WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary cell tower

  1. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  2. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  3. Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Manufacturing Research | NREL Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless For Verizon Wireless , NREL tested a new cell-phone tower power system prototype based on DC interconnection and photovoltaics

  4. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  5. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected to orthophotography. Probably includes towers other than cell towers (uncertain). Not published., Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2003. Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected...

  6. Project Profile: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Tower (HFCML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding innovative solutions that improve the operational performance of ground support equipment while providing environment and cost benefits, as well. Through the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Tower (HFCML) project, NASA gained operational exposure to a novel application of high efficiency technologies. Traditionally, outdoor lighting and auxiliary power at security gates, launch viewing sites, fallback areas, outage support, and special events is provided by diesel generators with metal halide lights. Diesel generators inherently contribute to C02, NOx, particulate emissions, and are very noisy. In 2010, engineers from NASA's Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) introduced KSC operations to a novel technology for outdoor lighting needs. Developed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the technology pairs a 5kW hydrogen fuel cell with robust high efficiency plasma lights in a towable trailer. Increased efficiency, in both the fuel cell power source and lighting load, yields longer run times between fueling operations while providing greater auxiliary power. Because of the unit's quiet operation and no exhaust fumes, it is capable of being used indoors and in emergency situations, and meets the needs of all other operational roles for metal halide/diesel generators. The only discharge is some water and warm air. Environmental benefits include elimination of diesel particulate emissions and estimated 73% greenhouse gas emissions savings when the hydrogen source is natural gas (per GREET model). As the technology matures the costs could become competitive for the fuel cell units which are approximately 5 times diesel units. Initial operational . concerns included the hydrogen storage tanks and valves, lightning safety/grounding, and required operating and refueling procedures. TEERM facilitated technical information exchange (design drawings, technical standards, and operations

  7. Outcomes of the Tower Crane Technique with a 15-mm Trocar in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS pulmonary wedge resection has emerged as the standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recently, single-port VATS has been introduced and is now widely performed. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Tower crane technique as novel technique using a 15-mm trocar and anchoring suture in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: Patients who underwent single- port VATS wedge resection in Chungnam National University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled. The medical records of the enrolled patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1,251 patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax during this period, 270 of whom underwent VATS wedge resection. Fifty-two of those operations were single-port VATS wedge resections for primary spontaneous pneumothorax performed by a single surgeon. The median age of the patients was 19.3±11.5 years old, and 43 of the patients were male. The median duration of chest tube drainage following the operation was 2.3±1.3 days, and mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2±1.3 days. Prolonged air leakage for more than three days following the operation was observed in one patient. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.7±6.1 months, with a recurrence rate of 3.8%. Conclusion: The tower crane technique with a 15-mm trocar may be a promising treatment modality for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, File name = CELLTOWERS Contains point file of cell towers and an inclomplete poly cadastral layer of properties with cell towers. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2011. File name = CELLTOWERS Contains point file of cell towers and an inclomplete poly cadastral layer of properties...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2010. Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the...

  10. ''Tower vertebra'': a new observation in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, T.J.; Brunson, C.Y.; Jackson, S.; Schabel, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Skeletal abnormalities are common in sickle cell anemia. Ischemia, infarction, and growth disturbance of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies are among the most common abnormalities, and can suggest the diagnosis radiographically. Design and patients. We recently encountered two adult patients in whom vertebrae had grown abnormally in height adjacent to infarcted short vertebrae. We then reviewed the thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 54 more adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Results and conclusion. A total of eight patients (14%) displayed infarcted vertebrae with compensatory vertical growth of at least one adjacent vertebrae. These resemble the elongated vertebral bodies associated with other conditions. We can find no prior report of this finding in association with sickle cell anemia. (orig.)

  11. Constructional types of hybrid tower cells. First plume observations on experimental cells in the Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeule, R.

    1977-01-01

    First experience with two experimental hybrid-cell cooling towers at the Gemeinschaftkernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN) concerning techniques and plume influence. In dependence of plume-determining parameters coinciding, noticeable plume reductions as well as situations without visible improvements are observed. These results, which are not quite clear, demonstrate that systematical analytical investigations are needed. (orig.) [de

  12. Virtual Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems

  13. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  14. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  15. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  16. Diagnostic extrapolation of gross primary production from flux tower sites to the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Baldocchi, Dennis; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    The uptake of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis is the largest global carbon flux and is thought of driving most terrestrial carbon cycle processes. While the photosynthesis processes at the leaf and canopy levels are quite well understood, so far only very crude estimates of its global integral, the Gross Primary Production (GPP) can be found in the literature. Existing estimates have been lacking sound empirical basis. Reasons for such limitations lie in the absence of direct estimates of ecosystem-level GPP and methodological difficulties in scaling local carbon flux measurements to global scale across heterogeneous vegetation. Here, we present global estimates of GPP based on different diagnostic approaches. These up-scaling schemes integrated high-resolution remote sensing products, such as land cover, the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and leaf-area index, with carbon flux measurements from the global network of eddy covariance stations (FLUXNET). In addition, meteorological datasets from diverse sources and river runoff observations were used. All the above-mentioned approaches were also capable of estimating uncertainties. With six novel or newly parameterized and highly diverse up-scaling schemes we consistently estimated a global GPP of 122 Pg C y-1. In the quantification of the total uncertainties, we considered uncertainties arising from the measurement technique and data processing (i.e. partitioning into GPP and respiration). Furthermore, we accounted for the uncertainties of drivers and the structural uncertainties of the extrapolation approach. The total propagation led to a global uncertainty of 15 % of the mean value. Although our mean GPP estimate of 122 Pg C y-1 is similar to the previous postulate by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001, we estimated a different variability among ecoregions. The tropics accounted for 32 % of GPP showing a greater importance of tropical ecosystems for the global carbon

  17. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  18. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  19. Evaluating the relationships between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 and gross primary productivity from eddy covariance flux towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xiao, J.; He, B.

    2017-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) opens a new perspective on the monitoring of vegetation photosynthesis from space, and has been recently used to estimate gross primary productivity (GPP). However, previous studies on SIF were mainly based on satellite observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), and the evaluation of these coarse-resolution SIF measurements using GPP derived from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers has been hindered by the scale mismatch between satellite and tower footprints. We use new far-red SIF observations from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite with much finer spatial resolution and GPP data from EC flux towers from 2014 to 2016 to examine the relationship between GPP and SIF for temperate forests. The OCO-2 SIF tracked tower GPP fairly well, and had strong correlation with tower GPP at both retrieval bands (757nm and 771nm) and both instantaneous (mid-day) and daily timescales. Daily SIF at 757nm (SIF757) exhibited much stronger correlation with tower GPP compared to MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from either Terra or Aqua and had a similarly strong relationship as EVI based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) corrected reflectance product (Terra+Aqua). Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) explained 85% of the variance in SIF757, while the product of APAR and two environmental scalars - fTmin and fVPD (representing minimum temperature stress and water stress) explained slightly higher variance (92%) in SIF757. This suggests that SIF mainly depends on APAR and also contains information on light use efficiency (LUE) reflecting environmental stresses and physiological or biochemical variations of vegetation. The hyperbolic model based on SIF757 estimated GPP well (R2=0.81, pmodel - the MODSI GPP algorithm. Our findings demonstrate the strong

  20. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  1. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  2. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  3. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  4. Cell tower siting and neighbours' rights in Austria; Standortwahl und Anrainerschutz bei Mobilfunk-Basisstationen in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshammer, H.; Hutter, H.P.; Wallner, P.; Kundi, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene

    2001-07-01

    In controversies concerning the siting of cell towers it is essential to keep the neighbours informed and enable their participation. The question of possible health effects of electromagnetic fields is regularly raised in this context. Here the citizens attitude seem to be illogical: On the one hand the majority of the population is using mobile phones frequently and on the other hand many people claim they feel discomfort and threats when they learn that they are exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Therefore it is necessary to calm the emotions. This can only be achieved by transparent and structured authorisation procedures for each cell tower site. Interviewing the participants of the international conference on cell tower siting (Salzburg, Austria, June 2000) about the current administrative procedures in their country, large regional differences could be shown indicating uncertainties within administrative bodies and so adding to the confusion of lay persons. What is most striking is the unwillingness of the communication industry to participate in a fair communication. This is even more astonishing as precautionary small intensities of electromagnetic fields (e.g. 1 mW/m{sup 2}) can be achieved or even are achieved in most places without problem. (orig.) [German] In den Kontroversen um die Errichtung von Mobilfunk-Basisstationen sind Information und Beteiligung der Anrainer wichtig. Die moegliche Gesundheitsgefaehrdung wird in diesen Auseinandersetzungen haeufig thematisiert. Insgesamt scheint die Einstellung der Bevoelkerung zur neuen Technik zwiespaeltig: Obwohl der Grossteil der Bevoelkerung regelmaessig ein Mobiltelefon benuetzt, wird Unbehagen gegenueber der als bedrohlich empfundenen Einwirkung elektromagnetischer Strahlung geaeussert. Nur ein klar strukturiertes Vorgehen bei der Bewilligung neuer Anlagen koennte zu einer Entspannung der gegenwaertig emotional aufgeladenen und angespannten Situation beitragen. Dazu ist die Einbeziehung

  5. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Gu, M.J.; Kim, M.J.; Bae, Y.K.; Choi, W.H.; Shin, D.S.; Cho, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  6. Primary thermosensory events in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Temperature sensing is essential for the survival of living organisms. Since thermal gradients are almost everywhere, thermoreception could represent one of the oldest sensory transduction processes that evolved in organisms. There are many examples of temperature changes affecting the physiology of living cells. Almost all classes of biological macromolecules in a cell (nucleic acids, lipids, proteins) can serve as a target of the temperature-related stimuli. This review is devoted to some common features of different classes of temperature-sensing molecules as well as molecular and biological processes involved in thermosensation. Biochemical, structural and thermodynamic approaches are discussed in order to overview the existing knowledge on molecular mechanisms of thermosensation.

  7. Primary Cilia, Signaling Networks and Cell Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veland, Iben Rønn

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based, sensory organelles that emerge from the centrosomal mother centriole to project from the surface of most quiescent cells in the human body. Ciliary entry is a tightly controlled process, involving diffusion barriers and gating complexes that maintain a unique...... this controls directional cell migration as a physiological response. The ciliary pocket is a membrane invagination with elevated activity of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE). In paper I, we show that the primary cilium regulates TGF-β signaling and the ciliary pocket is a compartment for CDE...... on formation of the primary cilium and CDE at the pocket region. The ciliary protein Inversin functions as a molecular switch between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. In paper II, we show that Inversin and the primary cilium control Wnt signaling and are required for polarization and cell migration...

  8. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  9. Structural inspection and wind analysis of redwood cooling towers at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.; Solack, T.; Hortel, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the plant upgrade program, structural analyses and field inspections were performed on four redwood cooling towers at the DOE Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant located in Piketon, Ohio. The cooling towers are categorized as important hazard facilities. The loadings are derived from UCRL-15910 according to the pertinent hazard category. In addition to the seismic and wind loadings, the wood cooling towers are constantly subject to adverse environmental effects such as elevated temperature, chemical attack, icing and snow load, and motor vibrations. A thorough structural evaluation for all load combinations was performed for each of the cooling towers based on the structural code requirements of the Cooling Tower Institute and National Forest Products Association. Most stress criteria are unique for the redwood material. This evaluation was performed using finite element techniques on the global structural integrity and supplemented by hand calculations on the individual connection joints. Overloaded wood structural members and joints are identified by the analysis. The rectangular tower structure sits on a concrete basin that span across 60 ft by 200 ft. A major part of the cooling towers upgrading program involved field inspections of the individual cells of each tower. The primary purpose of these inspections was to identify any existing structural damage or deficiencies such as failed members, degraded wood, and deficiencies resulting from poor construction practice. Inspection of 40 cells identified some generic deficiencies that mostly are consistent with the analytical finding. Based on the analysis, some effective but inexpensive upgrading techniques were developed and recommended to bring the cooling towers into compliance with current DOE requirements

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, FCC registered communications towers. Points were generated from FCC data latlong. Originally created as a basis of comparison for Appraiser's cell tower points, bu comparison was inconclusive. Represented all registered FCC sites as of 6/26/2003. No, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2003. FCC registered communications towers. Points were generated from FCC data latlong. Originally created as a basis of...

  11. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francele de Abreu Carlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology.

  12. T cell-B cell interactions in primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangye, Stuart G; Deenick, Elissa K; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Ma, Cindy S

    2012-02-01

    Regulated interactions between cells of the immune system facilitate the generation of successful immune responses, thereby enabling efficient neutralization and clearance of pathogens and the establishment of both cell- and humoral-mediated immunological memory. The corollary of this is that impediments to efficient cell-cell interactions, normally necessary for differentiation and effector functions of immune cells, underly the clinical features and disease pathogenesis of primary immunodeficiencies. In affected individuals, these defects manifest as impaired long-term humoral immunity and susceptibility to infection by specific pathogens. In this review, we discuss the importance of, and requirements for, effective interactions between B cells and T cells during the formation of CD4(+) T follicular helper cells and the elicitation of cytotoxic function of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as how these processes are abrogated in primary immunodeficiencies due to loss-of-function mutations in defined genes. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Transfection in Primary Cultured Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Katie F M; Hardingham, Giles E

    2017-01-01

    Transfection allows the introduction of foreign nucleic acid into eukaryotic cells. It is an important tool in understanding the roles of NMDARs in neurons. Here, we describe using lipofection-mediated transfection to introduce cDNA encoding NMDAR subunits into postmitotic rodent primary cortical neurons maintained in culture.

  14. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Edward; Karajgikar, Jay; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-10-01

    Since the recognition of the anaplastic large-cell lymphomas in the 1980s, much has been learned about the diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these malignant conditions. The systemic and primary cutaneous types of anaplastic large cell lymphomas have been differentiated on clinical and immunophenotypical findings, but further research is required to elucidate their exact etiologies and pathogeneses. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma has a 95% disease-specific 5-year survival, owing partly to the relatively benign course of the disease and partly to the variety of effective treatments that are available. As with many other oncological diseases, new drugs are continually being tested and developed, with immunotherapy and biological response modifiers showing promise.

  15. Primary Hepatosplenic Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Morales-Polanco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma. It usually begins in the lymph nodes; up to 40% may have an extranodal presentation. According to a definition of primary extranodal lymphoma with presentation only in extranodal sites, there are reports of large B-cell lymphomas limited to liver or spleen as separate entities, and to date there have been only three documented cases of primary hepatosplenic presentation. This paper reports a fourth case. Due to a review of the literature and the clinical course of the case reported, we conclude that primary hepatosplenic large B-cell lymphoma has been found predominantly in females older than 60 years. The patients reported had <2 months of evolution prior to diagnosis, prominent B symptoms, splenomegaly in three and hepatomegaly in two, none with lymph node involvement. All had thrombocytopenia and abnormal liver function tests; three had anemia and elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase levels, two with hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Because of the previously mentioned data, it can be stated that primary hepatosplenic lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive form of disease that requires immediate recognition and treatment.

  16. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  17. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  18. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  19. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus

  20. Drop Tower Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  1. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  2. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PLASMA CELL LEUKAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Černelč

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The author describes long-term survival in 3 patients with primary plasma cell leukaemia (PL after different therapeutic regimen and maintenance treatment with interferon alpha (INF.Patients and treatment. In a 52-year-old male patient, a partial remission of PL was achieved after 6 months of treatment with melphalan and prednisone. The patient did not consent to stem cell transplantation (SCT. An 86-year-old female patient with PL achieved a complete remission after 6 months of treatment with vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone. A 31-year-old male patient experienced a complete remission of PL after 6 months of treatment with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methilprednisone, followed by autologous SCT. All three patients were placed on maintenance therapy with INF-2b (Intron A 3 × 106 IU given subcutaneously on two days per week. In the 52-year-old man, the remission lasted 9 months and in the woman 23 months, whereupon they developed a relapse with signs of disseminated plasmacytoma. In both patients the former chemotherapy was applied again, resulting in a slight improvement. The man died 37 months and the woman 43 months after the diagnosis of PL, while the youngest patient has been in complete remission for 82 months.Conclusions. Long remission achieved in our patients confirmed the favourable effect of INF in terms of prolongation of the remission duration in this patients. The effect of maintenance treatment with INF is usually directly dependent on the degree of remission induced by different therapeutic regimen.

  3. Transporting method for adsorbing tower and the adsorbing tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Nobuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic bag is disposed to the upper surface of an adsorbing tower so as to surround a suspending piece. One opening of the bag is sealed, and other opening is secured in a sealed state to a bag holding portion disposed to glove box at a gate for the adsorbing tower box. The adsorbing tower is transported into the glove box, and after the completion of the operation of the adsorbing tower, the adsorbing tower is taken out in a state that the bag is restricted and sealed at a portion below the adsorbing tower. The bag may be made of a vinyl plastic, the bag holding portion may be a short-cylindrical protrusion, and may have an O-ring groove at the outer surface. Even if the adsorbing tower is heavy, the adsorbing tower can be carried out easily in a state where it is sealed gas tightly. (N.H.)

  4. Improving performance and reducing costs of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartz, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling towers represent a significant capital investment at a steam electric power station. In addition, deficiencies in thermal performance can result in major operating penalties of fuel cost, replacement energy, and capacity addition. This paper summarizes two recent EPRI research projects aimed at reducing thermal performance deficiencies and decreasing installed costs of evaporative cooling towers. First, EPRI Research Project 2113, Cooling Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement, is summarized. This project has resulted in published data sets on the measured thermal performance characteristics of a variety of cooling tower packings, computer codes to predict tower performance, and computer code validation through large-scale tower performance measurements. Principal results are contained in an EPRIGEMS software module, Cooling Tower Advisor. This PC- based software contains a tutorial plus codes to predict tower thermal performance, arranged in a user-friendly format. The second EPRI effort, Research Project 2819-10/11, Fabric Structures for Power Plant Applications, has resulted in designs and costs of large structures with shells constructed of recently-developed fabrics. Primary power plant applications for such structures are the shells of natural draft cooling towers and coal-pile covers. Fabric structures offer low initial cost, acceptable life, and seismic superiority, among other advantages. Detailed conceptual designs and installed cost data are reviewed. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  6. Multicentric primary extramammary Paget disease: a Toker cell disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Pantea; Kao, Grace F; Konia, Thomas; Kauffman, Lisa C; Tam, Christine C; Sina, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    Toker cells are epithelial clear cells found in the areolar and nipple areas of the breast, vulvar region, and other apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. Toker cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of clear cell papulosis, cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells, and rare cases of primary extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) but not in secondary EMPD with underlying adenocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of primary EMPD is not well defined. We report a case of multicentric primary EMPD with evidence of Toker cell proliferation and nonaggressive biologic behavior in a 63-year-old white man. A detailed description of the morphologic and biologic features of Toker cells and their possible carcinogenetic links also are discussed. Based on the observation and follow-up of our patient, we hypothesize that multicentric primary EMPD starts with Toker cell hyperplasia and can potentially evolve to carcinoma in the genital region.

  7. TacTower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Jürgensen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Learning from the multiplayer interaction in sports, we describe our project TacTower; a flexible system for professional elite handball players to train game perception and kinesthetic em- pathy. The design is founded in ideas of Collective Interaction and qualities that is inherent in sport...

  8. Talking Towers, Making Withs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, J. L.

    The notion of a linguistic "register" is useful in posing questions about how the ways language is used differ from one kind of human activity to another. This paper analyzes a videotaped segment of male grade 4/5 students (n=3) who are talking as they work to build a tower from plastic drinking straws and pins. Discussion of the…

  9. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-05-23

    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  10. TacTower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Jürgensen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Learning from the multiplayer interaction in sports, we describe our project TacTower; a flexible system for professional elite handball players to train game perception and kinesthetic em- pathy. The design is founded in ideas of Collective Interaction and qualities that is inherent in sport...... and is based on consid- erations about paralanguage, kinesthetic emphatic interaction, physical positioning of players and collaborative interaction....

  11. Reliability Evaluation of Primary Cells | Anyaka | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the reliability of a primary cell took place in three stages: 192 cells went through a slow-discharged test. A designed experiment was conducted on 144 cells; there were three factors in the experiment: Storage temperature (three levels), thermal shock (two levels) and date code (two levels). 16 cells ...

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schmidt C, Schmid A, Lüttges JE, Kremer B, Henne-Bruns D. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1033-6. 5. Muto M, Hasebe T, Muro K, Boku N, Ohtsu A, Fujii T, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: A case report with ...

  13. Cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: an unusual primary intracranial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, J.R.; Ragland, R.L.; Stone, B.B.; Woda, B.A.; Gelber, N.D.

    1992-01-01

    Primary T-cell lymphoma within the central nervous system is extremely rare. Imaging characteristics appear indistinguishable from the more common B-cell lymphoma. A case of such a primary tumor is discussed and the MRI and CT findings presented. (orig.)

  14. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  15. Good Towers of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....

  16. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  17. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  18. Radiosensitivity of primary cultured fish cells with different ploidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.

    1986-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)

  19. TacTowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents’ actions and anti...... for the elite athletic community, as this domain holds interesting challenges while also inspiring relevant, new forms of interaction design for other domains....

  20. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  1. Primary lithium-thionyl chloride cell evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, A. E.; Waterhouse, R.; Debiccari, D.; Griffin, G. L.

    1980-08-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the Altus 1350AH cell performance against the Minuteman Survival Ground Power requirements. Twelve cells of the 17 inch diameter, 1-3/8 inch heights were fabricated and tested during this study. Under discharge rates varying from C/100 to C/400 at ambient temperature, the volumetric and gravimetric energy density performance requirements of 15 watt hours per cubic inch and 150 watt hours per pound were exceeded in all cases. All other performance requirements of voltage, current, configuration, capacity volume, weight, electrolyte leakage (none), and maintainability (none required), were met or exceeded. The abuse testing demonstrated the Altus Cell's ability to safely withstand short circuit by external shorting, short circuit by penetration with a conductive object, forced discharge, and forced charging of a cell. Disposal of discharged cells by incineration is an environmentally safe and efficient method of disposal.

  2. Primary Testicular B-cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Buğra Şentürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1-7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with a painful right testicular mass. Treatment modalities consist of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, however there are no standardized treatment options.

  3. Induced draught circular cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induced draught atmospheric cooling towers are described, to wit those in which the circulation is by power fans. This technique with fans grouped together in the centre enables a single tower to be used and provides an excellent integration of the steam wreath into the atmosphere. This type of cooling tower has been chosen for fitting out two 900 MW units of the Chinon power station in France [fr

  4. Primary immunodeficiencies and B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Mateos, María Anunciación; Piquer Gibert, Mónica

    In primary immunodeficiencies there is a failure in the anti-tumor defense. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common primary immunodeficiencies characterized by an alteration in the differentiation of B lymphocytes (BL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous virus that selectively infects the BL. In patients with immunodeficiency, uncontrolled proliferation of infected BL and the action of viral proteins promote the development of lymphomas. At the University Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, 28 patients were diagnosed with CVID from 2000 to 2013. This paper describes four patients who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The lymphoma was associated with EBV in two of the cases. Patients were<18 years old, diagnosed with lymphoma between 4 and 13 years old. Two patients were treated with rituximab as monotherapy and achieved complete remission. Two patients were treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) and radiotherapy or rituximab and achieved complete remission. Early detection of EBV infections and NHL in all patients diagnosed with CVID is recommended, regardless of age at diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Mantle cell lymphoma of the larynx: Primary case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciri Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary laryngeal lymphomas are exceedingly rare. Only about a hundred cases have been reported. They consist mainly of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. We report the first case of a primary laryngeal mantle cell lymphoma. Case presentation We report a case of a primary mantle cell lymphoma of the larynx in a 70-year-old North African non-smoker male. We present a detailed report of his clinical and paraclinical data as well as treatment options. Conclusions Mantle cell lymphoma is a very aggressive lymphoma subset associated with poor prognosis. Laryngeal mantle cell lymphoma is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to ever be reported.

  6. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  7. Primary radiation damage and disturbance in cell divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Yun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.; Nili, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Survived cells from a homogeneous population exposed to ionizing radiation form various colonies of different sizes and morphology on a solid nutrient medium, which appear at different time intervals after irradiation. Such a phenomenon agrees well with the modern theory of microdosimetry and classical hit-and-target models of radiobiology. According to the hit-principle, individual cells exposed to the same dose of radiation are damaged in different manners. It means that the survived cells can differ in the content of sublethal damage (hits) produced by the energy absorbed into the cell and which is not enough to give rise to effective radiation damage which is responsible for cell killing or inactivation. In diploid yeast cells, the growth rate of cells from 250 colonies of various sizes appeared at different time intervals after irradiation with 600 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60 Co isotopic source was analyzed. The survival rate after irradiation was 20%. Based on the analyses results, it was possible to categorize the clones grown from irradiated cells according to the number of sub-lesions from 1 to 4. The clones with various numbers of sub-lesions were shown to be different in their viability, radiosensitivity, sensitivity to environmental conditions, and the frequency of recombination and respiratory deficient mutations. Cells from unstable clones exhibited an enhanced radiosensitivity, and an increased portion of morphologically changed cells, nonviable cells and respiration mutants, as well. The degree of expression of the foregoing effects was higher if the number of primary sublethal lesions was greater in the originally irradiated cell. Disturbance in cell division can be characterized by cell inactivation or incorrect distribution of mitochondria between daughter cells. Thus, the suggested methodology of identification of cells with a definite number of primary sublethal lesions will promote further elucidation of the nature of primary radiation

  8. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  9. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  10. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma following head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Metastasis or second primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Tom W.; Nederlof, Petra M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; van't Veer, Laura J.; de Jong, Daphne; Hart, August A. M.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klomp, Houke; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish a metastasis from a second primary tumor in patients with a history of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Experimental Design: For 44 patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck followed by a

  11. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  12. Growth of primary embryo cells in a microculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Max; Pope, Sara; Conover, Joanne; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2010-04-01

    We present optimal perfusion conditions for the growth of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using a microfluidic perfusion culture system. In an effort to balance nutrient renewal while ensuring the presence of cell secreted factors, we found that the optimal perfusion rate for culturing primary embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) in our experimental setting is 10 nL/min with an average flow velocity 0.55 microm/s in the microchannel. Primary mEFs may have a greater dependence on cell secreted factors when compared to their immortalized counterpart 3T3 fibroblasts cultured under similar conditions. Both the seeding density and the perfusion rate are critical for the proliferation of primary cells. A week long cultivation of mEFs and mESCs using the microculture system exhibited similar morphology and viability to those grown in a petri dish. Both mEFs and mESCs were analyzed using fluorescence immunoassays to determine their proliferative status and protein expression. Our results demonstrate that a perfusion-based microculture environment is capable of supporting the highly proliferative status of pluripotent embryonic stem cells.

  13. Neoexpression of a functional primary cilium in colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Sénicourt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of numerous cell types both during development and in the adult. Often deregulated in cancers, its involvement in colorectal cancer has come into view during the last few years, although its role remains poorly defined. In most tissues, the HH pathway is highly connected to the primary cilium (PC, an organelle that recruits functional components and regulates the HH pathway. However, normal epithelial cells of the colon display an inactive HH pathway and lack a PC. In this study, we report the presence of the PC in adenocarcinoma cells of primary colorectal tumors at all stages. Using human colorectal cancer cell lines we found a clear correlation between the presence of the PC and the expression of the final HH effector, GLI1, and provide evidence of a functional link between the two by demonstrating the recruitment of the SMO receptor to the membrane of the primary cilium. We conclude that the primary cilium directly participates in the HH pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

  14. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ka-Siong Kho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter, with a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. These tumors, rarely reported in the urinary tract, are locally aggressive and have a poor prognosis. A 77-year-old male bedridden patient presented with fever and chills with left side-flank pain for 3 days. Following a diagnosis of ureteral urothelial carcinoma, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was carried out. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given after pathologic report of primary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter and a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. After 3 cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months postoperatively due to sepsis.

  15. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Veland, Iben; Schwab, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration....... In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We...

  16. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Net Ecosystem and Net Primary Productivities as Determined from Flux Tower, Biometric, and Model Estimates for a Coastal Douglas-fir Forest in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Filipescu, C.

    2013-12-01

    In coastal BC, 6,000-10,000 ha of public and significant areas of private forest land are annually fertilized with nitrogen, with or without thinning, to increase merchantable wood and reduce rotation age. Fertilization has also been viewed as a way to increase carbon (C) sequestration in forests and obtain C offsets. Such offset projects must demonstrate additionality with reference to a baseline and include monitoring to verify net C gains over the project period. Models in combination with field-plot measurements are currently the accepted methods for most C offset protocols. On eastern Vancouver Island, measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross primary productivity (GPP) using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique as well as component C fluxes and stocks have been made since 1998 in an intermediate-aged Douglas-fir dominated forest planted in 1949. In January 2007 an area around the EC flux tower was aerially fertilized with 200 kg urea-N ha-1. Ground plots in the fertilized area and an adjacent unfertilized control area were also monitored for soil (Rs) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration, litterfall, and tree growth. To determine fertilization effects on whole tree growth, sample trees were felled in both areas for the 4-year (2003-06) pre- and the 4-year (2007-10) post-fertilization periods and were compared with EC NEP estimates and tree-ring based NEP estimates from Carbon Budget Model - Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) for the same periods. Empirical equations using climate and C fluxes from 1998-2006 were derived to estimate what the EC fluxes would have been in 2007-10 for the fertilized area had it been unfertilized. Mean EC NEP for 2007-10 was 561 g C m2 y-1 , a 64% increase above pre-fertilization NEP (341 g C m2 y-1) or 28% increase above estimated unfertilized NEP (438 g C m2 y-1). Most of the increase was attributed to increased tree C uptake (i.e., GPP), with little change in Re. In 2007 fertilization

  17. Single-cell qPCR on dispersed primary pituitary cells -an optimized protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Trude M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of false positives is a potential problem in single-cell PCR experiments. This paper describes an optimized protocol for single-cell qPCR measurements in primary pituitary cell cultures following patch-clamp recordings. Two different cell harvesting methods were assessed using both the GH4 prolactin producing cell line from rat, and primary cell culture from fish pituitaries. Results Harvesting whole cells followed by cell lysis and qPCR performed satisfactory on the GH4 cell line. However, harvesting of whole cells from primary pituitary cultures regularly produced false positives, probably due to RNA leakage from cells ruptured during the dispersion of the pituitary cells. To reduce RNA contamination affecting the results, we optimized the conditions by harvesting only the cytosol through a patch pipette, subsequent to electrophysiological experiments. Two important factors proved crucial for reliable harvesting. First, silanizing the patch pipette glass prevented foreign extracellular RNA from attaching to charged residues on the glass surface. Second, substituting the commonly used perforating antibiotic amphotericin B with β-escin allowed efficient cytosol harvest without loosing the giga seal. Importantly, the two harvesting protocols revealed no difference in RNA isolation efficiency. Conclusion Depending on the cell type and preparation, validation of the harvesting technique is extremely important as contaminations may give false positives. Here we present an optimized protocol allowing secure harvesting of RNA from single cells in primary pituitary cell culture following perforated whole cell patch clamp experiments.

  18. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  19. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  20. Nanoscaffold's stiffness affects primary cortical cell network formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Sijia; Schurink, Bart; Wolbers, F.; Lüttge, Regina; Hassink, Gerrit Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    Networks of neurons cultured on-chip can provide insights into both normal and disease-state brain function. The ability to guide neuronal growth in specific, artificially designed patterns allows us to study how brain function follows form. Primary cortical cells cultured on nanograting scaffolds,

  1. Structure of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls from Collenchyma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thomas, L. H.; Forsyth, V. T.; Šturcová, Adriana; Kennedy, C. J.; May, R. P.; Altaner, C. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Wess, T. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 465-476 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0703 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : primary cell wall * cellulose microfibril structure * chain packing disorder Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  2. Cutaneous features seen in primary liver cell (Hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma (PLCC), predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma is a killer. In the southwestern region of Nigeria it occupies the second position, behind prostate cancer in males. Females account for about a third of diagnosed cases. Children are not spared. Over 80 % of PLCC cases present to the hospital at ...

  3. Uptake of gold nanoparticles in primary human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Henrik; Oddershede, Lene B.; Löschner, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are relevant in nanomedicine for drug delivery in the vascular system, where endothelial cells are the first point of contact. We investigated the uptake of 80 nm AuNPs in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by flow cytometry, 3D confocal microscopy......–3 or more particles. Pre-treatment with chlorpromazine inhibited the AuNP-uptake in HUVECs, indicating that internalisation occurred mainly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Cell activation by exposure to tumour necrosis factor or lipopolysaccharide had a slight or no effect on the uptake of Au...

  4. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  5. 45-FOOT HIGH DROP TOWER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Drop Tower is used to simulate and measure the impact shocks that are exerted on parachute loads when they hit the ground. It is also used for HSL static lift to...

  6. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Sara; Stochetti, Alejandro; Cerone, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client's programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. "The Design of Akhmat Tower" describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  7. Longevity in vivo of primary cell wall cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph Lee; Josephs, Cooper; Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T; Tien, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC. We determined the stability over time of primary cell wall (PCW) CESAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, using immunoblotting after inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide treatment. Our work reveals very slow turnover for the Arabidopsis PCW CESAs in vivo. Additionally, we show that the stability of all three CESAs within the PCW CSC is altered by mutations in individual CESAs, elevated temperature, and light conditions. Together, these results suggest that CESA proteins are very stable in vivo, but that their lifetimes can be modulated by intrinsic and environmental cues.

  8. Studies of column supported towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, D.; Costaz, J.-L.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a research and development programme into the civil engineering of cooling towers launched in 1978 by Electricite de France, very high cooling towers were built at Golfech and Chooz, in France, using column supports. This paper discusses the evolution of this new type of support from classical diagonal supports, presents some of the results of design calculations and survey measurements taken during construction of the shell and analyses the behaviour of the structure. (author)

  9. Results of radiotherapy for primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, Sonya; Warde, Padraig R.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Gullane, Patrick J.; Payne, David; Liu, F.-F.; Bayley, Andrew; Ringash, Jolie; Cummings, Bernard J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome after radical radiotherapy (RT) and surgical salvage and assess the risk of late toxicity for patients with primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated at our center. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1996, 43 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis (35 men, 8 women) were treated with radical RT. All received megavoltage irradiation, most commonly to a dose of 50-52 Gy in 20 fractions during 4 weeks (39 patients). The median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Local control was achieved with RT alone in 24 (56%) of the 43 patients: 7 of 11 with T1, 8 of 12 with T2, 4 of 8 with T3, and 5 of 12 with T4. The 5-year actuarial local relapse-free rate was 52%. Subsequent local control was achieved in 11 of the 13 patients with failed RT and attempted surgical salvage, for an ultimate local control rate of 81.4% (35 of 43). The 5-year overall and cause-specific actuarial survival rate was 50.3% and 66.9%, respectively. No patients developed Grade 3 or 4 late radiation morbidity. Conclusion: These data support the use of primary RT in the treatment of patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis as an appropriate treatment approach providing an option for laryngeal conservation

  10. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ergot alkaloids in human primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-11

    Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the species Claviceps. Toxic effects after consumption of contaminated grains are described since mediaeval times. Of the more than 40 known ergot alkaloids six are found predominantly. These are ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergosine and ergometrine, along with their corresponding isomeric forms (-inine-forms). Toxic effects are known to be induced by an interaction of the ergot alkaloids as neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. Nevertheless data concerning cytotoxic effects are missing and therefore a screening of the six main ergot alkaloids was performed in human primary cells in order to evaluate the toxic potential. As it is well known that ergot alkaloids isomerize easily the stability was tested in the cell medium. Based on these results factors were calculated to correct the used concentration values to the biologically active lysergic (-ine) form. These factors range from 1.4 for the most stable compound ergometrine to 5.0 for the most unstable ergot alkaloid ergocristine. With these factors, reflecting the instability, several controverse literature data concerning the toxicity could be explained. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of ergot alkaloids, human cells in primary culture were used. These cells remain unchanged in contrast to cell lines and the data allow a better comparison to the in vivo situation than using immortalized cell lines. To characterize the effects on primary cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were used. The parameters necrosis (LDH-release) and apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, DNA condensation and fragmentation) were distinguished. The results show that depending on the individual structure of the peptide ergot alkaloids the toxic properties change. While ergometrine as a lysergic acid amide did not show any effect, the peptide ergot alkaloids revealed a different toxic potential. Of

  11. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase....... 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P Skeletal muscle cells were...... in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P contracted, but not in the moderately contracted muscle cells...

  12. Primary orbital precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenman, Lisa; Persson, Marta; Enlund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in the eye region is very rare. The present study described a unique case of T-LBL involving the extraocular muscles. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of headache, reduced visual acuity and edema of the left eye. Clinical...... knowledge, this is the first report of a case of T-LBL involving the extraocular muscles. Although primary T-LBL in the eye region is very rare, our findings demonstrate that lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with similar symptoms....

  13. Cell surface of sea urchin micromeres and primary mesenchyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSimone, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by 125 I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, can be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM

  14. Radiation Gene-expression Signatures in Primary Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Luigi; Bravatà, Valentina; Cammarata, Francesco P; Russo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Maria C; Forte, Giusi I

    2018-05-01

    In breast cancer (BC) care, radiation therapy (RT) is an efficient treatment to control localized tumor. Radiobiological research is needed to understand molecular differences that affect radiosensitivity of different tumor subtypes and the response variability. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiling (GEP) in primary BC cells following irradiation with doses of 9 Gy and 23 Gy delivered by intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in order to define gene signatures of response to high doses of ionizing radiation. We performed GEP by cDNA microarrays and evaluated cell survival after IOERT treatment in primary BC cell cultures. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate candidate genes. We showed, for the first time, a 4-gene and a 6-gene signature, as new molecular biomarkers, in two primary BC cell cultures after exposure at 9 Gy and 23 Gy respectively, for which we observed a significantly high survival rate. Gene signatures activated by different doses of ionizing radiation may predict response to RT and contribute to defining a personalized biological-driven treatment plan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Imprint lithography provides topographical nanocues to guide cell growth in primary cortical cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.; Luttge, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technology platform to study the effect of nanocues on the cell growth direction in primary cortical cell culture. Topographical cues to cells are provided using nanoscale features created by Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography, coated with polyethylenimine. We

  16. Primary tonsillar mast cell tumour in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekell, C C; Thomson, M J; Miller, R I; Mackie, J T

    2018-05-01

    A 6-year-old speyed female Bull Arab-cross dog was found to have a small tonsillar nodule. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated mast cell tumour (MCT). At initial staging, no evidence of concurrent cutaneous or visceral MCTs was found on a complete blood count, a single lateral thoracic radiograph, abdominal ultrasound or cytology of the spleen and regional lymph nodes. A diagnosis of primary tonsillar MCT was made. At 40 months postoperatively, the dog is alive with no evidence of gross tumour progression, in contrast to some previous reports of rapid disease progression and metastasis in dogs with primary oral MCTs. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of a primary MCT of the tonsil in dogs exist in the veterinary literature. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Different Chondrogenic Potential among Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diverse Origin Primary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeri Alice Rim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have tried to reprogram various origins of primary cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Every somatic cell can theoretically become a hiPSC and give rise to targeted cells of the human body. However, there have been debates on the controversy about the differentiation propensity according to the origin of primary cells. We reprogrammed hiPSCs from four different types of primary cells such as dermal fibroblasts (DF, n=3, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n=3, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC, n=3, and osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OAFLS, n=3. Established hiPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic pellets. All told, cartilage-specific markers tended to express more by the order of CBMC > DF > PBMC > FLS. Origin of primary cells may influence the reprogramming and differentiation thereafter. In the context of chondrogenic propensity, CBMC-derived hiPSCs can be a fairly good candidate cell source for cartilage regeneration. The differentiation of hiPSCs into chondrocytes may help develop “cartilage in a dish” in the future. Also, the ideal cell source of hiPSC for chondrogenesis may contribute to future application as well.

  18. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-02-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  19. Graphene Films Show Stable Cell Attachment and Biocompatibility with Electrogenic Primary Cardiac Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taeyong; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Kwanghee; Kim, Do Han

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted substantial attention due to its advantageous materialistic applicability. In the present study, we tested the biocompatibility of graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with electrogenic primary adult cardiac cells (cardiomyocytes) by measuring the cell properties such as cell attachment, survival, contractility and calcium transients. The results show that the graphene films showed stable cell attachment and excellent biocompatibility with the electro...

  20. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beardsley Sara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client’s programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. “The Design of Akhmat Tower” describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  1. Assessment of cooling tower impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guideline describes the state of the art of the meteorological impact of wet cooling towers that are about 80 m to 170 m high, and have a waste heat power in the range of 1000 MW and 2500 MW. The physical processes occurring in the lowest layer of the atmosphere and their impact in the dispersion of cooling tower emissions are represented. On the basis of these facts, the impact on weather or climate in the vicinity of a high wet cooling tower is estimated. Thereby the results of the latest investigations (observations, measurements, and modeling) on the different locations of plants as well as their different power and construction types are taken into consideration. (orig.) [de

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guièze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 μM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity.

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection induces a stem cell phenotype in human primary glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornara, O; Bartek, J; Rahbar, A

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this standard therapy does not target glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs), a subpopulation of GBM cells that can give rise to recurrent tumors. GBMs express...... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins, and previously we found that the level of expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) protein in GBMs is a prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In this study, we investigated the relation between HCMV infection of GBM cells and the presence of GCSCs. Primary...... GBMs were characterized by their expression of HCMV-IE and GCSCs marker CD133 and by patient survival. The extent to which HCMV infection of primary GBM cells induced a GCSC phenotype was evaluated in vitro. In primary GBMs, a large fraction of CD133-positive cells expressed HCMV-IE, and higher co...

  4. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  5. Round Earthen Towers in Zhangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    The round earthen towers inZhangzhou,Fujifan Province,have long been famous a-round the world.Built of rammedearth,each tower consists uf four tofive stories and Is nearly 100 metersin diameter and 17 to 18meters high.Scatteredaround the mountains,valleys and plains insouthwestern Fujian,thetowers look very muchlike round castles.SomeChinese and foreign ar-chitercts,historians andfolk-custom researcherscall them“flyng sau-cers”from outer spaceor“mushrooms”fromearth.They represent,indeed,a unique archi-tectural style in theworld.

  6. Cooling towers in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  7. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David

    1996-01-01

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  8. Dynamic analysis of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittnar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draught cooling towers are shell structures subjected to random vibrations due to wind turbulence and earthquake. The need of big power plant units has initiated the design of very large cooling towers. The random response of such structures may be analysed using a spectral approach and assuming a linear behaviour of the structure. As the modal superposition method is the most suitable procedure for this purpose it is necessary to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes with adequate accuracy. (orig./GL)

  9. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David [and others

    1996-10-30

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  10. New student-designed research and demonstration drop tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donald; Weislogel, Mark

    A new drop tower has been designed and constructed at Portland State University. The ap-proach incorporates innovative features to increase throughput and microgravity quality in a highly public facility. Push button operation with full wireless CCTV coverage and passive magnetic deceleration provides quiet, safe operation from a single control station with low re-cycle time. A two-stage coaxial release mechanism decouples the payload from the drag shield to minimize disturbances to the experiment during release. This is especially important for fluids experiments that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. Performance of the new tower is presented including release, free fall, and deceleration accelerometer data. The two second tower is used for research and educational outreach. The research efforts focus on capillary flows and phenomena relevant to spacecraft fluid systems. The outreach efforts utilize partnerships with local primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions to promote the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  11. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in...

  12. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This...

  13. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Edgar, Mark A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyers, Paul A. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Carol D. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  14. [Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas: study of 22 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Carrasco, Pablo; Morillo Andújar, Mercedes; Pérez Ruiz, Carmen; de Zulueta Dorado, Teresa; Cabrera Pérez, Rocío; Conejo-Mir, Julián

    2016-09-02

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) is a very low prevalence neoplasm and constitutes 25% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. Our objective was to discover the epidemiological, clinic and histologic characteristics of CBCL in our area. Retrospective descriptive study with patients with histologic diagnosis of CBCL followed up in our department between 2004 and 2015. Twenty-two patients with CBCL were included; 65% were men and 35% were women. Follicle centre lymphoma was the most common subtype (41%). Only 3 cases presented with node involvement and one with bone marrow invasion. Five recurrences were detected and one patient died because of the CBCL. This is one of the first CBCL series in theSpanish population. The incidence, sex, age, subtype distribution, clinical features and immunohistochemical patterns are very similar to those of the other series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin; Edgar, Mark A.; Meyers, Paul A.; Morris, Carol D.; Panicek, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  16. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  17. Cooling towers for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief recall on cooling towers testing and construction, this paper presents four examples of very large French nuclear power plant cooling towers, and one of an Australian thermal power plant [fr

  18. A case report and literature review of primary resistant Hodgkin lymphoma: a response to anti-PD-1 after failure of autologous stem cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu PP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peipei Xu, Fan Wang, Chaoyang Guan, Jian Ouyang, Xiaoyan Shao, Bing Chen Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is a highly curable hematologic malignancy, and ~70% of cases can be cured with combination chemotherapy with or without radiation. However, patients with primary resistant disease have a cure rate of <30%. For such patients, high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT is considered to be the standard treatment. If patients fail to respond to ASCT or relapse soon thereafter, they usually receive another ASCT, allogeneic stem cell transplantation or treatment with novel agents. This case report presents the case of a 54-year-old patient with primary resistant HL who received single-agent treatment, brentuximab vedotin, after ASCT relapse. Despite treatment with brentuximab vedotin, the disease continued to progress. In patients with such highly resistant disease, the treatment options are limited. Depending on the physical condition and the willingness of the patient, pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitor, can be given as salvage therapy. But, out of our expectation, the patient achieved a very good partial response after four cycles of pembrolizumab. No serious adverse events were observed with pembrolizumab treatment. This case provides support for a new and effective strategy for treating primary resistant Hodgkin lymphoma. Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, autologous stem cell transplant, brentuximab vedotin, pembrolizumab, PD-1, good response

  19. Dynamic interaction effects in cooling tower groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental determination of the dynamic response of reinforced concrete cooling towers, taking into consideration group effects, are described. The results for an individual tower are thoroughly examined. A complete analysis is then performed for the critical wind orientations, for each tower in a six towers group. It's shown that ignoring group effects in the analysis may lead to a significant underestimation of the structural response. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Dwelling towers of Czech castles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durdík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 139-150 ISSN 1875-2896. [Meeting of Europa Nostra Scientific Council /44./. Kilkenny, 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * dwelling tower * donjon * keep * medieval archaeology * architecture * Bohemia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Mobile Tower Radiation Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Slman Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clean environment is one of the most necessarily needs for Human life. So what about mobile effect and its towers pollution? It's effect on public health? Effect of huge groan of mobile networks. In counting of these dangers that will harm us from mobile towers in the far run, was the reasons for writing this research, came this study to look at the mobile towers and mobile effects possible health harm for the purpose of diagnosis of these effects and to suggest ways that can be used to avoid or minimize the risks.  Faraday Cage, is the solution suggested here, also there are many other solutions for this problem, a Faraday cage is a metallic enclosure that stops the entry or escape of an EM field. Also, two experiments are accomplished, first one showing the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile cellphone, and the second  experiment gives the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile tower EMR on human health listed in the research, that have been done by using conducting shell (grid design according the EM wavelength used by three company's mobile working in Iraq, the result show good isolations.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor (cachetin) decreases adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Jones, D.D.; Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cachetin has been shown to effect gene product expression in the established adipose cell line 3T3-L1. Expression of messenger RNA for lipoprotein lipase is suppressed in cultured adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cachetin on adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture. Stromalvascular cells obtained from the inguinal fat pad of 4-5 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were grown in culture for two weeks. During the proliferative growth phase all cells were grown on the same medium and labelled with 3 H-thymidine. Cachetin treatment (10 -6 to 10 -10 M) was initiated on day 5, the initial phase of preadipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes and stromal cells were separated using density gradient, and 3 H-thymidine was determined for both cell types. Thymidine incorporation into adipose cells was decreased maximally (∼ 50%) at 10 -10 M. Stromalvascular cells were not influenced at any of the doses tested. Adipose cell lipid content as indicated by oil red-O staining was decreased by Cachetin. Esterase staining by adipose cells treated with Cachetin was increased indicating an increase in intracellular lipase. These studies show that Cachetin has specific effects on primary adipose cell differentiation

  3. Atmospheric emissions from power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheletti, W.

    2006-01-01

    Power plant recirculated cooling systems (cooling towers) are not typically thought of as potential sources of air pollution. However, atmospheric emissions can be important considerations that may influence cooling tower design and operation. This paper discusses relevant U.S. environmental regulations for potential atmospheric pollutants from power plant cooling towers, and various methods for estimating and controlling these emissions. (orig.)

  4. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  5. Dry cross-flow cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordyce, H E

    1975-01-23

    The invention deals with dry cooling towers in particular a circular cooling tower of the mechanical-draught construction whose operating characteristics should be independent of the wind direction. The recycling of the hot air should be as low as possible without necessitating high fan or natural-draught shafts, so that the costs of the tower can be brought down to a minimum.

  6. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow

  7. Extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy for primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersaell, Peter J.; Blomgren, Henric; Lax, Ingmar; Kaelkner, Karl-Mikael; Linder, Christina; Lundell, Goeran; Nilsson, Bo; Nilsson, Sten; Naeslund, Ingemar; Pisa, Pavel; Svedman, Christer

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the results of using stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for 58 patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCC) who were evaluated restrospectively for response rates, local control rates and side effects. Patients and methods: From October 1997 to January 2003, 50 patients suffering from metastatic RCC and eight patients with inoperable primary RCC received high-dose fraction SRT while placed in a stereotactic body-frame. The most common dose/fractionation schedules used were 8 Gyx4, 10 Gyx4 and 15 Gyx3 during approximately 1 week. Results: SRT-treated tumor lesions regressed totally in 30% of the patients at 3-36 months, whereas 60% of the patients had a partial volume reduction or no change after a median follow-up of 37 months (SD 17.4) for censored and 13 months (SD 12.9) for uncensored patients. Side effects were generally mild. Of 162 treated tumors, only three recurred, yielding a local control rate of 90-98%, considering the 8% non-evaluable sites as defined here. For patients with one to three metastases, the time to new spread was 9 months. Conclusions: Our use of SRT for patients with primary and metastatic RCC yielded a high local control rate with low toxicity. Patients with one to three metastases, local recurrences after nephrectomy or inoperable primary tumors benefited the most, i.e. had fewer distant recurrences (13/23) and longer survival times compared to patients with >3 metastases (24/27 recurrences)

  8. Effect of cell phone-like electromagnetic radiation on primary human thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Hilly, Ohad; Strenov, Yulia; Tzabari, Cochava; Hauptman, Yirmi; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency energy (RFE) emitted by cell phones on human thyroid primary cells. Primary thyroid cell culture was prepared from normal thyroid tissue obtained from patients who underwent surgery at our department. Subconfluent thyroid cells were irradiated under different conditions inside a cell incubator using a device that simulates cell phone-RFE. Proliferation of control and irradiated cells was assessed by the immunohistochemical staining of antigen Kiel clone-67 (Ki-67) and tumor suppressor p53 (p53) expression. DNA ploidy and the stress biomarkers heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Our cells highly expressed thyroglobulin (Tg) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) confirming the origin of the tissue. None of the irradiation conditions evaluated here had an effect neither on the proliferation marker Ki-67 nor on p53 expression. DNA ploidy was also not affected by RFE, as well as the expression of the biomarkers HSP70 and ROS. Our conditions of RFE exposure seem to have no potential carcinogenic effect on human thyroid cells. Moreover, common biomarkers usually associated to environmental stress also remained unchanged. We failed to find an association between cell phone-RFE and thyroid cancer. Additional studies are recommended.

  9. Solar tracking control tower; Steuerungstechnik folgt der Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Andreas [Jetter AG, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Bereich technisches Marketing und Seminare

    2010-11-15

    The ''Gemue-Dome'' building at Waldzimmern is a unique industrial building. The research, development and innovation center has a rotary control tower equipped with solar cells which automatically tracks the sun. This automation task was a challenge for the control and power supply sections. (orig.)

  10. Induced flocculation of Pachysolen tannophilus using the tower fermentor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, K.F.; Clark, T.A.

    1985-12-01

    This article reports the induction of flocculation with Pachysolen tannophilus by the use of controlled aeration in a tower fermentor. The observed environmental and physiological conditions for flocculent growth are described. Although most studies with P. tannophilus have used oxylose as substrate, a synthetic glucose medium was chosen for this study as the faster growth rate of the organism on glucose was considered to favor more rapid selection of a flocculent strain. Due to flocculation, the concentration of yeast cells retained in the tower was up to 16 times greater than in the overflow. Ethanol yields approaching theoretical were achieved at low specific oxygen uptake rates, conditions which also favored maximum flocculation. Future work will involve continuous tower fermentation of sugar mixtures representative of the composition of wood hydrolysates.

  11. Origin and prevention of infection with Legionella pneumophila through cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Roebbecke, R.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporative cooling towers and industrial ventilator cooling towers have repeatedly been described as the origin of Legionnaires' disease. This article describes the design and function of cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers, sums up knowledge on the colonization of such systems with Legionella pneumophila, and describes conditions permitting the transmission of Legionella. Furthermore, design, maintenance, cleaning and disinfection measures are indicated which are believed to reduce the risk of infection through industrial and evaporative cooling towers. (orig.) [de

  12. Management of primary malignant germ cell tumor of the mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Asamura, Hisao; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Tsuchiya, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and have a worse prognosis than their gonadal counterparts. Although multimodality treatment is a standard therapeutic strategy in mediastinal GCTs, the clinical implications of surgical intervention remain unclear. Forty-eight patients with primary mediastinal malignant GCT who were treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, from 1962 to 2002 were studied retrospectively with regard to their histology and clinical profile. Mediastinal GCT occurred predominantly in young males, with a mean age of 28.8 years at the time of diagnosis. There were 46 males (96%) and two females (4%). Histologically, seven patients (15%) were diagnosed as having pure seminoma and 41 (85%) had nonseminomatous GCT. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in nine patients, surgery followed by chemotherapy in two, and chemotherapy followed by surgery in 20. The other 17 patients received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy without surgery. Of these latter 17 patients, 14 developed progressive disease and three were followed up with a sustained partial response. Among the 31 patients who underwent surgery, complete resection was performed in 27 (87%) and incomplete resection was performed in four (13%). Twelve (41%) patients had elevated serum tumor marker levels preoperatively. Among the 20 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy, viable cells were found in the resected specimen in six (30%). With regard to tumor recurrence in patients with surgical intervention, the preoperative serum tumor marker levels and the presence of viable cells in the resected specimen were significantly associated with recurrence. There was no significant association between surgical curability and recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate in all 48 patients was 45.5%. Surgical intervention for mediastinal GCT may be needed to remove a chemotherapy-refractory tumor or to assess the pathological response to chemotherapy to determine

  13. Sickle cell children traveling abroad: primary risk is infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runel-Belliard, Camille; Lesprit, Emmanuelle; Quinet, Béatrice; Grimprel, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Pediatricians taking care of sickle cell children in France are concerned about giving travel advice. Very few articles are published and no study has been done about it. A lot of pediatricians are using their own experience to decide if sickle cell children can travel abroad. Studying the consequences of such travel for sickle cell children is important to discuss common recommendations. We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to December 2007 on desires to travel expressed during our consultations with sickle cell children. We studied notable events that occurred during travel and at least 2 months after return. Of 52 desires to travel, 10 were cancelled. All of the 42 trips were to Africa. Median duration of travel was 1.29 months (0.5-3). Median age at travel was 7.6 years (0.2-17.7). Events during travel were two hospitalizations (4.8%), a transfusion (2.4%), and four paramedical or medical examinations (9.6%). After return, four events occurred: two SS children had Plasmodium falciparum malaria (4.8%) and two had digestive bacteremia (4.8%) in SC and Sbeta+ children. No event occurred during plane travel. None of our patients died. The primary risk for sickle cell children traveling to Africa is infection: malaria first and digestive septicemia second. These risks are increased by long travel and poor sanitary conditions. Each travel should be prepared a long time before departure, and each pediatrician should insist on malaria prophylaxis and sanitary conditions, especially for young children. Trips should be shorter than 1 month when possible. A longer prospective study will be done to confirm these results.

  14. Cultivate Primary Nasal Epithelial Cells from Children and Reprogram into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Ashley; Mayhew, Christopher N; Debley, Jason; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Ji, Hong

    2016-03-10

    Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are the part of the airways that respond to air pollutants and are the first cells infected with respiratory viruses. They are also involved in many airway diseases through their innate immune response and interaction with immune and airway stromal cells. NECs are of particular interest for studies in children due to their accessibility during clinical visits. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated from multiple cell types and are a powerful tool for modeling human development and disease, as well as for their potential applications in regenerative medicine. This is the first protocol to lay out methods for successful generation of iPSCs from NECs derived from pediatric participants for research purposes. It describes how to obtain nasal epithelial cells from children, how to generate primary NEC cultures from these samples, and how to reprogram primary NECs into well-characterized iPSCs. Nasal mucosa samples are useful in epidemiological studies related to the effects of air pollution in children, and provide an important tool for studying airway disease. Primary nasal cells and iPSCs derived from them can be a tool for providing unlimited material for patient-specific research in diverse areas of airway epithelial biology, including asthma and COPD research.

  15. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  16. Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Qu, Ying; Gomez, Liliana J; Chung, Stacey; Han, Bingchen; Gao, Bowen; Yue, Yong; Gong, Yiping; Liu, Xuefeng; Amersi, Farin; Dang, Catherine; Giuliano, Armando E; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-02-20

    Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features. The cultures are composed of CK18, desmoglein 3, and CK19-positive luminal cells and vimentin, p63, and CK14-positive myoepithelial cells, suggesting the maintenance of in vivo heterogeneity. In addition, the cultures contain subpopulations with different CD49f and EpCAM expression profiles. When grown in 3D conditions, cells self-organize into distinct structures that express either luminal or basal cell markers. Among these structures, CK8-positive cells enclosing a lumen are capable of differentiation into milk-producing cells in the presence of lactogenic stimulus. Furthermore, our short-term cultures retain the expression of ERα, as well as its ability to respond to estrogen stimulation. We have investigated conditionally reprogrammed normal epithelial cells in terms of cell type heterogeneity, cellular marker expression, and structural arrangement in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The conditional reprogramming methodology allows generation of a heterogeneous culture from normal human mammary tissue in vitro . We believe that this cell culture model will provide a valuable tool to study mammary cell function and malignant transformation.

  17. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and constraint solvers and more rigorous Finite Element methods supporting respectively design analysis and form finding and performance evaluation and verification. The second investigation describes the inter-scalar feedback loops between design at the macro scale (overall structural behaviour), meso scale...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  18. Primary orbital precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenman, Lisa; Persson, Marta; Enlund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in the eye region is very rare. The present study described a unique case of T-LBL involving the extraocular muscles. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of headache, reduced visual acuity and edema of the left eye. Clinical...... examination revealed left-sided exophthalmus, periorbital edema, chemosis, and reduced motility of the left eye. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed thickening of the left orbital muscles and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan also demonstrated activity in a subclavicular lymph....... There was no involvement of the bone marrow. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, a diagnosis of T-LBL was made. There was no evidence of NOTCH1 mutation or rearrangements of the ETV6 and MLL genes and high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) analysis revealed a normal...

  19. A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Robert; Neumann, Markus; Daugs, Aila; Bloch, Oliver; Nitsche, Andreas; Langhammer, Stefan; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. 3D cell cultures, which meanwhile are widely distributed across all fields of research, are a promising tool for more predictive in vitro investigations of antiviral compounds. In this study the spreading of cowpox virus and the antiviral efficacy of gefitinib were analyzed in primary human keratinocytes (NHEK) grown in a novel 3D extracellular matrix-based cell culture model and compared to the respective monolayer culture. 3D-cultivated NHEK grew in a polarized and thus a more physiological manner with altered morphology and close cell-cell contact. Infected cultures showed a strongly elevated sensitivity towards gefitinib. EGFR phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and virus replication were significantly reduced in 3D cultures at gefitinib concentrations which were at least 100-fold lower than those in monolayer cultures and well below the level of cytotoxicity. Our newly established 3D cell culture model with primary human cells is an easy-to-handle alternative to conventional monolayer cell cultures and previously described more complex 3D cell culture systems. It can easily be adapted to other cell types and a broad spectrum of viruses for antiviral drug screening and many other aspects of virus research under more in vivo-like conditions. In consequence, it may contribute to a more targeted realization of necessary in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sicilian Castles and Coastal Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While much attention has been paid to the development of castles as the hallmark architectural symbol of the Middle Ages, less attention has been given to the changes in European defensive strategies that occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. It was at this time when the modern nations of Europe began to take form, as sea-based trade between distant nations took precedence over land-based trade routes. This paper examines how this transformation manifested in the defensive structures of Sicily, Italy, where the hilltop castles of the Middle Ages gradually gave way to a more cohesive network of coastal towers around the island. Putting this transition in its historical context, presenting an anthropological model from which to view this transition, and using geospatial methods to track these changes, the results of this study indicate that as defensive towers began to dominate the Sicilian coast around the 16th century, their command over the environment was no greater than that of the feudal castles which were still in use. Yet, unlike the castles of feudal lords, these towers represented an island-wide system of defense and the beginning of an adherence to a more centralized power structure then seen previously.

  1. Susceptibility of Primary Human Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells and Meningeal Cells to Infection by JC Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Bethany A; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; Haley, Sheila A

    2018-04-15

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) establishes a lifelong persistence in roughly half the human population worldwide. The cells and tissues that harbor persistent virus in vivo are not known, but renal tubules and other urogenital epithelial cells are likely candidates as virus is shed in the urine of healthy individuals. In an immunosuppressed host, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Recent observations indicate that JCPyV may productively interact with cells in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges. To further study JCPyV infection in these cells, primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells were challenged with virus, and their susceptibility to infection was compared to the human glial cell line, SVG-A. We found that JCPyV productively infects both choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells in vitro Competition with the soluble receptor fragment LSTc reduced virus infection in these cells. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase also inhibited both viral infection and binding. Treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist, ritanserin, reduced infection in SVG-A and meningeal cells. We also compared the ability of wild-type and sialic acid-binding mutant pseudoviruses to transduce these cells. Wild-type pseudovirus readily transduced all three cell types, but pseudoviruses harboring mutations in the sialic acid-binding pocket of the virus failed to transduce the cells. These data establish a novel role for choroid plexus and meninges in harboring virus that likely contributes not only to meningoencephalopathies but also to PML. IMPORTANCE JCPyV infects greater than half the human population worldwide and causes central nervous system disease in patients with weakened immune systems. Several recent reports have found JCPyV in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges of patients with encephalitis. Due to their role in forming the blood

  2. Design change of tower cooling water system for proton accelerator research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, I. T.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Han, Y. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Tower Cooling Water System (TC) is designed to reject the heat load generated by operating the accelerators and the utility facilities through the component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers. The circulating water discharged from the circulating water pumps passes through the CCW heat exchangers, the Chiller condenser and the air compressor, and the heated circulating water is return to the cooling tower for the heat removal. In this study, The design of Tower Cooling Water System is changed as follows : At First, The quantity of cells is changed into six in order to operate the cooling tower accurately correspond with condition of each equipment of head loads. The fans of cooling tower are controlled by the signal of TEW installed in the latter parts of it. The type of circulation water pump is modified to centrifugal pump and debris filter system is deleted

  3. Design change of tower cooling water system for proton accelerator research center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, I. T.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Han, Y. G. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Tower Cooling Water System (TC) is designed to reject the heat load generated by operating the accelerators and the utility facilities through the component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers. The circulating water discharged from the circulating water pumps passes through the CCW heat exchangers, the Chiller condenser and the air compressor, and the heated circulating water is return to the cooling tower for the heat removal. In this study, The design of Tower Cooling Water System is changed as follows : At First, The quantity of cells is changed into six in order to operate the cooling tower accurately correspond with condition of each equipment of head loads. The fans of cooling tower are controlled by the signal of TEW installed in the latter parts of it. The type of circulation water pump is modified to centrifugal pump and debris filter system is deleted.

  4. Primary cutaneous smoldering adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittler, Julia; Martires, Kathryn; Terushkin, Vitaly; Brinster, Nooshin; Ramsay, David

    2016-12-15

    HTLV-1 is a virus that is endemic in southwesternJapan and the Caribbean and has been implicatedin the development of ATLL. ATLL, which is anuncommon malignant condition of peripheralT-lymphocytes, is characterized by four clinicalsubtypes, which include acute, lymphomatous,chronic, and smoldering types, that are based onLDH levels, calcium levels, and extent of organinvolvement. We present a 52-year- old woman withpruritic patches with scale on the buttocks and withtender, hyperpigmented macules and papules oftwo-years duration. Histopathologic examinationwas suggestive of mycosis fungoides, laboratoryresults showed HTLV-I and II, and the patient wasdiagnosed with primary cutaneous ATLL. We reviewthe literature on HTLV-1 and ATLL and specifically theprognosis of cutaneous ATLL. The literature suggeststhat a diagnosis of ATLL should be considered amongpatients of Caribbean origin or other endemicareas with skin lesions that suggest a cutaneousT-cell lymphoma, with clinicopathologic features ofmycosis fungoides. Differentiation between ATLLand cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is imperative as theyhave different prognoses and treatment approaches.

  5. Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy for Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Lauren P; Bollard, Catherine M; Keller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are a group of inborn errors of immunity with a broad range of clinical severity but often associated with recurrent and serious infections. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for some forms of PID, chronic and/or refractory viral infections remain a cause of morbidity and mortality both before and after HSCT. Although antiviral pharmacologic agents exist for many viral pathogens, these are associated with significant costs and toxicities and may not be effective for increasingly drug-resistant pathogens. Thus, the emergence of adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific T lymphocytes (VSTs) is an attractive option for addressing the underlying impaired T cell immunity in many PID patients. VSTs have been utilized for PID patients following HSCT in many prior phase I trials, and may potentially be beneficial before HSCT in patients with chronic viral infections. We review the various methods of generating VSTs, clinical experience using VSTs for PID patients, and current limitations as well as potential ways to broaden the clinical applicability of adoptive immunotherapy for PID patients.

  6. Primary intravascular large B-cell lymphoma of pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old retired nurse, who was a known hypertensive on medication, presented with prolonged fever of 2-month duration without any clinical evidence of infection. On examination she had altered mental status. She also had other nonspecific complaints such as sleep disturbances, loss of weight, etc. On investigation, she was found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH values. She also had electrolyte imbalance. Radiological evaluation of brain showed mass lesion in the sella turcica, suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Biochemical evaluation showed hypopituitarism. Trans-sphenoidal biopsy was done. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings a diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL of pituitary was made. Our patient′s condition deteriorated rapidly and she succumbed to her illness before therapy could be initiated. We are reporting this case because of the rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma presenting at an extremely unusual primary site.

  7. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  8. Primary mantle cell lymphoma of tonsil: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mantle cell lymphoma is rare type of the mature B cell lymphoma. It includes 4% - 6% of all Non Hodgkin's Lymphomas. Compared to the other subtypes of lymphoma it develops more often in older men, and the median age of patients is 65 years. Primary tonsillar lymphoma accounts for less than 1% of head and neck malignancies. Method: Data obtained from medical records of the patient. Objective: Emphasize the importance of early and accurate diagnosis and early treatment of malignant diseases. Case report: Patient RP, 63 years old, presents with difficult swallowing, hoarseness, enlarged tonsils, snoring. Left tonsil almost sets into the right tonsillar vine, displaces the uvula and covers the isthmus. Respiratory sound is normal, with rhythmic action of the heart and soft abdomen. Good general condition. Echo: enlarged and actively altered lymph glands of the middle right jugular chain, the largest 148x77 mm, on the left side lymph nodes are enlarged, the largest is 143x72 mm. Echo of the abdomen inconspicuous. Lab: WBC 5.9, RBC 5.2, Hb 152, Hct 0.44, SE 10, CK 129, LDH 331, CRP 4.6, ALP 61, fibrinogen 2.4, Ca2+ 2.3, phosphate 0.8; BK, HCV, HBsAg, EB, HIV negative. X-ray of the chest inconspicuous. Admitted to the hematology department of the General Hospital. PH: Immunoproliferative disease. Immunohistochemistry, at the institute of Pathology: IHH CK AE1-AE3, PAX5 +, CD20 +, CD3, bcl2 +, bcl6-, CyklinD1 +, CD23-, CD43 +, MUM1 - / +, Ki67 + in about 20% of the tumor cells. Morphological and immunohistochemical findings: Mantle cell lymphoma. MSCD of the neck, chest and upper abdomen: Left tonsil diameter is 28x32 mm and length is 36mm, with lobular contour and heterogeneous structure, asymmetrically narrowing lumen of the airways to 7 mm. pathologically enlarged submandibular and par jugular lymph nodes (10-15 mm diameter on the left. There were no pathological findings in the lung parenchyma. Abdominal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes

  9. A comparative study of radiofrequency emission from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and tower mobile phone base antennas located at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakpa, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    RF radiation exposure from antennas mounted on rooftop mobile phone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly developing technologies in wireless telecommunication. The heightening numbers of base station and their closeness to the general public has led to possible health concerns as a result of exposure to RF radiations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of RF radiation emitted from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from the rooftop sites inside buildings were 2.46xI0 -2 and 1.68x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively whereas that for outside buildings at the same rooftop site was also 7.44x 10 -5 and 3.35x 10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. Public exposure quotient also ranged between 3.74x10 -10 to 1.31x10 -07 inside buildings whilst that for outside varied between 7.44x 10 -10 to 1.65x 10 -06 . Occupational exposure quotient inside buildings varied between 1.66x 10 -11 to 2.11 x 10 -09 whereas that for outside ranged from 3.31x10 -09 to 3.30x10 -07 all at the rooftop site. The results obtained for a typical tower base station also indicated that the maximum and minimum average power density was 4.57x10 -1 W/m 2 and 7.13x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. The public exposure quotient varied between 1.58x10 -09 to 1.01x10 -07 whilst that for occupational exposure quotient ranged between 3.17x10 -10 to 2.03x10 -08 . The values of power densities levels inside buildings at rooftop sites are low compared to that of tower sites. This could be due to high attenuation caused by thick concrete walls and ceilings. The results obtained were found to be in compliance with ICNIRP and FCC guidance levels of 4.5 W/m 2 and 6 W/m 2 respectively. (au)

  10. Synchronous sigmoid and caecal cancers together with a primary renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2012-06-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms, a common clinical entity, can be classified as synchronous or metachronous. Renal cell carcinoma, in particular, is associated with a high rate of multiple primary neoplasms.

  11. Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa N. Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina is an extremely rare disease. There have been only 26 previously reported cases in literature. Here, we report a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed tumor cells positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE.

  12. Cooling tower drift: comprehensive case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Ulanski, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment to study drift from mechanical drift cooling towers was conducted during June 1978 at the PG and E Pittsburg Power Plant. The data from this study will be used for validation of drift deposition models. Preliminary results show the effects of tower geometry and orientation with respect to the wind and to single- or two-tower operation. The effect of decreasing relative humidity during a test run can also be seen

  13. The future cooling tower; Fremtidens koeletaarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, C.H. (Vestas Aircoil A/S, Lem St. (Denmark)); Schneider, P. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Haaning, N. (Ramboell A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lund, K. (Nyrup Plast A/S, Nyrup (Denmark)); Soerensen, Ole (MultiWing A/S, Vedbaek (Denmark)); Dalsgaard, T. (Silhorko A/S, Skanderborg (Denmark)); Pedersen, Michael (Skive Kommune, Skive (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    This project has designed and built a pilot-scale cooling tower with an output of up to 100 kW for which good correlation has been ascertained between measured and calculated values for output and pressure loss. The new cooling tower will save approximately 15% of electricity consumption compared with the widespread dry coolers. The pilot tower uses rainwater so that both water consumption and electricity consumption are saved in softening plants. On the basis of this cooling tower, models have been made and these have been implemented in PackCalc II in order to calculate electricity and other operating savings. (Energy 11)

  14. Atmospheric cooling tower with reduced plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, D.M.; Lagoutte, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cooling tower, usable in thermal-electric power plants, has a vertical chimney having a central water tower fed with water to be cooled, a pipe network distributing water coming from the water tower and dispersing it in flows streaming down on a packing, and a basin to receive the water cooled by contact with an air flow passing through apertures at the lower part of the chimney and flowing up through the chimney. The cooling tower has inlet air pipes for the said apertures to a zone of the chimney situated beyond the streaming zone, the said pipes being arranged such their surface is swept by water to be cooled [fr

  15. Cooling towers of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1986-01-01

    The specifications are given of cooling towers of foreign nuclear power plants and a comparison is made with specifications of cooling towers with natural draught in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Shortcomings are pointed out in the design of cooling towers of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants which have been derived from conventional power plant design. The main differences are in the adjustment of the towers for winter operation and in the designed spray intensity. The comparison of selected parameters is expressed graphically. (J.B.)

  16. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid of ma...

  17. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  18. Primary small cell carcinoma of the lesser omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary small cell carcinoma (SCC is seen frequently, SCC that originates from the extrapulmonary organs is extremely rare. We herein report a case of a SCC located in the lesser omentum. A 61-year-old male was admitted to our department due to intermittent epigastralgia for 2 months. Ultrasonography (US revealed an irregular hypoechoic mass measuring about 58 mm × 50 mm × 45 mm under the left lobe of the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to verify the irregular mass with T1- and T2- weighted images between the left lobe of liver and the stomach. At laparotomy, the well-circumscribed neoplasm was found in the lesser omentum, and the fundus of the neoplasm was located in the root of left gastric artery. Intraoperative microscopic evaluation of frozen sections revealed malignancy of the lesser omentum. Resection of the neoplasm was performed, and the combined resection of the vagal nerve was also performed for the partial adhesion. Pyloroplasty was performed for avoiding delayed gastric emptying caused by combined resection of vagal nerve. The lymph nodes dissection at lesser curvature and right cardia was also performed with a negative result. Based on the histological findings, the final diagnosis of primary lesser omental SCC was confirmed. The pathologic staging showed locoregional disease.

  19. Adoptively transferred dendritic cells restore primary cell-mediated inflammatory competence to acutely malnourished weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Lyn; Whitley, Charlene; Olver, Amy; Webster, Michelle; Steevels, Tessa; Woodward, Bill

    2008-02-01

    Immune depression associated with prepubescent malnutrition underlies a staggering burden of infection-related morbidity. This investigation centered on dendritic cells as potentially decisive in this phenomenon. C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, had free access for 14 days to a complete diet or to a low-protein formulation that induced wasting deficits of protein and energy. Mice were sensitized by i.p. injection of sheep red blood cells on day 9, at which time one-half of the animals in each dietary group received a simultaneous injection of 10(6) syngeneic dendritic cells (JAWS II). All mice were challenged with the immunizing antigen in the right hind footpad on day 13, and the 24-hour delayed hypersensitivity response was assessed as percentage increase in footpad thickness. The low-protein diet reduced the inflammatory immune response, but JAWS cells, which exhibited immature phenotypic and functional characteristics, increased the response of both the malnourished group and the controls. By contrast, i.p. injection of 10(6) syngeneic T cells did not influence the inflammatory immune response of mice subjected to the low-protein protocol. Antigen-presenting cell numbers limited primary inflammatory cell-mediated competence in this model of wasting malnutrition, an outcome that challenges the prevailing multifactorial model of malnutrition-associated immune depression. Thus, a new dendritic cell-centered perspective emerges regarding the cellular mechanism underlying immune depression in acute pediatric protein and energy deficit.

  20. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    CERN Document Server

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  1. On the prospects for dry cooling tower building in FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhurinskij, M.B.; Zlotin, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of dry cooling towers for NPPs are considered. Construction of a number of cooling towers in FRY are described. The advisability of building cooling towers of a combined type - with wet aud dry sections is noted

  2. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  3. Exclusive radiotherapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevoisier, Renaud de; Sanfilippo, Nicholas; Gerbaulet, Alain; Morice, Philippe; Pomel, Christophe; Castaigne, Damiene; Pautier, Patricia; Lhomme, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Haie-meder, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of external beam therapy (EBT) with brachytherapy (BT) for primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma (PVSCC). Materials and methods: From 1970 to 2001, 91 patients were included. FIGO stages were: I (29%), II (38%), III (29%) and IVa (4%). EBT delivered a median total dose of 50 Gy to the pelvis. BT was performed with a customized intra-vaginal applicator and in 36% of applications combined endocavitary and interstitial BT. ICRU Report 38 parameters were reported. Results: The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) rates were: 83% for stage I, 76% for stage II, 52% for stage III, and 2 of the 4 stage IVa patients died 9 and 36 months after treatment. The 5-year pelvis control rates were: 79% for stage I and II and 62% for stage III. Recurrences as a first event were local only in 68% of cases, nodal only in 10%, metastatic only in 13% and combined in 9%. In multivariate analysis: stage (I and II versus II and IV), response to EBT (evaluated at BT), and the number of BT applications were statistically significant for CSS. Grade 2-3 toxicities were as follows (Franco-Italian Glossary): rectum (n = 3), sigmoid colon and small bowel (n = 8), bladder (n = 5), ureter (n = 4) and vagina (n = 13). Anterior location of the tumor increased bladder toxicity (p = 0.01) and total reference air kerma was higher in patients who experienced grade 2-3 urinary or digestive toxicity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: EBT with BT is an effective treatment for patients with stage I-II PVSCC. The incidence and severity of late toxicity were relatively low. Recent advances in the treatment of cervix carcinoma emphasize the need for concomitant radio-chemotherapy in stages III-IV and the use of MRI for treatment planning

  4. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  5. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H.; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog. PMID:23115372

  6. Transcriptional and Cell Cycle Alterations Mark Aging of Primary Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyin; Roberts, Cleresa; Kim, Eun Ji; Brenner, Ariana; Grant, Gregory; Percec, Ivona

    2017-05-01

    Adult stem cells play a critical role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and prevention of aging. While the regenerative potential of stem cells with low cellular turnover, such as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), is increasingly recognized, the study of chronological aging in ASCs is technically difficult and remains poorly understood. Here, we use our model of chronological aging in primary human ASCs to examine genome-wide transcriptional networks. We demonstrate first that the transcriptome of aging ASCs is distinctly more stable than that of age-matched fibroblasts, and further, that age-dependent modifications in cell cycle progression and translation initiation specifically characterize aging ASCs in conjunction with increased nascent protein synthesis and a distinctly shortened G1 phase. Our results reveal novel chronological aging mechanisms in ASCs that are inherently different from differentiated cells and that may reflect an organismal attempt to meet the increased demands of tissue and organ homeostasis during aging. Stem Cells 2017;35:1392-1401. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J; Kasaova, L; Filip, S; Petera, J; Sitorova, V; Nikolov, D Hadzi; Ryska, A; Mokry, J; Richter, I

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G 1 (G 0 ) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  8. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Sitorova, V.; Hadzi Nikolov, D.; Mokry, J.; Richter, I.; Kasaova, L.; Filip, S.; Ryska, A.; Petera, J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G1(G0) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  9. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hsiao Yin; Vonk, Lucienne A.; Licht, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    % amidation), for siRNA delivery into primary mesenchymal cells including nucleus pulposus cells, articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing by 20 nM or 200 nM siRNA at day...

  10. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  11. Cooling towers - terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In the field of cooling tower construction and operation, the use of publications has shown that a systematic glossary has not yet been developed. Therefore a dictionary of the terms used in this field, together with their clear definitions, is urgently required. This work has been started by the V.I.K. (Association for the Industrial Power Economy) in Essen and completed by the VDI-Group 'Energy Engineering'. Because of the strong international links and the increasing overseas trade in this field also the corresponding terms in other languages, English, French and Spanish are included. As to make it possible to find the German terms and definitions when starting from a foreign language, alphabetical lists are included for the various languages giving the number of the corresponding German term. In such cases where the technical term used in the United States is not identical with the corresponding term used in the United Kingdom, both terms are included. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Slow conduction in mixed cultured strands of primary ventricular cells and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavel Kucera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern concepts for the treatment of myocardial diseases focus on novel cell therapeutic strategies involving stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SCMs. However, functional integration of SCMs requires similar electrophysiological properties as primary cardiomyocytes (PCMs and the ability to establish intercellular connections with host myocytes in order to contribute to the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. The aim of this project was to investigate the properties of cardiac conduction in a co-culture approach using SCMs and PCMs in cultured cell strands. Murine embryonic SCMs were pooled with fetal ventricular cells and seeded in predefined proportions on microelectrode arrays to form patterned strands of mixed cells. Conduction velocity (CV was measured during steady state pacing. SCM excitability was estimated from action potentials measured in single cells using the patch clamp technique. Experiments were complemented with computer simulations of conduction using a detailed model of cellular architecture in mixed cell strands.CV was significantly lower in strands composed purely of SCMs (5.5±1.5 cm/s, n=11 as compared to PCMs (34.9±2.9 cm/s, n=21 at similar refractoriness (100% SCMs: 122±25 ms, n=9; 100% PCMs: 139±67 ms, n=14. In mixed strands combining both cell types, CV was higher than in pure SCMs strands, but always lower than in 100% PCM strands. Computer simulations demonstrated that both intercellular coupling and electrical excitability limit CV.These data provide evidence that in cultures of murine ventricular cardiomyocytes, SCMs cannot restore CV to control levels resulting in slow conduction, which may lead to reentry circuits and arrhythmias.

  13. Decreased expression of cell adhesion genes in cancer stem-like cells isolated from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrendra; Sriram, Harshini; Chandarana, Pinal; Tanavde, Vivek; Kumar, Rekha V; Gopinath, Ashok; Govindarajan, Raman; Ramaswamy, S; Sadasivam, Subhashini

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to isolate cancer stem-like cells marked by high expression of CD44, a putative cancer stem cell marker, from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and identify distinctive gene expression patterns in these cells. From 1 October 2013 to 4 September 2015, 76 stage III-IV primary oral squamous cell carcinoma of the gingivobuccal sulcus were resected. In all, 13 tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry to visualise CD44-expressing cells. Expression of CD44 within The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma RNA-sequencing data was also assessed. Seventy resected tumours were dissociated into single cells and stained with antibodies to CD44 as well as CD45 and CD31 (together referred as Lineage/Lin). From 45 of these, CD44 + Lin - and CD44 - Lin - subpopulations were successfully isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and good-quality RNA was obtained from 14 such sorted pairs. Libraries from five pairs were sequenced and the results analysed using bioinformatics tools. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to experimentally validate the differential expression of selected candidate genes identified from the transcriptome sequencing in the same 5 and an additional 9 tumours. CD44 was expressed on the surface of poorly differentiated tumour cells, and within the The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma samples, its messenger RNA levels were higher in tumours compared to normal. Transcriptomics revealed that 102 genes were upregulated and 85 genes were downregulated in CD44 + Lin - compared to CD44 - Lin - cells in at least 3 of the 5 tumours sequenced. The upregulated genes included those involved in immune regulation, while the downregulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Decreased expression of PCDH18, MGP, SPARCL1 and KRTDAP was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lower expression of

  14. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan; Li Dandan

    2007-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In contrast to conventional cooling towers, the cooling tower analyzed in this study is void of fill. By means of efficient atomization nozzles, a shower cooling tower (SCT) is possible to be applied in industry, which, in terms of water cooling, energy saving and equipment investing, is better than conventional packed cooling towers. However, no systematic thermodynamic numerical method could be found in the literature up to now. Based on the kinetic model and mass and heat transfer model, this paper has developed a one dimensional model for studying the motional process and evaporative cooling process occurring at the water droplet level in the SCT. The finite difference approach is used for three motional processes to obtain relative parameters in each different stage, and the possibility of the droplets being entrained outside the tower is fully analyzed. The accuracy of this model is checked by practical operational results from a full scale prototype in real conditions, and some exclusive factors that affect the cooling characteristics for the SCT are analyzed in detail. This study provides the theoretical foundation for practical application of the SCT in industry

  15. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  16. Potential of primary kidney cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is currently the most efficient and precise method to generate genetically tailored pig models for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of this approach is crucially dependent on the source of nuclear donor cells. In this study, we evaluate the potential of primary porcine kidney cells (PKCs as cell source for SCNT, including their proliferation capacity, transfection efficiency, and capacity to support full term development of SCNT embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. Results PKCs could be maintained in culture with stable karyotype for up to 71 passages, whereas porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs and porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs could be hardly passaged more than 20 times. Compared with PFFs and PEFs, PKCs exhibited a higher proliferation rate and resulted in a 2-fold higher blastocyst rate after SCNT and in vitro cultivation. Among the four transfection methods tested with a GFP expression plasmid, best results were obtained with the NucleofectorTM technology, resulting in transfection efficiencies of 70% to 89% with high fluorescence intensity, low cytotoxicity, good cell proliferation, and almost no morphological signs of cell stress. Usage of genetically modified PKCs in SCNT resulted in approximately 150 piglets carrying at least one of 18 different transgenes. Several of those pigs originated from PKCs that underwent homologous recombination and antibiotic selection before SCNT. Conclusion The high proliferation capacity of PKCs facilitates the introduction of precise and complex genetic modifications in vitro. PKCs are thus a valuable cell source for the generation of porcine biomedical models by SCNT.

  17. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous β-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed along the filopodia in 35 SO 4 -labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed

  18. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising de novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2009-07-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma is an odontogenic tumour with aggressive behaviour usually noticed in 6th to 7th decades of life. The tumour is characterized by progressive swelling of the jaw, pain and loosening of teeth. Microscopically, the lesion is showing foci of keratinising cells separated by collagenous connective tissue stroma. A case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of mandible arising de novo in a 40-year-old man is reported.

  19. Reconstituting development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia from primary human pancreas duct cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Snyder, Emily R.; Liu, Yinghua; Gu, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Flowers, Brittany M.; Kim, Yoo Jung; Park, Sangbin; Szot, Gregory L.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Longacre, Teri A.; Kim, Seung K.

    2017-01-01

    Development of systems that reconstitute hallmark features of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), the precursor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, could generate new strategies for early diagnosis and intervention. However, human cell-based PanIN models with defined mutations are unavailable. Here, we report that genetic modification of primary human pancreatic cells leads to development of lesions resembling native human PanINs. Primary human pancreas duct cells harbouring...

  20. Primary cell culture and morphological characterization of canine dermal papilla cells and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratka-Robia, Christine B; Mitteregger, Gerda; Aichinger, Amanda; Egerbacher, Monika; Helmreich, Magdalena; Bamberg, Elmar

    2002-02-01

    Skin biopsies were taken from female dogs, the primary hair follicles isolated and the dermal papilla dissected. After incubation in supplemented Amniomax complete C100 medium in 24-well culture plates, the dermal papilla cells (DPC) grew to confluence within 3 weeks. Thereafter, they were subcultivated every 7 days. Dermal fibroblast (DFB) cultures were established by explant culture of interfollicular dermis in serum-free medium, where they reached confluence in 10 days. They were subcultivated every 5 days. For immunohistochemistry, cells were grown on cover slips for 24 h, fixed and stained with antibodies against collagen IV and laminin. DPC showed an aggregative growth pattern and formation of pseudopapillae. Intensive staining for collagen IV and laminin could be observed until the sixth passage. DFB grew as branching, parallel lines and showed only weak staining for collagen IV and laminin.

  1. Noise from cooling towers of power parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed

  2. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Identification of differences in gene expression in primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells following their interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Mette; Islin, Henrik; Møller, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the cell types was simulated in vitro by growing primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells together (co-culture) and separately (control cultures). Gene expression in the cell cultures was compared using the Differential Display method and confirmed...

  4. Identification and characterization of cells with cancer stem cell properties in human primary lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC with its different subtypes is generally known as a therapy resistant cancer with the highest morbidity rate worldwide. Therapy resistance of a tumor is thought to be related to cancer stem cells (CSCs within the tumors. There have been indications that the lung cancer is propagated and maintained by a small population of CSCs. To study this question we established a panel of 15 primary lung cancer cell lines (PLCCLs from 20 fresh primary tumors using a robust serum-free culture system. We subsequently focused on identification of lung CSCs by studying these cell lines derived from 4 representative lung cancer subtypes such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC, large cell carcinoma (LCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC. We identified a small population of cells strongly positive for CD44 (CD44(high and a main population which was either weakly positive or negative for CD44 (CD44(low/-. Co-expression of CD90 further narrowed down the putative stem cell population in PLCCLs from SCLC and LCC as spheroid-forming cells were mainly found within the CD44(highCD90(+ sub-population. Moreover, these CD44(highCD90(+ cells revealed mesenchymal morphology, increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-Cadherin and Vimentin, increased mRNA levels of the embryonic stem cell related genes Nanog and Oct4 and increased resistance to irradiation compared to other sub-populations studied, suggesting the CD44(highCD90(+ population a good candidate for the lung CSCs. Both CD44(highCD90(+ and CD44(highCD90(- cells in the PLCCL derived from SCC formed spheroids, whereas the CD44(low/- cells were lacking this potential. These results indicate that CD44(highCD90(+ sub-population may represent CSCs in SCLC and LCC, whereas in SCC lung cancer subtype, CSC potentials were found within the CD44(high sub-population.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Cells with Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Human Primary Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Zhenhe; Munthe, Else; Solberg, Steinar; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Mengyu; Westerdaal, Nomdo Anton Christiaan; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Gaudernack, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) with its different subtypes is generally known as a therapy resistant cancer with the highest morbidity rate worldwide. Therapy resistance of a tumor is thought to be related to cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumors. There have been indications that the lung cancer is propagated and maintained by a small population of CSCs. To study this question we established a panel of 15 primary lung cancer cell lines (PLCCLs) from 20 fresh primary tumors using a robust serum-free culture system. We subsequently focused on identification of lung CSCs by studying these cell lines derived from 4 representative lung cancer subtypes such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC). We identified a small population of cells strongly positive for CD44 (CD44high) and a main population which was either weakly positive or negative for CD44 (CD44low/−). Co-expression of CD90 further narrowed down the putative stem cell population in PLCCLs from SCLC and LCC as spheroid-forming cells were mainly found within the CD44highCD90+ sub-population. Moreover, these CD44highCD90+ cells revealed mesenchymal morphology, increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-Cadherin and Vimentin, increased mRNA levels of the embryonic stem cell related genes Nanog and Oct4 and increased resistance to irradiation compared to other sub-populations studied, suggesting the CD44highCD90+ population a good candidate for the lung CSCs. Both CD44highCD90+ and CD44highCD90− cells in the PLCCL derived from SCC formed spheroids, whereas the CD44low/− cells were lacking this potential. These results indicate that CD44highCD90+ sub-population may represent CSCs in SCLC and LCC, whereas in SCC lung cancer subtype, CSC potentials were found within the CD44high sub-population. PMID:23469181

  6. Effects of Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Imatinib (Glivec) on PDGFR-positive primary and metastatic melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straface, E.; Gambardella, L.; Vona, R.

    2009-01-01

    In summary these preliminary results indicate that Imatinib is able to induce apoptosis in metastatic cells and to sensitize these cells to pro-apoptotic agents commonly used in melanoma therapy, e.g. radiation or Cisplatin. Conversely, primary melanoma cells seem to be intrinsically resistant either to Imatinib given alone or in combination with Cisplatin or radiation. By contrast, these cells underwent autophagy and replicative senescence boostering their survival. Interestingly, the use of Imatinib in combination with anti-CD95/Fas antibodies sensitizes primary melanoma cells to apoptosis

  7. Rituximab in the treatment of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guarino, M; Ortiz-Romero, P L; Fernández-Misa, R; Montalbán, C

    2014-06-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric mouse-human antibody that targets the CD20 antigen, which is found in both normal and neoplastic B cells. In recent years, it has been increasingly used to treat cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and is now considered an alternative to classic treatment (radiotherapy and surgery) of 2 types of indolent lymphoma, namely, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Rituximab is also administered as an alternative to polychemotherapy in the treatment of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Its use as an alternative drug led to it being administered intralesionally, with beneficial effects. In the present article, we review the literature published on the use of rituximab to treat primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Posttransplantation primary cutaneous CD30 (Ki-1)-positive large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, D; Demirhan, B; Oğuz Güleç, T; Arikan, U; Haberal, M

    2001-12-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old female renal transplant recipient with primary cutaneous CD30-positive large-cell lymphoma of T-cell origin. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are rarely reported in organ transplant recipients, and we believe they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous neoplastic and infectious diseases affecting this patient group.

  9. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone: a unique site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczer, R.K.; Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of soft tissue sarcomas. We are presenting a case of a clear cell sarcoma of bone which, to our knowledge, is the only report of a primary clear cell sarcoma of bone. (orig.)

  10. Hydroaerothermal investigations conducted in the USSR to justify the construction of large cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The multi-purpose task of improving water cooling systems of thermal and nuclear power plants is aimed at the development of efficient designs of cooling towers and other types of industrial coolers which call for comprehensive scientific justification. Cooling towers of 60-70 thou m 3 /h capacity with a chimney height of 130 m and those of 80-100 thou m 3 /h capacity with a chimney height of 150 m were developed. For circulating water systems of large power plants the design of a counterflow chimney cooling tower of 180 thou m 3 /h capacity has been recently developed. At present the work is being conducted on developing a new three-cell cooling tower featuring high reliability, operational flexibility and cost-effectiveness of the design. This cooling tower, besides having higher operating reliability than the conventional one of circular shape, can ensure the commissioning, current repairs and overhauls of water cooling arrangements in a cell-wise sequence, i.e. without shutting down the power generating units. Laboratory and field investigations of the spray-type cooling towers having no packing (fill), studies on heat and mass exchanges processes, aerodynamics of droplet flows and new designs of sprayers made it possible to come to a conclusion that their cooling capacity can be substantially increased and brought up to the level of the cooling towers with film packings. The pilot cooling towers were designed according to the counterflow, crossflow and cross-counterflow schemes. The basic investigation method remains to be the experimental one. On the test rigs and aerodynamic models the heat and mass transfer and aerodynamic resistance coefficients are determined. These studies and subsequent calculations are based on the heat balance equation

  11. Impact of primary metastatic bone disease in germ cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oing, C; Oechsle, K; Necchi, A

    2017-01-01

    (multivariate Cox regression; HR, 0.32; P=0.011) with respective 2-year PFS and OS rates of 68% and 75% compared with 24% and 36% for non-seminoma patients. Conclusions: Outcome of GCT patients with primary metastatic bone disease is particularly poor in non-seminoma patients, even worse than the expected...

  12. Primary ciliogenesis defects are associated with human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattner Jerome B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that have been implicated in signal transduction, cell to cell communication, left and right pattern embryonic development, sensation of fluid flow, regulation of calcium levels, mechanosensation, growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. Defects in the formation and/or function of these structures underlie a variety of human diseases such as Alström, Bardet-Biedl, Joubert, Meckel-Gruber and oral-facial-digital type 1 syndromes. The expression and function of primary cilia in cancer cells has now become a focus of attention but has not been studied in astrocytomas/glioblastomas. To begin to address this issue, we compared the structure and expression of primary cilia in a normal human astrocyte cell line with five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines. Methods Cultured normal human astrocytes and five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Monospecific antibodies were used to detect primary cilia and map the relationship between the primary cilia region and sites of endocytosis. Results We show that expression of primary cilia in normal astrocytes is cell cycle related and the primary cilium extends through the cell within a unique structure which we show to be a site of endocytosis. Importantly, we document that in each of the five astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines fully formed primary cilia are either expressed at a very low level, are completely absent or have aberrant forms, due to incomplete ciliogenesis. Conclusions The recent discovery of the importance of primary cilia in a variety of cell functions raises the possibility that this structure may have a role in a variety of cancers. Our finding that the formation of the primary cilium is disrupted in cells derived from astrocytoma/glioblastoma tumors provides the first

  13. A case with primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant of prostate malignancies. It is commonly originated from the stomach, colon, pancreas, and less commonly in the bladder. Prognosis of the classical type is worse than the adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by eliminating the adenocarcinomas of other organs such as gastrointestinal tract organs. In this case report, we present a case with primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received docetaxel chemotherapy because of short prostate specific antigen doubling time.

  14. Mapping of the secretome of primary isolates of mammalian cells, stem cells and derived cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), s. 691-708 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cell biology * conditioned media * cytokine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.505, year: 2011

  15. Differentiation of primordial germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells of primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lizhi; Tan, Yueqiu; Gong, Fei; Hu, Liang; Ouyang, Qi; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2015-03-01

    Can the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) differentiate into germ cells for potential disease modeling in vitro? The iPSC lines derived from POI patients with 46, X, del(X)(q26) or 46, X, del(X)(q26)9qh+ could differentiate into germ cells and expressed lower levels of genes in the deletion region of the X chromosome. iPSC technology has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-specific stem cells for disease modeling and for developing novel therapies. It has also been confirmed that iPSCs differentiate into germ cells. We compared the differentiation ability of germ cells and the gene expression level of germ cell-related genes in the X chromosome deletion region of iPSC lines derived from POI patients (n = 2) with an iPSC line derived from normal fibroblasts (n = 1). We established three iPSC lines from two patients with partial Xq deletion-induced POI and normal fibroblasts by overexpressing four factors: octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), Nanog homeobox (NANOG), and lin-28 homolog (LIN28), using lentiviral vectors. We then generated stable-transfected fluorescent reporter cell lines under the control of the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, also called VASA) promoter, and selected clonal derived sublines. We induced subline differentiation into germ cells by adding Wnt3a (30 ng/ml) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (100 ng/ml). After 12 days of differentiation, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive and GFP-negative cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analyzed for endogenous VASA protein (immunostaining) and for germ cell markers and genes expressed in the deleted region of the X chromosome (quantitative RT-PCR). The POI- and normal fibroblast-derived iPSCs had typical self-renewal and pluripotency characteristics. After stable transfection with the VASA-GFP construct, the sublines POI1-iPS-V.1

  16. Design and operation of hybrid cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, W.

    1987-01-01

    The first hybrid cooling tower at a coal-fired power station with a waste heat output of 550 MW has been in operation since the middle of 1985. Experience during the construction stage and the initial period of operation has confirmed the correctness of the design standards and of the design itself and, of course, also offers a wealth of knowledge to be observed on future construction projects. A second cooling tower of similar design is being erected at the present time. This cooling tower serves a power station unit with 2500 MW of waste heat output. The programme for this cooling tower offers the possibility for all the accumulated and evaluated experience to be of influence both on the design and also on the method of operation. This paper reports on the details. (orig.) [de

  17. Dry cooling towers - the Schmehausen example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    1977-01-01

    In a prototype, there are often problems which require special static, constructive, and assembling measures for their solution. In the case of the Schmehausen dry cooling tower, the demands on the assembling technology are particularly high. (orig.) [de

  18. Cooling tower water circuits with raceways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, G.

    1981-02-01

    Two physical models built at the National Hydraulics Laboratory in Chatou have led to the determination of the design of the works. This new design economizes 4 to 5 MW on pumping power for each cooling tower [fr

  19. LaGuardia air traffic control tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...

  20. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...

  1. Wind towers architecture, climate and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Mehdi N; Sayigh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a holistic treatment of wind towers, from their underlying scientific principles to design and operation. Includes suggestions for optimization based on the authors' own research findings from recent analytical studies.

  2. Good towers of function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    Algebraic curves are used in many different areas, including error-correcting codes. In such applications, it is important that the algebraic curve C meets some requirements. The curve must be defined over a finite field GF(q) with q elements, and then the curve also should have many points over...... this field. There are limits on how many points N(C) an algebraic curve C defined over a finite field can have. An invariant of the curve which is important in this context is the curve’s genus g(C). Hasse and Weil proved that N(C)≤q+1+2g(C) √q and this bound can in general not be improved. However...... of q. In this thesis, we study a construction using Drinfeld modules that produces explicitly defined families of algebraic curves that asymptotically achieve Ihara’s constant. Such families of curves can also be described using towers of function fields. Restated in this language the aim...

  3. Resveratrol Differentially Regulates NAMPT and SIRT1 in Hepatocarcinoma Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Damm, Georg; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to possess chemotherapeutic properties in several cancers. In this study, we wanted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the impact of resveratrol on NAMPT and SIRT1 protein function and asked whether there are differences in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2, Hep3B cells) and non-cancerous primary human hepatocytes. We found a lower basal NAMPT mRNA and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to primary hepatocytes. In contrast, SIRT1 was significantly higher expressed in hepatocarcinoma cells than in primary hepatocytes. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in the S- and G2/M- phase and apoptosis was mediated by activation of p53 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, resveratrol treated HepG2 cells showed a reduction of NAMPT enzymatic activity and increased p53 acetylation (K382). Resveratrol induced NAMPT release from HepG2 cells which was associated with increased NAMPT mRNA expression. This effect was absent in primary hepatocytes where resveratrol was shown to function as NAMPT and SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 inhibition by EX527 resembled resveratrol effects on HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased both p53 hyperacetylation and resveratrol-induced NAMPT release as well as S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. We could show that NAMPT and SIRT1 are differentially regulated by resveratrol in hepatocarcinoma cells and primary hepatocytes and that resveratrol did not act as a SIRT1 activator in hepatocarcinoma cells. PMID:24603648

  4. Resveratrol differentially regulates NAMPT and SIRT1 in Hepatocarcinoma cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schuster

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is reported to possess chemotherapeutic properties in several cancers. In this study, we wanted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the impact of resveratrol on NAMPT and SIRT1 protein function and asked whether there are differences in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2, Hep3B cells and non-cancerous primary human hepatocytes. We found a lower basal NAMPT mRNA and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to primary hepatocytes. In contrast, SIRT1 was significantly higher expressed in hepatocarcinoma cells than in primary hepatocytes. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in the S- and G2/M- phase and apoptosis was mediated by activation of p53 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, resveratrol treated HepG2 cells showed a reduction of NAMPT enzymatic activity and increased p53 acetylation (K382. Resveratrol induced NAMPT release from HepG2 cells which was associated with increased NAMPT mRNA expression. This effect was absent in primary hepatocytes where resveratrol was shown to function as NAMPT and SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 inhibition by EX527 resembled resveratrol effects on HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased both p53 hyperacetylation and resveratrol-induced NAMPT release as well as S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. We could show that NAMPT and SIRT1 are differentially regulated by resveratrol in hepatocarcinoma cells and primary hepatocytes and that resveratrol did not act as a SIRT1 activator in hepatocarcinoma cells.

  5. Cutaneous features seen in primary liver cell (Hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    features associated with the entity as a possible aid to diagnosis cutaneous features being considered a cheap tool that can help ... liver cell cancer (PLCC) and cancer of the breast and ... laboratory based -abdominal ultrasonography, liver.

  6. Primary mesenchymal stem cells in human transplanted lungs are CD90/CD105 perivascularly located tissue-resident cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolandsson, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Brune, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported. This st......BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported...

  7. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  8. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primarycells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primarycell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  9. Cooling tower water ozonation at Southern University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Knecht, A.T.; Trahan, D.B.; Yaghi, H.M.; Jackson, G.H.; Coppenger, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooling-tower water is a critical utility for many industries. In the past, inexpensive water coupled with moderate regulation of discharge water led to the neglect of the cooling tower as an energy resource. Now, with the increased cost of chemical treatment and tough EPA rules and regulations, this situation is rapidly changing. The operator of the DOE Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge as well as many other industries are forced to develop an alternate method of water treatment. The cooling tower is one of the major elements in large energy systems. The savings accrued from a well engineered cooling tower can be a significant part of the overall energy conservation plan. During a short-term ozonation study between 1987-1988, the Y-12 Plant has been successful in eliminating the need for cooling tower treatment chemicals. However, the long-term impact was not available. Since April 1988, the ozone cooling water treatment study at the Y-12 Plant has been moved to the site at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The purpose of this continued study is to determine whether the use of ozonation on cooling towers is practical from an economic, technical and environmental standpoint. This paper discusses system design, operating parameter and performance testing of the ozonation system at Southern University

  10. Component for articulated offshore loading towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.

    1980-09-01

    The construction of offshore natural gas liquefaction plants must be regarded as technically feasible and the marketing prospects for LNG - a source of clean burning energy - appear excellent. Nevertheless, the optimum loading procedure for LNG tankers in the - sometimes adverse - offshore environment is still a matter under discussion by the experts - with a tendency to adopt and adapt well-proven components from the offshore crude oil sector. Here, articulated towers are in use for tankerloading and the crude oil is pumped at ambient temperature through the cardan joint of the tower itself. In the case of the cryogenic liquid LNG, this method would entail intolerable risks. Leaks and subsequent LNG spills within the tower joint will cause low temperature-embrittlement and most likely damage the cardan connection at the tower's base plate on the sea bed. The described submarine joint for ultra-cold liquids, which has the same cardanic properties as the cardan joint of the tower is completely separated from the latter. Thus a cryogenic leakage in this submarine joint will under no circumstance reach and affect the tower cardan.

  11. Real world data on primary treatment for mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Anna; Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Brown, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    to prognostic factors and first-line treatment in patients with MCL in a population-based data set. Data were collected from the Swedish and Danish Lymphoma Registries from the period of 2000 to 2011. A total of 1389 patients were diagnosed with MCL. During this period, age-standardized incidence MCL increased...... analysis. Hence, by a population-based approach, we were able to provide novel data on prognostic factors and primary treatment of MCL, applicable to routine clinical practice....

  12. Gene transfer to primary corneal epithelial cells with an integrating lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the transfer of heterologous genes carrying a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP reporter cassette to primary corneal epithelial cells ex vivo. METHODS: Freshly enucleated rabbit corneoscleral tissue was used to obtain corneal epithelial cell suspension via enzymatic digestion. Cells were plated at a density of 5×10³ cells/cm² and allowed to grow for 5 days (to 70-80% confluency prior to transduction. Gene transfer was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS. We evaluated the transduction efficiency (TE over time and the dose-response effect of different lentiviral particles. One set of cells were dual sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorter for green fluorescent protein expression as well as Hoechst dye exclusion to evaluate the transduction of potentially corneal epithelial stem cells (side-population phenotypic cells. RESULTS: Green fluorescent protein expressing lentiviral vectors were able to effectively transduce rabbit primary epithelial cells cultured ex vivo. Live cell imaging post-transduction demonstrated GFP-positive cells with normal epithelial cell morphology and growth. The transduction efficiency over time was higher at the 5th post-transduction day (14.1% and tended to stabilize after the 8th day. The number of transduced cells was dose-dependent, and at the highest lentivirus concentrations approached 7%. When double sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorter to isolate both green fluorescent protein positive and side population cells, transduced side population cells were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral vectors can effectively transfer heterologous genes to primary corneal epithelial cells expanded ex vivo. Genes were stably expressed over time, transferred in a dose-dependence fashion, and could be transferred to mature corneal cells as well as presumable putative stem cells.

  13. Cellular Microenvironment Dictates Androgen Production by Murine Fetal Leydig Cells in Primary Culture1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Colleen M.; Muszynski, Jessica L.; Strotman, Lindsay N.; Lewis, Samantha R.; O'Connell, Rachel L.; Beebe, David J.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jorgensen, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the fact that fetal Leydig cells are recognized as the primary source of androgens in male embryos, the mechanisms by which steroidogenesis occurs within the developing testis remain unclear. A genetic approach was used to visualize and isolate fetal Leydig cells from remaining cells within developing mouse testes. Cyp11a1-Cre mice were bred to mT/mG dual reporter mice to target membrane-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) within steroidogenic cells, whereas other cells expressed membrane-tagged tandem-dimer tomato red. Fetal Leydig cell identity was validated using double-labeled immunohistochemistry against GFP and the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-HSD, and cells were successfully isolated as indicated by qPCR results from sorted cell populations. Because fetal Leydig cells must collaborate with neighboring cells to synthesize testosterone, we hypothesized that the fetal Leydig cell microenvironment defined their capacity for androgen production. Microfluidic culture devices were used to measure androstenedione and testosterone production of fetal Leydig cells that were cultured in cell-cell contact within a mixed population, were isolated but remained in medium contact via compartmentalized co-culture with other testicular cells, or were isolated and cultured alone. Results showed that fetal Leydig cells maintained their identity and steroidogenic activity for 3–5 days in primary culture. Microenvironment dictated proficiency of testosterone production. As expected, fetal Leydig cells produced androstenedione but not testosterone when cultured in isolation. More testosterone accumulated in medium from mixed cultures than from compartmentalized co-cultures initially; however, co-cultures maintained testosterone synthesis for a longer time. These data suggest that a combination of cell-cell contact and soluble factors constitute the ideal microenvironment for fetal Leydig cell activity in primary culture. PMID:25143354

  14. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  16. Systematic analysis of protein turnover in primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Toby; Franken, Holger; Kosinski, Jan; Kurzawa, Nils; Zinn, Nico; Sweetman, Gavain; Poeckel, Daniel; Ratnu, Vikram S; Schramm, Maike; Becher, Isabelle; Steidel, Michael; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bergamini, Giovanna; Beck, Martin; Bantscheff, Marcus; Savitski, Mikhail M

    2018-02-15

    A better understanding of proteostasis in health and disease requires robust methods to determine protein half-lives. Here we improve the precision and accuracy of peptide ion intensity-based quantification, enabling more accurate protein turnover determination in non-dividing cells by dynamic SILAC-based proteomics. This approach allows exact determination of protein half-lives ranging from 10 to >1000 h. We identified 4000-6000 proteins in several non-dividing cell types, corresponding to 9699 unique protein identifications over the entire data set. We observed similar protein half-lives in B-cells, natural killer cells and monocytes, whereas hepatocytes and mouse embryonic neurons show substantial differences. Our data set extends and statistically validates the previous observation that subunits of protein complexes tend to have coherent turnover. Moreover, analysis of different proteasome and nuclear pore complex assemblies suggests that their turnover rate is architecture dependent. These results illustrate that our approach allows investigating protein turnover and its implications in various cell types.

  17. Arsenic trioxide promotes mitochondrial DNA mutation and cell apoptosis in primary APL cells and NB4 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ran; Zhou, Jin; Sui, Meng; Li, ZhiYong; Feng, GuoSheng; Yang, BaoFeng

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. The NB4 cell line was treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro, and the primary APL cells were treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro and 0.16 mg kg(-1) d(-1) As(2)O(3) in vivo. The mitochondrial DNA of all the cells above was amplified by PCR, directly sequenced and analyzed by Sequence Navigatore and Factura software. The apoptosis rates were assayed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial DNA mutation in the D-loop region was found in NB4 and APL cells before As(2)O(3) use, but the mutation spots were remarkably increased after As(2)O(3) treatment, which was positively correlated to the rates of cellular apoptosis, the correlation coefficient: r (NB4-As2O3)=0.973818, and r (APL-As2O3)=0.934703. The mutation types include transition, transversion, codon insertion or deletion, and the mutation spots in all samples were not constant and regular. It is revealed that As(2)O(3) aggravates mtDNA mutation in the D-loop region of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial DNA might be one of the targets of As(2)O(3) in APL treatment.

  18. Analysis of T Cell Subsets in Adult Primary/Idiopathic Minimal Change Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salcido-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterise infiltrating T cells in kidneys and circulating lymphocyte subsets of adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease. Methods. In a cohort of 9 adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change recruited consecutively at disease onset, we characterized (1 infiltrating immune cells in the kidneys using immunohistochemistry and (2 circulating lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry. As an exploratory analysis, association of the numbers and percentages of both kidney-infiltrating immune cells and the circulating lymphocyte subsets with kidney outcomes including deterioration of kidney function and proteinuria, as well as time to complete clinical remission up to 48 months of follow-up, was investigated. Results. In the recruited patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, we observed (a a dominance of infiltrating T helper 17 cells and cytotoxic cells, comprising cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, over Foxp3+ Treg cells in the renal interstitium; (b an increase in the circulating total CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood; and (c an association of some of these parameters with kidney function and proteinuria. Conclusions. In primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, a relative numerical dominance of effector over regulatory T cells can be observed in kidney tissue and peripheral blood. However, larger confirmatory studies are necessary.

  19. The influence of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, J.; Jokoniuk, P.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in mice irradiated with 300 or 500 R was studied. The immunologic response of the mice to sheep red blood cells used as antigen was assessed at the cellular level (by counting PFC) and humoral level. Injection of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells before irradiation of the mice diminished the immunosuppressive effect of roentgen radiation. Injection of the cells after irradiation accelerated regeneration of immunologic reactivity in the irradiated mice. (author)

  20. Primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal origin of ureter tumors account for less than 3 percent of all primary ureteral tumors. Among mesenchymal tumors, primary leiomyoma of ureter is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma. When encountering well-defined homogeneously enhanced mass of ureter on computed tomography, radiologist should keep in mind that ureteral leiomyoma should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  1. Primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Mesenchymal origin of ureter tumors account for less than 3 percent of all primary ureteral tumors. Among mesenchymal tumors, primary leiomyoma of ureter is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma. When encountering well-defined homogeneously enhanced mass of ureter on computed tomography, radiologist should keep in mind that ureteral leiomyoma should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  2. Establishment of primary cell culture from the temperate symbiotic cnidarian, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay-Verdier, Stéphanie; Dall'osso, Diane; Joli, Nathalie; Olivré, Juliette; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Zamoum, Thamilla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis, a member of the Cnidaria phylum, is a relevant experimental model to investigate the molecular and cellular events involved in the preservation or in the rupture of the symbiosis between the animal cells and their symbiotic microalgae, commonly named zooxanthellae. In order to increase research tools for this model, we developed a primary culture from A. viridis animal cells. By adapting enzymatic dissociation protocols, we isolated animal host cells from a whole tentacle in regeneration state. Each plating resulted in a heterogeneous primary culture consisted of free zooxanthellae and many regular, small rounded and adherent cells (of 3-5 μm diameter). Molecular analyses conducted on primary cultures, maintained for 2 weeks, confirmed a specific signature of A. viridis cells. Further serial dilutions and micromanipulation allowed us to obtain homogenous primary cultures of the small rounded cells, corresponding to A. viridis "epithelial-like cells". The maintenance and the propagation over a 4 weeks period of primary cells provide, for in vitro cnidarian studies, a preliminary step for further investigations on cnidarian cellular pathways notably in regard to symbiosis interactions.

  3. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    -brain barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  4. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagga Permeet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.

  5. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Albloushi, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    The use of seawater in cooling towers for industrial applications has much merit in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries due to the scarcity and availability of fresh water. Seawater make-up in cooling towers is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in coastal areas. Such latent-heat removal with seawater in cooling towers is several folds more efficient than sensible heat extraction via heat exchangers. Operational challenges such as scaling, corrosion, and biofouling are a major challenge in conventional cooling towers, where the latter is also a major issue in seawater cooling towers. Biofouling can significantly hamper the efficiency of cooling towers. The most popular methods used in cooling treatment to control biofouling are disinfection by chlorination. However, the disadvantages of chlorination are formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in the presence of high organic loading and safety concerns in the storage of chlorine gas. In this study, the research focuses on biofouling control in seawater cooling towers by investigating two different approaches. The first strategy addresses the use of alternative oxidants (i.e. ozone micro-bubbles and chlorine dioxide) in treatment of cooling towers. The second strategy investigates removing nutrients in seawater using granular activated carbon filter column and ultrafiltration to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Laboratory bench-scale tests in terms of temperature, cycle of concentration, dosage, etc. indicated that, at lower oxidant dosages (total residual oxidant (TRO) equivalent = 0.1 mg/l Cl2), chlorine dioxide had a better disinfection effect than chlorine and ozone. The performance of oxidizing biocides at pilot scale, operating at assorted conditions, showed that for the disinfectants tested, ozone could remove 95 % bioactivity of total number of bacteria and algae followed by chlorine dioxide at 85%, while conventional chlorine dosing only gave 60% reduction in bioactivities

  6. Cellular lead toxicity and metabolism in primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F.; Pounds, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    A knowledge of bone lead metabolism is critical for understanding the toxicological importance of bone lead, as a toxicant both to bone cells and to soft tissues of the body, as lead is mobilized from large reservoirs in hard tissues. To further understand the processes that mediate metabolism of lead in bone, it is necessary to determine lead metabolism at the cellular level. Experiments were conducted to determine the intracellular steady-state 210 Pb kinetics in cultures of primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells. Osteoblastic bone cells obtained by sequential collagenase digestion of mouse calvaria or rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were labeled with 210 Pb as 5 microM lead acetate for 20 hr, and kinetic parameters were determined by measuring the efflux of 210 Pb from the cells over a 210 -min period. The intracellular metabolism of 210 Pb was characterized by three kinetic pools of 210 Pb in both cell types. Although the values of these parameters differed between the primary osteoblastic cells and ROS cells, the profile of 210 Pb was remarkably similar in both cell types. Both types exhibited one large, slowly exchanging pool (S3), indicative of mitochondrial lead. These data show that primary osteoblastic bone cells and ROS cells exhibit similar steady-state lead kinetics, and intracellular lead distribution. These data also establish a working model of lead kinetics in osteoblastic bone cells and now permit an integrated view of lead kinetics in bone

  7. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dedifferentiation of Human Primary Thyrocytes into Multilineage Progenitor Cells without Gene Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Vladimir; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Matsuse, Michiko; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kumagai, Atsushi; Uga, Tatsuya; Yano, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yuji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    While identification and isolation of adult stem cells have potentially important implications, recent reports regarding dedifferentiation/reprogramming from differentiated cells have provided another clue to gain insight into source of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we developed a novel culture system to obtain dedifferentiated progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. After enzymatic digestion, primary thyrocytes, expressing thyroglobulin, vimentin and cytokeratin-18, were cultured in a serum-free medium called SAGM. Although the vast majority of cells died, a small proportion (∼0.5%) survived and proliferated. During initial cell expansion, thyroglobulin/cytokeratin-18 expression was gradually declined in the proliferating cells. Moreover, sorted cells expressing thyroid peroxidase gave rise to proliferating clones in SAGM. These data suggest that those cells are derived from thyroid follicular cells or at least thyroid-committed cells. The SAGM-grown cells did not express any thyroid-specific genes. However, after four-week incubation with FBS and TSH, cytokeratin-18, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor, PAX8 and TTF1 expressions re-emerged. Moreover, surprisingly, the cells were capable of differentiating into neuronal or adipogenic lineage depending on differentiating conditions. In summary, we have developed a novel system to generate multilineage progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. This seems to be achieved by dedifferentiation of thyroid follicular cells. The presently described culture system may be useful for regenerative medicine, but the primary importance will be as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of thyroid diseases. PMID:21556376

  9. Global investigation of interleukin-1β signaling in primary β-cells using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    in β-cells by which this cytokine can modulate cell-matrix interactions during inflammation, a regulation shown in other cell types. Further data analysis is currently ongoing, and the collective results of the experiments will hopefully facilitate additional insights into the effect of IL-1β......Novel Aspect: Global phosphoproteomic analysis of cytokine signaling in primary β-cells Introduction The insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are targeted by aberrant immune system responses in diabetes mellitus involving cytokines, especially interleukin-1β (IL-1 β......), which initiate apoptosis of the β-cells. As only limited amounts of primary β-cells can be isolated from model organisms like mouse and rat, global phosphoproteomic analysis of these signaling events by mass spectrometry has generally been unfeasible. We have therefore developed a strategy...

  10. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A A; Hugues-Salas, O; Savini, B; Keogh, W

    2016-01-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods. (paper)

  11. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Askania Tower (Building 02-00): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Askania Tower (Building 02-00) was built in 1956 as part of the first wave of construction at the newly established Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Located at Station 2, near the primary target area at the range, the tower was one of the first four built to house Askania phototheodolites used in tracking test units dropped from aircraft. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  13. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh

    1983-01-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  14. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  15. Proliferation and mineralization ability of dental pulp cells derived from primary and permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the proliferation and mineralization ability of CFU-F selected dental pulp cellsderived from primary and permanent teeth. Those cells were isolated by enzyme digestion and analyzed for their colonyformingcapacity. The cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay on day 1, day 7, and day14. Alizarin Red S stainingwas used to detect mineralized nodule formation of the cells on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. Proliferation of CFU-F selected pulpcells from primary teeth was significantly higher than that of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teeth in all periods ofthe experiment. Upon cultured cells in mineralization inducing media, the mineralized nodules appeared as early as day 14 inCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth and MG-63, whereas those of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teethcan be found at day 21. On day 21 and day 28, the mineralized nodules of the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the primaryteeth group were more than those in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group. Mineralized noduleformation in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group appeared later and were less than those ofCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth. However, mineralized nodules in CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanentteeth group increased very fast after their appearance. Those results suggest that CFU-F selected pulp cells from primaryteeth had a higher proliferation rate and mineralization rate when compared to CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanentteeth.

  16. Aerodynamical errors on tower mounted wind speed measurements due to the presence of the tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Field measurements of wind speed from two lattice towers showed large differences for wind directions where the anemometers of both towers should be unaffected by any upstream obstacle. The wind speed was measured by cup anemometers mounted on booms along the side of the tower. A simple wind tunnel test indicates that the boom, for the studied conditions, could cause minor flow disturbances. A theoretical study, by means of simple 2D flow modelling of the flow around the mast, demonstrates that the tower itself could cause large wind flow disturbances. A theoretical study, based on simple treatment of the physics of motion of a cup anemometer, demonstrates that a cup anemometer is sensitive to velocity gradients across the cups and responds clearly to velocity gradients in the vicinity of the tower. Comparison of the results from the theoretical study and field tests show promising agreement. 2 refs, 8 figs

  17. Public Safety Transmitter Towers, Civil Service emergency siren locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include siren ID, class, range, model, description, ownership, control, address, city, and GPS verification status. Publi, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Public Safety Transmitter Towers dataset current as of 2008. Civil Service emergency siren locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is maintained interactively by GIS...

  18. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  19. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:24346024

  20. A Cell Culture Platform to Maintain Long-term Phenotype of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Brenton R; Durham, Mitchell J; Monckton, Chase P; Khetani, Salman R

    2018-03-01

    Modeling interactions between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in vitro can help elucidate human-specific mechanisms underlying liver physiology/disease and drug responses; however, existing hepatocyte/endothelial coculture models are suboptimal because of their use of rodent cells, cancerous cell lines, and/or nonliver endothelial cells. Hence, we sought to develop a platform that could maintain the long-term phenotype of PHHs and primary human LSECs. Primary human LSECs or human umbilical vein endothelial cells as the nonliver control were cocultivated with micropatterned PHH colonies (to control homotypic interactions) followed by an assessment of PHH morphology and functions (albumin and urea secretion, and cytochrome P-450 2A6 and 3A4 enzyme activities) over 3 weeks. Endothelial phenotype was assessed via gene expression patterns and scanning electron microscopy to visualize fenestrations. Hepatic responses in PHH/endothelial cocultures were benchmarked against responses in previously developed PHH/3T3-J2 fibroblast cocultures. Finally, PHH/fibroblast/endothelial cell tricultures were created and characterized as described previously. LSECs, but not human umbilical vein endothelial cells, induced PHH albumin secretion for ∼11 days; however, neither endothelial cell type could maintain PHH morphology and functions to the same magnitude/longevity as the fibroblasts. In contrast, both PHHs and endothelial cells displayed stable phenotype for 3 weeks in PHH/fibroblast/endothelial cell tricultures; furthermore, layered tricultures in which PHHs and endothelial cells were separated by a protein gel to mimic the space of Disse displayed similar functional levels as the coplanar tricultures. PHH/fibroblast/endothelial tricultures constitute a robust platform to elucidate reciprocal interactions between PHHs and endothelial cells in physiology, disease, and after drug exposure.

  1. CT findings of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2008-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the stomach with an incidence ranging from 0.04% to 0.4% of all diagnosed gastric cancers. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach associated with hypertrophic gastropathy and observed as a huge mass and wall thickening on the greater curvature site by a multidetector CT

  2. Interactions of virulent and avirulent leptospires with primary cultures of renal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballard, S A; Williamson, M; Adler, B

    1986-01-01

    A primary culture system for the cells of mouse renal-tubular epithelium was established and used to observe the adhesion of leptospires. Virulent strains of serovars copenhageni and ballum attached themselves to epithelial cells within 3 h of infection whereas an avirulent variant of serovar cop...

  3. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  4. Structure of natural draft cooling towers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Yukichi; Tsurusaki, Mamoru; Koshizawa, Koichi; Chiba, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    Thousands of natural draft cooling towers have been utilized, in Europe and America, as cooling systems of power plants or as countermeasures against thermal polution. Recently in Japan, demands for cooling tower systems have been increasing remarkably with the construction of large power plants and the legislation of environmental regulations. In view of the severe natural conditions in Japan such as strong wind and seismic loadings, etc., the establishment of the optimum design and construction method is essential for the building of safe and economical towers. In order to establish a comprehensive plan of a power plant cooling system of the appropriate structural type, the authors have made researches and experiments on design conditions, static and dynamic analyses, and comparative studies of various structural types such as reinforced concrete thin-shell structures, steel framed structures and composite shell segment structures, based on the investigation results of towers in Europe and America. These results are presented in three reports, the 1st of which concerns cooling tower shells as are hereinafter described. (auth.)

  5. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The shape of natural draft cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    The shape of cooling towers is more often designed empirically. There, it is considered from a theoretical point of view. The analysis of dynamic of natural draft and of the air flow in a cooling tower shell is presented. It is shown, that although it is convergent, a tower works like a diffuser for pressure recovery. And it is turbulence that produces a transfer of kinetic energy and allows a good operation of the diffusor. The equations permit to define a shell profile which depends upon the operating conditions of the cooling tower. In the same way, a stability criteria for natural draft depending upon operating conditions is established. A heating model of one meter diameter has been built in a thermal similitude. The turbulence rate has been measured with a hot wire anemometer at the tower exit and visualizations have also been made. Natural draft stability has been studied by these means for four different shell shapes and a wide range of operating conditions. Experimental and theoretical results agree satisfactorily and experiments can be considered as a validation of theory

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A novel frontier in the study of human primary immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessach, Itai M.; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Giliani, Silvia; Gennery, Andrew R.; Al-Herz, Waleed; Manos, Philip D.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Park, In-Hyun; Rucci, Francesca; Agarwal, Suneet; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Daley, George Q.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel ability to epigenetically reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells through the exogenous expression of transcription promises to revolutionize the study of human diseases. Objective Here we report on the generation of 25 induced pluripotent stem cell lines from 6 patients with various forms of Primary Immunodeficiencies, affecting adaptive and/or innate immunity. Methods Patients’ dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed by expression of four transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC using a single excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector. Results Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with primary immunodeficiencies show a stemness profile that is comparable to that observed in human embryonic stem cells. Following in vitro differentiation into embryoid bodies, pluripotency of the patient-derived indiced pluripotent stem cells lines was demonstrated by expression of genes characteristic of each of the three embryonic layers. We have confirmed the patient-specific origin of the induced pluripotent stem cell lines, and ascertained maintenance of karyotypic integrity. Conclusion By providing a limitless source of diseased stem cells that can be differentiated into various cell types in vitro, the repository of induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients with primary immunodeficiencies represents a unique resource to investigate the pathophysiology of hematopoietic and extra-hematopoietic manifestations of these diseases, and may assist in the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on gene correction. PMID:21185069

  8. Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated anoikis of primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Ratna B.; Basu, Arnab; Steele, Robert; Beyene, Aster; McHowat, Jane; Meyer, Keith; Ghosh, Asish K.; Ray, Ranjit

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus glycoprotein (EGP) has been implicated for the induction of cytotoxicity and injury in vascular cells. On the other hand, EGP has also been suggested to induce massive cell rounding and detachment from the plastic surface by downregulating cell adhesion molecules without causing cytotoxicity. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic role of EGP in primary endothelial cells by transduction with a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expressing EGP (Ad-EGP). Primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) transduced with Ad-EGP displayed loss of cell adhesion from the plastic surface followed by cell death. Transfer of conditioned medium from EGP-transduced HCMEC into naive cells did not induce loss of adhesion or cell death, suggesting that EGP needs to be expressed intracellularly to exert its cytotoxic effect. Subsequent studies suggested that HCMEC death occurred through apoptosis. Results from this study shed light on the EGP-induced anoikis in primary human cardiac endothelial cells, which may have significant pathological consequences

  9. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  10. Electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soils driven by single and multiple primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Songhu; Wu Chan; Wan Jinzhong; Lu Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    This study tentatively used an iron (Fe) and carbon (C) primary cell, instead of dc electric power, to drive the electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soils. The addition of acid to C compartment increased the electric potential, while the addition of acid to Fe compartment had a slight influence on the potential. It was feasible using the primary cell to drive the electromigration of cadmium in kaolin. The electromigration efficiencies were highly related to the soil pH. Lower pH led to greater migration efficiency. The mechanisms involved the desorption of cadmium from soils to pore solution and the electromigration of cadmium in the pore solution. The desorption was critical to the electromigration process. The series of primary cells could expand the treatment area, but the electromigration efficiencies of cadmium in each cell were less than that achieved by single primary cell. Since the potential gradient produced by the primary cell was rather low, the electromigration rate of pollutants was very low and remediation duration was long. The application would be acceptable in some specific sites, such as acidic soils or artificially controlled acid conditions so that heavy metals have been desorbed from soils

  11. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  12. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  13. A CASE REPORT OF MULTIPLE PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS OF THE OVARY AND SIGMOID COLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Villert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell ovarian and sigmoid colon carcinomas are extremely rare malignancies. Because of their rarity, it is difficult to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with theses malignancies, and therefore, the increased interest in each clinical case report is highly relevant. Multiple primary squamous cell ovarian and sigmoid colon carcinomas are the subject of discussion and differential diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer with secondary ovarian cancer. Histopathological and clinical characteristics of the tumors were present and evidences in favor of the multiple primary malignancies were given. The association of squamous cell ovarian and sigmoid colon carcinomas with human papilloma virus type 16 was shown.

  14. Evaluation of the RSG-GAS cooling tower performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suroso

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of RSG-GAS reactor should be operated as efficiently as possible, so that reactor operation planning using one line primary coolant can be anticipated. To analyze the performance of the RSG-GAS cooling tower with one line primary coolant doing by using same data from 10 MW thermal reactor operation. The result were then compare to those achieved using CATHENA code. The results indicated that, for design condition the ratio of water flowrate to air is (L/G) 1.52 and number transfer unit (NTU) is 0.348. For operation condition, the average of L/G and NTU are respectively 1.37 and 0,348. Moreover the results achieved by the code showed that L/G and NTU are respectively 1.35 and 0,302. The performance of cooling tower achieved operation condition and the code results are respectively 91% and 72%. This means that the calculated results are lower than measurement results

  15. Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Signaling in Human Natural Killer Cells: New Insights from Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mace

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK cells play a critical role in the control of viral infections and malignancy. Their importance in human health and disease is illustrated by severe viral infections in patients with primary immunodeficiencies that affect NK cell function and/or development. The recent identification of patients with phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K-signaling pathway mutations that can cause primary immunodeficiency provides valuable insight into the role that PI3K signaling plays in human NK cell maturation and lytic function. There is a rich literature that demonstrates a requirement for PI3K in multiple key aspects of NK cell biology, including development/maturation, homing, priming, and function. Here, I briefly review these previous studies and place them in context with recent findings from the study of primary immunodeficiency patients, particularly those with hyperactivating mutations in PI3Kδ signaling.

  16. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells assist in the survival and growth of primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through interleukin 10 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Zhanshan; Qian, Guangfang; Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua; Song, Haihan; Qian, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5"- CD4"+ T cells, CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5"- CD4"+ T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5"+ compartment compared to the CXCR5"- compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5"+ compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4"+ T cells than the CXCR5"- compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4"+ T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10. - Highlights: • We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh in DLBCL. • Tfh were effective at promoting the proliferation of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • Tfh were effective at inhibiting the apoptosis of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • IL-10 secretion in Tfh was significant elevated in DLBCL. • Neutralization of IL-10 compromised Tfh-mediated pro-tumor effects.

  17. Local and Regional Spread of Primary Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shilpa J; Pruzan, Noelle L; Geske, Michael J; Jeng, Bennie H; Bloomer, Michele M; Vagefi, M Reza

    2016-04-06

    Two cases of biopsy-proven conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed local and regional spread are described. The cases involved a 65-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man who were initially treated at outside institutions for SCC of the conjunctiva. The patients did not have a history of immune compromise. The female patient presented with direct extension into the lacrimal gland but deferred recommended exenteration. Despite eventual exenteration, she developed metastasis to a neck node 6 months later, which was treated with radiotherapy. The male patient presented with local recurrence and a parotid node metastasis treated with exenteration, parotidectomy, selective neck dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy. Review of the outside pathology of both cases revealed positive tumor margins at the time of original resection. Local control of conjunctival SCC is of critical importance to reduce the risk of orbital extension and regional spread.

  18. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma masquerading as large pyogenic granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Bains

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL forms 9% of the cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. It usually presents as solitary reddish brown ulcerating nodule or indurated plaque. Sometimes, it mimics other dermatological diseases such as eczema, pyoderma gangrenosum, pyogenic granuloma, morphea, and squamous cell carcinoma. Our case presented with large pyogenic granuloma like lesion with regional lymphadenopathy. Since pcALCL is rare, one can misdiagnose such cases and therefore high index of suspicion is necessary.

  19. Alginate foam-based three-dimensional culture to investigate drug sensitivity in primary leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpoor, Mahroo; Yebra-Fernandez, Eva; Parhizkar, Maryam; Orlu, Mine; Craig, Duncan; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2018-04-01

    The development of assays for evaluating the sensitivity of leukaemia cells to anti-cancer agents is becoming an important aspect of personalized medicine. Conventional cell cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bone marrow (BM), the extracellular matrix and stromal components which are crucial for the growth and survival of leukaemia stem cells. To accurately predict the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells in an in vitro assay a culturing system containing the essential components of BM is required. In this study, we developed a porous calcium alginate foam-based scaffold to be used for 3D culture. The new 3D culture was shown to be cell compatible as it supported the proliferation of both normal haematopoietic and leukaemia cells. Our cell differential assay for myeloid markers showed that the porous foam-based 3D culture enhanced myeloid differentiation in both leukaemia and normal haematopoietic cells compared to two-dimensional culture. The foam-based scaffold reduced the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells to the tested antileukaemia agents in K562 and HL60 leukaemia cell line model and also primary myeloid leukaemia cells. This observation supports the application of calcium alginate foams as scaffold components of the 3D cultures for investigation of sensitivity to antileukaemia agents in primary myeloid cells. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  1. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11

  2. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.

  3. Immunocytochemical characterization of primary cell culture in canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M.M. Flórez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Immunochemistry with anti-vimentin, anti-lysozyme, anti-alpha 1 antitrypsin, anti-CD3 and anti-CD79α antibodies has been used for characterization of primary cell culture in the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT. Samples for primary cell culture and immunohistochemistry assays were taken from eight dogs with cytological and clinical diagnosis of TVT. To validate the immunochemical results in the primary cell culture of TVT, a chromosome count was performed. For the statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test with p<0.05 was used. TVT tissues and culture cells showed intense anti-vimentin immunoreactivity, lightly to moderate immunoreactivity for anti-lysozyme, and mild for anti-alpha-antitrypsin. No marking was achieved for CD3 and CD79α. All culture cells showed chromosomes variable number of 56 to 68. This is the first report on the use of immunocytochemical characterization in cell culture of TVT. Significant statistic difference between immunochemistry in tissue and culture cell was not established, what suggests that the use of this technique may provide greater certainty for the confirmation of tumors in the primary culture. This fact is particularly important because in vitro culture of tumor tissues has been increasingly used to provide quick access to drug efficacy and presents relevant information to identify potential response to anticancer medicine; so it is possible to understand the behavior of the tumor.

  4. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  5. Metabolic responses of primary and transformed cells to intracellular Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gillmaier

    Full Text Available The metabolic response of host cells, in particular of primary mammalian cells, to bacterial infections is poorly understood. Here, we compare the carbon metabolism of primary mouse macrophages and of established J774A.1 cells upon Listeria monocytogenes infection using (13C-labelled glucose or glutamine as carbon tracers. The (13C-profiles of protein-derived amino acids from labelled host cells and intracellular L. monocytogenes identified active metabolic pathways in the different cell types. In the primary cells, infection with live L. monocytogenes increased glycolytic activity and enhanced flux of pyruvate into the TCA cycle via pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, while in J774A.1 cells the already high glycolytic and glutaminolytic activities hardly changed upon infection. The carbon metabolism of intracellular L. monocytogenes was similar in both host cells. Taken together, the data suggest that efficient listerial replication in the cytosol of the host cells mainly depends on the glycolytic activity of the hosts.

  6. Spontaneous regression of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type with significant T-cell immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Graham, DO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of histologically confirmed primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT that subsequently underwent spontaneous regression in the absence of systemic treatment. The case showed an atypical lymphoid infiltrate that was CD20+ and MUM-1+ and CD10–. A subsequent biopsy of the spontaneously regressed lesion showed fibrosis associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate comprising reactive T cells. PCDLBCL-LT is a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis, which is usually treated with chemotherapy. We describe a case of clinical and histologic spontaneous regression in a patient with PCDLBCL-LT who had a negative systemic workup but a recurrence over a year after his initial presentation. Key words: B cell, lymphoma, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, regression

  7. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Corneille Ontsouka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMEC US or Swiss Holstein-Friesian (bMEC CH cows, and of primary bovine mammary alveolar epithelial cells stably transfected with simian virus-40 (SV-40 large T-antigen (MAC-T for in vitro analyses. This was evaluated by testing their expression pattern of cytokeratin (CK 7, 18, 19, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. RESULTS: The expression of the listed markers was assessed using real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Characteristic markers of the mesenchymal (vimentin, myoepithelial (α-SMA and glandular secretory cells (CKs showed differential expression among the studied cell cultures, partly depending on the analytical method used. The relative mRNA expression of vimentin, CK7 and CK19, respectively, was lower (P < 0.05 in immortalized than in primary mammary cell cultures. The stain index (based on flow cytometry of CK7 and CK19 protein was lower (P < 0.05 in MAC-T than in bMECs, while the expression of α-SMA and CK18 showed an inverse pattern. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis mostly confirmed the mRNA data, while partly disagreed with flow cytometry data (e.g., vimentin level in MAC-T. The differential expression of CK7 and CK19 allowed discriminating between immortal and primary mammary cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the selected widely used cell type markers in primary and immortalized MEC cells did not allow a clear preference between these two cell models for in vitro analyses studying aspects of milk composition. All tested cell models exhibited to a variable

  8. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  9. Identification of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma via clinicopathologic observation and clonality assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Wei, Long-Xiao; Huang, Gao-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Han, Xiu-Juan; Yao, Li; Lan, Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-19

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is an uncommon lymphoma associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It most commonly involves the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract. Primary pulmonary NK/T cell lymphoma is extremely rare. If a patient with a NK or T-cell tumor has an unusual reaction to treatment or an unusual prognosis, it is wise to differentiate NK from T-cell tumors. The clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype, EBV in situ hybridization, and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement of primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma from a 73-year-old Chinese woman were investigated and the clonal status was determined using female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The lesion showed the typical histopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemical features of NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the sample was negative for TCR gene rearrangement. A clonality assay demonstrated that the lesion was monoclonal. It is concluded that this is the first recorded case of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma. The purpose of the present work is to recommend that pathologists carefully investigate the whole lesion to reduce the likelihood that primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma will be misdiagnosed as an infectious lesion. In addition, TCR gene rearrangement and clonal analysis, which is based on female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at PGK and androgen receptor (AR) loci, were found to play important roles in differentiating NK cell lymphoma from T cell lymphoma. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5205300349457729.

  10. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  11. A simplified model of a mechanical cooling tower with both a fill pack and a coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riet, Freek; Steenackers, Gunther; Verhaert, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Cooling accounts for a large amount of the global primary energy consumption in buildings and industrial processes. A substantial part of this cooling demand is produced by mechanical cooling towers. Simulations benefit the sizing and integration of cooling towers in overall cooling networks. However, for these simulations fast-to-calculate and easy-to-parametrize models are required. In this paper, a new model is developed for a mechanical draught cooling tower with both a cooling coil and a fill pack. The model needs manufacturers' performance data at only three operational states (at varying air and water flow rates) to be parametrized. The model predicts the cooled, outgoing water temperature. These predictions were compared with experimental data for a wide range of operational states. The model was able to predict the temperature with a maximum absolute error of 0.59°C. The relative error of cooling capacity was mostly between ±5%.

  12. Control Towers in Supply Chain Management - Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzuskawska-Grzesińska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The global economy requires global supply chain management which relies on visibility and responsiveness. Determinants such as: information technology tools, process knowledge, sales and operations planning experiences, etc., enable the formation of theory and practice for the supply chain control tower concept. The goal of the research paper is to identify business examples of different approaches to the supply chain control tower in the past and initiate a discussion on their future. This paper synthesizes past control tower practices and identifies possible future trends. The author performed: literature analysis, three selected companies' case studies and comparative analyses. As the control towers evolve, while supply chains are transforming continuous, update from the market is needed. The research findings showed the selected companies, in the future, perceived control tower's activities as a potential source of revenue not just solely a source of cost and time optimization as well as a source of value added to customer. The researched control towers were built and still they are developed. The business frequently changes and requires control towers to be adjusted, reengineered and adaptive. The researched control towers are needed to keep control over supply chain while it is transforming. There is a differentiation between the supply chain control towers, logistic services control towers and reverse supply chain control towers. An integration mechanism between the control towers would be necessary to assure entire supply chain visibility and orchestration. The research also shows the knowledge gap regarding the control towers in supply chain, specially their possible configurations and future.

  13. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-03-05

    Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated onto TIG-118 cells, previously plated 3 days before at 1.04, 5.21, and 26.1×10 3  cells/cm 2 . Hepatocytes plated onto lower TIG-118 cell densities expanded better during the early culture period. The hepatocytes gathered as colonies and only exhibited small adhesion areas because of the pushing force from proliferating TIG-118 cells. The smaller areas of each hepatocyte result in the development of bile canaliculi. The highest density of TIG-118 cells downregulated albumin synthesis activity of hepatocytes. The hepatocytes may have undergone apoptosis associated with high TGF-β1 concentration and necrosis due to a lack of oxygen. These occurrences were supported by apoptotic chromatin condensation and high expression of both proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b. Three types of engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets comprising different TIG-118 cell densities were harvested after 4 days of hepatocyte culture and showed a complete cell sheet format without any holes. Hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by TIG-118 cell density, which helps to design better engineered hepatocytes for future applications such as in vitro cell-based assays and transplantable hepatocyte tissues. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary Germ Cell Tumors of the Mediastinum: 10 Years of Experience in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Yang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors occur mostly in the gonad. Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare, and most occur in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are often found in the anterior portion of the mediastinum and include teratomas and non-teratomatous tumors. Non-teratomatous tumors include seminomas and malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCTs. MNSGCTs include yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and mixed type germ cell tumors. Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, and seminomas are the most common non-teratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Cases of primary mediastinal MNSGCT reported in the literature are rare. In this report, we review all primary mediastinal germ cell tumors from a 10-year period at the Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung Medical University. A total of 14 cases were reviewed, including 11 patients with mature teratomas, two with yolk sac tumors, and one with seminoma. We discuss the differences in clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis.

  15. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lorenzi Marques

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder are uncommon and usually occur by contiguity with or hematogenic dissemination of other adenocarcinomas such as colorectal, prostate and gynecological tract carcinomas. Mucinous and signet-ring cell histological patterns are even rarer and it is often difficult to morphologically distinguish them from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. CASE REPORT: We present and discuss a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells in a 57-year-old male patient. Other primary sites for the tumor had been excluded and, in the absence of digestive tract tumor and for confirmation that it was a primary bladder tumor, an immunohistochemistry study was performed.

  16. Neuroendocrine Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site: management and outcomes of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, E A; Pavlidis, N

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary (MCCUP) is a rare neuroendocrine tumour with distinct clinical and biological behaviour. We conducted a review of retrospective data extracted from 90 patients focusing on the management and outcome of this disease. We also compared life expectancy of these patients with the outcome of patients with known Merkel primaries and with neuroendocrine cancers of unidentifiable primary. There is a limited body of data for this type of malignancy, however, patients with Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site, seem to have better survival when treated aggressively than patients with cutaneous Merkel tumours of the same stage and equal survival with patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumour of unknown origin. The lack of prospective trials, and the inadequate data, hamper the management of these tumours. Establishment of treatment guidelines is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: clinical and histological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, A; Sassi, S; Fazaa, B; Ben Hassouna, J; Ben Romdhane, K; Kamoun, M R

    2009-02-01

    According to the WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are now well characterized. We report here a case of primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in a 51 year-old man in which the diagnosis was made using both histology and immunopathology. The patient had no remarkable medical history, no history of either acute inflammation or insect bite, and presented with a 5 cm solitary asymptomatic erythematous firm, multinodular and infiltrated plaque on the back for 12 months. Histological examination and immunohistochemical study of a cutaneous biopsy provided a differential diagnosis between B cell lymphoma and lymphocytoma cutis. Full body work up revealed no signs of extracutaneous dissemination. The patient underwent surgical excision of the nodule. Histological examination showed a histological and immunophenotyping profile typical of primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. The lesion was completely excised with clear margins and no recurrence occurred after a 12 month-follow-up period. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are low-grade lymphomas that have an indolent course and a high tendency to recur. They should be differentiated from lymphocytoma cutis and from the other types of cutaneous B cell lymphomas that have a different course and prognosis.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Henry F., E-mail: Hal.Duncan@dental.tcd.ie [Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fleming, Garry J.P. [Material Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cooper, Paul R. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Henry F.; Smith, Anthony J.; Fleming, Garry J.P.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2

  20. Self-renewing Monolayer of Primary Colonic or Rectal Epithelial CellsSummary

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    Yuli Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Three-dimensional organoid culture has fundamentally changed the in vitro study of intestinal biology enabling novel assays; however, its use is limited because of an inaccessible luminal compartment and challenges to data gathering in a three-dimensional hydrogel matrix. Long-lived, self-renewing 2-dimensional (2-D tissue cultured from primary colon cells has not been accomplished. Methods: The surface matrix and chemical factors that sustain 2-D mouse colonic and human rectal epithelial cell monolayers with cell repertoires comparable to that in vivo were identified. Results: The monolayers formed organoids or colonoids when placed in standard Matrigel culture. As with the colonoids, the monolayers exhibited compartmentalization of proliferative and differentiated cells, with proliferative cells located near the peripheral edges of growing monolayers and differentiated cells predominated in the central regions. Screening of 77 dietary compounds and metabolites revealed altered proliferation or differentiation of the murine colonic epithelium. When exposed to a subset of the compound library, murine organoids exhibited similar responses to that of the monolayer but with differences that were likely attributable to the inaccessible organoid lumen. The response of the human primary epithelium to a compound subset was distinct from that of both the murine primary epithelium and human tumor cells. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a self-renewing 2-D murine and human monolayer derived from primary cells can serve as a physiologically relevant assay system for study of stem cell renewal and differentiation and for compound screening. The platform holds transformative potential for personalized and precision medicine and can be applied to emerging areas of disease modeling and microbiome studies. Keywords: Colonic Epithelial Cells, Monolayer, Organoids, Compound Screening

  1. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Satué Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images.

  2. Metastatic Signet-Ring Cell Gastric Carcinoma Masquerading as Breast Primary

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    Dinesh Chandra Doval

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the breast from an extra-mammary primary is a rare phenomenon; metastasis from gastric carcinoma to the breast is extremely so. We report a case who initially presented as mucin-secreting and signet-ring cell tumor of the ovary, and after an interval of 8 months with breast and chest wall metastatic nodules. The covert gastric primary eluded the oncologists at both presentations.

  3. Relationship between Ga-67 uptake and radiotherapeutic response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Kotaro; Takase, Shuko; Ohguchi, Manabu; Seki, Hiroyasu; Okimura, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Toshio; Yamamoto, Itaru; Rikimaru, Shigeho.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between Ga-67 uptake and radiotherapeutic response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), Ga-67 uptake of tumor was estimated on 16 patients with untreated primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma). Ga-67 uptake was then compared with the response to radiation therapy (tumor reduction ratio). There was statistically significant inverse correlation between Ga-67 uptake and response to radiation therapy (r=-0.701, p<0.01). The fewer the Ga-67 accumulation in the tumor, the more effective radiotherapy in reducing tumor size. In conclusion, Ga-67 scintigraphy appears to be able to predict the response of primary lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) to radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Spontaneous regression of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-González, J; González-García, C; Fernández-Guarino, M; Jaén-Olasolo, P

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL LT) accounts for approximately 20% of all primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and tends to present as infiltrated nodules, tumors, and plaques on the legs in the elderly. Unlike other primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas, it has a poor prognosis and tends to require treatment with systemic chemotherapy. We present the case of an 82-year-old patient with a 1-year history of nodules and plaques on her right leg. Biopsy led to a diagnosis of PCLBCL LT and the lesions resolved without treatment within 1 month of the first visit. This is an atypical course of PCLBCL LT and we believe that it is the first such case to be reported in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  6. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Herring, Andy D; Canal, Cláudio W; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-03-01

    The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds. Primary cells strains, derived from testicular tissue, were generated from three animals from each breed. Bovine pestivirus strains used were from BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-2a and 'HoBi'-like virus. Growth was compared by determining virus titers after one passage in primary cells. All tests were run in triplicate. Virus titers were determined by endpoint dilution and RT-qPCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (P˂0.05). Significant differences in virus growth did not correlate with cattle breed. However, significant differences were observed between cells derived from different individuals regardless of breed. Variation in the replication of virus in primary cell strains may reflect a genetic predisposition that favors virus replication.

  7. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  8. Piers cooling towers. From first idess to realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozetto, P.; Tzincoca, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a first part consecrated at the historical aspect of vertical piers cooling towers the second part indicates the experience pulled of the Chooz and Golfech cooling towers conception and realization [fr

  9. Identification of cancer stem-like side population cells in purified primary cultured human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Wu

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like side population (SP cells have been identified in many solid tumors; however, most of these investigations are performed using established cancer cell lines. Cancer cells in tumor tissue containing fibroblasts and many other types of cells are much more complex than any cancer cell line. Although SP cells were identified in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC cell line Hep-2 in our pilot study, it is unknown whether the LSCC tissue contains SP cells. In this study, LSCC cells (LSCCs were primary cultured and purified from a surgically resected LSCC specimen derived from a well-differentiated epiglottic neoplasm of a Chinese male. This was followed by the verification of epithelium-specific characteristics, such as ultrastructure and biomarkers. A distinct SP subpopulation (4.45±1.07% was isolated by Hoechst 33342 efflux analysis from cultured LSCCs by using a flow cytometer. Cancer stem cell (CSC-associated assays, including expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, proliferation, differentiation, spheroid formation, chemotherapy resistance, and tumorigenicity were then conducted between SP and non-SP (NSP LSCCs. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that SP cells manifested preferential expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, higher capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and spheroid formation; enhanced resistance to chemotherapy; and greater xenograft tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice compared with NSP cells. These findings suggest that the primary cultured and purified LSCCs contain cancer stem-like SP cells, which may serve as a valuable model for CSC research in LSCC.

  10. Effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells: toxicity, wound healing, uptake and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettner, Alexa; Tahmaz, Nihat; Dithmer, Michaela; Richert, Elisabeth; Roider, Johann

    2014-10-01

    Anti-VEGF treatment is the therapy of choice in age-related macular degeneration, and is also applied in diabetic macular oedema or retinal vein occlusion. Recently, the fusion protein, aflibercept, has been approved for therapeutic use. In this study, we investigate the effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells. Primary RPE cells were prepared from freshly slaughtered pigs' eyes. The impact of aflibercept on cell viability was investigated with MTT and trypan blue exclusion assay. The influence of aflibercept on wound healing was assessed with a scratch assay. Intracellular uptake of aflibercept was investigated in immunohistochemistry and its influence on phagocytosis with a phagocytosis assay using opsonised latex beads. Aflibercept displays no cytotoxicity on RPE cells but impairs its wound healing ability. It is taken up into RPE cells and can be intracellularly detected for at least 7 days. Intracellular aflibercept impairs the phagocytic capacity of RPE cells. Aflibercept interferes with the physiology of RPE cells, as it is taken up into RPE cells, which is accompanied by a reduction of the phagocytic ability. Additionally, it impairs the wound healing capacity of RPE cells. These effects on the physiology of RPE cells may indicate possible side effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Enhanced transduction and replication of RGD-fiber modified adenovirus in primary T cells.

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    Sadhak Sengupta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR. T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD.A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35-45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD.Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin.

  12. Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsson, Viktor A; Tahirova, Narmin; Tallapragada, Naren; Yao, Xiaosai; Campion, Liam; Angelini, Alessandro; Douce, Thomas B; Huang, Cindy; Bowman, Brittany; Williamson, Christina A; Kwon, Douglas S; Wittrup, K Dane; Love, J Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Cancer is an inflammatory disease of tissue that is largely influenced by the interactions between multiple cell types, secreted factors, and signal transduction pathways. While single-cell sequencing continues to refine our understanding of the clonotypic heterogeneity within tumors, the complex interplay between genetic variations and non-genetic factors ultimately affects therapeutic outcome. Much has been learned through bulk studies of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment, but the secretory behavior of single cells has been largely uncharacterized. Here we directly profiled the secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines from thousands of single colorectal tumor and stromal cells, using an array of subnanoliter wells and a technique called microengraving to characterize both the rates of secretion of several factors at once and the numbers of cells secreting each chemokine. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are highly redundant, pro-angiogenic cytokines that signal via the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, influencing tumor growth and progression. We find that human primary colorectal tumor and stromal cells exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in the combinations and magnitudes of secretions for these chemokines. In cell lines, we observe similar variance: phenotypes observed in bulk can be largely absent among the majority of single cells, and discordances exist between secretory states measured and gene expression for these chemokines among single cells. Together, these measures suggest secretory states among tumor cells are complex and can evolve dynamically. Most importantly, this study reveals new insight into the intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity of human primary tumors.

  13. Automatic detection and quantitative analysis of cells in the mouse primary motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunlong; He, Yong; Wu, Jingpeng; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Anan; Gong, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Neuronal cells play very important role on metabolism regulation and mechanism control, so cell number is a fundamental determinant of brain function. Combined suitable cell-labeling approaches with recently proposed three-dimensional optical imaging techniques, whole mouse brain coronal sections can be acquired with 1-μm voxel resolution. We have developed a completely automatic pipeline to perform cell centroids detection, and provided three-dimensional quantitative information of cells in the primary motor cortex of C57BL/6 mouse. It involves four principal steps: i) preprocessing; ii) image binarization; iii) cell centroids extraction and contour segmentation; iv) laminar density estimation. Investigations on the presented method reveal promising detection accuracy in terms of recall and precision, with average recall rate 92.1% and average precision rate 86.2%. We also analyze laminar density distribution of cells from pial surface to corpus callosum from the output vectorizations of detected cell centroids in mouse primary motor cortex, and find significant cellular density distribution variations in different layers. This automatic cell centroids detection approach will be beneficial for fast cell-counting and accurate density estimation, as time-consuming and error-prone manual identification is avoided.

  14. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  15. Factors associated with a primary surgical approach for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Patel, Krupa; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Morris, Luc T; Ganly, Ian; Roman, Benjamin R; McBride, Sean M; Tabar, Viviane S; Cohen, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Primary surgery is the preferred treatment of T1-T4a sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). Patients with SNSCC in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were analyzed. Factors that contributed to selecting primary surgical treatment were examined. Overall survival (OS) in surgical patients was analyzed. Four-thousand seven hundred and seventy patients with SNSCC were included. In T1-T4a tumors, lymph node metastases, maxillary sinus location, and treatment at high-volume centers were associated with selecting primary surgery. When primary surgery was utilized, tumor factors and positive margin guided worse OS. Adjuvant therapy improved OS in positive margin resection and advanced T stage cases. Tumor and non-tumor factors are associated with selecting surgery for the treatment of SNSCC. When surgery is selected, tumor factors drive OS. Negative margin resection should be the goal of a primary surgical approach. When a positive margin resection ensues, adjuvant therapy may improve OS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma arising from a leiomyoma of the uterine corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianhua; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Qiushi; Zeng, Ying; Luo, Qingya; Xiao, Hualiang

    2016-01-20

    Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the uterus is rare, and primary DLBCL arising from a uterine leiomyoma (collision tumor) has not been reported in the literature. We describe the clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of primary DLBCL arising from a leiomyoma in the uterine corpus. A 73-year-old female patient had a uterine mass for 23 years. An ultrasound scan revealed marked enlargement of the uterus, measuring 18.2 × 13 × 16.3 cm, with a 17.6 × 10.9 × 11.6 cm hypoechoic mass in the uterine corpus. The tumors consisted of medium- to large-sized cells exhibiting a diffuse pattern of growth with a well-circumscribed leiomyoma. The neoplastic cells strongly expressed CD79α, CD20 and PAX5. Molecular analyses indicated clonal B-cell receptor gene rearrangement. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of primary DLBCL arising from a leiomyoma have been reported. It is necessary to differentiate a diagnosis of primary DLBCL arising from a leiomyoma from that of leiomyoma with florid reactive lymphocytic infiltration (lymphoma-like lesion). Careful analysis of clinical, histological, immunophenotypic, and genetic features is required to establish the correct diagnosis.

  17. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  18. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix mimicking acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fusari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix is a very rare neoplasm that usually presents with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis and in particular with a right lower abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging detection of appendiceal adenocarcinoma has an important value because it may result in an appropriate surgical procedure. We report a rare case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the vermiform appendix in an 80-year-old man who was misdiagnosed on computed tomography (CT scan as acute appendicitis.

  19. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  20. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  1. Legionella confirmation in cooling tower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Maha; Shaheed, Raja A.; Al-Ali, Haidar H.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah S.; Al-Hamaqi, Ghadeer M.; Maan, Hawraa S.; Al-Mahfoodh, Zainab A.; Al-Seba, Hussain Z.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires’ disease. Methods: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. In addition, the bacterial community composition was evaluated. Results: All samples were negative by conventional Legionella culture. In contrast, all water samples yielded positive results by real-time PCR (105 to 106 GU/L). The results of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing showed high similarity and reproducibility among the water samples. The majority of sequences were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria, and Legionella was the predominant genus. The hydrogen-oxidizing gram-negative bacterium Hydrogenophaga was present at high abundance, indicating high metabolic activity. Sphingopyxis, which is known for its resistance to antimicrobials and as a pioneer in biofilm formation, was also detected. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that monitoring of Legionella in cooling tower water would be enhanced by use of both conventional culturing and molecular methods. PMID:29436561

  2. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the research focuses on biofouling control in seawater cooling towers by investigating two different approaches. The first strategy addresses the use of alternative oxidants (i.e. ozone micro-bubbles and chlorine dioxide) in treatment of cooling towers. The second strategy investigates removing nutrients in seawater using granular activated carbon filter column and ultrafiltration to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Laboratory bench-scale tests in terms of temperature, cycle of concentration, dosage, etc. indicated that, at lower oxidant dosages (total residual oxidant (TRO) equivalent = 0.1 mg/l Cl2), chlorine dioxide had a better disinfection effect than chlorine and ozone. The performance of oxidizing biocides at pilot scale, operating at assorted conditions, showed that for the disinfectants tested, ozone could remove 95 % bioactivity of total number of bacteria and algae followed by chlorine dioxide at 85%, while conventional chlorine dosing only gave 60% reduction in bioactivities. Test results of GAC bio-filter showed that around 70 % removal of total organic carbon in the seawater feed was achieved and was effective in keeping the microbial growth to a minimum. The measured results from this study enable designers of seawater cooling towers to manage the biofouling problems when such cooling towers are extrapolated to a pilot scale.

  3. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  4. Frost protection for atmospheric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, G.

    1987-01-01

    When the atmospheric temperature is near or lower than zero it is necessary to reduce the air flow entering in a cooling tower. A wire netting mounted on the air inlet is sprinkled with cold water. The level of the ice curtain and consequently the air flow is regulated by aspersion by hot water [fr

  5. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  6. Technical specifications: Tower Shielding Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor II (TSR-II) and an envelope of operation within which there is reasonable assurance that these limits cannot be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  7. Novel primary thymic defect with T lymphocytes expressing gamma delta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Pallesen, G; Platz, P

    1989-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a six year old girl with a primary cellular immune deficiency showed a normal fraction of CD3 positive T cells. Most (70%) of the CD3 positive cells, however, expressed the gamma delta and not the alpha beta T cell receptor....... Immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that most of the gamma delta T cell receptors existed as disulphide-linked heterodimers. Proliferative responses to mitogens were severely reduced, but specific antibody responses after vaccination could be detected...... deficiency associated with a high proportion of T cells expressing the gamma delta T cell receptor has been described in nude mice, and it is suggested that the immune deficiency of this patient may represent a human analogue....

  8. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alişan Yıldıran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a promising curative therapy for many combined primary immunodeficiencies and phagocytic disorders. We retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases of patients diagnosed with primary immunodeficiencies and scheduled for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified 22 patients (median age, 6 months; age range, 1 month to 10 years with various diagnoses who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient diagnoses included severe combined immunodeficiency (n=11, Chediak-Higashi syndrome (n=2, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (n=2, MHC class 2 deficiency (n=2, chronic granulomatous syndrome (n=2, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (n=1, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (n=1, and Omenn syndrome (n=1. Of the 22 patients, 7 received human leukocyte antigen-matched related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 12 received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 2 received matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The results showed that 5 patients had graft failure. Fourteen patients survived, yielding an overall survival rate of 67%. Screening newborn infants for primary immunodeficiency diseases may result in timely administration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldıran, Alişan; Çeliksoy, Mehmet Halil; Borte, Stephan; Güner, Şükrü Nail; Elli, Murat; Fışgın, Tunç; Özyürek, Emel; Sancak, Recep; Oğur, Gönül

    2017-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a promising curative therapy for many combined primary immunodeficiencies and phagocytic disorders. We retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases of patients diagnosed with primary immunodeficiencies and scheduled for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified 22 patients (median age, 6 months; age range, 1 month to 10 years) with various diagnoses who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient diagnoses included severe combined immunodeficiency (n=11), Chediak-Higashi syndrome (n=2), leukocyte adhesion deficiency (n=2), MHC class 2 deficiency (n=2), chronic granulomatous syndrome (n=2), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (n=1), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (n=1), and Omenn syndrome (n=1). Of the 22 patients, 7 received human leukocyte antigen-matched related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 12 received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 2 received matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The results showed that 5 patients had graft failure. Fourteen patients survived, yielding an overall survival rate of 67%. Screening newborn infants for primary immunodeficiency diseases may result in timely administration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  10. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  11. Structure of natural draft cooling towers, 1. Study on cooling tower shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, H; Sakamoto, Y; Tsurusaki, M; Koshizawa, K; Chiba, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Recently in Japan, demands for cooling tower systems have been increasing remarkably with the construction of large power plants and the legislation of environmental regulations. In view of the severe natural conditions in Japan such as strong wind and seismic loadings, etc., the establishment of the optimum design and construction method is essential for the building of safe and economical towers. In order to establish a comprehensive plan of a power plant cooling system of the appropriate structural type, the authors have made researches and experiments on design conditions, static and dynamic analyses, and comparative studies of various structural types such as reinforced concrete thin-shell structures, steel framed structures and composite shell segment structures, based on the investigation results of towers in Europe and America. These results are presented in three reports, the 1st of which concerns cooling tower shells as are herein described.

  12. Improved Activation toward Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells by Antigen-Specific Targeting Autologous Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schlimper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells showed promise in a number of trials; the activation of CIK cells from cancer patients towards their autologous cancer cells still needs to be improved. Here, we generated CIK cells ex vivo from blood lymphocytes of colorectal cancer patients and engineered those cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR with an antibody-defined specificity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. CIK cells thereby gained a new specificity as defined by the CAR and showed increase in activation towards CEA+ colon carcinoma cells, but less in presence of CEA− cells, indicated by increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Redirected CIK activation was superior by CAR-mediated CD28-CD3ζ than CD3ζ signaling only. CAR-engineered CIK cells from colon carcinoma patients showed improved activation against their autologous, primary carcinoma cells from biopsies resulting in more efficient tumour cell lysis. We assume that adoptive therapy with CAR-modified CIK cells shows improved selectivity in targeting autologous tumour lesions.

  13. Automated Expansion of Primary Human T Cells in Scalable and Cell-Friendly Hydrogel Microtubes for Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haishuang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Ou; Rauch, Jack; Harm, Braden; Viljoen, Hendrik J; Zhang, Chi; Van Wyk, Erika; Zhang, Chi; Lei, Yuguo

    2018-05-11

    Adoptive immunotherapy is a highly effective strategy for treating many human cancers, such as melanoma, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia. Here, a novel cell culture technology is reported for expanding primary human T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. T cells are suspended and cultured in microscale alginate hydrogel tubes (AlgTubes) that are suspended in the cell culture medium in a culture vessel. The hydrogel tubes protect cells from hydrodynamic stresses and confine the cell mass less than 400 µm (in radial diameter) to ensure efficient mass transport, creating a cell-friendly microenvironment for growing T cells. This system is simple, scalable, highly efficient, defined, cost-effective, and compatible with current good manufacturing practices. Under optimized culture conditions, the AlgTubes enable culturing T cells with high cell viability, low DNA damage, high growth rate (≈320-fold expansion over 14 days), high purity (≈98% CD3+), and high yield (≈3.2 × 10 8 cells mL -1 hydrogel). All offer considerable advantages compared to current T cell culturing approaches. This new culture technology can significantly reduce the culture volume, time, and cost, while increasing the production. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optimization of steel monopod offshore-towers under probabilistic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, economical design implementation of a circular steel monopod-offshore-tower, which is subjected to the extreme wave loading, is presented. The mass of the tower is considered as the objective function. The thickness and radius of the cross-section of the tower are adopted as design

  15. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process contact cooling towers... Process contact cooling towers provisions. (a) The owner or operator of each new affected source that... end finisher process that utilizes a process contact cooling tower shall comply with paragraph (c) of...

  16. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields in antenna towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of workers to radiofrequency fields was assessed in two medium-sized antenna towers. Towers had transmitting antennas from different networks, e.g. mobile phone networks, radio and digital TV sub-stations and amateur radio. The levels of radiofrequency fields were measured close to the ladders of the towers. All measured values were below ICNIRP occupational reference levels. (authors)

  17. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Report of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S; Hassan, Mohammad J; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year's duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  19. Primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified with an indolent clinical course: a distinct peripheral T-cell lymphoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, A J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTL), unspecified, are rare lymphomas, with a poor prognosis. They grow and disseminate rapidly, leading to widespread disease. We report a case of PTL, unspecified occurring on the nose. Despite its aggressive histology, this tumour behaved indolently. It is remarkably similar, clinically and histologically, to four recently described cases that occurred on the ear.

  20. Generation of iPSC lines from primary human chorionic villi cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lichtner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary human chorionic villi (CV cells were used to generate the iPSC line by retroviral transduction of the four Yamanaka-factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptomes of the CV-derived iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell lines—H1 and H9 have a Pearson correlation of 0.929 and 0.943 respectively.

  1. Methods Development for the Isolation and Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    a cell population particularly suitable for low serum propagation, provided that appropriate growth factors are available. A low serum medium...of MGK. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cornea, chemical warfare agent, corneal endothelial cell, endothelium, growth , isolation, mouse, rabbit, porcine, in...with corneal SM exposure.2 A primary requirement in achieving this goal is to develop methods that enable the isolation of a pure CEC population and

  2. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Hamid Nasrollahi; Majdaddin Rajaei; Maral Mokhtari; Seyed Hasan Hamedi; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei; Niloofar Ahmadloo

    2017-01-01

    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymp...

  3. Adenoviral Gene Delivery to Primary Human Cutaneous Cells and Burn Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Tobias; von Peter, Sebastian; Dubin, Grzegorz; Mittler, Dominik; Jacobsen, Frank; Lehnhardt, Markus; Eriksson, Elof; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The adenoviral transfer of therapeutic genes into epidermal and dermal cells is an interesting approach to treat skin diseases and to promote wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo transfection efficacy in skin and burn wounds after adenoviral gene delivery. Primary keratinocytes (HKC), fibroblasts (HFB), and HaCaT cells were transfected using different concentrations of an adenoviral construct (eGFP). Transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was determine...

  4. An optimized protocol for isolating primary epithelial cell chromatin for ChIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Browne

    Full Text Available A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1 Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature for no longer than 5 min. (2 Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3 The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4 Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green. This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types.

  5. BAFF promotes regulatory T-cell apoptosis and blocks cytokine production by activating B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Mintao [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Peng [Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Hong [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yongzhen [The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Zheng; Su, Tingting [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-05-10

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology. A number of questions regarding its etiology are unclear. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and, for unknown reasons, their relative number is reduced in PBC patients. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation and its concentration is increased in peripheral blood of PBC patients. It has been reported that activated B cells inhibit Treg cell proliferation and there are no BAFF receptors on Tregs. Therefore, we speculated that excessive BAFF may result in Treg reduction via B cells. To prove our hypothesis, we isolated Tregs and B cells from PBC and healthy donors. BAFF and IgM concentrations were then analyzed by ELISA and CD40, CD80, CD86, IL-10, and TGF-β expression in B cells and Tregs were measured by flow cytometry. BAFF up-regulated CD40, CD80, CD86, and IgM expression in B cells. However, BAFF had no direct effect on Treg cell apoptosis and cytokine secretion. Nonetheless, we observed that BAFF-activated B cells could induce Treg cell apoptosis and reduce IL-10 and TGF-β expression. We also showed that BAFF-activated CD4+ T cells had no effect on Treg apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, can inhibit BAFF-induced Treg cell apoptosis. In conclusion, BAFF promotes Treg cell apoptosis and inhibits cytokine production by activating B cells in PBC patients. The results of this study suggest that inhibition of BAFF activation is a strategy for PBC treatment.

  6. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  7. Chemosensitivity testing of primary human renal cell carcinoma by a tetrazolium based microculture assay (MTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickisch, G; Fajta, S; Keilhauer, G; Schlick, E; Tschada, R; Alken, P

    1990-01-01

    MTT staining procedures have been used in chemosensitivity testing of established cell lines of human and other sources as well as of human leukaemias, but only limited information on its application in primary solid human tumors is presently available. We have evaluated MTT staining in primary human Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCCs), studied various factors interfering with the optimal use, and finally applied it in subsequent chemosensitivity testing. The method depends on the conversion of a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (MTT) to a purple colored formazan precipitate, a reaction effected by enzymes active only in living cells. Single cell suspensions of RCCs were obtained either by enzymatic dispersion or by mechanical dissagregation, filtered through gauze, and purified by Ficoll density centrifugation. Tests were carried out in 96-well microculture plates. 10(4) viable tumor cells per well at 4 h incubation time with 20 micrograms MTT/100 microliters total medium volume yielded best results. Formazan crystals were dissolved with DMSO, and the plates were immediately measured on a microculture plate reader at 540 nm. Under these criteria, linearity of the system could be demonstrated. For chemosensitivity testing, cells were continuously exposed to a number of drugs prior to the MTT staining procedure. Reproducibility of results was assessed and confirmed by culturing RCCs in flasks additionally, resubmitting them after 1, 2, and 4 weeks to the MTT assay. We conclude that the semiautomated MTT assay offers a valid, rapid, reliable and simple method to determine the degree of chemoresistance in primary human RCCs.

  8. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Ko, E-mail: miyoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  9. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li 2 CO 3 were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  10. Rat primary embryo fibroblast cells suppress transformation by the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in somatic hybrid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaka, M; Takami, Y; Inoue, H; Hakura, A

    1991-01-01

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) transform established lines of rat cells but not rat cells in primary culture irrespective of the expression of the two genes. The reason for this difference between the susceptibilities of cell lines and primary cells was examined by using hybrid cells obtained by somatic cell fusion of rat cell lines transformed by the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-16 and freshly isolated rat embryo fibroblast cells. In these hybrid cells, transformed ph...

  11. Early events associated with infection of Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Halder

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV is closely associated with the development of a vast number of human cancers. To develop a system for monitoring early cellular and viral events associated with EBV infection a self-recombining BAC containing 172-kb of the Epstein Barr virus genome BAC-EBV designated as MD1 BAC (Chen et al., 2005, J.Virology was used to introduce an expression cassette of green fluorescent protein (GFP by homologous recombination, and the resultant BAC clone, BAC-GFP-EBV was transfected into the HEK 293T epithelial cell line. The resulting recombinant GFP EBV was induced to produce progeny virus by chemical inducer from the stable HEK 293T BAC GFP EBV cell line and the virus was used to immortalize human primary B-cell as monitored by green fluorescence and outgrowth of the primary B cells. The infection, B-cell activation and cell proliferation due to GFP EBV was monitored by the expression of the B-cell surface antigens CD5, CD10, CD19, CD23, CD39, CD40 , CD44 and the intercellular proliferation marker Ki-67 using Flow cytometry. The results show a dramatic increase in Ki-67 which continues to increase by 6-7 days post-infection. Likewise, CD40 signals showed a gradual increase, whereas CD23 signals were increased by 6-12 hours, maximally by 3 days and then decreased. Monitoring the viral gene expression pattern showed an early burst of lytic gene expression. This up-regulation of lytic gene expression prior to latent genes during early infection strongly suggests that EBV infects primary B-cell with an initial burst of lytic gene expression and the resulting progeny virus is competent for infecting new primary B-cells. This process may be critical for establishment of latency prior to cellular transformation. The newly infected primary B-cells can be further analyzed for investigating B cell activation due to EBV infection.

  12. Primary Lung Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Cavitary Pancoast Tumor in a 32-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvini, Michael; Koorji, Alysha; Sgroe, Erica; Nguyen, Uyen

    2018-06-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma, a subtype of adenocarcinoma, is a rare cause of primary lung cancer. The authors report a case of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma presenting as a cavitary Pancoast tumor in a 32-year-old male smoker. Beyond the rarity of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma itself, the youth of the patient, his smoking status, the presence of cavitation, and the location of the tumor in the superior sulcus make it especially atypical.

  13. Injectable scaffold materials differ in their cell instructive effects on primary human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nair, Prabha Damodaran

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds are materials used for delivery of cells for regeneration of tissues. They support three-dimensional organization and improve cell survival. For the repair of small skeletal muscles, injections of small volumes of cells are attractive, and injectable scaffolds for delivery of cells offer...... a minimally invasive technique. In this study, we examined in vitro the cell instructive effects of three types of injectable scaffolds, fibrin, alginate, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles on primary human myoblasts. The myoblast morphology and progression in the myogenic program differed......, depending on the type of scaffold material. In alginate gel, the cells obtained a round morphology, they ceased to proliferate, and entered quiescence. In the fibrin gels, differentiation was promoted, and myotubes were observed within a few days in culture, while poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid...

  14. Edge Detection Based On the Characteristic of Primary Visual Cortex Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M. M.; Xu, Y. L.; Ma, H. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the problem that it is difficult to balance the accuracy of edge detection and anti-noise performance, and referring to the dynamic and static perceptions of the primary visual cortex (V1) cells, a V1 cell model is established to perform edge detection. A spatiotemporal filter is adopted to simulate the receptive field of V1 simple cells, the model V1 cell is obtained after integrating the responses of simple cells by half-wave rectification and normalization, Then the natural image edge is detected by using static perception of V1 cells. The simulation results show that, the V1 model can basically fit the biological data and has the universality of biology. What’s more, compared with other edge detection operators, the proposed model is more effective and has better robustness

  15. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  16. Bufalin Inhibits the Differentiation and Proliferation of Cancer Stem Cells Derived from Primary Osteosarcoma Cells through Mir-148a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuewen; Zhao, Yongfang; Gu, Wei; Cao, Yuelong; Wang, Shuqiang; Pang, Jian; Shi, Yinyu

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. Chemoresistance is the most important cause of treatment failure in OS, largely resulting from presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, CSCs isolated from cancer cell lines do not necessarily represent those from primary human tumors due to accumulation of genetic aberrations that increase with passage number. Therefore, studies on CSCs from primary OS may be more important for understanding the mechanisms driving the chemoresistance of CSCs in OS. We established a primary culture of OS cells, known as C1OS, from freshly resected tumor tissue. We further isolated CSCs from C1OS cells (C1OS-CSCs). We analyzed the effects of bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, on the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. We also analyzed the microRNA (miR) targets of bufalin on the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. Moreover, we examined these findings in the OS specimen. Bufalin inhibited the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. Moreover, we found that miR-148a appeared to be a target of bufalin, and miR-148a further regulated DNMT1 and p27 to control the stemness of OS cells. This mechanism was further confirmed in OS specimen. Our data suggest that bufalin may be a promising treatment for OS, and its function may be conducted through regulation of miR-148a. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  18. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei; Ren, Lijiao; Pu, Yuepu; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5

  19. Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as an incidental finding in a Caucasian woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Petersen, Jeanette; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe

    2015-01-01

    Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (TML) is an extremely rare lymphoma strongly associated with autoimmune disease. We report an exceedingly rare case of TML found in a non-Asian population. TML was found incidentally in a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with a short history...

  20. Primary temporal region squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by a superficial temporal artery biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S A W; Kiss, K

    2015-01-01

    artery biopsy was performed. The histopathology revealed perineural invasion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A thorough investigation revealed no other primary site for the SCC and the patient was treated with surgical excision. CONCLUSION: Malignancy is rarely found in superficial temporal artery...

  1. Human embryonic stem cells in culture possess primary cilia with hedgehog signaling machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiprilov, Enko N; Awan, Aashir; Desprat, Romain

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potential therapeutic tools and models of human development. With a growing interest in primary cilia in signal transduction pathways that are crucial for embryological development and tissue differentiation and interest in mechanisms regulating human hESC d...

  2. Primary cultures of glomerular parietal epithelial cells or podocytes with proven origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabgani, N.; Grigoleit, T.; Schulte, K.; Sechi, A.; Sauer-Lehnen, S.; Tag, C.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Warsow, G.; Schordan, S.; Mostertz, J.; Chilukoti, R.K.; Homuth, G.; Endlich, N.; Tacke, F.; Weiskirchen, R.; Fuellen, G.; Endlich, K.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or

  3. Interfacing polymeric scaffolds with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to develop 3D cancer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, C.; Mota, C.M.; Moscato, S.; D' Alessandro, D.; Ugel, S.; Sartoris, S.; Bronte, V.; Boggi, U.; Campani, D.; Funel, N.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Danti, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the interactions between human primary cells from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and polymeric scaffolds to develop 3D cancer models useful for mimicking the biology of this tumor. Three scaffold types based on two biocompatible polymeric formulations, such as poly(vinyl

  4. Infratemporal fossa extension of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: a rare entity with diagnosis dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaf, J.H.; Gendeh, B.S.; Yunus, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland is rare but it is an aggressive neoplasm that can have extension into the infratemporal fossa. We report a 60-year-old female presenting with toothache over left lower molar causing a diagnostic dilemma. (author)

  5. Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma of scalp: Case report of a rare variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Khatib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma (Bcl is defined as a lymphoma composed of large cells constituting more than 80% of the infiltrate and absence of extracutaneous involvement after staging investigations. In the new World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification, cutaneous Bcls with large cells are of three types - primary cutaneous large Bcl leg type (PCLBCLLT, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma diffuse type (PCFCLDT, and primary cutaneous large Bcls other (PCLBCLO. These three different types are distinct in terms of their clinicopathological features and survival. The PCLBCLO has intermediate features between those of PCLBCLLT and PCFCLDT. We present a case of PCLBCLO in a 57-year-old male who presented with a scalp swelling. Ultrasonography examination was suggestive of a sebaceous cyst. Computed tomography scan revealed the presence of an ill-defined hyperdense region in the soft tissue of the scalp region extending into the deeper layers of the scalp. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC revealed the presence of atypical lymphoid cells. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Patient received rituximab combined with doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone regimen with complete resolution of the lesion. We present this case for its rarity, the utility of FNAC in early diagnosis, and to discuss the differential diagnosis.

  6. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  7. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  8. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung; Lee, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients

  9. Chemo-radioresistance of small cell lung cancer cell lines derived from untreated primary tumors obtained by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tamotsu

    1990-01-01

    New cell lines of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were established from specimens of untreated primary tumors biopsied by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy. The advantage of this method was ease of obtaining specimens from lung tumors. Establishment of cell lines was successful with 4 of 13 specimens (30%). Clinical responses of the tumors showed considerable variation, but were well correlated with the in vitro sensitivity of the respective cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs and irradiation. One of the cell lines was resistant to all drugs tested and irradiation, while another was sensitive to all of them. Although the acquired resistance of SCLC is the biggest problem in treatment, the natural resistance to therapy is another significant problem. Either acquired or natural, resistance mechanisms of SCLC may be elucidated by the use of such cell lines derived from untreated tumors. This method and these SCLC cell lines are expected to be useful for the serial study of biologic and genetic changes of untreated and pre-treated tumors, or primary and secondary tumors. (author)

  10. Sangivamycin induces apoptosis by suppressing Erk signaling in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakao, Kazufumi [Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu-shi 400-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Takadama, Tadatoshi; Ui, Sadaharu [Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu-shi 400-8511 (Japan); Shigemi, Zenpei; Kagawa, Hiroki [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Ohga, Rie; Taira, Takahiro [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of B cell lymphoma PEL cells. • Sangivamycin suppresses Erk signaling by inhibiting Erk phosphorylation in PEL cells. • The activation of Erk signaling is essential for PEL cell survival. • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of PEL cells without production of progeny virus. • Sangivamycin may serve as a novel drug for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Sangivamycin, a structural analog of adenosine and antibiotic exhibiting antitumor and antivirus activities, inhibits protein kinase C and the synthesis of both DNA and RNA. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients and HIV-infected homosexual males. PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B cells, and are infected with KSHV. Herein, we asked if sangivamycin might be useful to treat PEL. We found that sangivamycin killed PEL cells, and we explored the underlying mechanism. Sangivamycin treatment drastically decreased the viability of PEL cell lines compared to KSHV-uninfected B lymphoma cell lines. Sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-7 and -9. Further, sangivamycin suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins. Inhibitors of Akt and MEK suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared to KSHV-uninfected cells. It is known that activation of Erk and Akt signaling inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in PEL cells. Our data therefore suggest that sangivamycin induces apoptosis by inhibiting Erk and Akt signaling in such cells. We next investigated whether sangivamycin, in combination with an HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) or valproate (valproic acid), potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the latter drugs on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with GA or valproate alone, the addition of sangivamycin enhanced cytotoxic activity. Our data thus indicate that

  11. Sangivamycin induces apoptosis by suppressing Erk signaling in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakao, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Tadashi; Takadama, Tadatoshi; Ui, Sadaharu; Shigemi, Zenpei; Kagawa, Hiroki; Higashi, Chizuka; Ohga, Rie; Taira, Takahiro; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of B cell lymphoma PEL cells. • Sangivamycin suppresses Erk signaling by inhibiting Erk phosphorylation in PEL cells. • The activation of Erk signaling is essential for PEL cell survival. • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of PEL cells without production of progeny virus. • Sangivamycin may serve as a novel drug for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Sangivamycin, a structural analog of adenosine and antibiotic exhibiting antitumor and antivirus activities, inhibits protein kinase C and the synthesis of both DNA and RNA. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients and HIV-infected homosexual males. PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B cells, and are infected with KSHV. Herein, we asked if sangivamycin might be useful to treat PEL. We found that sangivamycin killed PEL cells, and we explored the underlying mechanism. Sangivamycin treatment drastically decreased the viability of PEL cell lines compared to KSHV-uninfected B lymphoma cell lines. Sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-7 and -9. Further, sangivamycin suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins. Inhibitors of Akt and MEK suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared to KSHV-uninfected cells. It is known that activation of Erk and Akt signaling inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in PEL cells. Our data therefore suggest that sangivamycin induces apoptosis by inhibiting Erk and Akt signaling in such cells. We next investigated whether sangivamycin, in combination with an HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) or valproate (valproic acid), potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the latter drugs on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with GA or valproate alone, the addition of sangivamycin enhanced cytotoxic activity. Our data thus indicate that

  12. Inefficiency in macromolecular transport of SCS-based microcapsules affects viability of primary human mesenchymal stem cells but not of immortalized cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Horan, Jason; Thompson, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Human MSCs are of interest in regenerative medicine applications due to pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which result from paracrine effects of this cell type. In the present work we have encapsulated primary hMSCs and hMSC-TERT immortalized...... nutrients and had a more detrimental effect on the viability of primary cell cultures compared to cell lines and immortalized cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of breast in a young female - a rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Raje

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of breast is a rare disease. Incidence for primary SCC breast is 0.04-0.1 % of all malignancies of breast. A pure form of primary SCC breast is also described and its incidence is still less. Biologically it behaves differently and usually doesn’t metastasize to lymph nodes, though distant metastasis is more common. They occur usually in elderly women. Mean age of presentation is 54 years. We report the youngest patient so far - a 27 years old woman diagnosed initially as having fibrocystic disease and later as primary pure SCC breast. She did not have any other focus of malignancy in the body and is doing well 3-1/2 years post surgery and radiotherapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10322 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 600-602

  14. Multiple modes of action potential initiation and propagation in mitral cell primary dendrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wei R; Shen, Gongyu Y; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2002-01-01

    recordings with computational modeling to analyze action-potential initiation and propagation in the primary dendrite. In response to depolarizing current injection or distal olfactory nerve input, fast Na(+) action potentials were recorded along the entire length of the primary dendritic trunk. With weak......-to-moderate olfactory nerve input, an action potential was initiated near the soma and then back-propagated into the primary dendrite. As olfactory nerve input increased, the initiation site suddenly shifted to the distal primary dendrite. Multi-compartmental modeling indicated that this abrupt shift of the spike......-initiation site reflected an independent thresholding mechanism in the distal dendrite. When strong olfactory nerve excitation was paired with strong inhibition to the mitral cell basal secondary dendrites, a small fast prepotential was recorded at the soma, which indicated that an action potential was initiated...

  15. Cellular Phone Towers, Tower locations and attributes generated from FCC anntenna registration database. Tower data was cross referenced with county zoning special use permits., Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Waupaca County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2008. Tower locations and attributes generated from FCC anntenna registration database. Tower data was cross referenced...

  16. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset current as of 2008. Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers..

  17. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The effects of low level electro-magnetic fields on cancer development are controversial. There have been few epidemiological studies on the effects of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) and differing conclusions on possible detrimental health effects in humans (Goldsmith, Int. J Occ. and Env. Hlth, 1:47-57, 1995) (WHO, Env. Health Criteria 137). An unusual opportunity to assess possible risks further arose as cancer data (1972-1990) became available covering an area of North Sydney where three TV towers are located in a populated locality. An analysis of data was undertaken comparing cancer incidence and mortality in the three municipalities which immediately surround the TV towers compared to the adjacent three surrounding municipalities. Methods Data for the RFR sources on the towers was obtained (Dept. of Communications, Radio and TV Stations, 1994). The combined field strengths of the video and audio from the three towers and four channels at increasing distances were calculated (NCRP Report 119). Data from the NSW Cancer Registry on incidence, mortality and residence for 1972-1990 available via Healthwiz were extracted by municipality and for sex and age bands 0-14, 15-69 and 70+. Privacy reasons limit the availability of more refined data. The data were examined using a Poisson regression model (Frome EL, Biometrics, 39:665-74, 1983) with the numbers of cases or deaths regarded as Poisson random variables, whose mean is a product of the person years for the observation, and functions of the variables. The variables used were age categories, sex, calendar period (1972-78, 1979-84 and 1985-90), and area (inner 0-4 km and outer 4-12 km). To compare with the whole of NSW standardised incidence ratios and standardised mortality ratios were calculated. Confidence intervals were calculated using the 'exact' method (Liddell FDK, J. Epid. and Comm. Health, 38:85-88, 1984). Calculated field strengths are well below the limits prescribed in the Australian

  18. Glucocorticoids promote a glioma stem cell-like phenotype and resistance to chemotherapy in human glioblastoma primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Bartek, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are resistant to therapy and can give rise to recurrent tumors. The identification of patient-related factors that support GSCs is thus necessary to design effective therapies for GBM patients. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat GBM......-associated edema. However, glucocorticoids participate in the physiological response to psychosocial stress, which has been linked to poor cancer prognosis. This raises concern that glucocorticoids affect the tumor and GSCs. Here, we treated primary human GBM cells with dexamethasone and evaluated GC......-driven changes in cell morphology, proliferation, migration, gene expression, secretory activity and growth as neurospheres. Dexamethasone treatment of GBM cells appeared to promote the development of a GSC-like phenotype and conferred resistance to physiological stress and chemotherapy. We also analyzed...

  19. Primary Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem Boukettaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. In general, this tumor occurs in the middle age, and clinical presentation does not differ from transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is often poor, given the advanced stage at diagnosis. To our knowledge, <100 cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder have been reported. We report 2 cases with bladder linitis plastica primitive, and we draw attention to its pathologic, anatomoclinical, and evolution specificity to optimize its therapeutic management.

  20. Primary B cell lymphoma of the tongue base: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, Achour; Asma, Achour; Haifa, Regaieg; Nesrine, Abdessayed; Yosra, Ben Youssef; Badreddine, Sriha; Abderrahim, Khelif

    2016-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma’s of the tongue is very rare and accounts for 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Clinical features are non-specific ulcerative lesions that do not heal. In the literature, the majority of cases are diffuse large B cell type however, T cell phenotype also may occur. We describe a 77 years old man, who presented with an ulcerative mass in the left margin of the tongue the diagnosis diffuse large B cell lymphoma was confirmed. The patient is actually on treatment R-mini CEOP and has favorable evolution. PMID:28292136

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  2. Dengue virus activates polyreactive, natural IgG B cells after primary and secondary infection.

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    Thavamalar Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and has four serotypes. Cross-protection to other serotypes lasting for a few months is observed following infection with one serotype. There is evidence that low-affinity T and/or B cells from primary infections contribute to the severe syndromes often associated with secondary dengue infections. such pronounced immune-mediated enhancement suggests a dengue-specific pattern of immune cell activation. This study investigates the acute and early convalescent B cell response leading to the generation of cross-reactive and neutralizing antibodies following dengue infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assayed blood samples taken from dengue patients with primary or secondary infection during acute disease and convalescence and compared them to samples from patients presenting with non-dengue related fever. Dengue induced massive early plasmablast formation, which correlated with the appearance of polyclonal, cross-reactive IgG for both primary and secondary infection. Surprisingly, the contribution of IgG to the neutralizing titer 4-7 days after fever onset was more than 50% even after primary infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Poly-reactive and virus serotype cross-reactive IgG are an important component of the innate response in humans during both primary and secondary dengue infection, and "innate specificities" seem to constitute part of the adaptive response in dengue. While of potential importance for protection during secondary infection, cross-reactive B cells will also compete with highly neutralizing B cells and possibly interfere with their development.

  3. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

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    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  4. Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma – a Case Report

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    Milovanović Milena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the World Health Organization - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHOEORTC classified cutaneous B-cell lymphomas into 4 categories: primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT, and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, other (PCDLBCL-O. The absence of evident extra-cutaneous disease is a necessary condition for the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, because they have a completely different clinical behavior and prognosis from their nodal counterparts. PCDLBCL-O basically represents a morphological variation, lacking the typical features of PCDLBCLLT, neither confirming the definition of PCFCCL, but on the clinical ground, its behavior seems at least to partially overlap the indolent course of PCFCCL. In fact, the present WHO lymphoma classification from 2008 overcame the previous WHO-EORTC classification, including at least a part of PCDLBCL-O within the spectrum of PCFCCL. However, owing to the rarity and heterogeneity of the PCDLBCL-O, the precise clinicopathological characteristics have not been well characterized and the optimal treatment for this group of lymphomas is yet to be defined. Nevertheless, dermatologists and pathologists should be aware of this entity in order to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. We present a case of a 46-year-old Caucasian male with one large round-shaped tumor and a few scattered nodules localized on the back. The histopathological features of the lesion corresponded to PCDLBCL-O. The patient follow-up showed that he was disease-free three months after surgical excision of the lesions and adjuvant local radiotherapy. No additional therapy was introduced, including chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, oncovin, prednisolone (R-CHOP.

  5. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

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    Brian Shuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P=0.1. MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R=0.5 and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P=0.39. Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents.

  6. Study on Tower Models for EHV Transmission Line

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    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning outage accident is one of the main factors that threat seriously the safe and reliable operation of power system. So it is very important to establish reasonable transmission tower model and evaluate the impulse response characteristic of lightning wave traveling on the transmission tower properly for determining reliable lightning protection performance. With the help of Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP, six 500kV tower models are built. Aiming at one line to one transformer operating mode of 500kV substation, the intruding wave overvoltage under different tower models is calculated. The effect of tower model on intruding overvoltage has been studied. The results show that different tower models can result in great differences to the calculation results. Hence, reasonable selection of the tower model in the calculation of back- strike intruding wave is very important.

  7. Modality analysis of anchored ion exchange tower using Ansys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Lei Zeyong

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange towers are exposed to serious damage in the event of earthquakes. It is very necessary to study the seismic resistance of ion exchange tower. A finite element model of anchored ion exchange tower was made by Ansys. The first 10 ranks of inherent frequencies were made out, and three-dimensional main vibratory model figures were drawn out. The maximal stress along x-axis and y-axis and the main displacement were found at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. It is concluded that the breakage of tower wall easily occurs at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. Therefore, it is very important to reinforce the junction of the tower body, and the strengthening plate should lie near the bottom of wall. (authors)

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Correction of the FANCD1 Gene in Primary Patient Cells

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    Karolina Skvarova Kramarzova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is an inherited condition characterized by impaired DNA repair, physical anomalies, bone marrow failure, and increased incidence of malignancy. Gene editing holds great potential to precisely correct the underlying genetic cause such that gene expression remains under the endogenous control mechanisms. This has been accomplished to date only in transformed cells or their reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cell counterparts; however, it has not yet been reported in primary patient cells. Here we show the ability to correct a mutation in Fanconi anemia D1 (FANCD1 primary patient fibroblasts. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to target and correct a FANCD1 gene deletion. Homologous recombination using an oligonucleotide donor was achieved and a pure population of modified cells was obtained by using inhibitors of poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (poly ADP-ribose polymerase. FANCD1 function was restored and we did not observe any promiscuous cutting of the CRISPR/Cas9 at off target sites. This consideration is crucial in the context of the pre-malignant FA phenotype. Altogether we show the ability to correct a patient mutation in primary FANCD1 cells in a precise manner. These proof of principle studies support expanded application of gene editing for FA.

  9. Homozygous deletion and expression of PTEN and DMBT1 in human primary neuroblastoma and cell lines.

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    Muñoz, Jorge; Lázcoz, Paula; Inda, María Mar; Nistal, Manuel; Pestaña, Angel; Encío, Ignacio J; Castresana, Javier S

    2004-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor. Although many allelic imbalances have been described, a bona fide tumor suppressor gene for this disease has not been found yet. In our study, we analyzed 2 genes, PTEN and DMBT1, mapping 10q23.31 and 10q25.3-26.1, respectively, which have been found frequently altered in other kinds of neoplasms. We screened both genes for homozygous deletions in 45 primary neuroblastic tumors and 12 neuroblastoma cell lines. Expression of these genes in cell lines was assessed by RT-PCR analysis. We could detect 2 of 41 (5%) primary tumors harboring PTEN homozygous deletions. Three of 41 (7%) primary tumors and 2 of 12 cell lines presented homozygous losses at the g14 STS on the DMBT1 locus. All cell lines analyzed expressed PTEN, but lack of DMBT1 mRNA expression was detected in 2 of them. We tried to see whether epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant promoter hypermethylation, had any role in DMBT1 silencing. The 2 cell lines lacking DMBT1 expression were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine; DMBT1 expression was restored in only one of them (MC-IXC). From our work, we can conclude that PTEN and DMBT1 seem to contribute to the development of a small fraction of neuroblastomas, and that promoter hypermethylation might have a role in DMBT1 gene silencing. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A Case of Primary Gastric Small-Cell Carcinoma in an Elderly Patient

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    Fa-Chang Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary small-cell carcinoma of the stomach in a 75-year-old man. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a 1-week history of intermittent tarry stool. An upper gastrointestinal examination revealed a large stage A2 ulcer in the greater curvature of the body of the stomach, and pathological findings from biopsy specimens revealed small-cell carcinoma. The tumor cells were small-sized, composed of hyperchromatic nuclei with scant cytoplasm, and stained positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. The patient was diagnosed with primary small-cell carcinoma of the stomach. He declined further evaluation and received palliative management. This is a rare carcinoma of the stomach, with aggressive manifestations and a poor prognosis. The mean survival of patients with primary gastric small-cell carcinoma is reported to be 7 months. The choice of treatment for this disease is still controversial. This rare gastric tumor should be listed in the differential diagnosis of gastric carcinoma in the elderly.

  11. Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles

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    Sophya Konstantinovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.

  12. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types.

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    Ellen Van Damme

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs. This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby

  13. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

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    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle. PMID:25875203

  14. Alteration of UV primary fluorescence of vital tumor cells following irradiation with neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1980-01-01

    The change of UV primary fluorescence intensity of vital unstained cells of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma after 60 Co-gamma and neutron irradiation was investigated. The mean neutron energy was 6.2 MeV. Fluorescence intensity was detected using impulse cytophotometry. The UV intensity of single cells was measured in the spectral range from 300-400 nm. An monotonous increase of dose-effect curves and a maximum at 3.5 Gy (neutrons) and 30 Gy (γ-rays) was obtained. The first relevant increase of fluorescence intensity was detected at 0.4 Gy (neutrons) and 0.75 Gy (γ-rays). Factors influencing the increase and decrease of primary fluorescence behavior of vital cells are discussed. (author)

  15. Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.

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    Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

  16. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY CELL CULTURE FROM TAIL EPIDERMAL TISSUE OF KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio koi

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    Lila Gardenia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from tail epidermal tissue of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi was developed. Cells were grown in Leibovits-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Penicillin/Streptomycin and Kanamycin. Cell growth was observed in a range of incubation temperature (17oC±2oC, 22oC±2oC, 27oC±2oC, and 32oC±2oC in order to determine the optimum temperature. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature between 17oC to 32oC with optimal growth at 22oC. Primary cells infected with koi herpes virus produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation and deformation of nuclei, which is consistent with those of previous reports. Artificial injection experiment by using supernatant koi herpes virus SKBM-1 isolate revealed that it could cause 90% mortality in infected fish within two weeks. PCR test with Sph I-5 specific primers carried out with DNA template from supernatant virus, pellet cell, and gills of infected fish showed positive results in all samples (molecular weight of DNA target 290 bp. The cells were found to be susceptible to koi herpes virus and can be used for virus propagation.

  18. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Successfully Treated With Cisplatin and Etoposide

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    Shu-Chen Kuo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a 44-year-old man with primary gastric small cell carcinoma who showed a remarkable response to chemotherapy specific for pulmonary small cell carcinoma. The patient had been admitted to another local hospital because of intermittent epigastralgia. An upper gastrointestinal examination there revealed an ulcerative tumor, 5 cm in diameter, on the lesser curvature side of the cardia, and endoscopic biopsy reported adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography revealed a mass over the lesser curvature of the stomach and some enlarged regional lymph nodes. Radical total gastrectomy, lymph node dissection, Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and splenectomy were performed at our hospital. Pathology revealed gastric mucosa infiltrated by small-sized tumor cells with scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohisto- chemically, the tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56. Primary gastric small cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The postoperative course, complicated by shock due to bleeding, wound infection and intra-abdominal abscess, took more than 2 months to resolve. Follow-up computed tomography showed tumor recurrence with multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the aortocaval region and hepatic hilum. The patient received palliative chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 and etoposide 80 mg/m2 on days 1–3 every 28 days, and had partial response to the chemotherapy, with a progression-free survival of 10 months. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide used for small cell carcinoma of the lung is a good treatment for gastric small cell carcinoma.

  19. Phosphoproteomics of Primary Cells Reveals Druggable Kinase Signatures in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Lupia, Michela; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Villa, Alessandra; Kowalczyk, Katarzyna; Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Rosa; Bertalot, Giovanni; Confalonieri, Stefano; Brunak, Søren; Jensen, Lars J; Cavallaro, Ugo; Olsen, Jesper V

    2017-03-28

    Our understanding of the molecular determinants of cancer is still inadequate because of cancer heterogeneity. Here, using epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) as a model system, we analyzed a minute amount of patient-derived epithelial cells from either healthy or cancerous tissues by single-shot mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we demonstrated that primary cells recapitulate tissue complexity and represent a valuable source of differentially expressed proteins and phosphorylation sites that discriminate cancer from healthy cells. Furthermore, we uncovered kinase signatures associated with EOC. In particular, CDK7 targets were characterized in both EOC primary cells and ovarian cancer cell lines. We showed that CDK7 controls cell proliferation and that pharmacological inhibition of CDK7 selectively represses EOC cell proliferation. Our approach defines the molecular landscape of EOC, paving the way for efficient therapeutic approaches for patients. Finally, we highlight the potential of phosphoproteomics to identify clinically relevant and druggable pathways in cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphoproteomics of Primary Cells Reveals Druggable Kinase Signatures in Ovarian Cancer

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    Chiara Francavilla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the molecular determinants of cancer is still inadequate because of cancer heterogeneity. Here, using epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC as a model system, we analyzed a minute amount of patient-derived epithelial cells from either healthy or cancerous tissues by single-shot mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we demonstrated that primary cells recapitulate tissue complexity and represent a valuable source of differentially expressed proteins and phosphorylation sites that discriminate cancer from healthy cells. Furthermore, we uncovered kinase signatures associated with EOC. In particular, CDK7 targets were characterized in both EOC primary cells and ovarian cancer cell lines. We showed that CDK7 controls cell proliferation and that pharmacological inhibition of CDK7 selectively represses EOC cell proliferation. Our approach defines the molecular landscape of EOC, paving the way for efficient therapeutic approaches for patients. Finally, we highlight the potential of phosphoproteomics to identify clinically relevant and druggable pathways in cancer.

  1. Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Patricia; Busam, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare entity accounting for Nipple skin/subcutaneous tumors in men are even rarer. Likewise, true neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, defined as > 50% of tumor cells staining for either chromogranin or synaptophysin, is not a common entity, usually occurring in older women. We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a slowly growing nipple mass that had enlarged over the previous 1.5 years. The histology consisted of nests, trabeculae and sheets of basaloid cells with rare abortive gland formation and a pushing edge. The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology. Strong staining for synaptophysin (in greater than 50% of cells), CD56, keratins AE1 : AE3 and Cam 5.2, as well as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was noted. Myoepithelial cells within in situ areas were identified using stains for calponin and 4A4, supporting a primary mammary duct origin. Additionally, a substantial portion of cells stained for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15), confirming some overlap with sweat duct differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, although reported in the male breast, no case of primary nipple neuroendocrine carcinoma in a male patient has been reported in the literature. The gender of the patient and association with the skin of the chest wall probably contributed to the original misdiagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in this patient.

  2. Distinct types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagel, Juliette J; Dijkman, Remco; Basso, Katia; Jansen, Patty M; Hallermann, Christian; Willemze, Rein; Tensen, Cornelis P; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2005-05-01

    In the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification 2 types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphomas (PCFCCL) and PCLBCL of the leg (PCLBCL-leg). Distinction between both groups is considered important because of differences in prognosis (5-year survival > 95% and 52%, respectively) and the first choice of treatment (radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy, respectively), but is not generally accepted. To establish a molecular basis for this subdivision in the EORTC classification, we investigated the gene expression profiles of 21 PCLBCLs by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering based on a B-cell signature (7450 genes) classified PCLBCL into 2 distinct subgroups consisting of, respectively, 8 PCFCCLs and 13 PCLBCLsleg. PCLBCLs-leg showed increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation; the proto-oncogenes Pim-1, Pim-2, and c-Myc; and the transcription factors Mum1/IRF4 and Oct-2. In the group of PCFCCL high expression of SPINK2 was observed. Further analysis suggested that PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg have expression profiles similar to that of germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively. The results of this study suggest that different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in the development of PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg and provide molecular support for the subdivision used in the EORTC classification.

  3. MLL-ENL cooperates with SCF to transform primary avian multipotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Cathleen E; von Lindern, Marieke; Steinlein, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Wiedemann, Leanne M

    2002-08-15

    The MLL gene is targeted by chromosomal translocations, which give rise to heterologous MLL fusion proteins and are associated with distinct types of acute lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. To determine how MLL fusion proteins alter the proliferation and/or differentiation of primary haematopoietic progenitors, we introduced the MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL fusion proteins into primary chicken bone marrow cells. Both fusion proteins caused the sustained outgrowth of immature haematopoietic cells, which was strictly dependent on stem cell factor (SCF). The renewing cells have a long in vitro lifespan exceeding the Hayflick limit of avian cells. Analysis of clonal cultures identified the renewing cells as immature, multipotent progenitors, expressing erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid and stem cell surface markers. Employing a two-step commitment/differentiation protocol involving the controlled withdrawal of SCF, the MLL-ENL-transformed progenitors could be induced to terminal erythroid or myeloid differentiation. Finally, in cooperation with the weakly leukaemogenic receptor tyrosine kinase v-Sea, the MLL-ENL fusion protein gave rise to multilineage leukaemia in chicks, suggesting that other activated, receptor tyrosine kinases can substitute for ligand-activated c-Kit in vivo.

  4. High-throughput gene expression profiling of memory differentiation in primary human T cells

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    Russell Kate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation of naive T and B cells into memory lymphocytes is essential for immunity to pathogens. Therapeutic manipulation of this cellular differentiation program could improve vaccine efficacy and the in vitro expansion of memory cells. However, chemical screens to identify compounds that induce memory differentiation have been limited by 1 the lack of reporter-gene or functional assays that can distinguish naive and memory-phenotype T cells at high throughput and 2 a suitable cell-line representative of naive T cells. Results Here, we describe a method for gene-expression based screening that allows primary naive and memory-phenotype lymphocytes to be discriminated based on complex genes signatures corresponding to these differentiation states. We used ligation-mediated amplification and a fluorescent, bead-based detection system to quantify simultaneously 55 transcripts representing naive and memory-phenotype signatures in purified populations of human T cells. The use of a multi-gene panel allowed better resolution than any constituent single gene. The method was precise, correlated well with Affymetrix microarray data, and could be easily scaled up for high-throughput. Conclusion This method provides a generic solution for high-throughput differentiation screens in primary human T cells where no single-gene or functional assay is available. This screening platform will allow the identification of small molecules, genes or soluble factors that direct memory differentiation in naive human lymphocytes.

  5. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  6. Dissection of the transformation of primary human hematopoietic cells by the oncogene NUP98-HOXA9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R Yassin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available NUP98-HOXA9 is the prototype of a group of oncoproteins associated with acute myeloid leukemia. It consists of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 fused to the homeodomain of HOXA9 and is believed to act as an aberrant transcription factor that binds DNA through the homeodomain. Here we show that NUP98-HOXA9 can regulate transcription without binding to DNA. In order to determine the relative contributions of the NUP98 and HOXA9 portions to the transforming ability of NUP98-HOXA9, the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on primary human CD34+ cells were dissected and compared to those of wild-type HOXA9. In contrast to previous findings in mouse cells, HOXA9 had only mild effects on the differentiation and proliferation of primary human hematopoietic cells. The ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to disrupt the differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells was found to depend primarily on the NUP98 portion, whereas induction of long-term proliferation required both the NUP98 moiety and an intact homeodomain. Using oligonucleotide microarrays in primary human CD34+ cells, a group of genes was identified whose dysregulation by NUP98-HOXA9 is attributable primarily to the NUP98 portion. These include RAP1A, HEY1, and PTGS2 (COX-2. Their functions may reflect the contribution of the NUP98 moiety of NUP98-HOXA9 to leukemic transformation. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on gene transcription and cell transformation are mediated by at least two distinct mechanisms: one that involves promoter binding through the homeodomain with direct transcriptional activation, and another that depends predominantly on the NUP98 moiety and does not involve direct DNA binding.

  7. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells assist in the survival and growth of primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through interleukin 10 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Zhanshan [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Guangfang [Department of Endocrinology, Zhangqiu Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhangqiu, Shandong 250200 (China); Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Haihan [Emergency Center, East Hospital, Shanghai 200120 (China); Qian, Baohua, E-mail: qianbhl963@163.com [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5{sup +} compartment compared to the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5{sup +} compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4{sup +} T cells than the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4{sup +} T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10. - Highlights: • We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh in DLBCL. • Tfh were effective at promoting the proliferation of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • Tfh were effective at inhibiting the apoptosis of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • IL-10 secretion in Tfh was significant elevated in DLBCL. • Neutralization of IL-10 compromised Tfh-mediated pro-tumor effects.

  8. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  9. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  10. A Case of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Primary Effusion Lymphoma-Like Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Usuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A 93-year-old female was transferred to the emergency ward of our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness and hypotension. Computed tomography showed bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion without evidence of tumor masses or lymphadenopathy. Cytodiagnosis of pleural effusion revealed proliferation of atypical lymphoid-like cells with pan-B surface markers. We suspected primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma; however, the monoclonality of these cells was not confirmed. Cytodiagnosis of bone marrow revealed lymphoma cells with monoclonal B-cell markers. These findings prompted a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with bone marrow invasion. In the case of pericardial or pleural effusion, clinicians should consider carefully both hematological malignancy and its classification.

  11. Transcriptomic profiling of primary alveolar epithelial cell differentiation in human and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal N. Marconett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell-type specific gene regulation is a key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how changes in transcriptional activation during alveolar epithelial cell (AEC differentiation determine phenotype. We performed transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human and rat primary AEC. This model recapitulates in vitro an in vivo process in which AEC transition from alveolar type 2 (AT2 cells to alveolar type 1 (AT1 cells during normal maintenance and regeneration following lung injury. Here we describe in detail the quality control, preprocessing, and normalization of microarray data presented within the associated study (Marconett et al., 2013. We also include R code for reproducibility of the referenced data and easily accessible processed data tables.

  12. A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1987-08-01

    A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

  13. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  14. Restoration of the Serranos Towers in Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Mileto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent restoration of the emblematic Serranos Towers carried out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists was an excuse to delve into the history and masonry of the towers, from their initial building and use as a prison to the restorations works practised in the 19th century and subsequent repairs. The cleaning of the walls permitted a direct study of the masonry, which provided a great deal of information that complemented the rigorous historical investigation. The maintenance scheme planned for the future is an interesting proposal, where good sense prevails over improvisation, so often a reality in the restoration of monuments today.

  15. [Role of stem cell transplantation in treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzenbach, R; Theurich, S; Schlaak, M

    2017-09-01

    Within the heterogeneous group of cutaneous T‑cell lymphomas (CTCL) the therapeutic options for advanced and progressive forms are particularly limited. The therapeutic value of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in CTCL was analyzed. A literature search using the keywords "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation" and "cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma" was performed in PubMed. Studies between 1990 and 2017 were taken into account. The studies identified were analyzed for relevance and being up to date. After reviewing the currently available literature no prospective randomized studies were found. Wu et al. showed a superiority of allogeneic transplantation in a comparison of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation for cutaneous lymphoma. The graft-versus-lymphoma effect plays a significant role in a prolonged progression-free survival after allogeneic transplantation. By using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen, stem cell transplantation can also be an option for elderly patients. The most extensive long-term data after allogeneic stem cell transplantation were reported by Duarte et al. in 2014. Autologous stem cell transplantation does not currently represent a therapeutic option, whereas allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma, using a non-myeloablative conditioning scheme, does represent a therapeutic option. However, there is no consensus on the appropriate patients and the right timing. Morbidity and mortality of complications should be taken into account. Thus, this procedure is currently subject to an individual case decision.

  16. Immunocytochemical investigation of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, H D; Boissonade, F M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in the number and distribution of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp, both in health and disease. The research took the form of a quantitative immunocytochemical study. One hundred and twenty-four mandibular first permanent molars and second primary molars were obtained from children requiring dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Following exodontia, 10-microm-thick frozen pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. Triple-labelling regimes were employed using combinations of the following: (1) protein gene product 9.5, a general neuronal marker; (2) leucocyte common antigen (LCA); and (3) Ulex europaeus I lectin, a marker of vascular endothelium. Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of immunostaining for LCA. Leucocytes were significantly more abundant in the pulp horn and mid-coronal region of intact and carious primary teeth, as compared to permanent teeth (P < 0.05, anova). Both dentitions demonstrated the presence of well-localized inflammatory cell infiltrates and marked aborization of pulpal nerves in areas of dense leucocyte accumulation. Primary and permanent tooth pulps appear to have a similar potential to mount inflammatory responses to gross caries The management of the compromised primary tooth pulp needs to be reappraised in the light of these findings.

  17. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  18. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  19. The solar two power tower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.C.; Laquil, P. de III; Skowronski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a cooperative project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to convert the 10-MWe Solar One Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. Successful operation of the convert plant to be called Solar Two, will reduce the economic risks in building the initial commercial power tower projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. In a molten salt power tower plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver, atop a tower. Molten salt is heated in the receiver and stored until it is needed to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. Joining the SCE and DOE in sponsoring in sponsoring this project are the following organizations: Los Alamos department of Water Power, Idaho Power Company, PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, City of Pasadena, California Energy Commission, Electric Power Research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Commission, Electric Power research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Bechtel Corporation. The Solar Two project will convert the Solar One heat transfer system from a water/steam type to molten nitrate salt by replacing the water/steam receiver and oil/rock thermal storage system with a nitrate salt receiver, salt thermal storage, and steam generator. The estimate cost of Solar Two, including 3-year test period, is 48.5 millions. The plant will be on line in early 1995. (authors)

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Carnosine on Primary Culture of Rat Cerebellar Cells under Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopachev, A V; Lopacheva, O M; Abaimov, D A; Koroleva, O V; Vladychenskaya, E A; Erukhimovich, A A; Fedorova, T N

    2016-05-01

    Dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a natural antioxidant, but its protective effect under oxidative stress induced by neurotoxins is studied insufficiently. In this work, we show the neuroprotective effect of carnosine in primary cultures of rat cerebellar cells under oxidative stress induced by 1 mM 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH), which directly generates free radicals both in the medium and in the cells, and 20 nM rotenone, which increases the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In both models, adding 2 mM carnosine to the incubation medium decreased cell death calculated using fluorescence microscopy and enhanced cell viability estimated by the MTT assay. The antioxidant effect of carnosine inside cultured cells was demonstrated using the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescein. Carnosine reduced by half the increase in the number of ROS in neurons induced by 20 nM rotenone. Using iron-induced chemiluminescence, we showed that preincubation of primary neuronal cultures with 2 mM carnosine prevents the decrease in endogenous antioxidant potential of cells induced by 1 mM AAPH and 20 nM rotenone. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we showed that a 10-min incubation of neuronal cultures with 2 mM carnosine leads to a 14.5-fold increase in carnosine content in cell lysates. Thus, carnosine is able to penetrate neurons and exerts an antioxidant effect. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in rat cerebellar cells, which suggests the possibility of carnosine transport into the cells. At the same time, Western blot analysis showed no carnosine-induced changes in the level of apoptosis regulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family and in the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, which suggests that carnosine could have minimal or no side effects on proliferation and apoptosis control systems in normal cells.

  1. INTEGRATED TWIN TOWERS DAN ISLAMISASI ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifuddin Syaifuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some idea as follows: First, integrated design of the Twin Towers as the changing action from IAIN to UIN Sunan Ampel. The religion and general knowledge’s position of Twin Towers’ integrated design is not mixed into one, but it works individually, and at the certain time are united in mutual dialogue. Second, Islamize design is done in order to criticize the general knowledge which has western sources and are secular, materialistic, and individualistic. In the process to Islamize the knowledge, Islamic knowledge tries to intervene the general knowledge in order to filter it so the knowledge will be Islamized. Consequently, to Islamize knowledge is to give an Islamic concept into general knowledge. Third, there are the similarities and differences between integrated design knowledge based on Islamic knowledge and integrated Twin Towers. The difference is in its epistemology process. The similarity is in the curriculum (ontology and objective (axiology. In the curriculum, the examined knowledge is religion and general knowledge. While the objective, Islamize knowledge and integrated Twin Towers aims to integrate religion and general knowledge, to dialogue, to communicate, and to synergy, so it can be a knowledge which is intact-integral-integrative.

  2. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  3. A fatal case of primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the intrahepatic bile ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Johan; Grunnet, Mie; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2014-01-01

    of diagnosis but expired 20 months after surgery with epidural, lung, and spine metastasis. In addition to the unusual clinical presentation, the diagnosis of the liver tumor was that of a primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts, an entity with only one previous report......Primary squamous cholangiocellular carcinomas are very rare. We describe a case of a 67-year-old man, who underwent chemotherapy and surgery for a right-sided liver tumor with an unusual presentation of metastasis to a lymph node in the left armpit. The patient was asymptomatic at the time...

  4. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from prima...... prolonged the current generation and increased the power density by 7 and 1.5 times, respectively, in comparison with raw primary sludge. These findings suggest that energy recovery from primary sludge can be maximized using an advanced MFC system with optimum conditions....

  5. Palliative radiation in primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Until date, only around 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Primary treatment of the patient is radical surgery. With optimum treatment survival is not more than 6 months in this aggressive malignancy. However in our patient surgery it was not possible because of unresectability of the mass due to encroachment of major vessels. Hence, we have delivered radiotherapy alone, with which effective palliation could be achieved and patient is leading a good quality-of-life for last 1 year.

  6. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K, E-mail: Jamboor.vishwanatha@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology and Institute for Cancer Research, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-11-04

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high ({approx}97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  7. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2011-11-01

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high (~97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  8. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2011-01-01

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high (∼97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  9. Cdc42 controls primary mesenchyme cell morphogenesis in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Ramírez, Silvia P; Toledo-Jacobo, Leslie; Henson, John H; Shuster, Charles B

    2018-05-15

    In the sea urchin embryo, gastrulation is characterized by the ingression and directed cell migration of primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs), as well as the primary invagination and convergent extension of the endomesoderm. Like all cell shape changes, individual and collective cell motility is orchestrated by Rho family GTPases and their modulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. And while endomesoderm specification has been intensively studied in echinoids, much less is known about the proximate regulators driving cell motility. Toward these ends, we employed anti-sense morpholinos, mutant alleles and pharmacological inhibitors to assess the role of Cdc42 during sea urchin gastrulation. While inhibition of Cdc42 expression or activity had only mild effects on PMC ingression, PMC migration, alignment and skeletogenesis were disrupted in the absence of Cdc42, as well as elongation of the archenteron. PMC migration and patterning of the larval skeleton relies on the extension of filopodia, and Cdc42 was required for filopodia in vivo as well as in cultured PMCs. Lastly, filopodial extension required both Arp2/3 and formin actin-nucleating factors, supporting models of filopodial nucleation observed in other systems. Together, these results suggest that Cdc42 plays essential roles during PMC cell motility and organogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  11. Effect of anabolics on bovine granulosa-luteal cell primary cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Biolatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumours are observed with increased frequency among calves slaughtered in Northern Italy. The use of illegal anabolics in breeding was taken into account as a cause of this pathology. An in vitro approach was used to detect the possible alterations of cell proliferation induced by anabolics on primary cultures of bovine granulosa-luteal cells. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of substances illegally used in cattle (17beta-estradiol, clenbuterol and boldione. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of MTT test, to exclude toxic effects induced by anabolics and to determine the highest concentration to be tested. Morphological changes were evaluated by means of routine cytology, while PCNA expression was quantified in order to estimate cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effects were revealed at the highest concentrations. The only stimulating effect on cell proliferation was detected in boldione treated cultures: after 48 h treated cells, compared to controls, showed a doubled expression of PCNA. In clenbuterol and 17beta-estradiol treated cells PCNA expression was similar to controls or even decreased. As the data suggest an alteration in cell proliferation, boldione could have a role in the early stage of pathogenesis of granulosa cell tumour in cattle.

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Population-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Joshua K; Alonso, Jose; Kuan, Edward C; Arshi, Armin; St John, Maie A

    2017-07-01

    Objectives To analyze the epidemiology and describe the prognostic indicators of patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Study Design and Setting Retrospective cohort study based on a national database. Methods The US National Cancer Institute's SEER registry (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) was reviewed for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid from 1973 to 2012. Study variables included age, sex, race, tumor size, tumor grade, regional and distant metastases, and treatment modality. Survival measures included overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results A total of 199 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 68.1 years; 58.3% were female; and 79.4% were white. Following diagnosis, 46.3% of patients underwent surgery; 55.7%, radiation therapy; and 45.8%, surgery with radiation therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated OS and DSS of 16% and 21% at 5 years, respectively. Median survival after diagnosis was 9.1 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that predictors of OS and DSS included age ( P Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Surgical resection confers an overall survival benefit. Age, tumor grade, and tumor size are predictors of OS and DSS.

  13. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies: Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Kerbauy, Fabio Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Andreza Alice Feitosa; Kutner, Jose Mauro; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Stape, Adalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Zamperlini-Netto, Gabriele; Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini de; Carvalho, Bruna; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Vilela, Marluce Dos Santos; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Cunha, Jose Marcos; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda Maria; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2011-06-01

    To report the experience of a tertiary care hospital with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies. Seven pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies (severe combined immunodeficiency: n = 2; combined immunodeficiency: n = 1; chronic granulomatous disease: n = 1; hyper-IgM syndrome: n = 2; and IPEX syndrome: n = 1) who underwent eight hematopoietic stem cell transplants in a single center, from 2007 to 2010, were studied. Two patients received transplants from HLA-identical siblings; the other six transplants were done with unrelated donors (bone marrow: n = 1; cord blood: n = 5). All patients had pre-existing infections before hematopoietic stem cell transplants. One patient received only anti-thymocyte globulin prior to transplant, three transplants were done with reduced intensity conditioning regimens and four transplants were done after myeloablative therapy. Two patients were not evaluated for engraftment due to early death. Three patients engrafted, two had primary graft failure and one received a second transplant with posterior engraftment. Two patients died of regimen related toxicity (hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome); one patient died of progressive respiratory failure due to Parainfluenza infection present prior to transplant. Four patients are alive and well from 60 days to 14 months after transplant. Patients' status prior to transplant is the most important risk factor on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in the treatment of these diseases. Early diagnosis and the possibility of a faster referral of these patients for treatment in reference centers may substantially improve their survival and quality of life.

  14. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated GFP/fluc gene introduction into primary mouse NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L, Thi Thanh Hoa; Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon

    2007-01-01

    NK cell is a type of lymphocyte that has ability in defense against virus infection and some kinds of cancer diseases. Recently, using genetic engineering, studies about the roles and functions of NK cells have been developing. In this study, we used lentivirus-based vector encoding GFP/Fluc gene to transfer into primary mouse NK cells. This model is a tool in studying characteristics of NK cells. The lentivirus used in this study was a commercial one, named LentiM1.3-Fluc, encoding GFP and Flue reporter genes under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) promoter. LentiM1.3-Fluc was infected into freshly isolated mouse NK cells at 2 20 MOl by incubating or using spin infection. In the spin infection, we gently suspended NK cells in viral fluid, then centrifuged at 2000 rpm, 20 minutes at room temperature and incubated for 1 day. After 1 day, virus was discarded and NK cells were cultured in IL-2 with or without IL-12 supplemented media. Infected NK cells were monitored by using fluorescent microscope for GFP and IVIS machine for Fire-fly luciferase expression. The results showed that using spin infection had much effect on introducing lentiviral vector-mediated reporter gene into NK cells than the way without spin. Also, NK cells which were cultured in IL-2 and IL-12 added media expressed higher fluorescent and luminescent signals than those cultured in only IL-2 supplemented media. When these NK cells were injected subcutaneously in Balb/C mice, the imaging signal was observed transiently. Our study demonstrates that by using a simple method, mouse NK cells can be transfected by lentivirus. And this will be useful in studying biology and therapeutic potential of NK cells. However, we require developing alternative lentiviral vectors with different promoter for in vivo application

  15. Radiosensitivity and TP 53, EGFR amplification and LOH10 analysis of primary glioma cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, B.; Harder, A.H.; Slotman, B.J.; Sminia, P.; Hulsebos, T.J.M.; Leenstra, S.; Peter Vandertop, W.; Hartmann, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Determination of in-vitro radiosensitivity and genetic alterations of cell cultures derived from human glioma biopsy tissue and established glioma cell lines. Material and Methods: Fresh brain tumor specimens of six patients were processed to early passage cell cultures. In addition the cell lines D 384 and Gli 6 were used. Cell cultures were irradiated with doses from 2 to 10 Gy. Following irradiation, cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay and survival curves were generated. The surviving fractions after 2 Gy (SF2) and 4 Gy (SF4) were used as radiosensitivity parameters. Genetic analysis included determination of the mutational and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of TP 53 (exons 5-8), the LOH 10- and epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification status. Results: The SF2 and SF4 values ranged from 0.54 to 0.88 (mean: 0.70) and from 0.13 to 0.52 (mean: 0.32), respectively. Genetic alterations were found in the Gli 6 cell line and in two primary cell cultures. The genetic profile of Gli 6 showed LOH but no TP 53 mutation, complete LOH 10 and no EGFR amplification. The VU 15 cell culture showed TP 53 mutation but no LOH 10 or EGFR amplification, while VU 24 showed incomplete LOH 10, EGFR amplification and no TP 53 mutation. In the other four cell cultures and D 384 cell line no genetic alterations were diagnosed. Histopathological classification of glioblastoma multiforme and/or genetic alterations resulted in lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: In this small series of early passage glioma cell cultures low radiosensitivity and alterations in cell regulatory genes were seen. Further testing of biological behavior in larger series of patient-derived material is ongoing. (orig.)

  16. Bystander-mediated genomic instability after high LET radiation in murine primary haemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Deborah A.; Moore, Stephen R.; Macdonald, Denise A.; Smyth, Sharon H.; Clapham, Peter; Kadhim, Munira A.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between irradiated and unirradiated (bystander) cells can result in responses in unirradiated cells that are similar to responses in their irradiated counterparts. The purpose of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that bystander responses will be similarly induced in primary murine stem cells under different cell culture conditions. The experimental systems used here, co-culture and media transfer, are similar in that they both restrict communication between irradiated and bystander cells to media borne factors, but are distinct in that with the media transfer technique, cells can only communicate after irradiation, and with co-culture, cells can communication before, during and after irradiation. In this set of parallel experiments, cell type, biological endpoint, and radiation quality and dose, were kept constant. In both experimental systems, clonogenic survival was significantly decreased in all groups, whether irradiated or bystander, suggesting a substantial contribution of bystander effects (BE) to cell killing. Genomic instability (GI) was induced under all radiation and bystander conditions in both experiments, including a situation where unirradiated cells were incubated with media that had been conditioned for 24 h with irradiated cells. The appearance of delayed aberrations (genomic instability) 10-13 population doublings after irradiation was similar to the level of initial chromosomal damage, suggesting that the bystander factor is able to induce chromosomal alterations soon after irradiation. Whether these early alterations are related to those observed at later timepoints remains unknown. These results suggest that genomic instability may be significantly induced in a bystander cell population whether or not cells communicate during irradiation

  17. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A

    2011-06-13

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  18. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  19. Primary control of upper gingiva and hard palate squamous cell carcinoma. A clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beppu, Takeshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The primary control of upper gingiva and hard palate squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated clinically. From 1985 to 1999, there were 51 cases that received definitive treatment in our hospital with a primary control rate of 70.6%. The primary control rates according to treatment modality were: 73.3% for surgery alone (69.2% for partial maxillectomy, 80% for total maxillectomy); 71.4% for definitive radiation therapy; and 68% for combined surgery and radiation therapy. The primary control rates according to the T stage were: 85.7% for T1; 60% for T2; 77.8% for T3; and 80% for T4. In general, primary control was better when the tumor was located anteriorly rather than posterolaterally in the oral cavity. Frequent recurrent sites following the operation were the infratemporal fossa and/or the pterygopalatine fossa, especially when the tumor had been located posterolaterally. In such cases, a salvage operation was often impossible, and the uncontrollable primary lesion progressed and caused death. Therefore, when the tumor is located posterolaterally, and especially if it has invaded deeply into the infratemporal fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa, it is vitally important to properly plan the surgical approach and to ensure a good visual operative field. (author)

  20. Mathematical modeling of a zinc/bromine flow cell and a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    Three mathematical models are presented, one for the secondary zinc/bromine flow cell and two for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell. The objectives in this modeling work are to aid in understanding the physical phenomena affecting cell performance, determine methods of improving cell performance and safety, and reduce the experimental efforts needed to develop these electrochemical systems. The zinc/bromine cell model is the first such model to include a porous layer on the bromine electrode and to predict discharge behavior. The model is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances and the electroneutrality condition for the unknowns, species concentrations and the solution potential. Two models are presented for the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. The first model is a detailed one-dimensional model which is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances, Ohm's law relations, and current balance. The independent design criteria are identified from the model development. The second model presented here is a two-dimensional thermal model for the spirally would configuration of the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. This is the first model to address the effects of the spiral geometry on heat transfer in the cell.

  1. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  2. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perrone

    Full Text Available Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23% of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001; in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively. No relationship was evident with tumour size (T and regional lymph node (N status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004. Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  3. Measurements on cooling tower plumes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    1975-11-01

    In this paper an extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were investigated by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal of this program was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations were of special interest. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station at Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station at Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations, it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between the structure of cooling tower plumes and the large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider ASK 16 (more than 100 flight hours) crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapour pressure. Therefore a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the plumes boundaries, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapour pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion was observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. The discontinuities of temperature and vapour pressure show that the plume fills the space below the visible plume down to the ground. However, all effects decrease rapidly towards the ground. It turned out that high

  4. Different surface sensing of the cell body and nucleus in healthy primary cells and in a cancerous cell line on nanogrooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Bigerelle, Maxence; Reiter, Günter; Anselme, Karine

    2015-10-01

    Cancer cells are known to have alterations compared to healthy cells, but can these differences extend to the way cells interact with their environment? Here, the authors focused on the alignment on an array of grooves of nanometer depth using two cell types: healthy osteoprogenitor primary cells (HOP) and a cancerous osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cell line. Another concern was how this alignment affects the cell's interior, namely, the nucleus. Based on the results, it is proposed that these two cell types respond to different size regimes: SaOs-2 cells are more sensitive to shallow grooves while HOP cells are strongly aligned with deep grooves. As a measure of the impact of cell alignment on the nucleus the orientation and elongation of the nucleus were determined. Compared to HOP cells, the cell nucleus of SaOs-2 cells is more aligned and elongated in response to grooves, suggesting a softer nucleus and/or increased force transmission. These results support the hypothesis that cancer cells have reduced nucleus rigidity compared to healthy ones and further indicate differences in sensing, which may be important during metastasis.

  5. Transmission of persistent ionizing radiation-induced foci through cell division in human primary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurijoux, Aurelie, E-mail: aurelie.vaurijoux@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimétrie Biologique, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux roses cedex (France); Voisin, Pascale; Freneau, Amelie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimétrie Biologique, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux roses cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Faculty of Biosciences, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Gruel, Gaetan [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimétrie Biologique, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux roses cedex (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Persistent IRIF do not permanently block cell proliferation. • Persistent IRIF are transmitted in part and sometimes asymmetrically to daughter cells. • IRIF differ in their nature before and after the first cell division. - Abstract: Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24 h after irradiation. Their relation to unrepaired DSBs is generally accepted but still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency and kinetics of persistent IRIF and analyzes their impact on cell proliferation. We observed persistent IRIF up to 7 days postirradiation, and more than 70% of cells exposed to 5 Gy had at least one of these persistent IRIF 24 h after exposure. Moreover we demonstrated that persistent IRIF did not block cell proliferation definitively. The frequency of IRIF was lower in daughter cells, due to asymmetric distribution of IRIF between some of them. We report a positive association between the presence of IRIF and the likelihood of DNA missegregation. Hence, the structure formed after the passage of a persistent IRI focus across the S and G2 phases may impede the correct segregation of the affected chromosome's sister chromatids. The ensuing abnormal resolution of anaphase might therefore cause the nature of IRIF in daughter-cell nuclei to differ before and after the first cell division. The resulting atypical chromosomal assembly may be lethal or result in a gene dosage imbalance and possibly enhanced genomic instability, in particular in the daughter cells.

  6. Transmission of persistent ionizing radiation-induced foci through cell division in human primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurijoux, Aurelie; Voisin, Pascale; Freneau, Amelie; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Gruel, Gaetan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Persistent IRIF do not permanently block cell proliferation. • Persistent IRIF are transmitted in part and sometimes asymmetrically to daughter cells. • IRIF differ in their nature before and after the first cell division. - Abstract: Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24 h after irradiation. Their relation to unrepaired DSBs is generally accepted but still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency and kinetics of persistent IRIF and analyzes their impact on cell proliferation. We observed persistent IRIF up to 7 days postirradiation, and more than 70% of cells exposed to 5 Gy had at least one of these persistent IRIF 24 h after exposure. Moreover we demonstrated that persistent IRIF did not block cell proliferation definitively. The frequency of IRIF was lower in daughter cells, due to asymmetric distribution of IRIF between some of them. We report a positive association between the presence of IRIF and the likelihood of DNA missegregation. Hence, the structure formed after the passage of a persistent IRI focus across the S and G2 phases may impede the correct segregation of the affected chromosome's sister chromatids. The ensuing abnormal resolution of anaphase might therefore cause the nature of IRIF in daughter-cell nuclei to differ before and after the first cell division. The resulting atypical chromosomal assembly may be lethal or result in a gene dosage imbalance and possibly enhanced genomic instability, in particular in the daughter cells.

  7. Modeling of Direct Contact Wet Cooling Tower in ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khatib, H.H.; Ismail, A.L.; ElRefaie, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Egyptian Testing and Research Reactor no.2 (ETRR-2) was commissioned at 1997 with maximum power 22 MW for research purposes; an induced draft wet cooling tower (counter flow type) was putted in operation in 2003 instead of the first one. Investigations are achieved to evaluate cooling tower performance to guarantee that the cooling tower capable to dissipate heat generated in reactor core. Merkel and Poppe analysis was applied to simulate this cooling tower packing. Merkel analysis was applied to predict water outlet temperature from cooling tower and also to show the effect of ambient conditions on this temperature. Poppe analysis was applied to predict Merkel number which evaluate cooling tower. The Runge-Kutta numerical method was applied to solve the differential equations in this model and an engineering equation solver (EES) is the language used to model the cooling tower. This research illustrates that the cooling tower achieves good performance in various sever ambient condition at maximum operating condition of reactor power. The results show that at severe summer condition of wet bulb temperature equals 24 degree c and tower inlet temperature equals 37 degree c, the outlet water temperature equals 30.4 degree c from cooling tower, while the Merkel number is be found 1.253

  8. Transfection of brain capillary endothelial cells in primary culture with defined blood-brain barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Annette; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Lichota, Jacek; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István; Moos, Torben

    2015-08-07

    Primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are a promising tool to study the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, as they maintain many important characteristics of the BBB in vivo, especially when co-cultured with pericytes and/or astrocytes. A novel strategy for drug delivery to the brain is to transform BCECs into protein factories by genetic modifications leading to secretion of otherwise BBB impermeable proteins into the central nervous system. However, a huge challenge underlying this strategy is to enable transfection of non-mitotic BCECs, taking a non-viral approach. We therefore aimed to study transfection in primary, non-mitotic BCECs cultured with defined BBB properties without disrupting the cells' integrity. Primary cultures of BCECs, pericytes and astrocytes were generated from rat brains and used in three different in vitro BBB experimental arrangements, which were characterised based on a their expression of tight junction proteins and other BBB specific proteins, high trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and low passive permeability to radiolabeled mannitol. Recombinant gene expression and protein synthesis were examined in primary BCECs. The BCECs were transfected using a commercially available transfection agent Turbofect™ to express the red fluorescent protein HcRed1-C1. The BCECs were transfected at different time points to monitor transfection in relation to mitotic or non-mitotic cells, as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after 5-and 6-carboxylfluorescein diacetate succinidyl ester incorporation. The cell cultures exhibited important BBB characteristics judged from their expression of BBB specific proteins, high TEER values, and low passive permeability. Among the three in vitro BBB models, co-culturing with BCECs and astrocytes was well suited for the transfection studies. Transfection was independent of cell division and with equal efficacy between the mitotic and non-mitotic BCECs. Importantly

  9. Phenotypic and Functional Alterations in Circulating Memory CD8 T Cells with Time after Primary Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory CD8 T cells confer increased protection to immune hosts upon secondary viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. The level of protection provided depends on the numbers, quality (functional ability, and location of memory CD8 T cells present at the time of infection. While primary memory CD8 T cells can be maintained for the life of the host, the full extent of phenotypic and functional changes that occur over time after initial antigen encounter remains poorly characterized. Here we show that critical properties of circulating primary memory CD8 T cells, including location, phenotype, cytokine production, maintenance, secondary proliferation, secondary memory generation potential, and mitochondrial function change with time after infection. Interestingly, phenotypic and functional alterations in the memory population are not due solely to shifts in the ratio of effector (CD62Llo and central memory (CD62Lhi cells, but also occur within defined CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cell subsets. CD62Lhi memory cells retain the ability to efficiently produce cytokines with time after infection. However, while it is was not formally tested whether changes in CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells over time occur in a cell intrinsic manner or are due to selective death and/or survival, the gene expression profiles of CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells change, phenotypic heterogeneity decreases, and mitochondrial function and proliferative capacity in either a lymphopenic environment or in response to antigen re-encounter increase with time. Importantly, and in accordance with their enhanced proliferative and metabolic capabilities, protection provided against chronic LCMV clone-13 infection increases over time for both circulating memory CD8 T cell populations and for CD62Lhi memory cells. Taken together, the data in this study reveal that memory CD8 T cells continue to change with time after infection and suggest that the outcome of vaccination strategies designed to elicit

  10. Efficient generation of patient-matched malignant and normal primary cell cultures from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients: clinically relevant models for research and personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Nazleen C.; Gedye, Craig; Apostoli, Anthony J.; Brown, Kevin R.; Paterson, Joshua; Stickle, Natalie; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J.; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Moffat, Jason; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Ailles, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have few therapeutic options, as ccRCC is unresponsive to chemotherapy and is highly resistant to radiation. Recently targeted therapies have extended progression-free survival, but responses are variable and no significant overall survival benefit has been achieved. Commercial ccRCC cell lines are often used as model systems to develop novel therapeutic approaches, but these do not accurately recapitulate primary ccRCC tumors at the genomic and transcriptional levels. Furthermore, ccRCC exhibits significant intertumor genetic heterogeneity, and the limited cell lines available fail to represent this aspect of ccRCC. Our objective was to generate accurate preclinical in vitro models of ccRCC using tumor tissues from ccRCC patients. ccRCC primary single cell suspensions were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media or defined serum-free media. Established cultures were characterized by genomic verification of mutations present in the primary tumors, expression of renal epithelial markers, and transcriptional profiling. The apparent efficiency of primary cell culture establishment was high in both culture conditions, but genotyping revealed that the majority of cultures contained normal, not cancer cells. ccRCC characteristically shows biallelic loss of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene, leading to accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and expression of HIF target genes. Purification of cells based on expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a cell surface HIF target, followed by culture in FBS enabled establishment of ccRCC cell cultures with an efficiency of >80 %. Culture in serum-free conditions selected for growth of normal renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling of ccRCC and matched normal cell cultures identified up- and down-regulated networks in ccRCC and comparison to The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed the clinical validity of our cell cultures. The ability

  11. Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Hennicke G.; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Schlatter, Josef; Wuerth, Kirsten; Janzowski, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic/-carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by several Aspergillus- and Penicillium-strains. Humans are exposed to OTA via food contamination, a causal relationship of OTA to human endemic Balkan nephropathy is still under debate. Since DNA-adducts of OTA or its metabolites could not be identified unambiguously, its carcinogenic effectiveness might be related to secondary effects, such as oxidative cell damage or cell proliferation. In this study, OTA mediated induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity (necrosis, growth inhibition, apoptosis) and modulation of glutathione were investigated in cell lines (V79, CV-1) and primary rat kidney cells. After 24 h incubation, viability of V79 cells was strongly decreased by OTA concentrations >2.5 μmol/L, whereas CV-1 cells were clearly less sensitive. Strong growth inhibition occurred in both cell lines (IC 50 ∼2 μmol/L). Apoptosis, detected with an immunochemical test and with flow cytometry, was induced by >1 μmol/L OTA. Oxidative DNA damage, detected by comet assay after additional treatment with repair enzymes, was induced in all cell systems already at five-fold lower concentrations. Glutathione in CV-1 cells was depleted after 1 h incubation (>100 μmol/L). In contrast, an increase was measured after 24 h incubation (>0.5 μmol/L). In conclusion, OTA induces oxidative DNA damage at low, not yet cytotoxic concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage might initiate cell transformation eventually in connection with proliferative response following cytotoxic cell death. Both events might represent pivotal factors in the chain of cellular events leading into nephro-carcinogenicity of OTA

  12. Advanced Good Cell Culture Practice for human primary, stem cell-derived and organoid models as well as microphysiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Bal-Price, Anna; Chesné, Christophe; Coecke, Sandra; Dinnyes, Andras; Eskes, Chantra; Grillari, Regina; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard; Hartung, Thomas; Jennings, Paul; Leist, Marcel; Martin, Ulrich; Passier, Robert; Schwamborn, Jens C; Stacey, Glyn N; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Daneshian, Mardas

    2018-04-13

    A major reason for the current reproducibility crisis in the life sciences is the poor implementation of quality control measures and reporting standards. Improvement is needed, especially regarding increasingly complex in vitro methods. Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) was an effort from 1996 to 2005 to develop such minimum quality standards also applicable in academia. This paper summarizes recent key developments in in vitro cell culture and addresses the issues resulting for GCCP, e.g. the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and gene-edited cells. It further deals with human stem-cell-derived models and bioengineering of organo-typic cell cultures, including organoids, organ-on-chip and human-on-chip approaches. Commercial vendors and cell banks have made human primary cells more widely available over the last decade, increasing their use, but also requiring specific guidance as to GCCP. The characterization of cell culture systems including high-content imaging and high-throughput measurement technologies increasingly combined with more complex cell and tissue cultures represent a further challenge for GCCP. The increasing use of gene editing techniques to generate and modify in vitro culture models also requires discussion of its impact on GCCP. International (often varying) legislations and market forces originating from the commercialization of cell and tissue products and technologies are further impacting on the need for the use of GCCP. This report summarizes the recommendations of the second of two workshops, held in Germany in December 2015, aiming map the challenge and organize the process or developing a revised GCCP 2.0.

  13. Primary intestinal T cell lymphomas in Indian patients - In search of enteropathic T cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shet Tanuja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This series of six intestinal T cell lymphomas (ITCL attempts to document enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATCL in India. Materials and Methods: A total of six ITCL were selected from 170 gastrointestinal lymphomas in last 10 years. Results: The cases studied included EATCL (4, ITCL with a CD4 positive phenotype (1 and ITCL NK/T cell type (1. Of the four EATCL, two occurred in the ileum, one in right colon and one in duodenum. In three EATCL cases, there was history of celiac disease or lactose intolerance and enteropathic changes were noted in the adjacent mucosa. These tumors had CD3+/CD8+/CD56 (+/-/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ immunophenotype. One EATCL was monomorphic small cell type (type II EATCL with a CD3+/CD8-CD56+/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ phenotype. EBER- ISH (Epstein Barr virus coded RNA′s- in situ hybridization revealed positive tumor cells in ITCL NK/T cell type and in bystander cells in three EATCL. Conclusion: ITCL are rare in Indian patients but do occur and comprise a mixture of the enteropathic and non-enteropathic subtypes.

  14. A 3-D Model of a Perennial Ryegrass Primary Cell Wall and Its Enzymatic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrakumar Vetharaniam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel 3-D, agent-based model of cell-wall digestion to improve our understanding of ruminal cell-wall digestion. It offers a capability to study cell walls and their enzymatic modification, by providing a representation of cellulose microfibrils and non-cellulosic polysaccharides and by simulating their spatial and catalytic interactions with enzymes. One can vary cell-wall composition and the types and numbers of enzyme molecules, allowing the model to be applied to a range of systems where cell walls are degraded and to the modification of cell walls by endogenous enzymes. As a proof of principle, we have modelled the wall of a mesophyll cell from the leaf of perennial ryegrass and then simulated its enzymatic degradation. This is a primary, non-lignified cell wall and the model includes cellulose, hemicelluloses (glucuronoarabinoxylans, 1,3;1,4-β-glucans, and xyloglucans and pectin. These polymers are represented at the level of constituent monosaccharides, and assembled to form a 3-D, meso-scale representation of the molecular structure of the cell wall. The composition of the cell wall can be parameterised to represent different walls in different cell types and taxa. The model can contain arbitrary combinations of different enzymes. It simulates their random diffusion through the polymer networks taking collisions into account, allowing steric hindrance from cell-wall polymers to be modelled. Steric considerations are included when target bonds are encountered, and breakdown products resulting from enzymatic activity are predicted.

  15. Mechanisms of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Primary Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    lose their capacity to replicate after a certain number       10 of passages. This finite number was termed the “ Hayflick limit ” and cells...Upstream and downstream of mTOR. Genes & development 18:1926-45 78. Hayflick L. 1965. The Limited in Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains...can lead to death. During the course of radiotherapy, the use of IR for the treatment of thoracic cancers is limited by IR-induced cell death to the

  16. Experimental and computational tools for analysis of signaling networks in primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoof, Erwin M; Linding, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Cellular information processing in signaling networks forms the basis of responses to environmental stimuli. At any given time, cells receive multiple simultaneous input cues, which are processed and integrated to determine cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis, or differ......Cellular information processing in signaling networks forms the basis of responses to environmental stimuli. At any given time, cells receive multiple simultaneous input cues, which are processed and integrated to determine cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis......; this information is critical when trying to elucidate key proteins involved in specific cellular responses. Here, methods to generate high-quality quantitative phosphorylation data from cell lysates originating from primary cells, and how to analyze the generated data to construct quantitative signaling network...

  17. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  18. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  19. Primary NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Chirife

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma and NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type are rare diseases, colonic involvement has seldom been seen. We report a case of a patient with a primary NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type of the colon. The patient had no history of malignant diseases and was diagnosed after exhaustive study in the context of fever of unknown origin. The first therapeutic approach followed the DAEPOCH-protocol: etoposide, prednisone, doxor-rubicin, vincristine and cyclophosphamide. The persistence of constitutional symptoms after the first treatment course motivated the switch to a second line following the SMILE-protocol: dexamethasone, metotrexate, ifosfamide, E.coli L-asparaginase, and etoposide. Despite intensive chemotherapy, the patient died 2 months after the diagnose of an extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the colon and 4 months after the first symptomatic appearance of disease.

  20. Double-hit or dual expression of MYC and BCL2 in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menguy, Sarah; Frison, Eric; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Dalle, Stephane; Dereure, Olivier; Boulinguez, Serge; Dalac, Sophie; Machet, Laurent; Ram-Wolff, Caroline; Verneuil, Laurence; Gros, Audrey; Vergier, Béatrice; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Pham-Ledard, Anne

    2018-03-26

    In nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the search for double-hit with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements or for dual expression of BCL2 and MYC defines subgroups of patients with altered prognosis that has not been evaluated in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma. Our objectives were to assess the double-hit and dual expressor status in a cohort of 44 patients with primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma according to the histological subtype and to evaluate their prognosis relevance. The 44 cases defined by the presence of more than 80% of large B-cells in the dermis corresponded to 21 primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma with large cell morphology and 23 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Thirty-one cases (70%) expressed BCL2 and 29 (66%) expressed MYC. Dual expressor profile was observed in 25 cases (57%) of either subtypes (n = 6 or n = 19, respectively). Only one primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma, large-cell case had a double-hit status (2%). Specific survival was significantly worse in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type than in primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma, large cell (p = 0.021) and for the dual expressor primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma group (p = 0.030). Both overall survival and specific survival were worse for patients belonging to the dual expressor primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type subgroup (p = 0.001 and p = 0.046, respectively). Expression of either MYC and/or BCL2 negatively impacted overall survival (p = 0.017 and p = 0.018 respectively). As the differential diagnosis between primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma, large cell and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type has a major impact on prognosis, dual-expression of BCL2 and MYC may represent a new diagnostic criterion for primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type subtype and further identifies patients with

  1. Primary Culture of Choroid Plexuses from Neonate Rats Containing Progenitor Cells Capable of Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choroid plexuses, which could secrete a number of neurotrophins, have recently been used in transplantation in central nervous system diseases. Aims: To study the mechanism of nerve regeneration in the central nervous system by grafting choroid plexus tissues. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The choroid plexuses from the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats were cultured in adherent culture, and immunocytochemical methods were used to analyse the progenitor cells on days 2, 6, and 10 after seeding. Results: Expression of both nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in small cell aggregates on day 2 in primary culture. Most of the nestin-positive cells on day 6 were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. No cells expressing nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein were seen on day 10. Conclusion: These experimental results indicate that the choroid plexus contains a specific cell population – progenitor cells. Under in vitro experimental conditions, the progenitor cells differentiated into choroid plexus epithelial cells but did not form neurons or astrocytes.

  2. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm 2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  3. Interleukin-1β regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice; Wuensch, Annegret; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Levels of IL-1β are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. → Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. → IL-1β increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. → IL-1β increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. → IL-1β may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1β is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1β on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1β. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1β resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1β (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1β (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1β plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined with our recently published in vivo data (Meybohm et al., PLoS One

  4. Interleukin-1{beta} regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Wuensch, Annegret [Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Levels of IL-1{beta} are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. {yields} Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1{beta} is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1{beta} on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1{beta}. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1{beta} resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1{beta} plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined

  5. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles. Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and\\/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu\\'s or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.

  6. Accurate and reproducible measurements of RhoA activation in small samples of primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nini, Lylia; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-03-01

    Rho GTPase activation is essential in a wide variety of cellular processes. Measurement of Rho GTPase activation is difficult with limited material, such as tissues or primary cells that exhibit stringent culture requirements for growth and survival. We defined parameters to accurately and reproducibly measure RhoA activation (i.e., RhoA-GTP) in cultured primary keratinocytes in response to serum and growth factor stimulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based G-LISA assays. We also established conditions that minimize RhoA-GTP in unstimulated cells without affecting viability, allowing accurate measurements of RhoA activation on stimulation or induction of exogenous GTPase expression. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary B-cell Lymphoma of the Thyroid Featuring the Different Ultrasonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Dong Hoon [Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    We review here 3 cases of primary thyroid lymphoma that we experienced during the past 5 years (age range: 39-55, all of the patients were female). The clinical and various ultrasonographic characteristics together with the other imaging modalities of primary thyroid lymphomas are described. The clinical features at presentation for one patient were a goiter with rapid growth and this was accompanied by compressive symptoms. The tumors of the other 2 patients were incidentally found during screening thyroid ultrasound exams. The pathologic studies of 2 cases showed a diffuse B-cell lymphoma with associated Hashimoto's thyroiditis and one case was a B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type. An extra-thyroid extension was shown in one case. The treatments included surgery alone for two cases, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy for one case. A US exam of thyroid lymphoma can show various morphological features, and US-CNB is helpful for diagnosing thyroid lymphoma.

  8. Bufalin Inhibits the Differentiation and Proliferation of Cancer Stem Cells Derived from Primary Osteosarcoma Cells through Mir-148a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewen Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteosarcoma (OS is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. Chemoresistance is the most important cause of treatment failure in OS, largely resulting from presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, CSCs isolated from cancer cell lines do not necessarily represent those from primary human tumors due to accumulation of genetic aberrations that increase with passage number. Therefore, studies on CSCs from primary OS may be more important for understanding the mechanisms driving the chemoresistance of CSCs in OS. Methods: We established a primary culture of OS cells, known as C1OS, from freshly resected tumor tissue. We further isolated CSCs from C1OS cells (C1OS-CSCs. We analyzed the effects of bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, on the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. We also analyzed the microRNA (miR targets of bufalin on the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. Moreover, we examined these findings in the OS specimen. Results: Bufalin inhibited the stemness of C1OS-CSCs. Moreover, we found that miR-148a appeared to be a target of bufalin, and miR-148a further regulated DNMT1 and p27 to control the stemness of OS cells. This mechanism was further confirmed in OS specimen. Conclusion: Our data suggest that bufalin may be a promising treatment for OS, and its function may be conducted through regulation of miR-148a.

  9. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti Lal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy due to complete loss of renal function. Histopathological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is managed by chemotherapy, although initially beneficial, patients later develop disseminated metastatic disease which holds a poor prognosis.

  10. Ultraviolet light-resistant primary transfectants of xeroderma pigmentosum cells are also DNA repair-proficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, M.; Naiman, T.; Canaani, D.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous work, an immortal xeroderma pigmentosum cell line belonging to complementation group C was complemented to a UV-resistant phenotype by transfection with a human cDNA clone library. We now report that the primary transformants selected for UV-resistance also acquired normal levels of DNA repair. This was assessed both by measurement of UV-induced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and by equilibrium sedimentation analysis of repair-DNA synthesis. Therefore, the transduced DNA element which confers normal UV-resistance also corrects the excision repair defect of the xeroderma pigmentosum group C cell line

  11. Effects of fibulin-5 on attachment, adhesion, and proliferation of primary human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, M.; Cohen, T.; Sarnatzki, Y.; Ben Yosef, Y.; Schneiderman, J.; Gluzman, Z.; Koren, B.; Lewis, B.S.; Shaul, Y.; Flugelman, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Fibulin-5 is a novel extracellular protein that is thought to act as a bridging peptide between elastin fibers and cell surface integrins in blood vessel wall. Fibulin-5 binding to endothelial cell (EC) surface integrins may effect cell proliferation and cell attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) or to artificial surfaces. In this paper, we describe the effects of fibulin-5 on attachment, adhesion, and proliferation of primary human EC. After demonstrating that fibulin-5 over-expression inhibited EC proliferation, we tested the hypothesis that co-expression of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 will lead to unique EC phenotype that will exhibit increased adherence properties and retain its proliferation capacity. Methods and results: Fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 gene transfer to primary human saphenous vein endothelial cells was accomplished using retroviral vectors encoding the two genes. Transgene expression was verified using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and ELISA. Fibulin 5 over-expression tended to improve immediate EC attachment (30 min after seeding) and improved significantly adhesion (>40%) under shear stress tested 24 h after EC seeding. The effects of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 on EC proliferation in the presence or absence of basic FGF were also tested. EC expressing fibulin-5 had reduced proliferation while VEGF 165 co-expression ameliorated this effect. Conclusion: Fibulin-5 improved EC attachment to artificial surfaces. Dual transfer of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 resulted in EC phenotype with increased adhesion and improved proliferation. This unique EC phenotype can be useful for tissue engineering on endovascular prostheses

  12. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of 125 I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of 125 I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of 125 I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence [ 3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors

  13. Compound heterozygous TYK2 mutations underlie primary immunodeficiency with T-cell lymphopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Michiko; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Maeda, Naoko; Akita, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Hideki; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Maejima, Masami; Ode, Hirotaka; Hachiya, Atsuko; Sugiura, Wataru; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Horibe, Keizo; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2018-05-03

    Complete tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency has been previously described in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. The patients were infected with various pathogens, including mycobacteria and/or viruses, and one of the patients developed hyper-IgE syndrome. A detailed immunological investigation of these patients revealed impaired responses to type I IFN, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-23, which are associated with increased susceptibility to mycobacterial and/or viral infections. Herein, we report a recessive partial TYK2 deficiency in two siblings who presented with T-cell lymphopenia characterized by low naïve CD4 + T-cell counts and who developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoma. Targeted exome-sequencing of the siblings' genomes demonstrated that both patients carried novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.209_212delGCTT/c.691C > T, p.Cys70Serfs*21/p.Arg231Trp) in the TYK2. The TYK2 protein levels were reduced by 35% in the T cells of the patient. Unlike the response under complete TYK2 deficiency, the patient's T cells responded normally to type I IFN, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, whereas the cells displayed an impaired response to IL-23. Furthermore, the level of STAT1 was low in the cells of the patient. These studies reveal a new clinical entity of a primary immunodeficiency with T-cell lymphopenia that is associated with compound heterozygous TYK2 mutations in the patients.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  15. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present...... an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact...... with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration....

  16. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Blumenthal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC.

  17. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Laura; VandenBoom, Timothy; Melian, Edward; Peterson, Anthony; Hutchens, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC. PMID:26594171

  18. Primary cerebral non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis: MRI and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernemann, U.; Skalej, M.; Voigt, K. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Hermisson, M.; Platten, M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Jaffe, R. [Pathology Department, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    We report a young woman with primary cerebral non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the juvenile xanthogranuloma family. The clinical course was complicated by extensive infiltration of cranial nerves and meninges and epi- and intramedullary spinal dissemination. Whereas the cutaneous form of juvenile xanthogranuloma is usually benign and self-limited, central nervous system involvement is associated with high morbidity and mortality and might therefore be considered a separate clinical entity. (orig.)

  19. Glucose-mediated control of ghrelin release from primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ichiro; Park, Won-Mee; Walker, Angela K.; Piper, Paul K.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is released from a distinct group of gastrointestinal cells in response to caloric restriction, whereas its levels fall after eating. The mechanisms by which ghrelin secretion is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we have used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells to investigate ghrelin secretion, with an emphasis on the role of glucose. Ghrelin secretion from these cells upon exposure to different d-glucose concentrations, the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and other potential secretagogues was assessed. The expression profile of proteins involved in glucose transport, metabolism, and utilization within highly enriched pools of mouse ghrelin cells and within cultured ghrelinoma cells was also determined. Ghrelin release negatively correlated with d-glucose concentration. Insulin blocked ghrelin release, but only in a low d-glucose environment. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high d-glucose exposure on ghrelin release. mRNAs encoding several facilitative glucose transporters, hexokinases, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, and sulfonylurea type 1 receptor were expressed highly within ghrelin cells, although neither tolbutamide nor diazoxide exerted direct effects on ghrelin secretion. These findings suggest that direct exposure of ghrelin cells to low ambient d-glucose stimulates ghrelin release, whereas high d-glucose and glucose metabolism within ghrelin cells block ghrelin release. Also, low d-glucose sensitizes ghrelin cells to insulin. Various glucose transporters, channels, and enzymes that mediate glucose responsiveness in other cell types may contribute to the ghrelin cell machinery involved in regulating ghrelin secretion under these different glucose environments, although their exact roles in ghrelin release remain uncertain. PMID:22414807

  20. Vaginal immunization to elicit primary T-cell activation and dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pettini

    Full Text Available Primary T-cell activation at mucosal sites is of utmost importance for the development of vaccination strategies. T-cell priming after vaginal immunization, with ovalbumin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant as model vaccine formulation, was studied in vivo in hormone-synchronized mice and compared to the one induced by the nasal route. Twenty-four hours after both vaginal or nasal immunization, antigen-loaded dendritic cells were detected within the respective draining lymph nodes. Vaginal immunization elicited a strong recruitment of antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells into draining lymph nodes that was more rapid than the one observed following nasal immunization. T-cell clonal expansion was first detected in iliac lymph nodes, draining the genital tract, and proliferated T cells disseminated towards distal lymph nodes and spleen similarly to what observed following nasal immunization. T cells were indeed activated by the antigen encounter and acquired homing molecules essential to disseminate towards distal lymphoid organs as confirmed by the modulation of CD45RB, CD69, CD44 and CD62L marker expression. A multi-type Galton Watson branching process, previously used for in vitro analysis of T-cell proliferation, was applied to model in vivo CFSE proliferation data in draining lymph nodes 57 hours following immunization, in order to calculate the probabilistic decision of a cell to enter in division, rest in quiescence or migrate/die. The modelling analysis indicated that the probability of a cell to proliferate was higher following vaginal than nasal immunization. All together these data show that vaginal immunization, despite the absence of an organized mucosal associated inductive site in the genital tract, is very efficient in priming antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells and inducing their dissemination from draining lymph nodes towards distal lymphoid organs.

  1. Vaginal type-II mucosa is an inductive site for primary CD8+ T-cell mucosal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichuan; Sui, Yongjun; Kato, Shingo; Hogg, Alison E.; Steel, Jason C.; Morris, John C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen -bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8+ T cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T cell immune induction. PMID:25600442

  2. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  3. ''Novel'' types of cooling towers for the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1991-01-01

    New types of cooling towers are beginning to be used abroad for the cooling circuits of nuclear power plants employing power generation units rated at 1,300 to 1,400 MW. These so-called water recovery cooling towers make use of natural draught without a droplet section. They are actually upgraded designs which were built in Europe as far back as 70 years ago. Because of the unsuitable materials then employed, these cooling towers fell into oblivion. Today, however, they are undergoing a renaissance. An upgraded design of these towers is described and compared with existing cooling towers with a droplet section. The feasibility of using these towers in Czechoslovak conditions is considered. (author)

  4. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  5. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne R Roach

    Full Text Available Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF. The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  6. MicroRNA profiling of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Koens

    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of microRNAs is widely accepted to be pathogenetically involved in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs. However, the microRNAs profiles of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs are not yet described. Its two main subtypes, i.e., primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT and primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL are characterized by an activated B-cell (ABC-genotype and a germinal center B-cell (GCB-genotype, respectively. We performed high-throughput sequencing analysis on frozen tumor biopsies from 19 cases of PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT to establish microRNA profiles. Cluster analysis of the complete microRNome could not distinguish between the two subtypes, but 16 single microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Single microRNA RT-qPCR was conducted on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies of 20 additional cases, confirming higher expression of miR-9-5p, miR-31-5p, miR-129-2-3p and miR-214-3p in PCFCL as compared to PCLBCL-LT. MicroRNAs previously described to be higher expressed in ABC-type as compared to GCB-type nodal DLBCL were not differentially expressed between PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT. In conclusion, PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT differ in their microRNA profiles. In contrast to their gene expression profile, they only show slight resemblance with the microRNA profiles found in GCB- and ABC-type nodal DLBCL.

  7. Primary culture of human Schwann and schwannoma cells: improved and simplified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilwali, Sonam; Patel, Pratik B; Roberts, Daniel S; Basinsky, Gina M; Harris, Gordon J; Emerick, Kevin S; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2014-09-01

    Primary culture of human Schwann cells (SCs) and vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells are invaluable tools to investigate SC physiology and VS pathobiology, and to devise effective pharmacotherapies against VS, which are sorely needed. However, existing culture protocols, in aiming to create robust, pure cultures, employ methods that can lead to loss of biological characteristics of the original cells, potentially resulting in misleading biological findings. We have developed a minimally manipulative method to culture primary human SC and VS cells, without the use of selective mitogens, toxins, or time-consuming and potentially transformative laboratory techniques. Schwann cell purity was quantified longitudinally using S100 staining in SC cultures derived from the great auricular nerve and VS cultures followed for 7 and 12 weeks, respectively. SC cultures retained approximately ≥85% purity for 2 weeks. VS cultures retained approximately ≥80% purity for the majority of the span of 12 weeks, with maximal purity of 87% at 2 weeks. The VS cultures showed high level of biological similarity (68% on average) to their respective parent tumors, as assessed using a protein array featuring 41 growth factors and receptors. Apoptosis rate in vitro negatively correlated with tumor volume. Our results, obtained using a faster, simplified culturing method than previously utilized, indicate that highly pure, primary human SC and VS cultures can be established with minimal manipulation, reaching maximal purity at 2 weeks of culture. The VS cultures recapitulate the parent tumors' biology to a great degree, making them relevant models to investigate VS pathobiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome

  9. Cooling tower wood sampling and analyses: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymore, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive wood sampling and analyses programs were initiated on crossflow and counterflow cooling towers that have been in service since 1951 and 1955, respectively. Wood samples were taken from all areas of the towers and were subjected to biological, chemical and physical tests. The tests and results for the analyses are discussed. The results indicate the degree of wood deterioration, and areas of the towers which experience the most advanced degree of degradation

  10. Structural problems in the construction of natural draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural requirements and development possibilities for large cooling towers, and in particular discusses parameter investigations into the reinforcement of cooling tower shells and problems of optimisation. In conclusion proposals are made as to how concrete cooling towers of very large dimensions reinforced with steel, as for example are required in dry cooling for large capacity plant, can be developed economically. (orig.) [de

  11. Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naklie, M.M.; Pless, L.; Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  13. Antioxidant ameliorating effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in primary endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zal, F; Khademi, F; Taheri, R; Mostafavi-Pour, Z

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress and a disrupted antioxidant system are involved in a variety of pregnancy complications. In the present study, the role of vitamin E (Vit E) and folate as radical scavengers on the GSH homeostasis in stress oxidative induced in rat endometrial cells was investigated. Primary endometrial stromal cell cultures treated with 50 and 200 µM of H 2 O 2 and evaluated the cytoprotective effects of Vit E (5 µM) and folate (0.01 µM) in H 2 O 2 -treated cells for 24 h. Following the exposure of endometrial cells to H 2 O 2 alone and in the presence of Vit E and/or folate, cell survival, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase activities and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Cell adhesions comprise of cell attachment and spreading on collagen were determined. Flow cytometric analysis using annexin V was used to measure apoptosis. H 2 O 2 treatment showed a marked decrease in cell viability, GPx and GR activities and the level of GSH. Although Vit E or folate had some protective effect, combination therapy with Vit E and folate attenuated all the changes due to H 2 O 2 toxicity. An increasing number of alive cells was showed in the cells exposed to H 2 O 2 (50 µM) accompanied by co-treatment with Vit E and folic acid. The present findings indicate that co-administration of Vit E and folate before and during pregnancy may maintain a viable pregnancy and contribute to its clinical efficacy for the treatment of some idiopathic infertility.

  14. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  15. Subthreshold IKK activation modulates the effector functions of primary mast cells and allows specific targeting of transformed mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drube, Sebastian; Beyer, Mandy; Rothe, Mandy; Rabenhorst, Anja; Göpfert, Christiane; Meininger, Isabel; Diamanti, Michaela A.; Stegner, David; Häfner, Norman; Böttcher, Martin; Reinecke, Kirstin; Herdegen, Thomas; Greten, Florian R.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Hartmann, Karin; Krämer, Oliver H.; Kamradt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell differentiation and proliferation depends on IL-3. IL-3 induces the activation of MAP-kinases and STATs and consequently induces proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of IL-3 signaling pathways also contribute to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We show here that IL-3 induces a SFK- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the inhibitor of κB kinases 2 (IKK2) which results in mast cell proliferation and survival but does not induce IκBα-degradation and NFκB activation. Therefore we propose the term “subthreshold IKK activation”. This subthreshold IKK activation also primes mast cells for enhanced responsiveness to IL-33R signaling. Consequently, co-stimulation with IL-3 and IL-33 increases IKK activation and massively enhances cytokine production induced by IL-33. We further reveal that in neoplastic mast cells expressing constitutively active Ras, subthreshold IKK activation is associated with uncontrolled proliferation. Consequently, pharmacological IKK inhibition reduces tumor growth selectively by inducing apoptosis in vivo. Together, subthreshold IKK activation is crucial to mediate the full IL-33-induced effector functions in primary mast cells and to mediate uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic mast cells. Thus, IKK2 is a new molecularly defined target structure. PMID:25749030

  16. Early appearance of germinal center–derived memory B cells and plasma cells in blood after primary immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blink, Elizabeth J.; Light, Amanda; Kallies, Axel; Nutt, Stephen L.; Hodgkin, Philip D.; Tarlinton, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization with a T cell–dependent antigen elicits production of specific memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). The kinetic and developmental relationships between these populations and the phenotypic forms they and their precursors may take remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the early stages of a primary immune response, focusing on the appearance of antigen-specific B cells in blood. Within 1 wk, antigen-specific B cells appear in the blood with either a memory phenotype or as immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 ASCs expressing blimp-1. The memory cells have mutated VH genes; respond to the chemokine CXCL13 but not CXCL12, suggesting recirculation to secondary lymphoid organs; uniformly express B220; show limited differentiation potential unless stimulated by antigen; and develop independently of blimp-1 expression. The antigen-specific IgG1 ASCs in blood show affinity maturation paralleling that of bone marrow ASCs, raising the possibility that this compartment is established directly by blood-borne ASCs. We find no evidence for a blimp-1–expressing preplasma memory compartment, suggesting germinal center output is restricted to ASCs and B220+ memory B cells, and this is sufficient to account for the process of affinity maturation. PMID:15710653

  17. A tall tower study of Missouri winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Neil I. [Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, 332 ABNR Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes the results of a study of wind speeds observed at heights up to 150 m above ground level around Missouri. This is an amalgamation of four projects that allowed a total of eleven tall communication towers to be instrumented with wind observation equipment across the State of Missouri. This provided an assessment of the wind resource and the characteristics of the seasonal and diurnal cycles of wind in different areas of Missouri at the heights of utility scale wind turbines. Comparisons were also made to wind speeds predicted at these levels from a previously published wind map. The main finding was that the observed winds at each tower were smaller than those presented in the wind map. The discrepancy is most likely to be due to underestimation of the surface roughness and turbulence leading to an overestimation of near-surface wind shear. However, the wind shear, as expressed by the shear parameter was consistently greater than the 'standard' value of 1.4. The reconciliation of these two apparently contradictory findings is that the shear varies with the height at which it is measured. In wind resource assessment, wind shear is usually observed below 50 m and is tacitly assumed to be constant with height when used to extrapolate winds to higher levels. The author advocates the use of the friction velocity as a measure of shear in wind power applications in preference to the shear parameter that is usually used. This is because the shear parameter has a velocity bias that can also manifest as a bias with height or season. As wind power resource assessment is starting to use taller towers than the standard 50 m, intercomparison of site resources and extrapolation to turbine heights can be compromised if the shear parameter is used. (author)

  18. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes 5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Standardized 3D Bioprinting of Soft Tissue Models with Human Primary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimann, Markus; Bono, Epifania; Annaheim, Helene; Bleisch, Matthias; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Cells grown in 3D are more physiologically relevant than cells cultured in 2D. To use 3D models in substance testing and regenerative medicine, reproducibility and standardization are important. Bioprinting offers not only automated standardizable processes but also the production of complex tissue-like structures in an additive manner. We developed an all-in-one bioprinting solution to produce soft tissue models. The holistic approach included (1) a bioprinter in a sterile environment, (2) a light-induced bioink polymerization unit, (3) a user-friendly software, (4) the capability to print in standard labware for high-throughput screening, (5) cell-compatible inkjet-based printheads, (6) a cell-compatible ready-to-use BioInk, and (7) standard operating procedures. In a proof-of-concept study, skin as a reference soft tissue model was printed. To produce dermal equivalents, primary human dermal fibroblasts were printed in alternating layers with BioInk and cultured for up to 7 weeks. During long-term cultures, the models were remodeled and fully populated with viable and spreaded fibroblasts. Primary human dermal keratinocytes were seeded on top of dermal equivalents, and epidermis-like structures were formed as verified with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining. However, a fully stratified epidermis was not achieved. Nevertheless, this is one of the first reports of an integrative bioprinting strategy for industrial routine application. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  20. Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL is an uncommon and aggressive disease with predominant manifestation in the older age. Herein, we report a case of 47-year-old male patient who presented with three months history of left testis swelling. The patient underwent unilateral (left radical orchiectomy. Histopathological examination revealed extensive involvement and replacement of testicular parenchyma by a tumor composed of large discohesive sheets of cells with pleomorphic, hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed reactivity for LCA & Pan B (CD20 and negativity for OCT 3/4, SALL4 and Inhibin. Moreover, Pan T (CD3 highlighted reactive T-cells. These features rendered the diagnosis of DLBCL of testis. The hybrid 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT demonstrated two para-aortic FDG avid lymph nodes on the left side at the level of L2 vertebra. Presently, the patient has been planned for doxorubicin-based chemotherapy (i.e., cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; CHOP along with intrathecal Methroxate (MTX, which would presumably improve the prognosis. Our study would expand the pool of this uncommon tumor towards its better understanding. Keywords: Primary testicular lymphoma, Diffuse large-B cell lymphoma, Orchiectomy, Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy

  1. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ; Report of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  2. Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering of Cellulose Microstructure in Plant Primary Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Kiemle, Sarah N.; Wang, Cheng; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Gomez, Esther W.; Gomez, Enrique D.

    Cellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material available for the production of renewable and sustainable biofuels. Breaking down cellulose is the rate-limiting step in economical biofuel production; therefore, a detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of plant cell walls is required to develop efficient biofuel conversion methods. Primary cell walls are key determinants of plant growth and mechanics. Their structure is complex and heterogeneous, making it difficult to elucidate how various components such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contribute to the overall structure. The electron density of these wall components is similar; such that conventional hard X-ray scattering does not generate enough contrast to resolve the different elements of the polysaccharide network. The chemical specificity of resonant soft X-ray scattering allows contrast to be generated based on differences in chemistry of the different polysaccharides. By varying incident X-ray energies, we have achieved increased scattering contrast between cellulose and other polysaccharides from primary cell walls of onions. By performing scattering at certain energies, features of the network structure of the cell wall are resolved. From the soft X-ray scattering results, we obtained the packing distance of cellulose microfibrils embedded in the polysaccharide network.

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  4. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered

  5. A study of the life expectancy of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvin, M.; Chauvel, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the following different tasks of the study whose aim was to extend the life time of cooling towers for French Nuclear Power plants to 40 years. The aging factors specific to cooling towers were measured and analysed with regard to the external surface, the internal surface and inside the concrete. The safety coefficient for buckling was calculated and then the stress analysis of the materials (concrete and steel) was done. A special computer program written for cooling towers was used with a model including the soil stiffness and the supports of the tower. (author)

  6. Purification of cells from fresh human brain tissue: primary human glial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizee, Mark R; van der Poel, Marlijn; Huitinga, I.; Huitinga, I.; Webster, M.J.

    2018-01-01

    In order to translate the findings obtained from postmortem brain tissue samples to functional biologic mechanisms of central nervous system disease, it will be necessary to understand how these findings affect the different cell populations in the brain. The acute isolation and analysis of pure

  7. [Endoscopic screening for upper gastrointestinal second primary malignancies in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J J; Xu, W; Lyu, Z H; Ma, J K; Cui, P; Sa, N; Cao, H Y

    2018-04-07

    Objective: To evaluate the usefullness of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of synchronous esophageal neoplasm in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Methods: A retrospective review of 96 cases with HSCC that received surgical treatment from March 2016 to March 2017 was accomplished. In these patients, the site of origin were pyriform sinus ( n =75), posterior pharyngeal wall ( n =11) and postcricoid ( n =10). Esophagoscopy was prospectively performed on all patients before treatment for HSCC. All patients underwent conventional white-light endoscopic examination with Lugol chromoendoscopy and narrow band image. Suspicious areas of narrow band image or Lugol-voiding lesions were observed and biopsied. The treatment strategy of primary HSCC was modified according to the presence of synchronous esophageal squamous cell neoplasms by a multidisciplinary approach. Results: Ninety-six patients were enrolled (age ranging from 37-80 years). All patients did not have previous treatment.Histopathological analysis revealed middle to high-grade dysplasia in 5 cases, Tis cancer in 5 cases, cancer in 16 cases and inflammation or normal findings in the others. Four cases were treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection before hypopharygeal surgery, 3 cases with lower esophageal cancers were treated with gastric pull-up combined with free jejunal flap after total circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy (TCPL) and certical esophagectomy, and 14 cases were treated with TCPL, total esophagectomy and gastric pull-up. Conclusions: Esophagoscopy is a feasible and justified procedure in HSCC cases as it enhances the detection of premalignant lesion or second primary cancer. Routine esophagoscopy for detecting synchronous second primary tumor should be recommended for patients with HSCC. The treatment strategy for primary HSCC is modified according to the presence of synchronous second primary tumor.

  8. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, F.; Haschke, D.; Solfrian, W.

    1976-04-01

    Referring to the present status of knowledge model conceptions, assumptions and approaches are summarized, which can lead to mathematical models for the simulation of dry or wet cooling tower plumes. By developing a one-dimensional plume model (FOG) the most important problems are considered in detail. It is shown that for the calibration of the necessary parameters as well as for the development of models full scale measurements are of decisive importance. After a discussion of different possibilities of measurement the organisation of a campaign of measurement is described. (orig.) [de

  9. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  10. Girassol, Riser Towers for ultra deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougier, Regis

    1999-07-01

    This is a brief presentation of the technical concept developed by ALTO MAR GIRASSOL (AMG) for the Girassol umbilical and flowlines system. In 1998 AMG was awarded a contract by Elf Exploration Angola for the engineering, procurement, construction and installation (EPCI) of the umbilical and flowline system. The technical concept is based around the use of sealine bundles and self-supporting hybrid riser towers which carry the production, water injection, gas injection, gas lift and service lines. The items discussed are: (1) selected field layout, (2) seabed flowlines, hybrid riser system, umbilicals, export lines, installation plan and overall project schedule.

  11. Dynamic testing of NOVA laser switchyard tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    NOVA is the latest in a series of powerful laser systems designed to study the feasibility of initiating a controlled fusion reaction by concentrating several laser beams on a small fuel target. The laser components, turning mirrors and target chamber are all mounted on large steel frame structures. These structures were first analyzed via finite element models to access their seismic integrity as well as their overall vibrational stability. When construction was completed, a modal analysis was performed on the structures to verify and improve the finite element models. This report discusses the linking of the analytical and experimental studies for the NOVA switchyard tower structure

  12. Bioleaching of Primary Nickel Ore Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR Cells Immobilized in Glass Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphide minerals are one of the most important sources of value metals. For several years, a large number of hydrometallurgical and biotechnological processes have been developed to leach low-grade sulphide ores and the conditions are well established. However, the management of microorganisms in the bioleaching process is not easy to handle. In this paper, the use of immobilized cells of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR in glass beads in bioleaching of primary nickel ore was evaluated. The column experiments inoculated with immobilized cells of A. ferrooxidans LR showed the same efficiency than the conventional method using free cells and is promising for application on a larger scale as it ensuring integrity and activity of biomining microorganisms and reduce process costs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.698 

  13. Primary Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Palate with Cushing’s Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqiu Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 24-year-old woman presenting with a relapsed soy-bean-size tender mass at the junction of the soft and hard palate and a history of palatine tumor of small cell carcinoma. Reexcision surgery was performed and histopathological features were consistent. The patient was treated with six cycles of chemotherapy consisting of etoposide and cisplatin. After one year, the patient developed bone metastases and Cushing's syndrome, and successfully recovered with subsequent chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin plus radiotherapy. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis for more than three years. Small cell carcinoma originating in the head and neck region has been reported to be highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis. This is the first case report of a patient with relapsed primary small cell carcinoma of the palate and successfully treated with second-line chemotherapy and local radiotherapy.

  14. Advanced-Stage Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Treated with Bexarotene and Denileukin Diftitox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Cervigón-González

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced-stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has an unfavorable prognosis and low survival rates. Aggressive treatment with chemotherapy is not curative and causes considerable side effects. The combination of bexarotene and denileukin diftitox is associated with an acceptable safety profile and a likely synergistic effect because bexarotene is capable of modulating expression of IL-2 receptor and enhance the susceptibility of T-cell leukemia cells to denileukin diftitox. In the case reported here, the response to this combined treatment was satisfactory and well tolerated. The patient showed a complete regression of pruritus, restlessness, and insomnia. Skin lesions improved partially, and lymphadenopathy was reduced and finally disappeared completely.

  15. Retroviral-mediated gene therapy for the differentiation of primary cells into a mineralizing osteoblastic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for the repair of critical-sized skeletal fractures. However, the clinical application of this approach has been limited by the availability of a robust mineralizing cell source. Non-osteogenic cells, such as skin fibroblasts, are an attractive cell-source alternative because they are easy to harvest from autologous donor skin biopsies and display a high capacity for in vitro expansion. We have recently demonstrated that retroviral gene delivery of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1 promotes osteogenic differentiation in primary dermal fibroblasts cultured in monolayer. Notably, sustained expression of Runx2 was not sufficient to promote functional osteogenesis in these cells, and co-treatment with the steroid hormone dexamethasone was required to induce deposition of biologically-equivalent matrix mineralization. On the basis of these results, we then investigated the osteogenic capacity of these genetically engineered fibroblasts when seeded on polymeric scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. These experiments demonstrated that Runx2-expressing fibroblasts seeded on collagen scaffolds produce significant levels of matrix mineralization after 28 days in vivo implantation in a subcutaneous, heterotopic site. Overall, these results offer evidence that transcription factor-based gene therapy may be a powerful strategy for the conversion of a non-osteogenic cellular phenotype into a mineralizing cell source for bone repair applications. This concept may also be applied to control functional differentiation in a broad range of cell types and tissue engineering applications. The chapter below outlines detailed methods for the isolation and ex vivo genetic modification of primary dermal fibroblasts using retroviral-mediated delivery of the Runx2 transgene in both monolayer culture and three-dimensional scaffolds.

  16. Nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) permeability in newborn rat cortical collecting duct cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, L; Bidet, M; Martial, S; Sanchez, E; Melendez, E; Tauc, M; Poujeol, C; Martin, D; Namorado, M D; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P

    2001-05-01

    To characterize Ca(2+) transport in newborn rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, we used nifedipine, which in adult rat distal tubules inhibits the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase in response to hormonal activation. We found that the dihydropyridine (DHP) nifedipine (20 microM) produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) from 87.6 +/- 3.3 nM to 389.9 +/- 29.0 nM in 65% of the cells. Similar effects of other DHP (BAY K 8644, isradipine) were also observed. Conversely, DHPs did not induce any increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in cells obtained from proximal convoluted tubule. In CCD cells, neither verapamil nor diltiazem induced any rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Experiments in the presence of EGTA showed that external Ca(2+) was required for the nifedipine effect, while lanthanum (20 microM), gadolinium (100 microM), and diltiazem (20 microM) inhibited the effect. Experiments done in the presence of valinomycin resulted in the same nifedipine effect, showing that K(+) channels were not involved in the nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. H(2)O(2) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise. However, nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was not affected by protamine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 1) primary cultures of cells from terminal nephron of newborn rats are a useful tool for investigating Ca(2+) transport mechanisms during growth, and 2) newborn rat CCD cells in primary culture exhibit a new apical nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) channel of capacitive type (either transient receptor potential or leak channel).

  17. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  18. 3D hepatic cultures simultaneously maintain primary hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM, which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1 demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism

  19. Glucosamine exposure reduces proteoglycan synthesis in primary human endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine M. Reine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Glucosamine (GlcN supplements are promoted for medical reasons, for example, for patients with arthritis and other joint-related diseases. Oral intake of GlcN is followed by uptake in the intestine, transport in the circulation and thereafter delivery to chondrocytes. Here, it is postulated to have an effect on synthesis and turnover of extracellular matrix constituents expressed by these cells. Following uptake in the intestine, serum levels are transiently increased, and the endothelium is exposed to increased levels of GlcN. We investigated the possible effects of GlcN on synthesis of proteoglycans (PGs, an important matrix component, in primary human endothelial cells. Methods: Primary human endothelial cells were cultured in vitro in medium with 5 mM glucose and 0–10 mM GlcN. PGs were recovered and analysed by western blotting, or by SDS-PAGE, gel chromatography or ion-exchange chromatography of 35S-PGs after 35S-sulphate labelling of the cells. Results: The synthesis and secretion of 35S-PGs from cultured endothelial cells were reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner after exposure to GlcN. PGs are substituted with sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains, vital for PG function. The reduction in 35S-PGs was not related to an effect on GAG chain length, number or sulphation, but rather to the total expression of PGs. Conclusion: Exposure of endothelial cells to GlcN leads to a general decrease in 35S-PG synthesis. These results suggest that exposure to high levels of GlcN can lead to decreased matrix synthesis, contrary to what has been claimed by supporters of such supplements.

  20. T-cell Responses in the Microenvironment of Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma-Implications for Adoptive Cell Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff; Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin

    2018-01-01

    In vitro expansion of large numbers of highly potent tumor-reactive T cells appears a prerequisite for effective adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as shown in metastatic melanoma (MM). We therefore sought to determine whether renal cell carcinomas (RCC...