professional role is becoming more and more demanding, therefore resiliency has become one of the important aspects of the quality of a teacher’s work and their professional development. Resiliency in the teaching environment means not only resistance from stress but also knowing how to face it. Despite teachers’ taking part in several courses that help them grow professionally and develop themselves, there remains a question in what extent and in what way these courses help teach...

  11. Patent based innovation and development: issues, challenges and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Ibrahim

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent to which science and technology (S and T) policy has been integrated to patent based innovation within the context of national development objective. Could the institutionalisation of patent based innovation in Malaysia be effectively implemented ? The main argument is that patent based innovation must be integrated into the national S and T policy as a dynamic and proactive system. This paper argued that the dependency has an effect to the consequent of relationship imbalance between Malaysia and advanced nations as the main technology supplier within the international business economy. This paper adopts the interdisciplinary of social sciences using system-oriented analysis. The objective of the S and T is to enhance the capacity of national S and T resources as well as to develop the capacity of the local to select, negotiate, adopt, modify, and improve imported technology. Nevertheless, even though the S and T policy was launched in 1986, the impetus of government commitment towards the realisation of S and T policy became more pronounced only in the middle of the 90s. The Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment recognises the importance of creating a climate of science and technology as a critical prerequisite for national development. Various activities at the state and national levels have been organised to promote awareness and adoption of technology to the community. The Ministry that acts as the secretariat to the National Science and Development Council aims to reinforce the foundation based on S and T activities. Malaysia also should encourage activities that general technical innovations that would be integrated into patent based innovation as one of the component in the national innovation system. While this is so, an effective assimilation of technical innovation that is developed within the framework of the national innovation system is yet to be realised. Patent based innovation as a

  12. Intercultural challenges in offshore software development outsourcing relationship: an empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Azeem, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of intercultural challenges is recognized by both the practitioners and researchers in offshore software development outsourcing (OSDO) relationships. These challenges affect almost all the activities involved in offshore software development outsourcing relationships especially communication, mutual understanding, interpretation and decision making processes etc. which in turn leads to project failure. In our previous published study we identified, through systematic literature review (SLR), various intercultural challenges faced by vendors in OSDO relationship. The aim of this study was to validate these findings through industry practitioners and to identify its intensity as well as to identify any other intercultural challenges, faced by vendor organizations in OSDO relationships. We performed questionnaire surveys with 41 experts from different software companies. A seven point likert scale was used to determine the significance of each intercultural challenge. Our findings indicate that all the intercultural challenges are critical for OSDO vendors. We further analyzed these challenges based on different variables, such as company size, company type, expert's job/position etc. We have identified that there is no significant difference in the intercultural challenges based on company type and expert's experience level. We identified that language and language proficiency is the most commonly agreed and difference in social behavior is the most commonly disagreed intercultural challenge in the category of both sizes of company. Similarly language and language proficiency is the most commonly agreed challenge based on experts job positions. (author)

  13. Development of an educational tool to teach primary school pupils multiplication tables

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the need for the development of skills and interest in mathematics, particularly for students in the early years of primary school where core mathematical knowledge is formed. The development and implementation of Maths Mat...

  14. Challenges to Development in India: The Role of Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-01-01

    This talk is based on my experiences with issues in development and education in India. I will describe three unfinished journeys: (i) How HIV/AIDS education and awareness lead to a program of 'students as agents of change' through the creation of multimedia presentations on societal issues; (ii) how teaching health to village outreach workers lead to an understanding of adolescent migration from villages to towns in search for jobs and the spectre of alcoholism; and(iii) how teaching health to sex workers in Kolkata lead to an understanding of their closed world.

  15. Renewable Energy Development In Africa - Challenges, Opportunities, Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Babu

    2010-09-15

    The unexploited potential of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa can be traced back to national energy policies, which concentrate on the conventional electricity sector while the support for renewable resources remains on the fringes. This Paper reviews public policies and funding instruments to exploit renewable energy resources for increasing electricity and energy access rate in Africa. Estimates indicate that 8,500 MW renewable energy projects could be developed in short-term. Way forward, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this regard in the paper.

  16. Promoting sustainable development through culture: current status, challenges and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional concerns of UNESCO as they impinge on culture can perhaps be summarized by education, communication and heritage. Naturally, in a development context education has always had pride of place. Education is of course a basic human right, but in relation to culture it is the key that opens up a door to ones own, and community histories as well as those of others. \\ud \\ud The tools to enable education are both the recording of memories and the expression and communication of these ...

  17. Development of the Electricity Market in Macedonia and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleski, R.; Cerepnalkovski, T.

    2008-01-01

    The power sector in the Republic of Macedonia started the restructuring process in 2000 by corporatization of the state owned vertically integrated utility 'Elektrostopanstvo na Makedonija' (ESM). However, major changes happened after 2003. First, an independent Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) was established and later ESM was unbundled into three companies: MEPSO (TSO), 'ELEM' (Generation) and ESM-Distribution (DSO). The market model that was adopted, in essence, was a combination of the Single Buyer and wholesale competition models. The idea was to establish a transitional legal framework that would later be further developed to allow competition on retail level in accordance with EU directives and the SEE Energy Treaty. The wholesale competition was meant for the large industrial customers that had right to choose if they would buy electricity in the (regional) market or stay on the tariff system. However, since there is no competition on generation level in the country, and regional market prices were higher than the regulated prices, the wholesale component didn't really worked. In 2007 and 2008 the Energy law was changed to enforce the wholesale competition. With these changes MEPSO was replaced by ELEM to serve as Single buyer for captive (distribution) customers. Although the Government of Macedonia (GoM) claimed that these changes further enhance the market model, in reality they provide very little (if any) improvements in the sector since 2005. As a result, there were no possibilities to open the market for all non-residential customers as of January 1, 2008. There are several reasons that led to stagnation in the liberalization process. Failure to develop a number of secondary legislation documents and very low electricity prices for captive customers were probably the most relevant issues. In order to proceed with the liberalization process relevant institutions need to develop market code, establish sustainable balancing market, and upgrade the

  18. Challenges to Development in India: The Role of Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajan (LANL)

    2006-05-08

    This talk is based on my experiences with issues in development and education in India. I will describe three unfinished journeys: (i) How HIV/AIDS education and awareness lead to a program of 'students as agents of change' through the creation of multimedia presentations on societal issues; (ii) how teaching health to village outreach workers lead to an understanding of adolescent migration from villages to towns in search for jobs and the spectre of alcoholism; and(iii) how teaching health to sex workers in Kolkata lead to an understanding of their closed world.

  19. New challenge: the development of social competition for peaceful coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ramírez Ibagon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes the experiences obtained from the initiation of the Basic Development for Reconstruction of Social Abilities with Emphasis on Peaceful Co-Existence Programme. The programme includes young people who have enrolled in the National Reinsertion Programme to obtain their Secundary school Degree. It offers a profile of the population, a recount of the reasons why children and young people participate in armed conflict and also describes the reasons that influence their return. Finally, the paper makes mention of the alms and achievements of said experiences. 

  20. Industrial developments challenging planning and research endeavours around Songkla Lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2004-01-01

    had several broad committees engaged in supporting these planning issues and resolve the conflicts be-tween different stakeholder interests in the regions development. The paper gives an overview over the types of problems that have been addressed in these major plans and studies and the types......, but the specific outcomes of the planning and the scientific result seem to be rather limited. In an attempt to find an explanation to this gap between planning and advice on one hand and the implementation on the other, it is important not only to look for policy answers. These would typically be ‘lack...