Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de
BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with
Bower, P; Rowland, N; Mellor, C l; Heywood, P; Godfrey, C; Hardy, R
Counsellors are prevalent in primary care settings. However, there are concerns about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the treatments they provide, compared with alternatives such as usual care from the general practitioner, medication or other psychological therapies. To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care by reviewing cost and outcome data in randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and controlled patient preference trials of counselling interventions in primary care, for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. The original search strategy included electronic searching of databases (including the CCDAN Register of RCTs and CCTs) along with handsearching of a specialist journal. Published and unpublished sources (clinical trials, books, dissertations, agency reports etc.) were searched, and their reference lists scanned to uncover further controlled trials. Contact was made with subject experts and CCDAN members in order to uncover further trials. For the updated review, searches were restricted to those databases judged to be high yield in the first version of the review: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCLIT and CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials register and the CCDAN trials register. All controlled trials comparing counselling in primary care with other treatments for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. Trials completed before the end of June 2001 were included in the review. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet. The relevant data were entered into the Review Manager software. Trials were quality rated, using CCDAN criteria, to assess the extent to which their design and conduct were likely to have prevented systematic error. Continuous measures of outcome were combined using standardised mean differences. An overall effect size was calculated for each outcome with 95
Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa
Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the
Benamore, R.E.; Wright, D.; Britton, I.
AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia
Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Wright, D. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom); Britton, I. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)
AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia.
Lagomasino, Isabel T; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Green, Jennifer M; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Duan, Naihua; Miranda, Jeanne
Quality improvement interventions for depression care have been shown to be effective for improving quality of care and depression outcomes in settings with primarily insured patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a collaborative care intervention for depression that was tailored for low-income Latino patients seen in public-sector clinics. A total of 400 depressed patients from three public-sector primary care clinics were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a tailored collaborative care intervention versus enhanced usual care. Social workers without previous mental health experience served as depression care specialists for the intervention patients (N=196). Depending on patient preference, they delivered a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention or facilitated antidepressant medication given by primary care providers or both. In enhanced usual care, patients (N=204) received a pamphlet about depression, a letter for their primary care provider stating that they had a positive depression screen, and a list of local mental health resources. Intent-to-treat analyses examined clinical and process-of-care outcomes at 16 weeks. Compared with patients in the enhanced usual care group, patients in the intervention group had significantly improved depression, quality of life, and satisfaction outcomes (ppublic-sector clinics. Social workers without prior mental health experience can effectively provide CBT and manage depression care.
Martín Asuero, Andrés; Rodríguez Blanco, Teresa; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Berenguera, Anna; Moix Queraltó, Jenny
To determine the long-term effects of a mindfulness program on burnout, mood states, empathy, and mindfulness in primary care professionals. A repeated measures before-after study was performed in 87 participants working in primary care. The variables evaluated were scores of the Burnout Inventory (Maslach), mood states (Profile of Mood States [POMS]), empathy (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy [JSPE]) and mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), adherence to the intervention, and changes in attitudes. Evaluations were performed at baseline, at 8 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months. The intervention lasted for 1 year and consisted of two training phases, an intensive first phase lasting 28 hours, spread over 8 weeks, and a second, maintenance phase of 25 hours spread over 10 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed through observed change, standardized response mean (SRM), and linear mixed-effects models on repeated measures. The scores of all the scales improved significantly during the follow-up compared with baseline scores. The greatest differences were obtained at 12 months, especially in the the FFMQ (SRM: 1.4), followed by the POMS (SRM: 0,8). The greatest improvement in the maintenance phase was found in the difference between consecutive scores. The only scale that showed major changes in all phases was the FFMQ scale. At the end of the intervention, 89% of participants practiced the exercises of the program on their own and 94% reported improvements in self-care and greater professionalism. A psychoeducational program based on mindfulness reduces burnout and improves mood states, empathy, and mindfulness, while encouraging better self-care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice ... Design: A quasi experimental design, used multi stage sampling technique to select participants. ... Primary health care centers are fairly evenly distributed in all the 16 local government ...
Richards, David A; Hill, Jacqueline J; Gask, Linda; Lovell, Karina; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bower, Peter; Cape, John; Pilling, Stephen; Araya, Ricardo; Kessler, David; Bland, J Martin; Green, Colin; Gilbody, Simon; Lewis, Glyn; Manning, Chris; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Barkham, Michael
To compare the clinical effectiveness of collaborative care with usual care in the management of patients with moderate to severe depression. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 51 primary care practices in three primary care districts in the United Kingdom. 581 adults aged 18 years and older who met ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) criteria for a depressive episode on the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. We excluded acutely suicidal patients and those with psychosis, or with type I or type II bipolar disorder; patients whose low mood was associated with bereavement or whose primary presenting problem was alcohol or drug abuse; and patients receiving psychological treatment for their depression by specialist mental health services. We identified potentially eligible participants by searching computerised case records in general practices for patients with depression. Collaborative care, including depression education, drug management, behavioural activation, relapse prevention, and primary care liaison, was delivered by care managers. Collaborative care involved six to 12 contacts with participants over 14 weeks, supervised by mental health specialists. Usual care was family doctors' standard clinical practice. Depression symptoms (patient health questionnaire 9; PHQ-9), anxiety (generalised anxiety disorder 7; GAD-7), and quality of life (short form 36 questionnaire; SF-36) at four and 12 months; satisfaction with service quality (client satisfaction questionnaire; CSQ-8) at four months. 276 participants were allocated to collaborative care and 305 allocated to usual care. At four months, mean depression score was 11.1 (standard deviation 7.3) for the collaborative care group and 12.7 (6.8) for the usual care group. After adjustment for baseline depression, mean depression score was 1.33 PHQ-9 points lower (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 2.31, P=0.009) in participants receiving collaborative care than in those receiving usual
Gunn, Jane M; Palmer, Victoria J; Dowrick, Christopher F; Herrman, Helen E; Griffiths, Frances E; Kokanovic, Renata; Blashki, Grant A; Hegarty, Kelsey L; Johnson, Caroline L; Potiriadis, Maria; May, Carl R
Depression and related disorders represent a significant part of general practitioners (GPs) daily work. Implementing the evidence about what works for depression care into routine practice presents a challenge for researchers and service designers. The emerging consensus is that the transfer of efficacious interventions into routine practice is strongly linked to how well the interventions are based upon theory and take into account the contextual factors of the setting into which they are to be transferred. We set out to develop a conceptual framework to guide change and the implementation of best practice depression care in the primary care setting. We used a mixed method, observational approach to gather data about routine depression care in a range of primary care settings via: audit of electronic health records; observation of routine clinical care; and structured, facilitated whole of organisation meetings. Audit data were summarised using simple descriptive statistics. Observational data were collected using field notes. Organisational meetings were audio taped and transcribed. All the data sets were grouped, by organisation, and considered as a whole case. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was identified as an analytical theory to guide the conceptual framework development. Five privately owned primary care organisations (general practices) and one community health centre took part over the course of 18 months. We successfully developed a conceptual framework for implementing an effective model of depression care based on the four constructs of NPT: coherence, which proposes that depression work requires the conceptualisation of boundaries of who is depressed and who is not depressed and techniques for dealing with diffuseness; cognitive participation, which proposes that depression work requires engagement with a shared set of techniques that deal with depression as a health problem; collective action, which proposes that agreement is reached about how
Revicki, D A; Brown, R E; Palmer, W; Bakish, D; Rosser, W W; Anton, S F; Feeny, D
The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of nefazodone compared with imipramine or fluoxetine in treating women with major depressive disorder. Clinical decision analysis and a Markov state-transition model were used to estimate the lifetime health outcomes and medical costs of 3 antidepressant treatments. The model, which represents ideal primary care practice, compares treatment with nefazodone to treatment with either imipramine or fluoxetine. The economic analysis was based on the healthcare system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and considered only direct medical costs. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were in 1993 Canadian dollars ($Can; $Can1 = $US0.75, September 1995). Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated comparing the relative lifetime discounted medical costs and QALYs associated with nefazodone with those of imipramine or fluoxetine. Data for constructing the model and estimating necessary parameters were derived from the medical literature, clinical trial data, and physician judgement. Data included information on: Ontario primary care physicians' clinical management of major depression; medical resource use and costs; probabilities of recurrence of depression; suicide rates; compliance rates; and health utilities. Estimates of utilities for depression-related hypothetical health states were obtained from patients with major depression (n = 70). Medical costs and QALYs were discounted to present value using a 5% rate. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions of the model by varying the discount rate, depression recurrence rates, compliance rates, and the duration of the model. The base case analysis found that nefazodone treatment costs $Can1447 less per patient than imipramine treatment (discounted lifetime medical costs were $Can50,664 vs $Can52,111) and increases the number of QALYs by 0.72 (13.90 vs 13.18). Nefazodone treatment costs $Can14 less than fluoxetine
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Spanish Palliative Care Strategy recommends an intermediate level of training for primary care physicians in order to provide them with knowledge and skills. Most of the training involves face-to-face courses but increasing pressures on physicians have resulted in fewer opportunities for provision of and attendance to this type of training. The effectiveness of on-line continuing medical education in terms of its impact on clinical practice has been scarcely studied. Its effect in relation to palliative care for primary care physicians is currently unknown, in terms of improvement in patient's quality of life and main caregiver's satisfaction. There is uncertainty too in terms of any potential benefits of asynchronous communication and interaction among on-line education participants, as well as of the effect of the learning process. The authors have developed an on-line educational model for palliative care which has been applied to primary care physicians in order to measure its effectiveness regarding knowledge, attitude towards palliative care, and physician's satisfaction in comparison with a control group. The effectiveness evaluation at 18 months and the impact on the quality of life of patients managed by the physicians, and the main caregiver's satisfaction will be addressed in a different paper. Methods Randomized controlled educational trial to compared, on a first stage, the knowledge and attitude of primary care physicians regarding palliative care for advanced cancer patients, as well as satisfaction in those who followed an on-line palliative care training program with tutorship, using a Moodle Platform vs. traditional education. Results 169 physicians were included, 85 in the intervention group and 84 in the control group, of which five were excluded. Finally 82 participants per group were analyzed. There were significant differences in favor of the intervention group, in terms of knowledge (mean 4.6; CI
Pelayo, Marta; Cebrián, Diego; Areosa, Almudena; Agra, Yolanda; Izquierdo, Juan Vicente; Buendía, Félix
The Spanish Palliative Care Strategy recommends an intermediate level of training for primary care physicians in order to provide them with knowledge and skills. Most of the training involves face-to-face courses but increasing pressures on physicians have resulted in fewer opportunities for provision of and attendance to this type of training. The effectiveness of on-line continuing medical education in terms of its impact on clinical practice has been scarcely studied. Its effect in relation to palliative care for primary care physicians is currently unknown, in terms of improvement in patient's quality of life and main caregiver's satisfaction. There is uncertainty too in terms of any potential benefits of asynchronous communication and interaction among on-line education participants, as well as of the effect of the learning process.The authors have developed an on-line educational model for palliative care which has been applied to primary care physicians in order to measure its effectiveness regarding knowledge, attitude towards palliative care, and physician's satisfaction in comparison with a control group.The effectiveness evaluation at 18 months and the impact on the quality of life of patients managed by the physicians, and the main caregiver's satisfaction will be addressed in a different paper. Randomized controlled educational trial to compared, on a first stage, the knowledge and attitude of primary care physicians regarding palliative care for advanced cancer patients, as well as satisfaction in those who followed an on-line palliative care training program with tutorship, using a Moodle Platform vs. traditional education. 169 physicians were included, 85 in the intervention group and 84 in the control group, of which five were excluded. Finally 82 participants per group were analyzed. There were significant differences in favor of the intervention group, in terms of knowledge (mean 4.6; CI 95%: 2.8 to 6.5 (p = 0.0001), scale range 0-33), confidence
Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria; Kjellsson, Gustav
quality is scarce, in particular regarding primary care. This paper adds evidence from recent reforms of Swedish primary care that affected competition in municipal markets differently depending on the pre- reform market structure. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we demonstrate...... that the reforms led to substantially more entry of private care providers in municipalities where there were many patients per provider before the reforms. The effects on primary care quality in these municipalities are modest: we find small improvements in subjective measures of overall care quality......, but no significant effects on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations or patients’ satisfaction with access to care. We find no indications of quality reductions....
Coulton, Simon; Bland, Martin; Crosby, Helen; Dale, Veronica; Drummond, Colin; Godfrey, Christine; Kaner, Eileen; Sweetman, Jennifer; McGovern, Ruth; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parrott, Steve; Tober, Gillian; Watson, Judith; Wu, Qi
To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step). Outcome measures included average drinks per day, AUDIT-C, alcohol-related problems using the Drinking Problems Index, health-related quality of life using the Short Form 12, costs measured from a NHS/Personal Social Care perspective and estimated health gains in quality adjusted life-years measured assessed EQ-5D. Both groups reduced alcohol consumption at 12 months but the difference between groups was small and not significant. No significant differences were observed between the groups on secondary outcomes. In economic terms stepped care was less costly and more effective than the minimal intervention. Stepped care does not confer an advantage over a minimal intervention in terms of reduction in alcohol use for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. However, stepped care has a greater probability of being more cost-effective. Current controlled trials ISRCTN52557360. A stepped care approach was compared with brief intervention for older at-risk drinkers attending primary care. While consumption reduced in both groups over 12 months there was no significant difference between the groups. An economic analysis indicated the stepped care which had a greater probability of being more cost-effective than brief intervention. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights
Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Willenberg, Lisa; Naccarella, Lucio; Furler, John; Young, Doris
The use of blended payment schemes in primary care, including the use of financial incentives to directly reward 'performance' and 'quality' is increasing in a number of countries. There are many examples in the US, and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QoF) for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK is an example of a major system-wide reform. Despite the popularity of these schemes, there is currently little rigorous evidence of their success in improving the quality of primary health care, or of whether such an approach is cost-effective relative to other ways to improve the quality of care. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of changes in the method and level of payment on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians (PCPs) and to identify:i) the different types of financial incentives that have improved quality;ii) the characteristics of patient populations for whom quality of care has been improved by financial incentives; andiii) the characteristics of PCPs who have responded to financial incentives. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychLIT, and ECONLIT. Searches of Internet-based economics and health economics working paper collections were also conducted. Finally, studies were identified through the reference lists of retrieved articles, websites of key organisations, and from direct contact with key authors in the field. Articles were included if they were published from 2000 to August 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) evaluating the impact of different financial interventions on the quality of care delivered by primary healthcare physicians (PCPs). Quality of care was defined as patient reported outcome
DeJesus, Ramona S; Howell, Lisa; Williams, Mark; Hathaway, Julie; Vickers, Kristin S
Chronic disease management in the primary care setting increasingly involves self-management support from a nurse care manager. Prior research had shown patient acceptance and willingness to work with care managers. This survey study evaluated patient-perceived satisfaction with care management and patient opinions on the effectiveness of care management in promoting self-management. Qualitative and quantitative survey responses were collected from 125 patients (79% female; average age 46; 94% Caucasian) enrolled in care management for depression. Qualitative responses were coded with methods of content analysis by 2 independent analysts. Patients were satisfied with depression care management. Patients felt that care management improved their treatment above and beyond other aspects of their depression treatment (mean score, 6.7 [SD, 2]; 10 = Very much), increased their understanding of depression self-management (mean score, 7.2 [SD, 2]; 10 = Very much), and increased the frequency of self-management goal setting (mean score, 6.9 [SD, 3]; 10 = Very much). Predominant qualitative themes emphasized that patients value emotional, motivational, and relational aspects of the care manager relationship. Patients viewed care managers as caring and supportive, helpful in creating accountability for patients and knowledgeable in the area of depression care. Care managers empower patients to take on an active role in depression self-management. Some logistical challenges associated with a telephonic intervention are described. Care manager training should include communication and motivation strategies, specifically self-management education, as these strategies are valued by patients. Barriers to care management, such as scheduling telephone calls, should be addressed in future care management implementation and study.
Lee, Chia-Ling; Liu, Li-Fan; Chen, Shuh-Sin; Lin, Hsiu-Chun
In Taiwan, long-term care management centers hold primary responsibility for administering long-term care services, assisting with long-term care placements, and sharing the care burden with family caregivers in need. Research into the effectiveness of current care management services and the effectiveness of these services in reducing care burdens remains limited. This study investigates the relationship among care management center service effectiveness, care management personnel, and burdens in relation to the provision of care services from the prospective of caregivers. A purposive sampling method and structured questionnaire survey were used to conduct telephone interviews with 154 home caregivers who had been transferred from care management centers to homecare service centers. Participants expressed overall satisfaction with care management centers and with the services provided by these centers. Satisfaction toward the care managers' professional competence was associated with lower physical burden for caregivers. Participants' psychological and social burdens were associated with overall satisfaction with the care management centers and their satisfaction with the services provided by care managers. The implementation of care management services has improved satisfaction. However, center services remain inadequate to reduce the psychological and social burdens of caregivers. Greater focus on these two aspects will be critical to the successful implementation of the proposed intensive care management model and multiple services intervention in order to meet the complex care needs of home service recipients and their primary caregivers.
Huijg, Johanna Maria
Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of primary health care-based physical activity interventions and recommendations for primary health care professionals to promote physical activity, the introduction of physical activity interventions in routine daily primary health care
Wubu, Selam; Hall, Laura Lee; Straub, Paula; Bair, Matthew J; Marsteller, Jill A; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Schneider, Doron; Hood, Gregory A
Chronic pain is a prevalent chronic condition with significant burden and economic impact in the United States. Chronic pain is particularly abundant in primary care, with an estimated 52% of chronic pain patients obtaining care from primary care physicians (PCPs). However, PCPs often lack adequate training and have limited time and resources to effectively manage chronic pain. Chronic pain management is complex in nature because of high co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and other medical comorbidities in patients. This article describes a quality improvement initiative conducted by the American College of Physicians (ACP), in collaboration with the Kentucky ACP Chapter, and the Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, to enhance chronic pain management in 8 primary care practices participating in Accountable Care Organizations in Kentucky, with a goal of enhancing the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with chronic pain.
Adcock, G B
Corporate-based nurse managed centers are not the national norm. More prevalent is the use of an occupational health or physician-directed medical model of care. The author describes how a 14-year-old primary care center at a North Carolina computer software company is just "business as usual" when viewed in the context of the company's philosophy, goals, and culture. Included are considerations for nurse practitioners interested in the successful transplantation of this primary care model to other settings.
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.
Trindade Thiago G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brazil has developed a primary care system based on multidisciplinary teams which include not only a physician and a nurse, but also 4–6 lay community health workers. This system now consists of 26,650 teams, covering 46% of the Brazilian population. Yet relatively few investigations have examined its effectiveness, especially in contrast with that of the traditional multi-specialty physician team approach it is replacing, or that of other existing family medicine approaches placing less emphasis on lay community health workers. Primary health care can be defined through its domains of access to first contact, continuity, coordination, comprehensiveness, community orientation and family orientation. These attributes can be ascertained via instruments such as the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool, and correlated with the effectiveness of care. The objectives of our study are to validate the adult version of this instrument in Portuguese, identify the extent (quality of primary care present in different models of primary care services, and correlate this extent with measures of process and outcomes in patients with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods/Design We are conducting a population-based cross-sectional study of primary care in the municipality of Porto Alegre. We will interview a random sample totaling 3000 adults residing in geographic areas covered by four distinct models of primary care of the Brazilian national health system or, alternatively, by one nationally prominent complementary health care service, as well as the physicians and nurses of the health teams of these services. Interviews query perceived quality of care (PCATool-Adult Version, patient satisfaction, and process indicators of management of diabetes, hypertension and known CHD. We are measuring blood pressure, anthropometrics and, in adults with known diabetes, glycated hemoglobin. Discussion We hope to
Sarvet, Barry D; Wegner, Lynn
By working in collaboration with pediatric primary care providers, child and adolescent psychiatrists have the opportunity to address significant levels of unmet need for the majority of children and teenagers with serious mental health problems who have been unable to gain access to care. Effective collaboration with primary care represents a significant change from practice-as-usual for many child and adolescent psychiatrists. Implementation of progressive levels of collaborative practice, from the improvement of provider communication through the development of comprehensive collaborative systems, may be possible with sustained management efforts and application of process improvement methodology.
Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
McIlrath, Carole; Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; McLaughlin, Derek
This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify and gain consensus on appropriate benchmarks for effective primary care-based nursing services for adults with depression. Worldwide evidence suggests that between 5% and 16% of the population have a diagnosis of depression. Most of their care and treatment takes place in primary care. In recent years, primary care nurses, including community mental health nurses, have become more involved in the identification and management of patients with depression; however, there are no appropriate benchmarks to guide, develop and support their practice. In 2006, a three-round electronic Delphi survey was completed by a United Kingdom multi-professional expert panel (n = 67). Round 1 generated 1216 statements relating to structures (such as training and protocols), processes (such as access and screening) and outcomes (such as patient satisfaction and treatments). Content analysis was used to collapse statements into 140 benchmarks. Seventy-three benchmarks achieved consensus during subsequent rounds. Of these, 45 (61%) were related to structures, 18 (25%) to processes and 10 (14%) to outcomes. Multi-professional primary care staff have similar views about the appropriate benchmarks for care of adults with depression. These benchmarks could serve as a foundation for depression improvement initiatives in primary care and ongoing research into depression management by nurses.
Full Text Available For the treatment of depressive disorders, the framework of collaborative care has been recommended, which showed improved outcomes in the primary care sector. Yet, an earlier literature review did not find sufficient evidence to draw robust conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care.To systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care, compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care.A systematic literature search in major databases was conducted. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC list. To ensure comparability across studies, cost data were inflated to the year 2012 using country-specific gross domestic product inflation rates, and were adjusted to international dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP.In total, 19 cost-effectiveness analyses were reviewed. The included studies had sample sizes between n = 65 to n = 1,801, and time horizons between six to 24 months. Between 42% and 89% of the CHEC quality criteria were fulfilled, and in only one study no risk of bias was identified. A societal perspective was used by five studies. Incremental costs per depression-free day ranged from dominance to US$PPP 64.89, and incremental costs per QALY from dominance to US$PPP 874,562.Despite our review improved the comparability of study results, cost-effectiveness of collaborative care compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care is ambiguous depending on willingness to pay. A still considerable uncertainty, due to inconsistent methodological quality and results among included studies, suggests further cost-effectiveness analyses using QALYs as effect measures and a time horizon of at least 1 year.
3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.
The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Arias-Vimárlund, V.; Ljunggren, M.; Timpka, T.
OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the societal health economic effects occurring during the first year after implementation of Computerised Patient Records (CPRs) at Primary Health Care (PHC) centres. DESIGN: Comparative case studies of practice processes and their consequences one year after CPR implementation, using the constant comparison method. Application of transaction-cost analyses at a societal level on the results. SETTING: Two urban PHC centres under a managed care contract in Ostergötland...
Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Davidson, Judith R; Dawson, Samantha; Krsmanovic, Adrijana
Primary care is where many patients with insomnia first ask for professional help. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended treatment for chronic insomnia. Although CBT-I's efficacy is well established, its effectiveness in real-life primary care has seldom been investigated. We examined the effectiveness of CBT-I as routinely delivered in a Canadian primary care setting. The patients were 70 women and 11 men (mean age = 57.0 years, SD = 12.3); 83% had medical comorbidity. For the first 81 patients who took the six-session group program we compared initial and postprogram sleep diaries, sleep medication use, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and visits to the family physician. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and ISI scores improved significantly (p 7). Wait-list data from 42 patients showed minimal sleep and mood improvements with the passage of time. Number of visits to the family physician six months postprogram decreased, although not significantly (p = .108). The CBT-I program was associated with improvement on all sleep and mood measures. Effect sizes were similar to, or larger than, those found in randomized controlled trials, demonstrating the real-world effectiveness of CBT-I in an interdisciplinary primary care setting.
Newby, Jill M; Mewton, Louise; Williams, Alishia D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413576493; Andrews, Gavin
BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (iCBT) has been shown to be effective for the combined treatment of depression and anxiety in randomised controlled trials. The degree to which these findings generalise to patients in primary care awaits further investigation. METHODS:
Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna
OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...... Guideline. RESULTS: Data were available from 143 health centres in Finland (49%). The views of head physicians and senior nursing officers on the adoption of the Hypertension Guideline were not consistent. Head physicians more often than senior nursing officers (44% vs. 29%, p ...: Hypertension Guideline recommendations that require joint agreements between professionals are less often adopted than simple, precise recommendations. More emphasis on effective multidisciplinary collaboration is needed....
Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.
Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…
The uptake of family health teams in Ontario has been tremendous. And the creation of group practices in primary care has taken root in other provinces as well. For many people, being involved with something new is exciting. At the same time, once they are committed, they discover the challenges that can be simultaneously exhilarating and frustrating. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly offers two articles that provide interesting reflections on what has been learned so far from the perspectives of both team leadership and the team members themselves within a transforming primary care system.
Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams, Scott J; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran; Fortney, John; Rost, Kathryn
Federally qualified health centers across the country are adopting depression disease management programs following federally mandated training; however, little is known about the relative effectiveness of depression disease management in rural versus urban patient populations. To explore whether a depression disease management program has a comparable impact on clinical outcomes over 2 years in patients treated in rural and urban primary care practices and whether the impact is mediated by receiving evidence-based care (antidepressant medication and specialty care counseling). A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted in a consecutively sampled cohort of 479 depressed primary care patients recruited from 12 practices in 10 states across the country participating in the Quality Enhancement for Strategic Teaming study. Depression disease management improved the mental health status of urban patients over 18 months but not rural patients. Effects were not mediated by antidepressant medication or specialty care counseling in urban or rural patients. Depression disease management appears to improve clinical outcomes in urban but not rural patients. Because these programs compete for scarce resources, health care organizations interested in delivering depression disease management to rural populations need to advocate for programs whose clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated for rural residents.
Baggaley, R. F.; Irvine, M. A.; Leber, W.; Cambiano, V.; Figueroa, J.; McMullen, H.; Anderson, J.; Santos, A. C.; Terris-Prestholt, F.; Miners, A.; Hollingsworth, T. D.; Griffiths, C. J.
BACKGROUND: Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care. METHODS: We modelled the effect of the four-times higher diagnosis rate observed in the intervention arm of the RHIVA2 randomised controlled trial done in Hackney, London (UK),...
Baggaley, Rebecca F; Irvine, Michael A; Leber, Werner; Cambiano, Valentina; Figueroa, Jose; McMullen, Heather; Anderson, Jane; Santos, Andreia C; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Miners, Alec; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Griffiths, Chris J
Summary Background Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care. Methods We modelled the effect of the four-times higher diagnosis rate observed in the intervention arm of the RHIVA2 randomised controlled trial done in Hackney, London...
Claire van Deventer
Keywords: child HIV, doctor involvement, primary health care, quality improvement ... expertise increased, PHC facilities are now expected to be able to .... organised patient documentation were revisited. .... Review: what can we learn from quality ... South Pacific: Review of evidence and lessons from an innovative.
Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Einarsdottir, Emilia J; Edvardsson, Ingi Runar
When financial cuts are made, staff redundancies and reorganisation in the healthcare system often follow. Little is known how such cutbacks affect work motivation of nurses in primary health care. Examine the effects of cutbacks on motivating factors among nurses in primary health care. A phenomenological approach involving a purposeful sample of ten nurses in primary health care. Average age 44. The participants identified the job itself, autonomy, independence, good communication with co-workers, and the potential for professional training, learning and development as the main internal motivational factors related to their work. However, increased stress and uncertainty, growing fatigue and understaffing were starting to have a negative impact on these internal motivational factors. Moreover, reduced opportunities for professional training and development had negative effects on the participants. Many saw these opportunities as a vital part of recognition for their job performance. Regarding external motivation, the factors identified were job security, salaries and rewards, and interaction with management. The participants expressed their interest in more consultation with managers and most preferred an increased flow of information from managers to staff members during cutbacks. Salaries, professional training opportunities and appreciation were rewards named by participants for a job well done. All agreed that salaries are stronger motivational factors than before cutbacks. In the case of cutbacks, nursing managers should increase consultations with staff and make sure that nurses maintain their independence, autonomy, opportunities for professional training as well as appreciation for job well done. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Morton, Katie; Beauchamp, Mark; Prothero, Anna; Joyce, Lauren; Saunders, Laura; Spencer-Bowdage, Sarah; Dancy, Bernadette; Pedlar, Charles
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.
Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rost, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Dickinson, Miriam
Objective: To test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Setting and Subjects: Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients identified in a previsit screening. Research Design: Practices were stratified by depression treatment patterns before randomization to enhanced or usual care. After delivering brief training, enhanced care clinicians provided improved depression management over 24 months. The research team evaluated productivity and absenteeism at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in 326 patients who reported full-or part-time work at one or more completed waves. Results: Employed patients in the enhanced care condition reported 6.1% greater productivity and 22.8% less absenteeism over 2 years. Consistent with its impact on depression severity and emotional role functioning, intervention effects were more observable in consistently employed subjects where the intervention improved productivity by 8.2% over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $1982 per depressed full-time equivalent and reduced absenteeism by 28.4% or 12.3 days over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $619 per depressed full-time equivalent. Conclusions: This trial, which is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that improving the quality of care for any chronic disease has positive consequences for productivity and absenteeism, encourages formal cost-benefit research to assess the potential return-on-investment employers of stable workforces can realize from using their purchasing power to encourage better depression treatment for their employees. PMID:15550800
Rost, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey L; Dickinson, Miriam
To test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients identified in a previsit screening. Practices were stratified by depression treatment patterns before randomization to enhanced or usual care. After delivering brief training, enhanced care clinicians provided improved depression management over 24 months. The research team evaluated productivity and absenteeism at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in 326 patients who reported full-or part-time work at one or more completed waves. Employed patients in the enhanced care condition reported 6.1% greater productivity and 22.8% less absenteeism over 2 years. Consistent with its impact on depression severity and emotional role functioning, intervention effects were more observable in consistently employed subjects where the intervention improved productivity by 8.2% over 2 years at an estimated annual value of US 1982 dollars per depressed full-time equivalent and reduced absenteeism by 28.4% or 12.3 days over 2 years at an estimated annual value of US 619 dollars per depressed full-time equivalent. This trial, which is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that improving the quality of care for any chronic disease has positive consequences for productivity and absenteeism, encourages formal cost-benefit research to assess the potential return-on-investment employers of stable workforces can realize from using their purchasing power to encourage better depression treatment for their employees.
Baggaley, Rebecca F; Irvine, Michael A; Leber, Werner; Cambiano, Valentina; Figueroa, Jose; McMullen, Heather; Anderson, Jane; Santos, Andreia C; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Miners, Alec; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Griffiths, Chris J
Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care. We modelled the effect of the four-times higher diagnosis rate observed in the intervention arm of the RHIVA2 randomised controlled trial done in Hackney, London (UK), a borough with high HIV prevalence (≥0·2% adult prevalence). We constructed a dynamic, compartmental model representing incidence of infection and the effect of screening for HIV in general practices in Hackney. We assessed cost-effectiveness of the RHIVA2 trial by fitting model diagnosis rates to the trial data, parameterising with epidemiological and behavioural data from the literature when required, using trial testing costs and projecting future costs of treatment. Over a 40 year time horizon, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were £22 201 (95% credible interval 12 662-132 452) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, £372 207 (268 162-1 903 385) per death averted, and £628 874 (434 902-4 740 724) per HIV transmission averted. Under this model scenario, with UK cost data, RHIVA2 would reach the upper National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold (about £30 000 per QALY gained) after 33 years. Scenarios using cost data from Canada (which indicate prolonged and even higher health-care costs for patients diagnosed late) suggest this threshold could be reached in as little as 13 years. Screening for HIV in primary care has important public health benefits as well as clinical benefits. We predict it to be cost-effective in the UK in the medium term. However, this intervention might be cost-effective far sooner, and even cost-saving, in settings where long-term health-care costs of late-diagnosed patients in high
Coates, Allan L; Graham, Brian L; McFadden, Robin G; McParland, Colm; Moosa, Dilshad; Provencher, Steeve; Road, Jeremy
Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inform and guide the accreditation process for spirometry in each province. Although many of the principles discussed are equally applicable to pulmonary function laboratories and interpretation of tests by respirologists, they are held to a higher standard and are outside the scope of the present statement. PMID:23457669
Hill, Jonathan C.; Foster, Nadine E.; Protheroe, Joanne
Background & aims Musculoskeletal pain, the most common cause of disability globally, is most frequently managed in primary care. People with musculoskeletal pain in different body regions share similar characteristics, prognosis, and may respond to similar treatments. This overview aims to summarise current best evidence on currently available treatment options for the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations (back, neck, shoulder, knee and multi-site pain) in primary care. Methods A systematic search was conducted. Initial searches identified clinical guidelines, clinical pathways and systematic reviews. Additional searches found recently published trials and those addressing gaps in the evidence base. Data on study populations, interventions, and outcomes of intervention on pain and function were extracted. Quality of systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, and strength of evidence rated using a modified GRADE approach. Results Moderate to strong evidence suggests that exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions are effective for relieving pain and improving function for musculoskeletal pain. NSAIDs and opioids reduce pain in the short-term, but the effect size is modest and the potential for adverse effects need careful consideration. Corticosteroid injections were found to be beneficial for short-term pain relief among patients with knee and shoulder pain. However, current evidence remains equivocal on optimal dose, intensity and frequency, or mode of application for most treatment options. Conclusion This review presents a comprehensive summary and critical assessment of current evidence for the treatment of pain presentations in primary care. The evidence synthesis of interventions for common musculoskeletal pain presentations shows moderate-strong evidence for exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions, with short-term benefits only from pharmacological treatments. Future research into optimal dose and application of the most
Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen; Broge, Bjoern; Laux, Gunter; Willms, Sara; Wensing, Michel; Goetz, Katja
Background: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving management in primary care practices in Germany, with a focus on the domain of quality and safety. Methods: In a before–after study, 102 primary care practices completed a practice assessment using the European Practice Assessment instrument at baseline and three years later (intervention group). A comparative group of 102 practices was included that completed their first assessment using this instrument at the time of the intervention group’s second assessment. Mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100. Results: We found significant improvements in all domains between the first and second assessments in the intervention group. In the domain of quality and safety, improvements in scores (mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100) were observed in the following dimensions: complaint management (from a mean score of 51.2 at first assessment to 80.7 at second assessment); analysis of critical incidents (from 79.1 to 89.6); and quality development, quality policy (from 40.7 to 55.6). Overall scores at the time of the second assessment were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparative group. Interpretation: Primary care practices that completed the European Practice Assessment instrument twice over a three-year period showed improvements in practice management. Our findings show the value of the quality-improvement cycle in the context of practice assessment and the use of established organizational standards for practice management with the
Wong, Wendy; Lam, L K Cindy; Li, Rita; Ho, Sze Hon; Fai, Leung Kwok; Li, Zhao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the primary care system in many places, but research evidence on its effectiveness is largely lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness between TCM and Western medicine (WM) consultations in primary care. To evaluate whether medical consultations could improve the quality of life and health condition of patients in primary care and to find out whether there was any difference in the effectiveness bewteen TCM and WM. This was a prospective, longitudinal study on 290 patients of one TCM public and 841 patients of two WM general outpatient clinics (GOPC) in Hong Kong when they consulted for an episodic illness. All patients attending a TCM GOPC in TWH, and the two WM GOPC (TWH and ALC), who fullfilled the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Each patient answered a structured questionnaire on the presenting complaint, socio-demography, chronic morbidity and service utilization, the Chinese Quality of Life instrument (ChQOL) and the SF-36V2 Health Survey immediately before and two weeks after the doctor consultation. The Global Rating on change Scale (GRS) was also administered in the week 2 assessment. The primary outcomes were changes in the ChQOL and SF-36V2 HRQOL scores. Secondary outcomes included the GRS score. The significance of the change within individual were tested by paired t-tests. The differences in change in scores between WM and TCM were tested by independent sample-t-tests or chi-square, as appropriate. Multivariate regresions were used to determine the independent effect of type of medicine on the change in HRQOL scores. Mean ChQOL and SF-36V2 scores of subjects improved significantly two weeks after TCM or WM consultations in all domains except for the Physical form domain of ChQOL. The greatest improvements were found in the SF-36V2 physical-health related domains. 78% TCM clinics and 71% of subjects WM clinics reported an improvement in GRS. The
The economic crisis and deterioration of the Portuguese National Health service has forced professionals to leave the country. The Portuguese National Health System was introduced in 1976, but it has been unable to provide citizens with the social and health advantages of an equality of access and free national health system. The Portuguese National Health System is financed by taxes. However, a 35% of its incomes are from private sources. The health minister decides the budget, and it is based on an historical financing plus a per capita system. Portuguese citizens and immigrants are entitled to free health care, but there is a co-payment for care, diagnostic, pharmacy, and emergency care. Health care provision is a mixture of public and private health care at a regional level. It leads to fragmentation of services and greater inequalities. Doctors are civil servants. Salary is regulated and it depends on seniority and on-call shifts. Primary care activities are similar to those of their Spanish counterparts. General practitioners have gatekeeper function, but the system is imperfect, and patients with private insurance get direct access to the specialist. Specialist training is similar to the training system in Spain. Continuing education is not regulated. The Portuguese Health System has been trying to become a national health system since 1979. Political instability, fragmentation of services, lack of clarity between public and private and co-payments are important constraints. Inequalities are an important problem to reconsider while discussing a national health system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care
Leurent Baptiste E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence suggests cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT may be effective for depressed older people in a primary care setting, few studies have examined its cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, a talking control (TC and treatment as usual (TAU, delivered in a primary care setting, for older people with depression. Methods Cost data generated from a single blind randomised controlled trial of 204 people aged 65 years or more were offered only Treatment as Usual, or TAU plus up to twelve sessions of CBT or a talking control is presented. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II was the main outcome measure for depression. Direct treatment costs were compared with reductions in depression scores. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using non-parametric bootstrapping. The primary analysis focussed on the cost-effectiveness of CBT compared with TAU at 10 months follow up. Results Complete cost data were available for 198 patients at 4 and 10 month follow up. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline costs. The majority of health service contacts at follow up were made with general practitioners. Fewer contacts with mental health services were recorded in patients allocated to CBT, though these differences were not significant. Overall total per patient costs (including intervention costs were significantly higher in the CBT group compared with the TAU group at 10 month follow up (difference £427, 95% CI: £56 - £787, p Conclusions CBT is significantly more costly than TAU alone or TAU plus TC, but more clinically effective. Based on current estimates, CBT is likely to be recommended as a cost-effective treatment option for this patient group if the value placed on a unit reduction in BDI-II is greater than £115. Trial Registration isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN18271323
Greiver, Michelle; Wintemute, Kimberly; Aliarzadeh, Babak; Martin, Ken; Khan, Shahriar; Jackson, Dave; Leggett, Jannet; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Siu, Maggie
Consistent and standardized coding for chronic conditions is associated with better care; however, coding may currently be limited in electronic medical records (EMRs) used in Canadian primary care.Objectives To implement data management activities in a community-based primary care organisation and to evaluate the effects on coding for chronic conditions. Fifty-nine family physicians in Toronto, Ontario, belonging to a single primary care organisation, participated in the study. The organisation implemented a central analytical data repository containing their EMR data extracted, cleaned, standardized and returned by the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN), a large validated primary care EMR-based database. They used reporting software provided by CPCSSN to identify selected chronic conditions and standardized codes were then added back to the EMR. We studied four chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia). We compared changes in coding over six months for physicians in the organisation with changes for 315 primary care physicians participating in CPCSSN across Canada. Chronic disease coding within the organisation increased significantly more than in other primary care sites. The adjusted difference in the increase of coding was 7.7% (95% confidence interval 7.1%-8.2%, p Data management activities were associated with an increase in standardized coding for chronic conditions. Exploring requirements to scale and spread this approach in Canadian primary care organisations may be worthwhile.
Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Ruland, Sandra; Diaz, Stephanie; Morrato, Elaine H; Jones, Eric
Care management and care managers are becoming increasingly prevalent in primary care medical practice as a means of improving population health and reducing unnecessary care. Care managers are often involved in chronic disease management and associated transitional care. In this study, we examined the communication regarding chronic disease care within 24 primary care practices in Michigan and Colorado. We sought to answer the following questions: Do care managers play a key role in chronic disease management in the practice? Does the prominence of the care manager's connectivity within the practice's communication network vary by the type of care management structure implemented? Individual written surveys were given to all practice members in the participating practices. Survey questions assessed demographics as well as practice culture, quality improvement, care management activities, and communication regarding chronic disease care. Using social network analysis and other statistical methods, we analyzed the communication dynamics related to chronic disease care for each practice. The structure of chronic disease communication varies greatly from practice to practice. Care managers who were embedded in the practice or co-located were more likely to be in the core of the communication network than were off-site care managers. These care managers also had higher in-degree centrality, indicating that they acted as a hub for communication with team members in many other roles. Social network analysis provided a useful means of examining chronic disease communication in practice, and highlighted the central role of care managers in this communication when their role structure supported such communication. Structuring care managers as embedded team members within the practice has important implications for their role in chronic disease communication within primary care.
Taveras, Elsie M; Marshall, Richard; Kleinman, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W; Hacker, Karen; Horan, Christine M; Smith, Renata L; Price, Sarah; Sharifi, Mona; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Simon, Steven R
Evidence of effective treatment of childhood obesity in primary care settings is limited. To examine the extent to which computerized clinical decision support (CDS) delivered to pediatric clinicians at the point of care of obese children, with or without individualized family coaching, improved body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and quality of care. We conducted a cluster-randomized, 3-arm clinical trial. We enrolled 549 children aged 6 to 12 years with a BMI at the 95% percentile or higher from 14 primary care practices in Massachusetts from October 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. Patients were followed up for 1 year (last follow-up, August 30, 2013). In intent-to-treat analyses, we used linear mixed-effects models to account for clustering by practice and within each person. In 5 practices randomized to CDS, pediatric clinicians received decision support on obesity management, and patients and their families received an intervention for self-guided behavior change. In 5 practices randomized to CDS + coaching, decision support was augmented by individualized family coaching. The remaining 4 practices were randomized to usual care. Smaller age-associated change in BMI and the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures for obesity during the 1-year follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) patient age and BMI were 9.8 (1.9) years and 25.8 (4.3), respectively. At 1 year, we obtained BMI from 518 children (94.4%) and HEDIS measures from 491 visits (89.4%). The 3 randomization arms had different effects on BMI over time (P = .04). Compared with the usual care arm, BMI increased less in children in the CDS arm during 1 year (-0.51 [95% CI, -0.91 to -0.11]). The CDS + coaching arm had a smaller magnitude of effect (-0.34 [95% CI, -0.75 to 0.07]). We found substantially greater achievement of childhood obesity HEDIS measures in the CDS arm (adjusted odds ratio, 2.28 [95% CI, 1
Full Text Available Background: Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of screening and brief alcohol interventions in primary healthcare. However lack of understanding about their ‘active ingredients’ and concerns over the extent to which current approaches remain faithful to their original theoretical roots, has led some to demand a cautious approach to future roll-out pending further research. Against this background, this paper provides a timely overview of the development of the brief alcohol intervention evidence base in order to assess the extent to which it has achieved the four key levels of intervention research: efficacy; effectiveness; implementation; and demonstration.Methods: Narrative overview based on:(1 results of a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention in primary healthcare;(2 synthesis of the findings of key additional primary studies on the improvement and evaluation of brief alcohol intervention implementation in routine primary healthcare.Results: The brief intervention field seems to constitute an almost perfect example of the evaluation of a complex intervention. Early evaluations of screening and brief intervention approaches included more tightly controlled efficacy trials and have been followed by more pragmatic trials of effectiveness in routine clinical practice. Most recently, attention has shifted to dissemination, implementation and wider-scale roll-out. However, delivery in routine primary health remains inconsistent, with an identified knowledge gap around how to successfully embed brief alcohol intervention approaches in mainstream care, and as yet unanswered questions concerning what specific intervention component prompt the positive changes in alcohol consumption.Conclusion: Both the efficacy and effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions have been comprehensively demonstrated, and intervention effects seem replicable and stable over time, and across
Thornton, J Daryl; Sullivan, Catherine; Albert, Jeffrey M; Cedeño, Maria; Patrick, Bridget; Pencak, Julie; Wong, Kristine A; Allen, Margaret D; Kimble, Linda; Mekesa, Heather; Bowen, Gordon; Sehgal, Ashwini R
Low organ donation rates remain a major barrier to organ transplantation. We aimed to determine the effect of a video and patient cueing on organ donation consent among patients meeting with their primary care provider. This was a randomized controlled trial between February 2013 and May 2014. The waiting rooms of 18 primary care clinics of a medical system in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The study included 915 patients over 15.5 years of age who had not previously consented to organ donation. Just prior to their clinical encounter, intervention patients (n = 456) watched a 5-minute organ donation video on iPads and then choose a question regarding organ donation to ask their provider. Control patients (n = 459) visited their provider per usual routine. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who consented for organ donation. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who discussed organ donation with their provider and the proportion who were satisfied with the time spent with their provider during the clinical encounter. Intervention patients were more likely than control patients to consent to donate organs (22 % vs. 15 %, OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10-2.13). Intervention patients were also more likely to have donation discussions with their provider (77 % vs. 18 %, OR 15.1, 95%CI 11.1-20.6). Intervention and control patients were similarly satisfied with the time they spent with their provider (83 % vs. 86 %, OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.61-1.25). How the observed increases in organ donation consent might translate into a greater organ supply is unclear. Watching a brief video regarding organ donation and being cued to ask a primary care provider a question about donation resulted in more organ donation discussions and an increase in organ donation consent. Satisfaction with the time spent during the clinical encounter was not affected. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01697137.
Ben Charif, Ali; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; LeBlanc, Annie; Langlois, Léa; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin; Williams, Christopher M; Lépine, Roxanne; Légaré, France
While an extensive array of existing evidence-based practices (EBPs) have the potential to improve patient outcomes, little is known about how to implement EBPs on a larger scale. Therefore, we sought to identify effective strategies for scaling up EBPs in primary care. We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: (i) study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after (with/without control), and interrupted time series; (ii) participants: primary care-related units (e.g., clinical sites, patients); (iii) intervention: any strategy used to scale up an EBP; (iv) comparator: no restrictions; and (v) outcomes: no restrictions. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2016 and consulted clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, then extracted and analyzed data following the Cochrane methodology. We extracted components of scaling-up strategies and classified them into five categories: infrastructure, policy/regulation, financial, human resources-related, and patient involvement. We extracted scaling-up process outcomes, such as coverage, and provider/patient outcomes. We validated data extraction with study authors. We included 14 studies. They were published since 2003 and primarily conducted in low-/middle-income countries (n = 11). Most were funded by governmental organizations (n = 8). The clinical area most represented was infectious diseases (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, n = 8), followed by newborn/child care (n = 4), depression (n = 1), and preventing seniors' falls (n = 1). Study designs were mostly before-and-after (without control, n = 8). The most frequently targeted unit of scaling up was the clinical site (n = 11). The component of a scaling-up strategy most frequently mentioned was human resource-related (n = 12). All
Ali Ben Charif
Full Text Available Abstract Background While an extensive array of existing evidence-based practices (EBPs have the potential to improve patient outcomes, little is known about how to implement EBPs on a larger scale. Therefore, we sought to identify effective strategies for scaling up EBPs in primary care. Methods We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: (i study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after (with/without control, and interrupted time series; (ii participants: primary care-related units (e.g., clinical sites, patients; (iii intervention: any strategy used to scale up an EBP; (iv comparator: no restrictions; and (v outcomes: no restrictions. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2016 and consulted clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, then extracted and analyzed data following the Cochrane methodology. We extracted components of scaling-up strategies and classified them into five categories: infrastructure, policy/regulation, financial, human resources-related, and patient involvement. We extracted scaling-up process outcomes, such as coverage, and provider/patient outcomes. We validated data extraction with study authors. Results We included 14 studies. They were published since 2003 and primarily conducted in low-/middle-income countries (n = 11. Most were funded by governmental organizations (n = 8. The clinical area most represented was infectious diseases (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, n = 8, followed by newborn/child care (n = 4, depression (n = 1, and preventing seniors’ falls (n = 1. Study designs were mostly before-and-after (without control, n = 8. The most frequently targeted unit of scaling up was the clinical site (n = 11. The component of a scaling-up strategy most frequently mentioned was
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative disease, considered to be one of the major public health problems. Research suggests that patient education is feasible and valuable for achieving improvements in quality of life, in function, well-being and improved coping. Since 1994, Primary Health Care in Malmö has used a patient education programme directed towards OA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this education programme for patients with OA in primary health care in terms of self-efficacy, function and self-perceived health. Method The study was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT in which the EuroQol-5D and Arthritis self-efficacy scale were used to measure self-perceived health and self-efficacy and function was measured with Grip Ability Test for the upper extremity and five different functional tests for the lower extremity. Results We found differences between the intervention group and the control group, comparing the results at baseline and after 6 months in EuroQol-5D (p Conclusion This study has shown that patient education for patients with osteoarthritis is feasible in a primary health care setting and can improve self-perceived health as well as function in some degree, but not self-efficacy. Further research to investigate the effect of exercise performance on function, as well as self-efficacy is warranted. Trial registration The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Registration number: NCT00979914
Fuentes Camps, Eva; Luis del Val García, José; Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi; Hmimina Hmimina, Sara; Gómez Jabalera, Efren; Muñoz Pérez, Miguel Ángel
To analyse the cost effectiveness of the application of diagnostic algorithms in patients with a first episode of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Primary Care compared with systematic referral to specialised centres. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. Patients from hospital emergency rooms referred from Primary Care to complete clinical evaluation and diagnosis. A total of 138 patients with symptoms of a first episode of DVT were recruited; 22 were excluded (no Primary Care report, symptoms for more than 30 days, anticoagulant treatment, and previous DVT). Of the 116 patients finally included, 61% women and the mean age was 71 years. Variables from the Wells and Oudega clinical probability scales, D-dimer (portable and hospital), Doppler ultrasound, and direct costs generated by the three algorithms analysed: all patients were referred systematically, referral according to Wells and Oudega scale. DVT was confirmed in 18.9%. The two clinical probability scales showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 85.1 to 100) and a specificity of about 40%. With the application of the scales, one third of all referrals to hospital emergency rooms could have been avoided (P<.001). The diagnostic cost could have been reduced by € 8,620 according to Oudega and € 9,741 according to Wells, per 100 patients visited. The application of diagnostic algorithms when a DVT is suspected could lead to better diagnostic management by physicians, and a more cost effective process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fergus, Thomas A; Griggs, Jackson O; Cunningham, Scott C; Kelley, Lance P
Health anxiety is commonly seen in medical clinics and is related to the overutilization of primary care services, but existing studies have not yet considered the possible moderating effect of age. We examined if age moderated the association between health anxiety and medical utilization. A secondary aim was to examine potential racial/ethnic differences in health anxiety. An ethnoracially diverse group of patients (N=533) seeking treatment from a primary care clinic completed a self-report measure of health anxiety. Three indices of medical utilization were assessed using medical records, including the number of: (a) clinic visits over the past two years, (b) current medications, and (c) lab tests over the past two years. Age moderated the effect of health anxiety on multiple indices of medical utilization. Supplemental analyses found that the moderating effect of age was specific to a somatic/body preoccupation, rather than health worry, dimension of health anxiety. Mean-level differences in health anxiety were either not supported (health anxiety composite, somatic/body preoccupation) or were small in magnitude (health worry) among self-identifying Black, Latino, and White participants. Results indicate that assessing for health anxiety could be particularly important for older adult patients who frequently seek out medical services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Point of care testing for urinary tract infection in primary care (POETIC): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of FLEXICULT™ informed management of uncomplicated UTI in primary care.
Bates, Janine; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Pickles, Timothy; Kirby, Nigel; Gal, Micaela; Bongard, Emily; Hood, Kerenza; Francis, Nicolas; Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Rumsby, Kate; Llor, Carlos; Burgman, Curt; Verheij, Theo; Cohen, David; Wootton, Mandy; Howe, Robin; Butler, Christopher C
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most frequent bacterial infection affecting women and account for about 15% of antibiotics prescribed in primary care. However, some women with a UTI are not prescribed antibiotics or are prescribed the wrong antibiotics, while many women who do not have a microbiologically confirmed UTI are prescribed antibiotics. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing unnecessarily increases the risk of side effects and the development of antibiotic resistance, and wastes resources. 614 adult female patients will be recruited from four primary care research networks (Wales, England, Spain, the Netherlands) and individually randomised to either POCT guided care or the guideline-informed 'standard care' arm. Urine and stool samples (where possible) will be obtained at presentation (day 1) and two weeks later for microbiological analysis. All participants will be followed up on the course of their illness and their quality of life, using a 2 week self-completed symptom diary. At 3 months, a primary care notes review will be conducted for evidence of further evidence of treatment failures, recurrence, complications, hospitalisations and health service costs. Although the Flexicult™ POCT is used in some countries in routine primary care, it's clinical and cost effectiveness has never been evaluated in a randomised clinical trial. If shown to be effective, the use of this POCT could benefit individual sufferers and provide evidence for health care authorities to develop evidence based policies to combat the spread and impact of the unprecedented rise of infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria in Europe. ISRCTN65200697 (Registered 10 September 2013).
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and
Hone, Thomas; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Millett, Christopher; Başara, Berrak; Akdağ, Recep; Atun, Rifat
Strengthening primary health care (PHC) is considered a priority for efficient and responsive health systems, but empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries is limited. The stepwise introduction of family medicine across all 81 provinces of Turkey (a middle-income country) between 2005 and 2010, aimed at PHC strengthening, presents a natural experiment for assessing the effect of family medicine on health service utilization and user satisfaction.The effect of health system reforms, that introduced family medicine, on utilization was assessed using longitudinal, province-level data for 12 years and multivariate regression models adjusting for supply-side variables, demographics, socio-economic development and underlying yearly trends. User satisfaction with primary and secondary care services was explored using data from annual Life Satisfaction Surveys. Trends in preferred first point of contact (primary vs secondary, public vs. private), reason for choice and health services issues, were described and stratified by patient characteristics, provider type, and rural/urban settings.Between 2002 and 2013, the average number of PHC consultations increased from 1.75 to 2.83 per person per year. In multivariate models, family medicine introduction was associated with an increase of 0.37 PHC consultations per person (P < 0.001), and slower annual growth in PHC and secondary care consultations. Following family medicine introduction, the growth of PHC and secondary care consultations per person was 0.08 and 0.30, respectively, a year. PHC increased as preferred provider by 9.5% over 7 years with the reasons of proximity and service satisfaction, which increased by 14.9% and 11.8%, respectively. Reporting of poor facility hygiene, difficulty getting an appointment, poor physician behaviour and high costs of health care all declined (P < 0.001) in PHC settings, but remained higher among urban, low-income and working-age populations. © The Author 2016
Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Mundt, Marlon P; Gilchrist, Valerie J; Fleming, Michael F; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Beasley, John W
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Primary care teams can be best suited to improve quality of care and lower costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. This study evaluates the associations between primary care team communication, interaction, and coordination (ie, social networks); quality of care; and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Using a sociometric survey, 155 health professionals from 31 teams at 6 primary care clinics identified with whom they interact daily about patient care. Social network analysis calculated variables of density and centralization representing team interaction structures. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between team network density, centralization, and number of patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease for controlled blood pressure and cholesterol, counts of urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital days, and medical care costs in the previous 12 months. Teams with dense interactions among all team members were associated with fewer hospital days (rate ratio [RR] = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.77) and lower medical care costs (-$556; 95% CI, -$781 to -$331) for patients with cardiovascular disease. Conversely, teams with interactions revolving around a few central individuals were associated with increased hospital days (RR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.94) and greater costs ($506; 95% CI, $202-$810). Team-shared vision about goals and expectations mediated the relationship between social network structures and patient quality of care outcomes. Primary care teams that are more interconnected and less centralized and that have a shared team vision are better positioned to deliver high-quality cardiovascular disease care at a lower cost. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Anne M Koponen
Full Text Available This study showed, in line with self-determination theory, that of the six central quality dimensions of primary health care (access to care, continuity of care, diabetes counseling, autonomy support from one’s physician, trust, patient-centered care, autonomy support from one’s physician was most strongly associated with autonomous motivation (self-regulation for effective diabetes self-management among patients with type 2 diabetes ( n = 2866. However, overall support for diabetes care received from friends, family members, other patients with diabetes, and health care professionals may even play a greater role.
Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette R; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Najera, Elizabeth; Litz, Brett T; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Roache, John D; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Sonnek, Scott M; Peterson, Alan L
Many military service members with PTSD do not receive evidence-based specialty behavioral health treatment because of perceived barriers and stigma. Behavioral health providers in primary care can deliver brief, effective treatments expanding access and reducing barriers and stigma. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to determine if a brief cognitive-behavior therapy delivered in primary care using the Primary Care Behavioral Health model would be effective at reducing PTSD and co-occurring symptoms. A total of 67 service members (50 men, 17 women) were randomized to receive a brief, trauma-focused intervention developed for the primary care setting called Prolonged Exposure for Primary Care (PE-PC) or a delayed treatment minimal contact control condition. Inclusion criteria were significant PTSD symptoms following military deployment, medication stability, and interest in receiving treatment for PTSD symptoms in primary care. Exclusion criteria were moderate or greater risk of suicide, severe brain injury, or alcohol/substance use at a level that required immediate treatment. Assessments were completed at baseline, posttreatment/postminimal contact control, and at 8-week and 6-month posttreatment follow-up points. Primary measures were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview and the PTSD Checklist-Stressor-Specific. PE-PC resulted in larger reduction in PTSD severity and general distress than the minimal contact control. Delayed treatment evidenced medium to large effects comparable to the immediate intervention group. Treatment benefits persisted through the 6-month follow-up of the study. PE-PC delivered in integrated primary care is effective for the treatment of PTSD and co-occurring symptoms and may help reduce barriers and stigma found in specialty care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vedsted, Peter; Kallestrup, Per
International Perspectives on Primary Care Research examines how the evidence base from primary care research can strengthen health care services and delivery, tackle the growing burden of disease, improve quality and safety, and increase a person-centred focus to health care. Demonstrating...... the inter-professional nature of the discipline, the book also features a section on cross-nation organisations and primary care networks supporting research. National perspectives are offered from researchers in 20 countries that form part of the World Organization of Family Doctors, providing case...... histories from research-rich to resource-poor nations that illustrate the range of research development and capacity building. This book argues the importance of primary care research, especially to policy makers, decision makers and funders in informing best practice, training primary health care providers...
Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis
Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.
Muggah, Elizabeth; Hogg, William; Dahrouge, Simone; Russell, Grant; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Muldoon, Laura; Devlin, Rose Anne
To describe patient-reported access to primary health care across 4 organizational models of primary care in Ontario, and to explore how access is associated with patient, provider, and practice characteristics. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred thirty-seven randomly selected primary care practices in Ontario using 1 of 4 delivery models (fee for service, established capitation, reformed capitation, and community health centres). Patients included were at least 18 years of age, were not severely ill or cognitively impaired, were not known to the survey administrator, had consenting providers at 1 of the participating primary care practices, and were able to communicate in English or French either directly or through a translator. Patient-reported access was measured by a 4-item scale derived from the previously validated adult version of the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Questions were asked about physician availability during and outside of regular office hours and access to health information via telephone. Responses to the scale were normalized, with higher scores reflecting greater patient-reported access. Linear regressions were used to identify characteristics independently associated with access to care. Established capitation model practices had the highest patient-reported access, although the difference in scores between models was small. Our multilevel regression model identified several patient factors that were significantly (P = .05) associated with higher patient-reported access, including older age, female sex, good-to-excellent self-reported health, less mental health disability, and not working. Provider experience (measured as years since graduation) was the only provider or practice characteristic independently associated with improved patient-reported access. This study adds to what is known about access to primary care. The study found that established capitation models outperformed all the other organizational models, including reformed
Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...
Nathália Luíza Ferreira
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effectiveness of nutritional intervention in overweight women undergoing Primary Health Care.Methods: An intervention study was conducted with overweight adult and elderly women aged 20 years or older (body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m² and ≥27.0 kg/m², respectively who were subjected to 12 months of individual nutritional monitoring. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by dietary, health, and anthropometric indicators.Results: Most of the 71 individuals were adults with a low income and poor level of education. After the intervention, there was an increase in number of meals and in the frequency of breakfasting. Moreover, there were more fruits and vegetables consumed, in addition to a decrease in household availability of salt, sugar, oil, and fried foods consumption. An improvement in health and weight self-perception was observed, as well as a decrease in body mass and abdominal adiposity, in particular among those participating in several consultations (n >9.Conclusion: The proposed nutritional intervention was effective and viable for improving the care of overweight individuals and those suffering from destabilized comorbidities, and may be extended to other contexts.
Malik, Muhammad Ashar; Van de Poel, Ellen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy
For many years, Pakistan has had a wide network of Basic Health Units spread across the country, but their utilization by the population in rural and peri-urban areas has remained low. As of 2004, in an attempt to improve the utilization and performance of these public primary healthcare facilities, the government has gradually started contracting-in intergovernmental organizations to manage these BHUs. Using five nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2001 and 2012, and exploiting the gradual roll-out of this reform to apply a difference-in-difference approach, we evaluate its impact on BHU utilization. We find that contracting of the BHU management did not have any effect on health care use generally in the population, but it did significantly increase the use of BHU for childhood diarrhoea for the poor (by 4% points) and rural (3% points) households. These increases were accompanied by lower rates of self-treatment and private facilities usage. We do not find any significant effects on the self-reported satisfaction with BHU utilization. Our findings contrast with earlier small-scale studies that reported larger effects of the contracting of primary care in Pakistan. We speculate that the modest additional budget, the limited management authority of the contracting agency and the lack of clear performance indicators are reasons for the small impact of the contracting reform. Apparently critical aspects of services delivery such as location of BHUs, ineffective referral system and medical practice variation in public and private sectors have contributed to the overall low utilization of BHUs, yet these were beyond the scope of the contracting reform. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Scarpaci, Joseph L.
Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...
Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The protection and promotion of breastfeeding is considered a priority in Europe where only 22% of infants less than 6 months old are exclusively breastfed. In Spain this percentage reaches 24.8% but in our city it falls to 18.26%. Various studies emphasise that the improvement of these results should be based upon the training of health professionals. Following the recommendations of a breastfeeding guide can modify the practice of health professionals and improve results with respect to exclusively or predominatly breastfed children at 6 months of age. Method/Design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Leganés (Madrid, Spain. The project aims to determine whether the use of an implementation strategy (including training session, information distribution, opinion leader of a breastfeeding guideline in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required will be 240 (120 in each arm. It will be included all the mothers of infants born during the study period (6 months who come to the health centre on the first visit of the child care programme and who give their consent to participate. The main outcome variable is the exclusive o predominant breastfeeding at 6 moths of age.. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of infants with exclusive or predominant breastfeeding at 6 months between the intervention group and the control group. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion Strategies need to be found which facilitate the giving of effective advice on breastfeeding by professionals and which provide support to women during the breastfeeding period. By applying the guide
Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; McCord, Mary; Gallagher, Trish; Olfson, Mark
Despite evidence for its feasibility, the usage of mental health screening in primary care practices with overburdened providers and few referral options remains unclear. This study explores the effects of routine screening on mental health problem identification and management in a low-resource setting. Medical records of 5 to 12 year-old children presenting for well visits before and after screening was implemented were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between study period and identification/management practices. Changes in the number of visits and wait times for a co-located referral service were assessed post hoc. Parents disclosed more mental health problems, and providers initiated more workups but referred fewer patients after screening was implemented. The proportion of new visits and wait times for the referral service did not change. Even in low-resource settings, screening may facilitate parental disclosure and increase clinical attention to mental health problems without overburdening referral services.
Korthals-de Bos, I.B.C.; Smidt, N.; van Tulder, M.W.
Objective: Lateral epicondylitis is a common complaint, with an annual incidence between 1% and 3% in the general population. The Dutch College of General Practitioners in The Netherlands has issued guidelines that recommend a wait- and-see policy. However, these guidelines are not evidence based....... Design and setting: This paper presents the results of an economic evaluation in conjunction with a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of three interventions in primary care for patients with lateral epicondylitis. Patients and interventions: Patients with pain at the lateral side...... versus the wait- and-see policy. Conclusions: The results of this economic evaluation provided no reason to update or amend the Dutch guidelines for GPs, which recommend a wait-and-see policy for patients with lateral epicondylitis....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942
Hoogendijk, Emiel O; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van de Ven, Peter M; Twisk, Jos W R; Deeg, Dorly J H; Frijters, Dinnus H M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; van Campen, Jos P C M; Nijpels, Giel; Jansen, Aaltje P D; van Hout, Hein P J
Primary care-based comprehensive care programs have the potential to improve outcomes in frail older adults. We evaluated the impact of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM) on the quality of life of community-dwelling frail older adults. A 24-month stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between May 2010 and March 2013 in 35 primary care practices in the Netherlands, and included 1147 frail older adults. The intervention consisted of a geriatric in-home assessment by a practice nurse, followed by a tailored care plan. Reassessment occurred every six months. Nurses worked together with primary care physicians and were supervised and trained by geriatric expert teams. Complex patients were reviewed in multidisciplinary consultations. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-12). Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, functional limitations, self-rated health, psychological wellbeing, social functioning and hospitalizations. Intention-to-treat analyses based on multilevel modeling showed no significant differences between the intervention group and usual care regarding SF-12 and most secondary outcomes. Only for IADL limitations we found a small intervention effect in patients who received the intervention for 18months (B=-0.25, 95%CI=-0.43 to -0.06, p=0.007), but this effect was not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The GCM did not show beneficial effects on quality of life in frail older adults in primary care, compared to usual care. This study strengthens the idea that comprehensive care programs add very little to usual primary care for this population. The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR2160. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valentijn, Pim P; Ruwaard, Dirk; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; de Bont, Antoinette; Arends, Rosa Y; Bruijnzeels, Marc A
Collaborative partnerships are considered an essential strategy for integrating local disjointed health and social services. Currently, little evidence is available on how integrated care arrangements between professionals and organisations are achieved through the evolution of collaboration processes over time. The first aim was to develop a typology of integrated care projects (ICPs) based on the final degree of integration as perceived by multiple stakeholders. The second aim was to study how types of integration differ in changes of collaboration processes over time and final perceived effectiveness. A longitudinal mixed-methods study design based on two data sources (surveys and interviews) was used to identify the perceived degree of integration and patterns in collaboration among 42 ICPs in primary care in The Netherlands. We used cluster analysis to identify distinct subgroups of ICPs based on the final perceived degree of integration from a professional, organisational and system perspective. With the use of ANOVAs, the subgroups were contrasted based on: 1) changes in collaboration processes over time (shared ambition, interests and mutual gains, relationship dynamics, organisational dynamics and process management) and 2) final perceived effectiveness (i.e. rated success) at the professional, organisational and system levels. The ICPs were classified into three subgroups with: 'United Integration Perspectives (UIP)', 'Disunited Integration Perspectives (DIP)' and 'Professional-oriented Integration Perspectives (PIP)'. ICPs within the UIP subgroup made the strongest increase in trust-based (mutual gains and relationship dynamics) as well as control-based (organisational dynamics and process management) collaboration processes and had the highest overall effectiveness rates. On the other hand, ICPs with the DIP subgroup decreased on collaboration processes and had the lowest overall effectiveness rates. ICPs within the PIP subgroup increased in control
Huang, Donghong; Ren, Xiaohua; Hu, Jingxuan; Shi, Jingcheng; Xia, Da; Sun, Zhenqiu
Our primary health care institution began to implement national essential medicine system in 2009. In past fi ve years, the goal of national essential medicine system has been initially achieved. For examples, medicine price is steadily reducing, the quality of medical services is improving and residents' satisfaction is substantial increasing every year. However, at the same time, we also found some urgent problems needed to be solved. For examples, the range of national essential medicine is limited, which is difficult to guarantee the quality of essential medication. In addition, how to compensate the primary health care institution is still a question.
Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pommer, A.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.
Background Depression and anxiety are common in people with a chronic somatic disease. Although guidelines recommend stepped care, the effectiveness of this approach has not been evaluated in people with diabetes, asthma, or COPD in primary care. Methods 3559 People were sent screening
López-Cortacans, Germán; Aragonès Benaiges, Enric; Caballero Alías, Antonia; Piñol Moreso, Josep Lluís
To describe nurse attitudes toward depression, using a standardized questionnaire and to evaluate how a training workshop can modify or influence these attitudes. A prospective study based on the application of the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, before and six months after, participating in a training day on the nursing role in the management of depression in Primary Care. The sample consisted of 40 Primary Care nurses from 10 health centers in the province of Tarragona. Nurses are in a neutral position when considering the management of depressed patients as a difficult task, or to feel comfortable in this task, but there is a high degree of acceptance of the claim that the time spent caring for depressed patients is rewarding. In general, there was little significant difference in the mean scores for the different items of the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, before and six months, after the training intervention. The attitude towards the management of depression in Primary Care and to the role that nurses can play in this task is generally favorable. Fruitful training and organizational initiatives can be established in order to define and structure the nursing role in the management of depression in Primary Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Arean, Patricia; Hegel, Mark; Vannoy, Steven; Fan, Ming-Yu; Unuzter, Jurgen
Purpose: We compared a primary-care-based psychotherapy, that is, problem-solving therapy for primary care (PST-PC), to community-based psychotherapy in treating late-life major depression and dysthymia. Design and Methods: The data here are from the IMPACT study, which compared collaborative care within a primary care clinic to care as usual in…
Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S
The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a wealth of evidence regarding the detrimental impact of excessive alcohol consumption. In older populations excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke and a range of cancers. Alcohol consumption is also associated with an increased risk of falls, early onset of dementia and other cognitive deficits. Physiological changes that occur as part of the ageing process mean that older people experience alcohol related problems at lower consumption levels. There is a strong evidence base for the effectiveness of brief psychosocial interventions in reducing alcohol consumption in populations identified opportunistically in primary care settings. Stepped care interventions involve the delivery of more intensive interventions only to those in the population who fail to respond to less intensive interventions and provide a potentially resource efficient means of meeting the needs of this population. Methods/design The study design is a pragmatic prospective multi-centre two arm randomised controlled trial. The primary hypothesis is that stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users reduce alcohol consumption compared with a minimal intervention at 12 months post randomisation. Potential participants are identified using the AUDIT questionnaire. Eligible and consenting participants are randomised with equal probability to either a minimal intervention or a three step treatment approach. The step treatment approach incorporates as step 1 behavioural change counselling, step 2 three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy and step 3 referral to specialist services. The primary outcome is measured using average standard drinks per day and secondary outcome measures include the Drinking Problems Index, health related quality of life and health utility. The study incorporates a comprehensive economic analysis to assess the relative cost-effectiveness
Full Text Available An ageing population with multimorbidity is putting pressure on health systems. A popular method of managing this pressure is identification of patients in primary care 'at-risk' of hospitalisation, and delivering case management to improve outcomes and avoid admissions. However, the effectiveness of this model has not been subjected to rigorous quantitative synthesis.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of case management for 'at-risk' patients in primary care. Six bibliographic databases were searched using terms for 'case management', 'primary care', and a methodology filter (Cochrane EPOC group. Effectiveness compared to usual care was measured across a number of relevant outcomes: Health--self-assessed health status, mortality; Cost--total cost of care, healthcare utilisation (primary and non-specialist care and secondary care separately, and; Satisfaction--patient satisfaction. We conducted secondary subgroup analyses to assess whether effectiveness was moderated by the particular model of case management, context, and study design. A total of 15,327 titles and abstracts were screened, 36 unique studies were included. Meta-analyses showed no significant differences in total cost, mortality, utilisation of primary or secondary care. A very small significant effect favouring case management was found for self-reported health status in the short-term (0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.14. A small significant effect favouring case management was found for patient satisfaction in the short- (0.26, 0.16 to 0.36 and long-term (0.35, 0.04 to 0.66. Secondary subgroup analyses suggested the effectiveness of case management may be increased when delivered by a multidisciplinary team, when a social worker was involved, and when delivered in a setting rated as low in initial 'strength' of primary care.This was the first meta-analytic review which examined the effects of case management on a wide range of outcomes and
Stokes, Jonathan; Panagioti, Maria; Alam, Rahul; Checkland, Kath; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Bower, Peter
An ageing population with multimorbidity is putting pressure on health systems. A popular method of managing this pressure is identification of patients in primary care 'at-risk' of hospitalisation, and delivering case management to improve outcomes and avoid admissions. However, the effectiveness of this model has not been subjected to rigorous quantitative synthesis. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of case management for 'at-risk' patients in primary care. Six bibliographic databases were searched using terms for 'case management', 'primary care', and a methodology filter (Cochrane EPOC group). Effectiveness compared to usual care was measured across a number of relevant outcomes: Health--self-assessed health status, mortality; Cost--total cost of care, healthcare utilisation (primary and non-specialist care and secondary care separately), and; Satisfaction--patient satisfaction. We conducted secondary subgroup analyses to assess whether effectiveness was moderated by the particular model of case management, context, and study design. A total of 15,327 titles and abstracts were screened, 36 unique studies were included. Meta-analyses showed no significant differences in total cost, mortality, utilisation of primary or secondary care. A very small significant effect favouring case management was found for self-reported health status in the short-term (0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.14). A small significant effect favouring case management was found for patient satisfaction in the short- (0.26, 0.16 to 0.36) and long-term (0.35, 0.04 to 0.66). Secondary subgroup analyses suggested the effectiveness of case management may be increased when delivered by a multidisciplinary team, when a social worker was involved, and when delivered in a setting rated as low in initial 'strength' of primary care. This was the first meta-analytic review which examined the effects of case management on a wide range of outcomes and considered also the
Butt, Debra A; Lock, Michael; Harvey, Bart J
Little evidence exists to guide investigators on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of various recruitment strategies in primary care research. The purpose of this study is to describe the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of eight clinical trial recruitment methods for postmenopausal women in a community-based setting. A retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of eight different recruitment methods: 1) family physician (FP) recruiters, 2) FP referrals, 3) community presentations, 4) community events, 5) newsletters, 6) direct mailings, 7) posters, and 8) newspaper advertisements that were used to recruit postmenopausal women to a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of gabapentin in treating hot flashes. We recruited 197 postmenopausal women from a total of 904 screened, with 291 of the remainder being ineligible and 416 declining to participate. Of the 904 women screened, 34 (3.8%) were from FP recruiters and 35 (3.9%) were from other FP referrals while 612 (67.7%) resulted from newspaper advertisements. Of the 197 women enrolled, 141 (72%) were from newspaper advertisements, with 26 (13%) following next from posters. Word of mouth was identified as an additional unanticipated study recruitment strategy. Metropolitan newspaper advertising at $112.73 (Canadian) per enrolled participant and posters at $119.98 were found to be cost-effective recruitment methods. Newspaper advertisements were the most successful method to recruit postmenopausal women into a community-based, primary care RCT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riemersma, Roland A.; Postma, Dirkje; van der Molen, Thys
Background: The management of asthma has changed since the introduction of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort (R)) as both maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). SMART and its effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) have not been studied in primary care. Aims: To compare the effects of SMART
van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Leentjens, Albert F. G.
Objective: Psychiatric consultation in primary care is meant to enhance and improve treatment for mental disorder in that setting. An estimate of the effect for different conditions as well as identification of particularly effective elements is needed. Methods: Database search for randomized
Crooks, Colin John; Card, Timothy Richard; West, Joe
Primary care records from the UK have frequently been used to identify episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in studies of drug toxicity because of their comprehensive population coverage and longitudinal recording of prescriptions and diagnoses. Recent linkage within England of primary and secondary care data has augmented this data but the timing and coding of concurrent events, and how the definition of events in linked data effects occurrence and 28 day mortality is not known. We used the recently linked English Hospital Episodes Statistics and General Practice Research Database, 1997-2010, to define events by; a specific upper gastrointestinal bleed code in either dataset, a specific bleed code in both datasets, or a less specific but plausible code from the linked dataset. This approach resulted in 81% of secondary care defined bleeds having a corresponding plausible code within 2 months in primary care. However only 62% of primary care defined bleeds had a corresponding plausible HES admission within 2 months. The more restrictive and specific case definitions excluded severe events and almost halved the 28 day case fatality when compared to broader and more sensitive definitions. Restrictive definitions of gastrointestinal bleeding in linked datasets fail to capture the full heterogeneity in coding possible following complex clinical events. Conversely too broad a definition in primary care introduces events not severe enough to warrant hospital admission. Ignoring these issues may unwittingly introduce selection bias into a study's results.
Stol, D.; Badenbroek, I.; Hollander, M.; Nielen, M.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de
The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study): a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial protocol. Rationale: The increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic disease (CMD), including cardiovascular
White, Brandi M; Jones, Walter J; Moran, William P; Simpson, Kit N
Primary care access (PCA) for the homeless can prove challenging, especially during periods of economic distress. In the United States, the most recent recession may have presented additional barriers to accessing care. Limited safety-net resources traditionally used by the homeless may have also been used by the non-homeless, resulting in delays in seeking treatment for the homeless. Using hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitivity (ACS) conditions as a proxy measure for PCA, this study investigated the recession's impact on PCA for the homeless and non-homeless in four states. The State Inpatient Databases were used to identify ACS admissions. Findings from this study indicate the recession was a barrier to PCA for homeless people who were uninsured. Ensuring that economically-disadvantaged populations have the ability to obtain insurance coverage is crucial to facilitating PCA. With targeted outreach efforts, the Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity for expanding coverage to the homeless.
Gancedo-García, Ana; Gutiérrez-Antezana, Angélica Faviola; González-García, Pablo; Salinas-Herrero, Sally; Prieto-Merino, David; Suárez-Gil, Patricio
To evaluate the effectiveness of providing an educational intervention in primary care (PC) alongside a pharmacological treatment for insomnia. Single blinded non randomised clinical trial. Two urban primary health centers in Gijón (Asturias, Spain). Patients who consulted for insomnia between July 2012-January 2013 and met the inclusion criteria (n=50) were assigned systematically to the control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). All patients initiated treatment with lorazepam 1mg in the evenings and had four weekly 15 min visits plus a follow-up visit after another month. The IG received training for control of stimuli, sleep hygiene and respiration and relaxation techniques in the four visits. The CG had only non invasive measures taken. Considering as cured those who reached a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI <6 or a 50% reduction from baseline level. It was also analyzed the change in the PSQI from baseline to final visit and to follow-up visit, and voluntary interruption of lorazepam. Analysis by Bayesian inference. Twelve out of recoveries after intervention against one out of 24 among control group. Mean change in PSQI to final visit and follow-up visit was: -4.7 (95%CrI:-5.9 to -3.5) and -6,3 (95%ICred: -7.5 to -5.1) in IG; -1.8 (95%ICred: -3 to -0.5) and -1.7 (95%ICred: -2.9 to -0.4) in CG. Interruption of lorazepan: in 4 controls (16,7%) and 9 (34,6%) in IG. Twenty nine patients in GI and 17 in GC completed the trial. Per protocol analysis showed similar results. The educational intervention in PC improves sleep quality and reduces the need of treatment with benzodiacepines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Addison, A B; Watts, S; Fleming, J
To improve the quality of outpatient clinic communication between Otolaryngology and primary care doctors. Three example outpatient letters with identical content were created using different structure styles - full prose, headline subheadings with full prose and full subheadings throughout. Electronic questionnaires were sent out to 30 randomly selected General Practitioners in the area served by Western Sussex NHS Trust. The electronic mail study invite contained the initial GP referral, the three different letter formats and a link to the Sheffield Assessment for Letters (SAIL) questionnaire, which contained a 18-point checklist, 6 rating subheadings with a 10-point rating scale and a free text comment section. Study participants were asked to read the letters in the time usually afforded to outpatient letters in their routine practice, answer questions and then rate the letters. With a response rate of 66.7%, overall comparison of GP preferences demonstrated a significant variation between the three letter formats (Freidman P value = 0.0001). Post hoc multiple comparisons showed statistically significant preference for the headline subheading and prose letter compared to the full subheaded letter (P effective communication between healthcare professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Inés Maria Barrio Cantalejo
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious problem in western modern countries. Primary care nurses has to follow up these patients but often with poor results. The PRECEDE model (Green L.W try to help patients to identify factors that predispose, make easier or reinforce their relationship with food and physical exercise. Objectives: To evaluate if PRECEDE makes easier the adherence of obese patients to a new style of feeding and exercise that reduces their BMI. Metodology: Experimental design, community randomised study. We analysed two samples of two different interventions: in one we applied the PRECEDE, in the other one the conventional advice about diet and exercise. Measures at 12 and 18 months. Both samples were homogeneous. The relationship between qualitative data has been studied through the Pearson x2 test and the comparison of quantitative data between two groups through the Student T test for independent samples. Results: a The PRECEDE intervention group lost more weigh than control at 12ª month, but this difference is almost null at 18º month. b The BMI difference has low clinical value because in both cases the final BMI is >30. Conclusions: a PRECEDE model shows a major capacity to reduce the BMI than the conventional model at short time. b To conclude that the PRECEDE weigh reduction is clinically effective we should have to extend our educational intervention longer time.
Martínez-Iñigo, David; Totterdell, Peter; Alcover, Carlos Maria; Holman, David
Employees' perceptions of the emotional requirements of their work role are considered a necessary antecedent of emotion work. The impact of these requirements on the emotions employees display, their well-being, and their clients' satisfaction has been explored in previous research. Emotional requirements have been characterized as organizationally-based expectations (e.g., Brotheridge & Lee, 2003), formal and informal organizational rules (e.g., Cropanzano, Weiss & Elias, 2004), occupational norms (e.g., Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987; Smith & Kleinman, 1989) and job-based demands (Brotheridge & Lee, 2002). Although all these definitions assume some kind of shared source for perceptions of emotional requirements, it remains unclear to what extent these different sources contribute and to what extent the requirements are shared by different units, teams and individuals in the organization. The present study analyses the perception of emotional requirements from a survey of ninety-seven Primary Health Care teams composed of general practitioners, nurses and administrative staff (N = 1057). The relative contribution of different sources of variance (team, organizational, and occupational) to perceived emotional requirements and the effects on employees' job satisfaction and well being are examined. Results confirm the relevance of the source and show the contribution of emotional demands to prediction of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction levels.
Cully, Jeffrey A; Armento, Maria E A; Mott, Juliette; Nadorff, Michael R; Naik, Aanand D; Stanley, Melinda A; Sorocco, Kristen H; Kunik, Mark E; Petersen, Nancy J; Kauth, Michael R
Despite the availability of evidence-based psychotherapies for depression and anxiety, they are underused in non-mental health specialty settings such as primary care. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs have the potential to evaluate clinical and implementation outcomes of evidence-based psychotherapies to improve their translation into routine clinical care practices. This protocol article discusses the study methodology and implementation strategies employed in an ongoing, hybrid, type 2 randomized controlled trial with two primary aims: (1) to determine whether a brief, manualized cognitive behavioral therapy administered by Veterans Affairs Primary Care Mental Health Integration program clinicians is effective in treating depression and anxiety in a sample of medically ill (chronic cardiopulmonary diseases) primary care patients and (2) to examine the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a focused implementation strategy on improving adoption and fidelity of brief cognitive behavioral therapy at two Primary Care-Mental Health Integration clinics. The study uses a hybrid type 2 effectiveness/implementation design to simultaneously test clinical effectiveness and to collect pilot data on a multifaceted implementation strategy that includes an online training program, audit and feedback of session content, and internal and external facilitation. Additionally, the study engages the participation of an advisory council consisting of stakeholders from Primary Care-Mental Health Integration, as well as regional and national mental health leaders within the Veterans Administration. It targets recruitment of 320 participants randomized to brief cognitive behavioral therapy (n = 200) or usual care (n = 120). Both effectiveness and implementation outcomes are being assessed using mixed methods, including quantitative evaluation (e.g., intent-to-treat analyses across multiple time points) and qualitative methods (e.g., focus interviews
Cully Jeffrey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of evidence-based psychotherapies for depression and anxiety, they are underused in non-mental health specialty settings such as primary care. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs have the potential to evaluate clinical and implementation outcomes of evidence-based psychotherapies to improve their translation into routine clinical care practices. Methods This protocol article discusses the study methodology and implementation strategies employed in an ongoing, hybrid, type 2 randomized controlled trial with two primary aims: (1 to determine whether a brief, manualized cognitive behavioral therapy administered by Veterans Affairs Primary Care Mental Health Integration program clinicians is effective in treating depression and anxiety in a sample of medically ill (chronic cardiopulmonary diseases primary care patients and (2 to examine the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a focused implementation strategy on improving adoption and fidelity of brief cognitive behavioral therapy at two Primary Care-Mental Health Integration clinics. The study uses a hybrid type 2 effectiveness/implementation design to simultaneously test clinical effectiveness and to collect pilot data on a multifaceted implementation strategy that includes an online training program, audit and feedback of session content, and internal and external facilitation. Additionally, the study engages the participation of an advisory council consisting of stakeholders from Primary Care-Mental Health Integration, as well as regional and national mental health leaders within the Veterans Administration. It targets recruitment of 320 participants randomized to brief cognitive behavioral therapy (n = 200 or usual care (n = 120. Both effectiveness and implementation outcomes are being assessed using mixed methods, including quantitative evaluation (e.g., intent-to-treat analyses across multiple time points and
Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Ando, Michiko; Nitta, Hiroshi
We examined the association between short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and nighttime primary care visits due to asthma attack. We also investigated the modifying effects of age on this association. A case-crossover study was conducted at a primary care clinic in metropolitan Tokyo. The subjects were 308 children aged 0-14 years and 95 adolescents and adults aged 15-64 years. All subjects made visits to the clinic for an asthma attack at between 7 PM and 12 AM. Data on hourly concentrations of particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter asthma attack in warmer months; the association was greater among preschool children.
Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen
This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One of the main objectives of the managers of public health systems in most developed countries is the modernisation of public services through managerial reforms as a way of resolving the traditional inefficiency of this sector. The objective of this article is to observe how the introduction of one tool traditionally used in the private sector, the organisation of work through teams, can contribute to improved performance in public health services. The study was conducted in the primary health care teams of Navarre, an autonomous region of Spain, where a new model of primary health care, based on teamwork was implanted. We analyse the relationship between team characteristics, team members' individual features and team performance from a stakeholder approach. We can conclude that teams are a form of organisational design useful for improving performance in primary health care because insofar as they function properly, they achieve greater degrees of job satisfaction for the employees, greater perceived quality by the users and greater efficiency for the Administration.
Hines, Anika L; Raetzman, Susan O; Barrett, Marguerite L; Moy, Ernest; Andrews, Roxanne M
Because managed care is increasingly prevalent in health care finance and delivery, it is important to ascertain its effects on health care quality relative to that of fee-for-service plans. Some stakeholders are concerned that basing gatekeeping, provider selection, and utilization management on cost may lower quality of care. To date, research on this topic has been inconclusive, largely because of variation in research methods and covariates. Patient age has been the only consistently evaluated outcome predictor. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the association between managed care and inpatient mortality for Medicare and privately insured patients. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the association between managed care and inpatient mortality for four common inpatient conditions. Data from the 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases for 11 states were linked to data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. Hospital discharges were categorized as managed care or fee for service. A phased approach to multivariate logistic modeling examined the likelihood of inpatient mortality when adjusting for individual patient and hospital characteristics and for county fixed effects. Results showed different effects of managed care for Medicare and privately insured patients. Privately insured patients in managed care had an advantage over their fee-for-service counterparts in inpatient mortality for acute myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia, and congestive heart failure; no such advantage was found for the Medicare managed care population. To the extent that the study showed a protective effect of privately insured managed care, it was driven by individuals aged 65 years and older, who had consistently better outcomes than their non-managed care counterparts. Privately insured patients in managed care plans, especially older adults, had better outcomes than those in fee-for-service plans
Moth, G.; Huibers, L.; Vedsted, P.
Introduction. General practitioners (GP) answer calls to the Danish out-of-hours primary care service (OOH) in Denmark, and this is a subject of discussions about quality and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to estimate changes in fee costs if nurses substituted the GPs. Methods. We
de Graaf, L.E.; Gerhards, S.A.H.; Arntz, A.; Riper, H.; Metsemakers, J.F.M.; Evers, S.M.; Severens, J.L.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Huibers, M.J.H.
BACKGROUND: Computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy (CCBT) might offer a solution to the current undertreatment of depression. AIMS: To determine the clinical effectiveness of online, unsupported CCBT for depression in primary care. METHOD: Three hundred and three people with depression were
Bosmans, Judith E.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.; Knottnerus, Bart J.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; ter Riet, Gerben
Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria. To compare the cost-effectiveness
Moore, Melinda; Anthony, C Ross; Lim, Yee-Wei; Jones, Spencer S; Overton, Adrian; Yoong, Joanne K
At the request of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), RAND researchers undertook a yearlong analysis of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, with a focus on primary care. RAND staff reviewed available literature on the Kurdistan Region and information relevant to primary care; interviewed a wide range of policy leaders, health practitioners, patients, and government officials to gather information and understand their priorities; collected and studied all available data related to health resources, services, and conditions; and projected future supply and demand for health services in the Kurdistan Region; and laid out the health financing challenges and questions. In this volume, the authors describe the strengths of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region as well as the challenges it faces. The authors suggest that a primary care-oriented health care system could help the KRG address many of these challenges. The authors discuss how such a system might be implemented and financed, and they make recommendations for better utilizing resources to improve the quality, access, effectiveness, and efficiency of primary care.
2Department of Community Medicine & Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, ... It may result from road traffic accident, near saving basic principles in emergency care that even drowning, electric ... (4.3%) at place of work, 8 (11.4%) at.
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...
Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: So far, studies about people’s appreciation of primary care services has shown that patient satisfaction seems to be lower in health care systems with regulated access to specialist services by gate keeping. Nevertheless, international comparative research about patients’ expectations
Background: The well-being of women and children is one of the major determinants ... The Sample for the study were women recruited from 11 primary health care ... respondents educational level and knowledge of preconception care (X =24.76, ... single adult or married couple) are in an optimal state .... The major site for.
Rushforth, Bruno; McCrorie, Carolyn; Glidewell, Liz; Midgley, Eleanor; Foy, Robbie
Background Despite the availability of evidence-based guidance, many patients with type 2 diabetes do not achieve treatment goals. Aim To guide quality improvement strategies for type 2 diabetes by synthesising qualitative evidence on primary care physicians’ and nurses’ perceived influences on care. Design and setting Systematic review of qualitative studies with findings organised using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Method Databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and ASSIA from 1980 until March 2014. Studies included were English-language qualitative studies in primary care of physicians’ or nurses’ perceived influences on treatment goals for type 2 diabetes. Results A total of 32 studies were included: 17 address general diabetes care, 11 glycaemic control, three blood pressure, and one cholesterol control. Clinicians struggle to meet evolving treatment targets within limited time and resources, and are frustrated with resulting compromises. They lack confidence in knowledge of guidelines and skills, notably initiating insulin and facilitating patient behaviour change. Changing professional boundaries have resulted in uncertainty about where clinical responsibility resides. Accounts are often couched in emotional terms, especially frustrations over patient compliance and anxieties about treatment intensification. Conclusion Although resources are important, many barriers to improving care are amenable to behaviour change strategies. Improvement strategies need to account for differences between clinical targets and consider tailored rather than ‘one size fits all’ approaches. Training targeting knowledge is necessary but insufficient to bring about major change; approaches to improve diabetes care need to delineate roles and responsibilities, and address clinicians’ skills and emotions around treatment intensification and facilitation of patient behaviour change. PMID:26823263
Full Text Available Objective. To document the structure and functions of primary care (PC in the country of Dominica using the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT, a set of questionnaires that evaluate PC functions. Methods. This cross-sectional study combined data from two surveys. The systems PCAT (S-PCAT survey gathered national-level data from key informants about health system characteristics and PC performance. The provider version (P-PCAT survey collected data on PC performance from health providers (nurses and physicians at all PC facilities in the country. Provider-level data were aggregated to obtain national and district-level results for PC domains scored from 0.00 (worst to 1.00 (best. Results. From the systems perspective, results showed several knowledge gaps in PC policy, financing, and structure. Key informants gave “Good” (adequate ratings for “first-contact” care (0.74, continuity of care (0.77, comprehensive care (0.70, and coordinated care (0.78; middling scores for family-centered care and community-oriented care (0.65; and low scores for access to care (0.57. PC providers assessed access to care (which included “first-contact” care, in the P-PCAT surveys (0.84, continuity of care (0.86, information systems (0.84, family-centered care (0.92, and community-oriented care (0.85 as “Very Good”; comprehensive care as “Good” (0.79; and coordinated care as “Reasonable” (0.68. Overall, the scores for the country's health districts were good, although the ratings varied by specific PC domain. Conclusions. The assessments described here were carried out with relatively little expense and have provided important inputs into strategic planning, strategies for improving PC, and identification of priority areas for further investigation. This two-staged approach could be adapted and used in other countries.
Severens Johan L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a common mental health problem in the general population, associated with a substantial impact on quality of life and societal costs. However, many depressed patients in primary care do not receive the care they need. Reason for this is that pharmacotherapy is only effective in severely depressed patients and psychological treatments in primary care are scarce and costly. A more feasible treatment in primary care might be computerised cognitive behavioural therapy. This can be a self-help computer program based on the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. Although previous studies suggest that computerised cognitive behavioural therapy is effective, more research is necessary. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to evaluate the (cost- effectiveness of online computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care. Methods/Design In a randomised trial we will compare (a computerised cognitive behavioural therapy with (b treatment as usual by a GP, and (c computerised cognitive behavioural therapy in combination with usual GP care. Three hundred mild to moderately depressed patients (aged 18–65 will be recruited in the general population by means of a large-scale Internet-based screening (N = 200,000. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups. Primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is the severity of depression. Other outcomes include psychological distress, social functioning, and dysfunctional beliefs. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective, in which all costs will be related to clinical effectiveness and health-related quality of life. All outcome assessments will take place on the Internet at baseline, two, three, six, nine, and twelve months. Costs are measured on a monthly basis. A time horizon of one year will be used without long-term extrapolation of either costs or quality of life
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David
The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2 in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14 and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity; while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013
van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Van Os, Titus W D P; Van Marwijk, Harm W J; Leentjens, Albert F G
Psychiatric consultation in primary care is meant to enhance and improve treatment for mental disorder in that setting. An estimate of the effect for different conditions as well as identification of particularly effective elements is needed. Database search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on psychiatric consultation in primary care. Validity assessment and data extraction according to Cochrane criteria were performed by independent assessors in duplicate. Meta-analysis was performed. Data were collected from 10 RCTs with a total of 3408 included patients with somatoform disorder or depressive disorder, which compared psychiatric consultation to care as usual (CAU). Meta-analysis irrespective of condition showed a weighted mean indicating a combined assessment of illness burden as outcome of psychiatric consultation, compared to CAU, of 0.313 (95% CI 0.190-0.437). The effect was especially large in somatoform disorder (0.614; 95% CI 0.206-1.022). RCTs in which after the consult, consultation advice was given by means of a consultation letter, showed a combined weighted mean effect size of 0.561 (95% CI 0.337-0.786), while studies not using such a letter showed a small effect of 0.210 (95% CI 0.102-0.319). Effects are highest on utilization of health care services with 0.507 (95% CI 0.305-0.708). Psychiatric consultation in the primary care setting is effective in patients with somatoform and depressive disorder. Largest effects are seen in reduction of utilization of health care services. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Burridge, Letitia; Zhang, Jianzhen; Donald, Maria; Scott, Ian A; Dart, Jared; Jackson, Claire L
Integrated multidisciplinary care is difficult to achieve between specialist clinical services and primary care practitioners, but should improve outcomes for patients with chronic and/or complex chronic physical diseases. This systematic review identifies outcomes of different models that integrate specialist and primary care practitioners, and characteristics of models that delivered favourable clinical outcomes. For quality appraisal, the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used. Data are presented as a narrative synthesis due to marked heterogeneity in study outcomes. Ten studies were included. Publication bias cannot be ruled out. Despite few improvements in clinical outcomes, significant improvements were reported in process outcomes regarding disease control and service delivery. No study reported negative effects compared with usual care. Economic outcomes showed modest increases in costs of integrated primary-secondary care. Six elements were identified that were common to these models of integrated primary-secondary care: (1) interdisciplinary teamwork; (2) communication/information exchange; (3) shared care guidelines or pathways; (4) training and education; (5) access and acceptability for patients; and (6) a viable funding model. Compared with usual care, integrated primary-secondary care can improve elements of disease control and service delivery at a modestly increased cost, although the impact on clinical outcomes is limited. Future trials of integrated care should incorporate design elements likely to maximise effectiveness.
Fathima, Mariam; Peiris, David; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol Lyn
The use of computerized clinical decision support systems may improve the diagnosis and ongoing management of chronic diseases, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, disease and medication monitoring and modification of patient behavior. The aim of this review was to systematically review randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of computerized clinical decision systems (CCDSS) in the care of people with asthma and COPD. Randomized controlled trials published between 2003 and 2013 were searched using multiple electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA, Informit, PsychINFO, Compendex, and Cochrane Clinical Controlled Trials Register databases. To be included, RCTs had to evaluate the role of the CCDSSs for asthma and/or COPD in primary care. Nineteen studies representing 16 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the trials were conducted in patients with asthma. Study quality was generally high. Meta-analysis was not conducted because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity. The use of CCDSS improved asthma and COPD care in 14 of the 19 studies reviewed (74%). Nine of the nineteen studies showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the primary outcomes measured. The majority of the studies evaluated health care process measures as their primary outcomes (10/19). Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSS in the care of people with asthma. However there is very little information of its use in COPD care. Although there is considerable improvement in the health care process measures and clinical outcomes through the use of CCDSSs, its effects on user workload and efficiency, safety, costs of care, provider and patient satisfaction remain understudied.
Lim, Yvonne Mei Fong; Yusof, Maryati; Sivasampu, Sheamini
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.
Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F
Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tello-Bernabé, Eugenia; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; del Cura-González, Isabel; de Santiago-Hernando, María L; Jurado-Sueiro, Montserrat; Fernández-Girón, Mercedes; García-de Blas, Francisca; Pensado-Freire, Higinio; Góngora-Maldonado, Francisco; de la Puente-Chamorro, María J; Rodríguez-Pasamontes, Carmen; Martín-Iglesias, Susana
Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back) of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm), all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D), and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care patients receive. ISRCTN: ISRCTN83365316.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. Method/design This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain. The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm, all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV. They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D, and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care
Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Aquilino, Ambrogio; Cortese, Francesca; Scicchitano, Pietro; Sassara, Marco; Mola, Ernesto; Rollo, Rodolfo; Caldarola, Pasquale; Giorgino, Francesco; Pomo, Vincenzo; Bux, Francesco
Project Leonardo represented a feasibility study to evaluate the impact of a disease and care management (D&CM) model and of the introduction of "care manager" nurses, trained in this specialized role, into the primary health care system. Thirty care managers were placed into the offices of 83 general practitioners and family physicians in the Apulia Region of Italy with the purpose of creating a strong cooperative and collaborative "team" consisting of physicians, care managers, specialists, and patients. The central aim of the health team collaboration was to empower 1,160 patients living with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, heart failure, and/or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk) to take a more active role in their health. With the support of dedicated software for data collection and care management decision making, Project Leonardo implemented guidelines and recommendations for each condition aimed to improve patient health outcomes and promote appropriate resource utilization. Results show that Leonardo was feasible and highly effective in increasing patient health knowledge, self-management skills, and readiness to make changes in health behaviors. Patient skill-building and ongoing monitoring by the health care team of diagnostic tests and services as well as treatment paths helped promote confidence and enhance safety of chronic patient management at home. Physicians, care managers, and patients showed unanimous agreement regarding the positive impact on patient health and self-management, and attributed the outcomes to the strong "partnership" between the care manager and the patient and the collaboration between the physician and the care manager. Future studies should consider the possibility of incorporating a patient empowerment model which considers the patient as the most important member of the health team and care managers as key health care collaborators able to enhance and support services to patients provided by physicians in
Toivo, Terhi; Dimitrow, Maarit; Puustinen, Juha; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Sirkka; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja
The magnitude of safety risks related to medications of the older adults has been evidenced by numerous studies, but less is known of how to manage and prevent these risks in different health care settings. The aim of this study was to coordinate resources for prospective medication risk management of home care clients ≥ 65 years in primary care and to develop a study design for demonstrating effectiveness of the procedure. Health care units involved in the study are from primary care in Lohja, Southern Finland: home care (191 consented clients), the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. System based risk management theory and action research method was applied to construct the collaborative procedure utilizing each profession's existing resources in medication risk management of older home care clients. An inventory of clinical measures in usual clinical practice and systematic review of rigorous study designs was utilized in effectiveness study design. The new coordinated medication management model (CoMM) has the following 5 stages: 1) practical nurses are trained to identify clinically significant drug-related problems (DRPs) during home visits and report those to the clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacist prepares the cases for 2) an interprofessional triage meeting (50-70 cases/meeting of 2 h) where decisions are made on further action, e.g., more detailed medication reviews, 3) community pharmacists conduct necessary medication reviews and each patients' physician makes final decisions on medication changes needed. The final stages concern 4) implementation and 5) follow-up of medication changes. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. The developed procedure is feasible for screening and reviewing medications of a high number of older home care clients to identify clients with severe DRPs and provide interventions to solve them utilizing existing primary care resources
This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital) services and also, potentially, social care. This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
Full Text Available Purpose: This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Theory: Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital services and also, potentially, social care. Method: This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Results: Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. Conclusions: The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
Deodhar, N S
Concurrently with the development of the general health services infrastructure in India, serveral special health programs were instituted at the national level to provide a massive and concentrated assault on the major public health problems of malaria, smallpox, cholera, trachoma, tuberculosis, leprosy, filariasis, and the rapid population growth. These vertical programs were expected to reduce the heavy morbidity and mortality within the shortest possible time to where they were no longer major public health problems. The impact was variable. Major steps toward providing integrated health care were taken during the first 5-year plan. Emphasis was on the provision of a packet of inttegrated health, family planning, and nutrition services to the vulnerable groups, i.e., children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. To rectify past shortcomings ssuch as the failures of the national health programs, ineffective coordination in the nutrition programs, and slow rate of development as a result of interdependence of different sectors, it was necessary to improve the health infrastructure and to launch a frontal attack on poverty. The Multipurpose Health Workers Scheme was planned to rationalize the organization and use of available manpower to reduce the area and population covered by each of the field staff in order to reduce travel time and to make services more effective and more satisfactory. Each multipurpose health worker was entrusted with the task of providing comprehensive health care to about 5000 people. Communicable diseases were the main public health problems, and many specific control/eradication programs were launched. the immunization programs against common childhood diseases have not taken deep roots and coverage continues to be poor. The adoption of the Western model of medical services has resulted in emphasis on "cure" rather than on "care". Another problem is maldistribution of the facilities. Overemphasis on medical education has resulted in the
Souza, Nathan M; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Prorok, Jeanette C; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian
Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC), but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement) if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63%) RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34%) trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29%) reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15%) and two (5%) trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and
Wilczynski Nancy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC, but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63% RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34% trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29% reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15% and two (5% trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Conclusions
Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949
Riihimäki, Kirsi; Heiska-Johansson, Ainomaija; Ketola, Eeva
Despite its importance in improving care and developing services, high-quality data evaluating cost-effectiveness and services in different case-mix populations is scarce in primary care. The objective was to investigate the service use of those mental health and substance abuse patients, who use lots of services. Primary health care diagnosis-related groups (pDRG) is a tool to evaluate service provider system and improve efficiency, productivity and quality. We viewed all pDRG results available from the year 2015 concerning municipal mental health and substance abuse services. In primary care mental health and substance abuse services, the most common ICD-10-codes were depression and substance abuse. One-fifth of patients produced 57% of costs. Their medium of appointments was 16 per year versus 6 per year of all patients. Only 54% of their diagnoses were recorded in the electronic health records versus 75% of all patients. They made 5.7 different pDRG episodes, including 1.8 episodes of depression, per patient. The average episode cost for this patient group was 301€. pDRG makes health care production transparent also in mental health and substance abuse services. It is easy to identify patients, who use a lot of services and thus induce the majority of costs, and focus on their needs in managing and developing services.
Goldie, Christine; Brown, Jenny
Obesity is a complex problem and often difficult to tackle in primary care. A year-long pilot of a practice nurse-led scheme that used a holistic approach towards self-care in obesity management was set up to reduce the cardiovascular risk of patients who were obese and improve their quality of life. This person-centred approach may offer an important tool in the management of these patients in the GP surgery.
Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.
Loeb, Danielle F; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Candrian, Carey; deGruy, Frank V; Binswanger, Ingrid A
Complex patients are increasingly common in primary care and often have poor clinical outcomes. Healthcare system barriers to effective care for complex patients have been previously described, but less is known about the potential impact and meaning of caring for complex patients on a daily basis for primary care providers (PCPs). Our objective was to describe PCPs' experiences providing care for complex patients, including their experiences of health system barriers and facilitators and their strategies to enhance provision of effective care. Using a general inductive approach, our qualitative research study was guided by an interpretive epistemology, or way of knowing. Our method for understanding included semi-structured in-depth interviews with internal medicine PCPs from two university-based and three community health clinics. We developed an interview guide, which included questions on PCPs' experiences, perceived system barriers and facilitators, and strategies to improve their ability to effectively treat complex patients. To focus interviews on real cases, providers were asked to bring de-identified clinical notes from patients they considered complex to the interview. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to develop categories from the raw data, which were then conceptualized into broad themes after team-based discussion. PCPs (N = 15) described complex patients with multidimensional needs, such as socio-economic, medical, and mental health. A vision of optimal care emerged from the data, which included coordinating care, preventing hospitalizations, and developing patient trust. PCPs relied on professional values and individual care strategies to overcome local and system barriers. Team based approaches were endorsed to improve the management of complex patients. Given the barriers to effective care described by PCPs, individual PCP efforts alone are unlikely to meet the needs of complex patients. To fulfill PCP's expressed concepts of
Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas
Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Vanderlip, Erik R; Williams, Nancy A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Katon, Wayne
People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients.
Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others
A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…
VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.
... Experience in a primary health care facility in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. ... health center increased by 3.09% (p-value > 0.05); the patients that had their babies in the facility were ... 100, 000 live births, based on historical studies and.
Velden, L.F.J. van der; Schellevis, F.G.
Introduction: Previous studies predicted an increase in both the incidence and prevalence of cancer in the Netherlands. Other studies showed that cancer patients use primary care more frequently than non-cancer patients. Finally, during the “chronic phase” of the disease, task substitution from
Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan
Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.
Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating problem and Internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) could offer one solution. There are at least 25 controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of iCBT. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT Program in primary care that had been demonstrated to be efficacious in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: Quality assurance data from 359 patients prescribed the Sadness Pro...
Edmond P H Choi
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether community-based nurse-led continence care interventions are effective in improving outcomes for adult Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS.A case-controlled intervention study was conducted. An intervention group of 360 primary care patients enrolled into a nurse-led continence care programme were recruited by consecutive sampling. A control group of 360 primary care patients with LUTS identified by screening were recruited from the waiting rooms of primary care clinics by consecutive sampling. Both groups were monitored at baseline and at 12 months.Outcome measures included symptom severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL, self-efficacy, global health and self-reported health service utilization at 12-months. The effect of the continence care programme on symptom severity and HRQOL was assessed by the difference-in-difference estimation, using independent t-test and multiple liner regression. Chi-square test was used to compare the self-efficacy, global health and self-reported health service utilization between the two groups at 12-months.After adjusting for baseline severity and socio-demographics, the intervention group had significant improvements in LUTS severity (P<0.05 and HRQOL (P<0.05. Improvements in the amount of urine leakage were not significantly different between the two groups. A higher proportion of subjects in the intervention group reported increased self-efficacy (43.48% vs. 66.83%, improved global health condition (17.74% vs. 41.5%, having doctor consultation (18.5% vs. 8.06, having medication due to LUTS (26.50% vs.11.29% and having non-drug therapy due to LUTS (59.5% vs.9.68%.Community-based nurse-led continence care can effectively alleviate symptoms, improve health-related quality of life, and enhance self-efficacy and the global health condition of Chinese male and female primary care patients with LUTS.
Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Hildebrand, Cristina; Garg, Priyanka; Chiauzzi, Emil; Zacharoff, Kevin L
To improve pain management practices, we developed an online interactive continuing education (CE) program for primary care providers (PCPs). This program follows the flow of clinical decision-making through simulated cases at critical pain treatment points along the pain treatment continuum. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the efficacy of this program. Participants were randomized to either the experimental condition or the control condition (online, text-based CE program). A total of 238 primary care providers were recruited through hospitals, professional newsletters, and pain conferences. Participants in both conditions reported significantly improved scores on knowledge (KNOW-PAIN 50), attitudes (CAOS), and pain practice behaviors (PPBS) scales over the four-month study. The experimental condition showed significantly greater change over time on the tamper-resistant formulations (TRFs) of opioids and dosing CAOS subscale compared with the control condition. Post hoc comparisons suggested that participants in the experimental condition were less likely to endorse use of opioid TRFs over time compared with the control condition. Exploratory analyses for potential moderators indicated a significant three-way interaction with time, condition, and discipline (i.e., physician vs other) for the impediments and concerns attitudes subscale and the early refill behaviors subscale. Post hoc comparisons indicated that physicians in the experimental condition exhibited the greatest change in attitudes and the nonphysicians exhibited the greatest change in reported behaviors in response to requests for early refills. Findings suggest online CE programs may positively impact PCPs' knowledge, attitudes, and pain practice behaviors but provide minimal evidence for the value of including interactivity. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Edwardson, Nicholas; Bolin, Jane N; McClellan, David A; Nash, Philip P; Helduser, Janet W
Demand for a wide array of colorectal cancer screening strategies continues to outpace supply. One strategy to reduce this deficit is to dramatically increase the number of primary care physicians who are trained and supportive of performing office-based colonoscopies or flexible sigmoidoscopies. This study evaluates the clinical and economic implications of training primary care physicians via family medicine residency programs to offer colorectal cancer screening services as an in-office procedure. Using previously established clinical and economic assumptions from existing literature and budget data from a local grant (2013), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are calculated that incorporate the costs of a proposed national training program and subsequent improvements in patient compliance. Sensitivity analyses are also conducted. Baseline assumptions suggest that the intervention would produce 2394 newly trained residents who could perform 71,820 additional colonoscopies or 119,700 additional flexible sigmoidoscopies after ten years. Despite high costs associated with the national training program, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios remain well below standard willingness-to-pay thresholds under base case assumptions. Interestingly, the status quo hierarchy of preferred screening strategies is disrupted by the proposed intervention. A national overhaul of family medicine residency programs offering training for colorectal cancer screening yields satisfactory incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. However, the model places high expectations on primary care physicians to improve current compliance levels in the US. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Gress, S.; Schäfer, W.
Background: There is a large variation in the organization of primary care in Europe. In some health care systems, primary care is the gatekeeper to more specialized care, whilst in others patients have the choice between a wide range of providers. Primary care has increasingly become teamwork.
Gallo, Joseph J; Morales, Knashawn H; Bogner, Hillary R; Raue, Patrick J; Zee, Jarcy; Bruce, Martha L; Reynolds, Charles F
Objective To investigate whether an intervention to improve treatment of depression in older adults in primary care modified the increased risk of death associated with depression. Design Long term follow-up of multi-site practice randomized controlled trial (PROSPECT?Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial). Setting 20 primary care practices in New York City, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh, USA, randomized to intervention or usual care. Participants 1226 participants...
Skapetis, Tony; Gerzina, Tania M; Hu, Wendy; Cameron, W Ian
Dental emergencies often present to primary care providers in general practice and Emergency Departments (ED), who may be unable to manage them effectively due to limited knowledge, skills and available resources. This may impact negatively on patient outcomes. Provision of a short educational workshop intervention in the management of such emergencies, including education in supporting resources, may provide a practical strategy for assisting clinicians to provide this aspect of comprehensive primary care. This descriptive study used a validated questionnaire survey instrument to measure the effectiveness of a short multimodal educational intervention through the uptake and perceived usefulness of supporting resources at 6 months following the intervention. Between 2009 and 2010, 15 workshops, of which eight were for regional and rural hospital ED doctors, were conducted by the same presenter using the same educational materials and training techniques. A sample of 181 workshop participants, 63% of whom were in rural or remote practice and engaged in providing primary care medical services, returned responses at 6 months on the perceived usefulness of the dental emergencies resource. Thirty percent of clinicians had used the dental emergencies resource within the six-month follow-up period. Significance was demonstrated between professional category and use of the resource, with emergency registrars utilising this resource most and GPs the least. The Dental Handbook, specifically designed for ED use, and tooth-filling material contained within this resource, were deemed the most useful components. There were overall positive open-ended question responses regarding the usefulness of the resource, especially when it was made available to clinicians who had attended the education workshops. Utilisation and perceived usefulness of a supporting resource at 6 months are indicators of the effectiveness of a short workshop educational intervention in the management of
Watson, J M; Crosby, H; Dale, V M; Tober, G; Wu, Q; Lang, J; McGovern, R; Newbury-Birch, D; Parrott, S; Bland, J M; Drummond, C; Godfrey, C; Kaner, E; Coulton, S
There is clear evidence of the detrimental impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the physical and mental health of the population. Estimates suggest that hazardous alcohol consumption annually accounts for 150,000 hospital admissions and between 15,000 and 22,000 deaths in the UK. In the older population, hazardous alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. There is evidence of an association between increased alcohol consumption and increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, increased rates of alcohol-related liver disease and increased risk of a range of cancers. Alcohol is identified as one of the three main risk factors for falls. Excessive alcohol consumption in older age can also contribute to the onset of dementia and other age-related cognitive deficits and is implicated in one-third of all suicides in the older population. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care intervention against a minimal intervention in the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. A multicentre, pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. General practices in primary care in England and Scotland between April 2008 and October 2010. Adults aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (10-item) (AUDIT) were eligible. In total, 529 patients were randomised in the study. The minimal intervention group received a 5-minute brief advice intervention with the practice or research nurse involving feedback of the screening results and discussion regarding the health consequences of continued hazardous alcohol consumption. Those in the stepped care arm initially received a 20-minute session of behavioural change counselling, with referral to step 2 (motivational enhancement therapy) and step 3 (local specialist alcohol services) if indicated. Sessions were
Beekman Aartjan TF
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a
Quanbeck, Andrew; Gustafson, David H; Marsch, Lisa A; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Kornfield, Rachel; McTavish, Fiona; Johnson, Roberta; Brown, Randall T; Mares, Marie-Louise; Shah, Dhavan V
Despite the near ubiquity of mobile phones, little research has been conducted on the implementation of mobile health (mHealth) apps to treat patients in primary care. Although primary care clinicians routinely treat chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, they rarely treat addiction, a common chronic condition. Instead, addiction is most often treated in the US health care system, if it is treated at all, in a separate behavioral health system. mHealth could help integrate addiction treatment in primary care. The objective of this paper was to report the effects of implementing an mHealth system for addiction in primary care on both patients and clinicians. In this implementation research trial, an evidence-based mHealth system named Seva was introduced sequentially over 36 months to a maximum of 100 patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) in each of three federally qualified health centers (FQHCs; primary care clinics that serve patients regardless of their ability to pay). This paper reports on patient and clinician outcomes organized according to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. The outcomes according to the RE-AIM framework are as follows: Reach-Seva reached 8.31% (268/3226) of appropriate patients. Reach was limited by our ability to pay for phones and data plans for a maximum of 100 patients per clinic. Effectiveness-Patients who were given Seva had significant improvements in their risky drinking days (44% reduction, (0.7-1.25)/1.25, P=.04), illicit drug-use days (34% reduction, (2.14-3.22)/3.22, P=.01), quality of life, human immunodeficiency virus screening rates, and number of hospitalizations. Through Seva, patients also provided peer support to one another in ways that are novel in primary care settings. Adoption-Patients sustained high levels of Seva use-between 53% and 60% of the patients at the 3 sites accessed Seva during the last week of the 12-month implementation period. Among
Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M. C. R.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H.
Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women
van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Primary care (35 practices) in two regions in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults who were frail according to their primary care physicians and the Program on Research for Integrating Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy case-finding tool questionnaire (N = 1,147). The GCM consisted of the following components: a regularly scheduled in-home comprehensive geriatric assessment by a practice nurse followed by a customized care plan, management and training of practice nurses by a geriatric expert team, and coordination of care through community network meetings and multidisciplinary team consultations of individuals with complex care needs. Outcomes were measured every 6 months and included costs from a societal perspective, health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scales), functional limitations (Katz activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living), and quality-adjusted life years based on the EQ-5D. Multilevel regression models adjusted for time and baseline confounders showed no significant differences in costs ($356, 95% confidence interval = -$488-1,134) and outcomes between intervention and usual care phases. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that, for the SF-12 PCS and MCS, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.76 if decision-makers are willing to pay $30,000 per point improvement on the SF-12 scales (range 0-100). For all other outcomes the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was low. Because the GCM was not cost-effective compared to usual care after 24 months of follow-up, widespread implementation
Alishia D Williams
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating problem and Internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT could offer one solution. There are at least 25 controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of iCBT. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT Program in primary care that had been demonstrated to be efficacious in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs. METHOD: Quality assurance data from 359 patients prescribed the Sadness Program in Australia from October 2010 to November 2011 were included. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat marginal model analyses demonstrated significant reductions in depressive symptoms (PHQ9, distress (K10, and impairment (WHODAS-II with medium-large effect sizes (Cohen's d = .51-1.13., even in severe and/or suicidal patients (Cohen's d = .50-1.49. Secondary analyses on patients who completed all 6 lessons showed levels of clinically significant change as indexed by established criteria for remission, recovery, and reliable change. CONCLUSIONS: The Sadness Program is effective when prescribed by primary care practitioners and is consistent with a cost-effective stepped-care framework.
Carnero Pardo, Cristóbal; Cruz Orduña, Isabel; Espejo Martínez, Beatriz; Cárdenas Viedma, Salvador; Torrero García, Pedro; Olazarán Rodríguez, Javier
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (DA) of the Mini-Mental State (MMS) for the detection of cognitive impairment (CI) in Primary Care (PC) and to determine the best conditions of use for that purpose. Pooled analysis of two prospective, double blind, studies on the evaluation of diagnostic tools with complete verification that were conducted in Madrid and Granada (Spain). The MMS was administered in PC and the final cognitive diagnosis (gold standard) was made in Specialized Care. Subjects with cognitive complaints or suspected of having CI were consecutively recruited in the PC clinic. The DA of the MMS was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The best cut-off point was selected according to the ratio of cases correctly classified (RCC) and to the kappa index. Direct (MMSd) and age- and education-adjusted (MMSa) total scores were analyzed separately. In the total sample of 360 subjects (214 CI), the DA of the MMSd was significantly superior to that of the MMSa (0.84±0.02 vs 0.82±0.02, p≤.001). The yield obtained by the best cut-off point of the MMSd (22/23) was modest (RCC 0.77, kappa 0.52±0.05) and was not improved by any MMSa cut-off point. The DA of the MMS for detection of CI in PC was modest and did not improve with adjustment of the score by age and education. The best cut-off point was 22/23, inferior to the usually recommended cut-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Grant, Sabrina; Greenfield, Sheila M; Nouwen, Arie; McManus, Richard J
Self-monitoring blood pressure (SMBP) is becoming an increasingly prevalent practice in UK primary care, yet there remains little conceptual understanding of why patients with hypertension engage in self-monitoring. To identify psychological factors or processes prompting the decision to self-monitor blood pressure. A qualitative study of patients previously participating in a survey study about SMBP from four general practices in the West Midlands. Taped and transcribed in-depth interviews with 16 patients (6 currently monitoring, 2 used to self-monitor, and 8 had never self-monitored). Thematic analysis was undertaken. Three main themes emerged: 'self' and 'living with hypertension' described the emotional element of living with an asymptomatic condition; 'self-monitoring behaviour and medication' described overall views about self-monitoring, current practice, reasons for monitoring, and the impact on medication adherence; and 'the GP-patient transaction' described the power relations affecting decisions to self-monitor. Self-monitoring was performed by some as a protective tool against the fears of a silent but serious condition, whereas others self-monitor simply out of curiosity. People who self-monitored tended not to discuss this with their nurse or GP, partly due to perceiving minimal or no interest from their clinician about home monitoring, and partly due to fear of being prescribed additional medication. The decision to self-monitor appeared often to be an individual choice with no schedule or systems to integrate it with other medical care. Better recognition by clinicians that patients are self-monitoring, perhaps utilising the results in shared decision-making, might help integrate it into daily practice. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.
Francisco Ignacio MORETA-VELAYOS
Full Text Available For a long time films have been used in teaching and at various levels of professional training and more specifically in the medical area. In this case, through the description of a project developed in a Primary Care Health Center, we intend to justify the use of movies as a tool that could ease, the sometimes difficult task of continued education among Primary Care professionals. We propose different aspects of everyday practice in which cinema can be potentially useful, as well as the way to include it in the Plan of Continued Education of the Centre and its accreditation.Films and issues discussed in each session, and the project evaluation, are detailed.
Marco Matteo Ciccone
Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Ambrogio Aquilino2, Francesca Cortese1, Pietro Scicchitano1, Marco Sassara1, Ernesto Mola3, Rodolfo Rollo4,Pasquale Caldarola5, Francesco Giorgino6, Vincenzo Pomo2, Francesco Bux21Section of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Agenzia Regionale Sanitaria – Regione Puglia (ARES, Apulia, Italy; 3ASL, Lecce, Italy; 4ASL, Brindisi, Italy; 5Cardiologia, Ospedale “Sarcone”, Terlizzi, Italy; 6Section of Endocrinology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, ItalyPurpose: Project Leonardo represented a feasibility study to evaluate the impact of a disease and care management (D&CM model and of the introduction of “care manager” nurses, trained in this specialized role, into the primary health care system. Patients and methods: Thirty care managers were placed into the offices of 83 general practitioners and family physicians in the Apulia Region of Italy with the purpose of creating a strong cooperative and collaborative “team” consisting of physicians, care managers, specialists, and patients. The central aim of the health team collaboration was to empower 1,160 patients living with cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes, heart failure, and/or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk to take a more active role in their health. With the support of dedicated software for data collection and care management decision making, Project Leonardo implemented guidelines and recommendations for each condition aimed to improve patient health outcomes and promote appropriate resource utilization.Results: Results show that Leonardo was feasible and highly effective in increasing patient health knowledge, self-management skills, and readiness to make changes in health behaviors. Patient skill-building and ongoing monitoring by the health care team of diagnostic tests and services
Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child ... users of the services, desire for more children, fear of side effects and partner's ... It is an essential component of primary development across the regions .
Rattay, Thilo; Dumont, Ian P; Heinzow, Hauke S; Hutton, David W
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major burden on individuals and health care systems. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO) enables primary care providers to deliver best-practice care for complex conditions to underserved populations. The US Congress passed the ECHO Act in late 2016, requiring the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate the model. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection in a primary care patient panel with and without the implementation of Project ECHO. We used Markov models to simulate disease progression, quality of life, and life expectancy among individuals with HCV infection and for the general population. Data from the University of New Mexico's ECHO operation for HCV show an increase in treatment rates. Corresponding increases in survival, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and resulting budget impact between ECHO and non-ECHO patients with HCV were then compared. Project ECHO increased costs and QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ECHO was $10,351 per QALY compared with the status quo; >99.9% of iterations fell below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. We were unable to confirm whether the increase in rates of treatment associated with Project ECHO were due to increased or more targeted screening, higher adherence, or access to treatment. Our sensitivity analyses show that the results are largely independent of the cause. Budget impact analysis shows payers would have to invest an additional $339.54 million over a 5-year period to increase treatment by 4446 patients, per 1 million covered lives. Using a simulated primary care patient panel, we showed that Project ECHO is a cost-effective way to find and treat patients with HCV infection at scale using existing primary care providers. This approach could substantially reduce the burden of chronic HCV infection in the United States, but high
Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…
Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients' primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 10% sample selected at random from the Ontario adult population. Primary care and total health care costs were calculated at the individual level and included costs from physician services, hospital visits and admissions, long term care, drugs, home care, lab tests, and visits to non-medical health care providers. Generalized linear model regressions were conducted to assess the differences in costs between primary care models. Patients not enrolled with a primary care physicians were younger, more likely to be males and of lower socio-economic status. Patients in blended capitation models were healthier and wealthier than FFS and enhanced-FFS patients. Primary care and total health care costs were significantly different across Ontario primary care models. Using the traditional FFS as the reference, we found that patients in the enhanced-FFS models had the lowest total health care costs, and also the lowest primary care costs. Patients in the blended capitation models had higher primary care costs but lower total health care costs. Patients that were in multidisciplinary teams (FHT), where physicians are also paid on a blended capitation basis, had higher total health care costs than non-FHT patients but still lower than the FFS reference group. Primary care and total health care costs increased with patients' age, morbidity, and lower income quintile across all primary care payment types. The new primary care models were associated with lower total health care costs for patients compared to the
Werner, S; Yalon-Chamovitz, S; Tenne Rinde, M; Heymann, A D
Examine physicians' implementation of effective communication principles with patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) and its predictors. Focus groups helped construct a quantitative questionnaire. The questionnaire (completed by 440 physicians) examined utilization of effective communication principles, attitudes toward individuals with ID, subjective knowledge and number of patients with ID. Subjective knowledge of ID and more patients with ID increased utilization of effective communication principles. Provision of knowledge that allows patients to make their own medical decisions was predicted by more patients with ID, lower attitudes that treatment of this population group is not desirable, less negative affect and greater perception that treatment of this group is part of the physician's role. Effective preparation of patients with ID for treatment was predicted by higher perception of treatment of this group as part of the physician's role, lower perception of this field as undesirable and higher perception of these individuals as unable to make their own choice. Simplification of information was predicted by a greater perception of treatment of this group as part of the physician's role and more negative affect. Greater familiarity may enhance care for these patients. Increase exposure to patients with ID within training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mendoza del Pino, Mario Valentín
The book O ncology in the primary health care , constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)
de Morais Barbosa C
Full Text Available Cecília de Morais Barbosa,1 Manoel Barros Bértolo,2 Juliana Zonzini Gaino,2 Michael Davitt,3 Zoraida Sachetto,2 Eduardo de Paiva Magalhães3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 3Orthoses and Prostheses Unit, Clinical Hospital, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background: Aging is associated with reduced postural stability and increased fall risk. Foot orthoses have been reported as an adjuvant intervention to improve balance by stimulating foot plantar mechanical receptors and thus increasing somatosensory input. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of flat and textured insoles on the balance of primary care elderly people. Design: Prospective, parallel, randomized, and single-blind trial. Methods: A total of 100 subjects from a primary care unit, aged ≥65 years, were randomly assigned to intervention groups with flat insoles (n=33, textured insoles (n=33, or control group (n=34 without insoles. The Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go test were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results: Improvements in the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go test were noted only in intervention groups with insoles but not in control group. No significant difference was found between flat and textured insoles. Minor adverse effects were noted only in the group with textured insoles. Conclusion: The results suggest that foot orthoses (both flat and textured insoles are effective in improving balance in primary care elderly people. They may represent a low-cost and high-availability adjuvant strategy to improve balance and prevent falls in this population. Keywords: balance, elderly, orthoses, insole
Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937
Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gálvez-Herrer, Macarena; Tapias-Merino, Ester; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos
Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154.
David O Riordan
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid, Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America. Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of
Philips, Hilde; Remmen, Roy; Van Royen, Paul; Teblick, Marc; Geudens, Leo; Bronckaers, Marc; Meeuwis, Herman
Out-of-hours care in the primary care setting is rapidly changing and evolving towards general practitioner 'cooperatives' (GPC). GPCs already exist in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, all countries with strong general practice, including gatekeepers' role. This intervention study reports the use and caseload of out-of-hours care before and after implementation of a GPC in a well subscribed region in a country with an open access health care system and no gatekeepers' role for general practice. We used a prospective before/after interventional study design. The intervention was the implementation of a GPC. One year after the implementation of a GPC, the number of patient contacts in the intervention region significantly increased at the GPC (OR: 1.645; 95% CI: 1.439-1.880), while there were no significant changes in patient contacts at the Emergency Department (ED) or in other regions where a simultaneous registration was performed. Although home visits decreased in all general practitioner registrations, the difference was more pronounced in the intervention region (intervention region: OR: 0.515; 95% CI: 0.411-0.646, other regions: OR: 0.743; 95% CI: 0.608-0.908). At the ED we observed a decrease in the number of trauma cases (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.648-0.960) and of patients who came to hospital by ambulance (OR: 0.687; 95% CI: 0.565-0.836). One year after its implementation more people seek help at the GPC, while the number of contacts at the ED remains the same. The most prominent changes in caseload are found in the trauma cases. Establishing a GPC in an open health care system, might redirect some patients with particular medical problems to primary care. This could lead to a lowering of costs or a more cost-effective out of hours care, but further research should focus on effective usage to divert patient flows and on quality and outcome of care.
Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Green, Lee; Bahler, Brad; Lewanczuk, Richard
BACKGROUND: Primary care networks are designed to facilitate access to inter-professional, team-based care. We compared health outcomes associated with primary care networks versus conventional primary care. METHODS: We obtained data on all adult residents of Alberta who visited a primary care physician during fiscal years 2008 and 2009 and classified them as affiliated with a primary care network or not, based on the physician most involved in their care. The primary outcome was an emergency department visit or nonelective hospital admission for a Patient Medical Home indicator condition (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary disease, hypertension and diabetes) within 12 months. RESULTS: Adults receiving care within a primary care network (n = 1 502 916) were older and had higher comorbidity burdens than those receiving conventional primary care (n = 1 109 941). Patients in a primary care network were less likely to visit the emergency department for an indicator condition (1.4% v. 1.7%, mean 0.031 v. 0.035 per patient, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99) or for any cause (25.5% v. 30.5%, mean 0.55 v. 0.72 per patient, adjusted RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.93–0.94), but were more likely to be admitted to hospital for an indicator condition (0.6% v. 0.6%, mean 0.018 v. 0.017 per patient, adjusted RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.11) or all-cause (9.3% v. 9.1%, mean 0.25 v. 0.23 per patient, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.09). Patients in a primary care network had 169 fewer all-cause emergency department visits and 86 fewer days in hospital (owing to shorter lengths of stay) per 1000 patient-years. INTERPRETATION: Care within a primary care network was associated with fewer emergency department visits and fewer hospital days. PMID:29530868
The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...
Homa, Laura; Rose, Johnie; Hovmand, Peter S.; Cherng, Sarah T.; Riolo, Rick L.; Kraus, Alison; Biswas, Anindita; Burgess, Kelly; Aungst, Heide; Stange, Kurt C.; Brown, Kalanthe; Brooks-Terry, Margaret; Dec, Ellen; Jackson, Brigid; Gilliam, Jules; Kikano, George E.; Reichsman, Ann; Schaadt, Debbie; Hilfer, Jamie; Ticknor, Christine; Tyler, Carl V.; Van der Meulen, Anna; Ways, Heather; Weinberger, Richard F.; Williams, Christine
PURPOSE The paradox of primary care is the observation that primary care is associated with apparently low levels of evidence-based care for individual diseases, but systems based on primary care have healthier populations, use fewer resources, and have less health inequality. The purpose of this article is to explore, from a complex systems perspective, mechanisms that might account for the effects of primary care beyond disease-specific care. METHODS In an 8-session, participatory group model-building process, patient, caregiver, and primary care clinician community stakeholders worked with academic investigators to develop and refine an agent-based computer simulation model to test hypotheses about mechanisms by which features of primary care could affect health and health equity. RESULTS In the resulting model, patients are at risk for acute illness, acute life-changing illness, chronic illness, and mental illness. Patients have changeable health behaviors and care-seeking tendencies that relate to their living in advantaged or disadvantaged neighborhoods. There are 2 types of care available to patients: primary and specialty. Primary care in the model is less effective than specialty care in treating single diseases, but it has the ability to treat multiple diseases at once. Primary care also can provide disease prevention visits, help patients improve their health behaviors, refer to specialty care, and develop relationships with patients that cause them to lower their threshold for seeking care. In a model run with primary care features turned off, primary care patients have poorer health. In a model run with all primary care features turned on, their conjoint effect leads to better population health for patients who seek primary care, with the primary care effect being particularly pronounced for patients who are disadvantaged and patients with multiple chronic conditions. Primary care leads to more total health care visits that are due to more disease
Simonian, Susan J.
This article reviews issues related to behavioral screening in pediatric primary care settings. Structural-organizational issues affecting the use of pediatric primary care screening are discussed. This study also reviewed selected screening instruments that have utility for use in the primary care setting. Clinical and research issues related to…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care. 96.47 Section 96.47 Public Welfare... and Tribal Organizations § 96.47 Primary care. Applications for direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the primary care block grant must comply with 42 CFR Part 51c (Grants for...
Williamson, Ian; Vennik, Jane; Harnden, Anthony; Voysey, Merryn; Perera, Rafael; Kelly, Sadie; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Mant, David; Little, Paul
Background: Otitis media with effusion is a common problem that lacks an evidence-based nonsurgical treatment option. We assessed the clinical effectiveness of treatment with a nasal balloon device in a primary care setting. Methods: We conducted an open, pragmatic randomized controlled trial set in 43 family practices in the United Kingdom. Children aged 4–11 years with a recent history of ear symptoms and otitis media with effusion in 1 or both ears, confirmed by tympanometry, were allocated to receive either autoinflation 3 times daily for 1–3 months plus usual care or usual care alone. Clearance of middle-ear fluid at 1 and 3 months was assessed by experts masked to allocation. Results: Of 320 children enrolled, those receiving autoinflation were more likely than controls to have normal tympanograms at 1 month (47.3% [62/131] v. 35.6% [47/132]; adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 to 1.88) and at 3 months (49.6% [62/125] v. 38.3% [46/120]; adjusted RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.83; number needed to treat = 9). Autoinflation produced greater improvements in ear-related quality of life (adjusted between-group difference in change from baseline in OMQ-14 [an ear-related measure of quality of life] score −0.42, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.22). Compliance was 89% at 1 month and 80% at 3 months. Adverse events were mild, infrequent and comparable between groups. Interpretation: Autoinflation in children aged 4–11 years with otitis media with effusion is feasible in primary care and effective both in clearing effusions and improving symptoms and ear-related child and parent quality of life. Trial registration: ISRCTN, No. 55208702. PMID:26216608
Huijbregts, Klaas M L; de Jong, Fransina J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Adèr, Herman J; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Unützer, Jürgen; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M
Practice variation in the primary care treatment of depression may be considerable in the Netherlands, due to relatively small and unregulated practices. We adapted the collaborative care model for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to accommodate existing practice variation and tested whether this had added value over Care as Usual (CAU). A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare an adapted target driven collaborative care model with Care as Usual (CAU). Randomization was at the level of 18 (sub)urban primary care centers. The care manager and GP were supported by a web-based tracking and decision aid system that advised targeted treatment actions to achieve rapid response and if possible remission, and that warned the consultant psychiatrist if such treatment advice was not followed up. Eligible patients had a score of 10 or higher on the PHQ9, and met diagnostic criteria for major depression at the subsequent MINI Neuropsychiatric interview. A total of 93 patients were identified by screening. They received either collaborative care (CC) or CAU. Another 56 patients received collaborative care after identification by the GP. The outcome measures were response to treatment (50% or greater reduction of the PHQ9-total score from baseline) at three, six, nine and twelve months, and remission (a score of 0-4 on the PHQ9 at follow-up). Treatment response and remission in CAU were low. Collaborative care was more effective on achieving treatment response than CAU at three months for the total group of patients who received collaborative care [OR 5.2 ((1.41-16.09), NNT 2] and at nine months [OR 5.6 ((1.40-22.58)), NNT 3]. The effect was not statistically significant at 6 and 12 months. A relatively high percentage of patients (36.5%) did not return one or more follow-up questionnaires. There was no evidence for selective non response. Our adapted target driven CC was considerably more effective than CAU for MDD in primary care in the
Libby, Anne M; Pace, Wilson; Bryan, Cathy; Anderson, Heather Orton; Ellis, Samuel L; Allen, Richard Read; Brandt, Elias; Huebschmann, Amy G; West, David; Valuck, Robert J
The Distributed Ambulatory Research in Therapeutics Network (DARTNet) is a federated network of electronic health record (EHR) data, designed as a platform for next-generation comparative effectiveness research in real-world settings. DARTNet links information from nonintegrated primary care clinics that use EHRs to deliver ambulatory care to overcome limitations with traditional observational research. Test the ability to conduct a remote, electronic point of care study in DARTNet practices by prompting clinic staff to obtain specific information during a patient encounter. Prospective survey of patients identified through queries of clinical data repositories in federated network organizations. On patient visit, survey is triggered and data are relinked to the EHR, de-identified, and copied for evaluation. Adult patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus that scheduled a clinic visit for any reason in a 2-week period in DARTNet primary care practices. Survey on hypoglycemic events (past month) and over-the-counter and herbal supplement use. DARTNet facilitated point of care data collection triggered by an electronic prompt for additional information at a patient visit. More than one-third of respondents (33% response rate) reported either mild (45%) or severe hypoglycemic events (5%) in the month before the survey; only 3 of those were also coded using the ICD-9 (a significant difference in detection rates 37% vs. 1%). Nearly one-quarter of patients reported taking an OTC/herbal, 4% specifically for the treatment of symptoms of diabetes. Prospective data collection is feasible in DARTNet and can enable comparative effectiveness and safety research.
van der Molen, Thys; Schokker, Siebrig
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease, with cigarette smoking being the main risk factor. Prevention is crucial in the fight against COPD. Whereas primary prevention is targeted on whole populations, patient populations are the focus of primary care; therefore, prevention in this setting is mainly aimed at preventing further deterioration of the disease in patients who present with the first signs of disease (secondary prevention). Prevention of COPD in primary care requires detection of COPD at an early stage. An accurate definition of COPD is crucial in this identification process. The benefits of detecting new patients with COPD should be determined before recommending screening and case-finding programs in primary care. No evidence is available that screening by spirometry results in significant health gains. Effective treatment options in patients with mild disease are lacking. Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD prevention. Because cigarette smoking is not only a major cause of COPD but is also a major cause of many other diseases, a decline in tobacco smoking would result in substantial health benefits.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness over a one-year time horizon of pharmacological first line treatment in primary care for patients with moderate to severe depression. DESIGN: A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis was employed to determine the relative efficacy in terms of remission of 10 antidepressants (citalopram, duloxetine escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine. The estimated remission rates were then applied in a decision-analytic model in order to estimate costs and quality of life with different treatments at one year. DATA SOURCES: Meta-analyses of remission rates from randomised controlled trials, and cost and quality-of-life data from published sources. RESULTS: The most favourable pharmacological treatment in terms of remission was escitalopram with an 8- to 12-week probability of remission of 0.47. Despite a high acquisition cost, this clinical effectiveness translated into escitalopram being both more effective and having a lower total cost than all other comparators from a societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the cost per QALY of escitalopram was €3732 compared with venlafaxine. CONCLUSION: Of the investigated antidepressants, escitalopram has the highest probability of remission and is the most effective and cost-effective pharmacological treatment in a primary care setting, when evaluated over a one year time-horizon. Small differences in remission rates may be important when assessing costs and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants.
Fazio, Sara B; Demasi, Monica; Farren, Erin; Frankl, Susan; Gottlieb, Barbara; Hoy, Jessica; Johnson, Amanda; Kasper, Jill; Lee, Patrick; McCarthy, Claire; Miller, Kathe; Morris, Juliana; O'Hare, Kitty; Rosales, Rachael; Simmons, Leigh; Smith, Benjamin; Treadway, Katherine; Goodell, Kristen; Ogur, Barbara
In light of the increasing demand for primary care services and the changing scope of health care, it is important to consider how the principles of primary care are taught in medical school. While the majority of schools have increased students' exposure to primary care, they have not developed a standardized primary care curriculum for undergraduate medical education. In 2013, the authors convened a group of educators from primary care internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics, as well as five medical students to create a blueprint for a primary care curriculum that could be integrated into a longitudinal primary care experience spanning undergraduate medical education and delivered to all students regardless of their eventual career choice.The authors organized this blueprint into three domains: care management, specific areas of content expertise, and understanding the role of primary care in the health care system. Within each domain, they described specific curriculum content, including longitudinality, generalism, central responsibility for managing care, therapeutic alliance/communication, approach to acute and chronic care, wellness and prevention, mental and behavioral health, systems improvement, interprofessional training, and population health, as well as competencies that all medical students should attain by graduation.The proposed curriculum incorporates important core features of doctoring, which are often affirmed by all disciplines but owned by none. The authors argue that primary care educators are natural stewards of this curriculum content and can ensure that it complements and strengthens all aspects of undergraduate medical education.
Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Shultz, Susan E; Tu, Karen
Several barriers to the adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by family physicians have been discussed, including the costs of implementation, impact on work flow and loss of productivity. We examined billings and payments received before and after implementation of EMRs among primary care physicians in the province of Ontario. We also examined billings and payments before and after switching from a fee-for-service to a capitation payment model, because EMR implementation coincided with primary care reform in the province. We used information from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative Data Linked Database (EMRALD) to conduct a retrospective before-after study. The EMRALD database includes EMR data extracted from 183 community-based family physicians in Ontario. We included EMRALD physicians who were eligible to bill the Ontario Health Insurance Plan at least 18 months before and after the date they started using EMRs and had completed a full 18-month period before Mar. 31, 2011, when the study stopped. The main outcome measures were physicians' monthly billings and payments for office visits and total annual payments received from all government sources. Two index dates were examined: the date physicians started using EMRs and were in a stable payment model (n = 64) and the date physicians switched from a fee-for-service to a capitation payment model (n = 42). Monthly billings and payments for office visits did not decrease after the implementation of EMRs. The overall weighted mean annual payment from all government sources increased by 27.7% after the start of EMRs among EMRALD physicians; an increase was also observed among all other primary care physicians in Ontario, but it was not as great (14.4%). There was a decline in monthly billings and payments for office visits after physicians changed payment models, but an increase in their overall annual government payments. Implementation of EMRs by primary care physicians did not result in decreased
Shultz, Susan E.; Tu, Karen
primary care physicians did not result in decreased billings or government payments for office visits. Further economic analyses are needed to measure the effects of EMR implementation on productivity and the costs of implementing an EMR system, including the costs of nonclinical work by physicians and their staff. PMID:25077111
Aghajani, Mohamad; Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Kafaei Atrian, Mahbube; Raofi, Zahra; Abedi, Fatemeh; Naeimi Vartoni, Sajad; Soleimani, Akbar
Hypertension is a dangerous risk factor for public health. It profoundly affects the patients' quality of life. However, there is lack of agreement on the best method for self-care management in patients with hypertension. This study was conducted to compare the effect of lecture and educational pamphlets on quality of life (QOL) in patients with primary hypertension. A quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 patients with chronic primary hypertension referred to two outpatient clinics in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into three groups including lecture group, educational package group, and control group. The participants' quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and two months later. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. No significant differences were observed between the three groups for demographics characteristics and QOL before the intervention except for marital status. Mean scores of QOL dimensions of the intervention groups were increased at the end of the study, except for the dimension of bodily pain. Tukey post-Hoc test showed that except for general health, the two intervention groups were not significantly different in other dimensions, and significant differences were observed between the control group and the two intervention groups (P educational package can both improve some dimensions of the QOL in patients with hypertension. However, as pamphlets are cheap and easy to use, this method may be used as an effective method for self-care education in health care settings in Iran, where the system is faced with nursing shortage.
Represas-Represas, Cristina; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; González-Silva, Ana Isabel; García-Martínez, Ana; Fernández-Villar, Alberto
Despite the importance of spirometry, its use and quality are limited in the Primary Care setting. There are few accredited training programs that have demonstrated improvement in the quality of spirometric studies. In this paper, we analyze the short- and long-term effectiveness of a supervised training program for performing and interpreting spirometries. Ours is an intervention study with before and after measurements. The target population included teams of physicians and nursing staff at 26 health-care centers in the area of Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The structured training program involved 2 theoretical and practical training sessions (that were 2months apart), an intermediate period of 30 supervised spirometries performed in the respective centers and weekly e-mail exercises. Effectiveness was evaluated using exercises at the beginning (test 1) and the end (test 2) of the 1st day, 2nd day (test 3) and one year later (test 4), as well as the analysis of spirometries done in month1, month2 and one year later. Participants also completed a survey about their satisfaction. 74 participants initiated the program; 72 completed the program, but only 45 participated in the one-year evaluation. Mean test scores were: 4.1±1.9 on test 1; 7.5±1.6 on test 2; 8.9±1.3 on test 3, and 8.8±1.4 on test 4. During month1, the percentage of correctly done/interpreted tests was 71%, in month two it was 91% and after one year it was 83% (Ptraining program based on theoretical and practical workshops and a supervised follow-up of spirometries significantly improved the ability of Primary Care professionals to carry out and interpret spirometric testing, although the quality of the tests diminished over time. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lilja, Josefine L; Zelleroth, Clara; Axberg, Ulf; Norlander, Torsten
This study examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in primary care for patients with recurrent depression (major depressive disorder: MDD). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD is now the leading cause of disease burden in middle- and high-income countries. Patients (N = 45) with three or more previous depressive episodes were recruited to participate in MBCT as a preventative intervention. Using a benchmarking approach, outcome data was compared with data from a recent efficacy study. The methodology is a rigorous approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based UK protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Additionally, a person-centred methodological approach was used to assess clinical significance on the Reliable Change Index (RCI). The analysis revealed comparable or larger effects from pre-test to post-test in reduced psychiatric symptoms, increased quality of life and level of mindfulness, and the effects were maintained over 14 months. Analysis of the relapse rate in the current study (16%) compared to the TAU in the efficacy study (68%) yielded an h value of 0.78, a moderate effect size. Only 13% dropped out of the treatment. According to the RCI findings, 65% to 67% of participants in the clinical group improved, no individual worsened, and women showed a significantly greater improvement of depression and anxiety than men. Therapeutic alliance and motivation had no impact on the outcome. The overall result suggests that MBCT can be implemented successfully in Scandinavian primary health care as a preventive intervention for patients with recurrent depression. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Canfield, Caitlin F; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn B; Huberman, Harris S; Dreyer, Benard P; Legano, Lori A; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Seery, Anne; Mendelsohn, Alan L
As part of a large randomized controlled trial, the authors assessed the impact of 2 early primary care parenting interventions-the Video Interaction Project (VIP) and Building Blocks (BB)-on the use of physical punishment among low-income parents of toddlers. They also determined whether the impact was mediated through increases in responsive parenting and decreases in maternal psychosocial risk. Four hundred thirty-eight mother-child dyads (161 VIP, 113 BB, 164 Control) were assessed when the children were 14 and/or 24 months old. Mothers were asked about their use of physical punishment and their responsive parenting behaviors, depressive symptoms, and parenting stress. The VIP was associated with lower physical punishment scores at 24 months, as compared to BB and controls. In addition, fewer VIP parents reported ever using physical punishment as a disciplinary strategy. Significant indirect effects were found for both responsive parenting and maternal psychosocial risk, indicating that the VIP affects these behaviors and risk factors, and that this is an important pathway through which the VIP affects the parents' use of physical punishment. The results support the efficacy of the VIP and the role of pediatric primary care, in reducing the use of physical punishment among low-income families by enhancing parent-child relationships. In this way, the findings support the potential of the VIP to improve developmental outcomes for at-risk children.
Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael
To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Soeyonggo, Tony; Locke, Jennifer; Giudice, Maria Elizabeth Del; Alibhai, Shabbir; Fleshner, Neil Eric; Warde, Padraig
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer with numerous side effects. We assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge of ADT side effects and their interest in increasing their knowledge in this area. A list of active Canadian PCPs was obtained using the Canadian Medical Directory. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 600 randomly selected physicians. We collected PCPs' demographic information, experience with ADT management, knowledge regarding ADT side effects and desired sources for obtaining knowledge on ADT management. In total, we received 103 completed questionnaires. Of these, 89% of PCPs had patients on ADT. One-third of respondents prescribed ADT and over half of them administered ADT annually. Thirty-eight percent felt their knowledge of ADT side effects was inadequate and 50% felt uncomfortable counselling patients on ADT. Many PCPs were less familiar with the incidence of functional side effects of ADT (i.e., hot flashes, fatigue and erectile dysfunction) compared to life-threatening side effects (i.e., cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome, fractures). In terms of increasing their knowledge of ADT side effects, 82% of PCPs would use educational resources if they were available (52% and 32% preferred continued medical education [CME] events and educational pamphlets, respectively). PCPs play an important role in managing ADT side effects. There is poor awareness of the prevalence of ADT side effects, and many are uncomfortable in managing these side effects. These areas may be addressed through CME programs and educational pamphlets.
Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J
Research generally shows that greater resource utilization fails to translate into higher-quality healthcare. Organizational slack is defined as extra organizational resources needed to meet demand. Divergent views exist on organizational slack in healthcare. Some investigators view slack negatively because it is wasteful, inefficient, and costly, whereas others view slack positively because it allows flexibility in work practices, expanding available services, and protecting against environmental changes. We tested a curvilinear relationship between organizational slack and care quality. The study setting was primary care clinics (n=568) in the Veterans Health Administration. We examined organizational slack using the patient panel size per clinic capacity ratio and support staff per provider ratio staffing guidelines developed by the Veterans Health Administration. Patient-level measures were influenza vaccinations, continuity of care, and overall quality of care ratings. We obtained 2 independent patient samples with approximately 28,000 and 62,000 observations for the analysis. We used multilevel modeling and examined the linear and quadratic terms for both organizational slack measures. We found a significant curvilinear effect for panel size per clinic capacity for influenza vaccinations and overall quality of care. We also found support staff per provider exhibited a curvilinear effect for continuity of care and influenza vaccinations. Greater available resources led to better care, but at a certain point, additional resources provided minimal quality gains. Our findings highlight the importance of primary care clinic managers monitoring staffing levels. Healthcare systems managing a balanced provider workload and staff-mix may realize better patient care delivery and cost management.
Peccoralo, Lauren A; Callahan, Kathryn; Stark, Rachel; DeCherrie, Linda V
With growing numbers of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations, and the potential implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the provision of primary care in the United States is expanding and changing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create more primary-care physicians and to train physicians to practice in this environment. In this article, we review the impact that the changing US healthcare system has on trainees, strategies to recruit and retain medical students and residents into primary-care internal medicine, and the preparation of trainees to work in the changing healthcare system. Recruitment methods for medical students include early preclinical exposure to patients in the primary-care setting, enhanced longitudinal patient experiences in clinical clerkships, and primary-care tracks. Recruitment methods for residents include enhanced ambulatory-care training and primary-care programs. Financial-incentive programs such as loan forgiveness may encourage trainees to enter primary care. Retaining residents in primary-care careers may be encouraged via focused postgraduate fellowships or continuing medical education to prepare primary-care physicians as both teachers and practitioners in the changing environment. Finally, to prepare primary-care trainees to effectively and efficiently practice within the changing system, educators should consider shifting ambulatory training to community-based practices, encouraging resident participation in team-based care, providing interprofessional educational experiences, and involving trainees in quality-improvement initiatives. Medical educators in primary care must think innovatively and collaboratively to effectively recruit and train the future generation of primary-care physicians. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
M de Wet
Full Text Available One of the challenges facing primary health care in South Africa is the delivery of quality eye care to all South Africans. In this regard the role of the primary health care worker, as the first point of contact, is crucial. This paper reports on the problems primary health care workers experience in providing quality eye care in Region B of the Free State. Problems identified by those involved in the study include the cumbersome referral system, the unavailability of appropriate medicine at clinics, the insufficient knowledge of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions and the lack of communication between the various eye care service providers. Suggestions to address the problems identified included more in-service training of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions, liaison with NGO’s providing eye care, decentralisation of services and the establishment of an eye care committee in the region.
Twig, Gilad; Lahad, Amnon; Kochba, Ilan; Ezra, Vered; Mandel, Dror; Shina, Avi; Kreiss, Yitshak; Zimlichman, Eyal
A survey conducted among Israel Defense Force primary care physicians in 2001 revealed that they consider patients' needs more than they do organizational needs and that the education PCPs currently receive is inadequate. In 2003 the medical corps initiated a multi-format continuous medical education program aimed at improving skills in primary care medicine. To measure and analyze the effect of the tailor-made CME program on PCPs' self-perception 3 years after its implementation and correlate it to clinical performance. In 2006 a questionnaire was delivered to a representative sample of PCPs in the IDF. The questionnaire included items on demographic and professional background, statements on self-perception issues, and ranking of roles. We compared the follow-up survey (2006) to the results of the original study (2001) and correlated the survey results with clinical performance as measured through objective indicators. In the 2006 follow-up survey PCPs scored higher on questions dealing with their perception of themselves as case managers (3.8 compared to 4.0 on the 2001 survey on a 5 point scale, P = 0.046), perceived quality of care and education (3.5 vs. 3.8, P = 0.06), and on questions dealing with organizational commitment (3.5 vs. 3.8, P = 0.01). PCPs received higher scores on clinical indicators in the later study (odds ratio 2.05, P < 0.001). PCPs in the IDF perceived themselves more as case managers as compared to the 2001 survey. A tailor-made CME program may have contributed to the improvement in skills and quality of care.
Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Hutchinson, A.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, M.; Pavlick, D.R.
This chapter analyses differences between countries and explains why countries differ regarding the structure and process of primary care. The components of primary care strength that are used in the analyses are health policy-making, workforce development and in the care process itself (see Fig.
Lewin, Simon; Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Bastías, Gabriel; Chopra, Mickey; Ciapponi, Agustín; Flottorp, Signe; Martí, Sebastian García; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Souza, Nathan; Treweek, Shaun; Wiysonge, Charles S; Haines, Andy
Strengthening health systems is a key challenge to improving the delivery of cost-effective interventions in primary health care and achieving the vision of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Effective governance, financial and delivery arrangements within health systems, and effective implementation strategies are needed urgently in low-income and middle-income countries. This overview summarises the evidence from systematic reviews of health systems arrangements and implementation strategies, with a particular focus on evidence relevant to primary health care in such settings. Although evidence is sparse, there are several promising health systems arrangements and implementation strategies for strengthening primary health care. However, their introduction must be accompanied by rigorous evaluations. The evidence base needs urgently to be strengthened, synthesised, and taken into account in policy and practice, particularly for the benefit of those who have been excluded from the health care advances of recent decades.
Grant, C C; Forrest, C B; Starfield, B
(1) To describe New Zealand's primary care system (2) to compare New Zealand to other Anglo-American members of the OECD with respect to the adequacy of primary care, and (3) to assess the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of New Zealand's system by comparing health spending and health indicators relevant to primary care. A cross-national comparison of primary care, health spending and health indicators in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Main outcome measures were health spending measured in purchasing power parties. Health indicators: mean life expectancy in years, years of potential life lost and infant mortality rates. New Zealand's primary care system ranked below the UK, above the USA and similar to Canada and Australia. Favourable characteristics of New Zealand's primary care system were the use of generalists as the predominant type of practitioner and the low proportion of active physicians who were specialists. Compared to the other countries, New Zealand scored poorly for financial that are necessary for the practise of good primary care. New Zealand and the UK had the lowest spending per capita on health care. New Zealand and the USA scored lowest for all three of the health care indicators. The quality of primary care in New Zealand is limited by barriers to access to care and the intermediate level of practise characteristics essential to primary care. Compared to other AngloAmerican OECD nations, New Zealand has relatively low levels of national health expenditure. In order to improve the quality of primary care, future reform should aim to facilitate access to care, increase the gatekeeping role of primary care physicians, and promote the practise characteristics essential to primary care.
Yang, Lianping; Huang, Cunrui; Liu, Chaojie
Poor distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions has attracted criticism since China adopted provincial centralized regional tendering and procurement systems. This study evaluated the impact of new procurement arrangements that limit the number of distributors at the county level in Hubei province, China. Procurement ordering and distribution data were collected from four counties that pioneered a new distribution arrangement (commencing September 2012) compared with six counties that continued the existing arrangement over the period from August 2011 to September 2013. The new arrangement allowed primary care institutions and/or suppliers to select a local distributor from a limited panel (from 3 to 5) of government nominated distributors. Difference-in-differences analyses were performed to assess the impact of the new arrangements on delivery and receipt of essential medicines. Overall, the new distribution arrangement has not improved distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions. On the contrary, we found a 7.78-19.85 percentage point (p Procurement arrangements need to consider the special characteristics of rural facilities. In a county, there are more rural primary care institutions than urban ones. On average, rural primary care institutions demand more and are more geographically dispersed compared to their urban counterparts, which may impose increased distribution costs.
Sović, Nevena; Pająk, Andrzej; Jankowski, Piotr; Duenas, Alejandra; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wolfshaut-Wolak, Renata; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kawalec, Paweł
Well designed cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes appear to be generally applicable and effective in reducing exposure to risk factors and the incidence of disease. However, introducing them broadly into clinical practice would have a significant impact on the healthcare budget, and requires careful consideration. The purpose of this health economic analysis was to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of the model nurse-led, comprehensive CVD primary prevention programme which was prepared and introduced in the EUROACTION project, in high-risk patients in Poland. A Markov model was developed to assess the long-term costs of preventive intervention. The health states modelled were: event-free (all patients at the beginning of observation), stable angina first year, acute myocardial infarction, stable angina subsequent year, myocardial infarction subsequent year, CVD death, and other causes of death. Health benefits from the reduction in risk factors were estimated based on Framingham risk function assuming the probability of defined health states according to British registers. The time horizon of the analysis was ten years, and one Markov cycle length was one year. The analysis was prepared from the healthcare payer's perspective. A willingness to pay threshold of three gross domestic product (GDP) per capita / quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was used. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as an incremental cost per QALY. In Poland, EUROACTION intervention resulted mainly in reductions in the prevalence of smoking (by 14%) and high blood pressure (by 7%). Intervention on other risk factors, including blood lipids, was found to be less effective. Estimated ICERs were 19,524 PLN for men and 82,262 PLN for women. The programme was even more cost-effective in smokers i.e. estimated ICERs were 12,377 PLN in men and 53,471 PLN in women. The results were most
Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients? primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Methods Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 1...
Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan
Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a
van Leeuwen, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Jansen, A.P.D.; Hoogendijk, E.O.; Muntinga, M.E.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Nijpels, G.; van der Horst, H.E.; van Tulder, M.W.
Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Design Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting
van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING:
Millán, Teresa; Morera, Iván; Vargas, Nelson A
Teenager counseling to recognize risks and reinforce strengths is carried out in a primary care outpatient clinic since 2003. To describe the epidemiology and causes for consultation in this teenage counseling program. Retrospective review of the records of 116 teenagers (median age 13 years, 67% females) that received teenager counseling. Seventy percent of women and 50% of men came from nuclear families. More than two thirds were primogenital. Most adolescents were accompanied by their mother, that were the main adult raw model. Fifty percent had dysfunctional families. All were attending school regularly and 21% of women and 29% of men had repeated a school level. Sixty eight percent of women and 62% of men declared to have a life project. Twenty percent were worried about their physical appearance. Seventy seven percent of women and 62% of men considered themselves as happy. Thirty six percent of women and 14% of men smoked. The figures for alcohol consumption were 21% and 14%, respectively. The causes for consultation were obesity, overweight, unspecific symptoms, behavioral problems, bad school achievement, communication problems or pregnancy. Reasons for counseling were family dysfunction, low self esteem, bad school achievement and information about sexuality. The information obtained could help to improve the interdisciplinary work and to coordinate counseling with the family and schools.
The effects of implementing a point-of-care electronic template to prompt routine anxiety and depression screening in patients consulting for osteoarthritis (the Primary Care Osteoarthritis Trial: A cluster randomised trial in primary care.
Christian D Mallen
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA improves pain outcomes.We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire-2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0-10 numerical rating scale]. The template signposted GPs to follow National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines for anxiety, depression, and OA and was supported by a brief training package. The template in control practices prompted GPs to ask the pain intensity question only. The primary outcome was patient-reported current pain intensity post-consultation and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and general health. During the trial period, 7,279 patients aged ≥45 y consulted with a relevant OA-related code, and 4,240 patients were deemed potentially eligible by participating GPs. Templates were completed for 2,042 patients (1,339 [31.6%] in the control arm and 703 [23.1%] in the intervention arm. Of these 2,042 patients, 1,412 returned questionnaires (501 [71.3%] from 20 intervention practices, 911 [68.0%] from 24 control practices. Follow-up rates were similar in both arms, totalling 1,093 (77.4% at 3 mo, 1,064 (75.4% at 6 mo, and 1,017 (72.0% at 12 mo. For the primary endpoint, multilevel modelling yielded significantly higher average pain intensity across follow-up to 12 mo in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted mean difference 0.31; 95% CI 0.04, 0.59. Secondary
The effects of implementing a point-of-care electronic template to prompt routine anxiety and depression screening in patients consulting for osteoarthritis (the Primary Care Osteoarthritis Trial): A cluster randomised trial in primary care.
Mallen, Christian D; Nicholl, Barbara I; Lewis, Martyn; Bartlam, Bernadette; Green, Daniel; Jowett, Sue; Kigozi, Jesse; Belcher, John; Clarkson, Kris; Lingard, Zoe; Pope, Christopher; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Croft, Peter; Hay, Elaine M; Peat, George
This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs) to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain outcomes. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire-2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0-10 numerical rating scale]). The template signposted GPs to follow National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines for anxiety, depression, and OA and was supported by a brief training package. The template in control practices prompted GPs to ask the pain intensity question only. The primary outcome was patient-reported current pain intensity post-consultation and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and general health. During the trial period, 7,279 patients aged ≥45 y consulted with a relevant OA-related code, and 4,240 patients were deemed potentially eligible by participating GPs. Templates were completed for 2,042 patients (1,339 [31.6%] in the control arm and 703 [23.1%] in the intervention arm). Of these 2,042 patients, 1,412 returned questionnaires (501 [71.3%] from 20 intervention practices, 911 [68.0%] from 24 control practices). Follow-up rates were similar in both arms, totalling 1,093 (77.4%) at 3 mo, 1,064 (75.4%) at 6 mo, and 1,017 (72.0%) at 12 mo. For the primary endpoint, multilevel modelling yielded significantly higher average pain intensity across follow-up to 12 mo in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted mean difference 0.31; 95% CI 0.04, 0.59). Secondary outcomes were
Full Text Available This quasi-experimental study used inclusion criteria obtaining samples taken from high-risk and grade I hypertensive patients aged 35 to 59 without hypertensive complications. The two related groups comprised 36 individuals. Both were enrolled in a hypertensive management program comprising health education strategies, respiratory training, advice on limiting salt and fat intake, exercise, group discussion with social support, telephon counseling, and home visits. Three perception and preventive behavior questionnaires and home behavior records collected data according to individual hypertension risk factors. The study was carried out for four months. Descriptive statistics and a paired t-test were used. Results showed a statistical significance difference with increased total mean scores with the following variances:healthstatus,self-efficacyanddecreasedbarrierperception(p=.000, .008and.022, respectively. There was noticeable improvement in exercise and stress management, but no significant change in overall preventive behavior for hypertension (p >.05. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were lower (p .05. Primary healthcare services should also be a strategic development, especially focus socially-supported on mental wellbeing whichis beneficial for riskandhypertensive groups.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Primary Care Management Module (PCMM) was developed to assist VA facilities in implementing Primary Care. PCMM supports both Primary Care and non-Primary Care...
Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Jin, Haomiao; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Belson, David; Nezu, Arthur M; Hay, Joel; Wang, Chien-Ju; Scheib, Geoffrey; Di Capua, Paul; Hawkins, Caitlin; Liu, Pai; Ramirez, Magaly; Wu, Brian W; Richman, Mark; Myers, Caitlin; Agustines, Davin; Dasher, Robert; Kopelowicz, Alex; Allevato, Joseph; Roybal, Mike; Ipp, Eli; Haider, Uzma; Graham, Sharon; Mahabadi, Vahid; Guterman, Jeffrey
Comorbid depression is a significant challenge for safety-net primary care systems. Team-based collaborative depression care is effective, but complex system factors in safety-net organizations impede adoption and result in persistent disparities in outcomes. Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) evaluated whether depression care could be significantly improved by harnessing information and communication technologies to automate routine screening and monitoring of patient symptoms and treatment adherence and allow timely communication with providers. The aim of this study was to compare 6-month outcomes of a technology-facilitated care model with a usual care model and a supported care model that involved team-based collaborative depression care for safety-net primary care adult patients with type 2 diabetes. DCAT is a translational study in collaboration with Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, the second largest safety-net care system in the United States. A comparative effectiveness study with quasi-experimental design was conducted in three groups of adult patients with type 2 diabetes to compare three delivery models: usual care, supported care, and technology-facilitated care. Six-month outcomes included depression and diabetes care measures and patient-reported outcomes. Comparative treatment effects were estimated by linear or logistic regression models that used generalized propensity scores to adjust for sampling bias inherent in the nonrandomized design. DCAT enrolled 1406 patients (484 in usual care, 480 in supported care, and 442 in technology-facilitated care), most of whom were Hispanic or Latino and female. Compared with usual care, both the supported care and technology-facilitated care groups were associated with significant reduction in depressive symptoms measured by scores on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (least squares estimate, LSE: usual care=6.35, supported care=5.05, technology-facilitated care=5
Ramsay, C.R.; Eccles, M.; Grimshaw, J.M.; Steen, N.
AIM: To investigate whether the effect of educational reminder messages for knee and lumbar spine radiographs varied over a 12 month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a previous randomized, controlled trial, educational reminder messages attached to x-ray reports were shown to be effective in reducing the number of radiograph requests by general practitioners for knee and lumbar spine radiographs. In this study, all radiology departments from the previous trial were asked for monthly referral records for the 12 month intervention period for knee and lumbar spine radiographs for each general practice. Poisson regression was used to test for a change over time in the number of referrals between control and intervention practices. RESULTS: Data were obtained for 66% of the general practices in the main trial. The number of referrals for both knee and lumbar spine radiographs remained consistently and statistically significantly lower in the educational reminder messages group compared with the control group (relative risk=0.65 and 0.64, respectively). There was no evidence that this difference increased or decreased throughout the 12 month period. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of educational reminder messages was produced as soon as the intervention was delivered and maintained throughout the intervention period. There was no evidence of the effect of the intervention wearing off
Linmans, Joris J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Spigt, Mark; Knottnerus, J André
The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may require specific methodology and statistics. We investigated the effects of real-world primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used medical records of patients (n=2,549) with T2DM from 10 primary health care centers. A mixed-effects regression model for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the changes in weight and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. There was no statistically significant change in weight (+0.07 kg, P=0.832) and HbA1c (+0.03%, P=0.657) during the observation period of 972 days. Most patients maintained their physical activity level (70%), and 54 % had an insufficient activity level. The variability in the course of weight and HbA1c was because of differences between patients and not between health care providers. Despite effective lifestyle interventions in controlled trial settings, we found that real-world primary care is only able to stabilize weight and HbA1c in patients with T2DM over time. Medical registration can be used to monitor the actual effectiveness of interventions in primary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bosmans, Judith E; Coupé, Veerle M H; Knottnerus, Bart J; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Ter Riet, Gerben
BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To compare
care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...
In the current situation, an integrated health care system with primary eye care promoted by government of India is apparently the best answer. This model is both cost effective and practical for the prevention and control of blindness among the underprivileged population. Other models functioning with the newer technology of tele-ophthalmology or mobile clinics also add to the positive outcome in providing primary eye care services. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of various models presently functioning in the country with the idea of providing useful inputs for eye care providers and enabling them to identify and adopt an appropriate model for primary eye care services.
Full Text Available Paolo Mannelli,1 Li-Tzy Wu1–41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USARecent reports on prescription opioid misuse and abuse have described unprecedented peaks of a national crisis and the only answer is to expand prevention and treatment, including different levels of care.1 Nonetheless, concerns remain about the ability of busy primary care settings to manage problem opioid users along with other patients. In particular, proposed extensions of buprenorphine treatment, a critically effective intervention for opioid use disorder (OUD, are cautiously considered due to the potential risk of misuse or abuse.2 General practitioners are already facing this burden daily in the treatment of chronic pain, and expert supervision and treatment model adjustment are needed to help improve outcomes. Approximately 20% of patients in primary care have noncancer pain symptoms, with most of them receiving opioid prescriptions by their physicians, and their number is increasing.3 Pain diagnoses are comparable in severity to those of tertiary centers and are complicated by significant psychiatric comorbidity, with a measurable lifetime risk of developing OUD.4,5 Some primary care physicians report frustration about opioid abuse and diversion by their patients; support from pain specialists would improve their competence, the quality f their performance, and the ability to identify patients at risk of opioid misuse.6 Thus, buprenorphine treatment should not be adding to a complex clinical scenario. To this end, the promising models of care emphasize the integration of medical with psychological and pharmacological expertise for the management of OUD.
Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Lowe, B.
OBJECTIVE: To examine suicidal ideation in a sample of German primary care patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 1455 primary care patients who visited 1 of 41 general practitioners (GPs) working at 19 different sites. Suicidal ideation and psychopathology were
Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A
This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care internationally is approaching a new paradigm. The change agenda implicit in this threatens to de-stabilise and challenge established general practice and primary care. Discussion The Primary Care Amplification Model offers a means to harness the change agenda by 'amplifying' the strengths of established general practices around a 'beacon' practice. Conclusion Such 'beacon' practices can provide a mustering point for an expanded scope of practice for primary care, integrated primary/secondary service delivery, interprofessional learning, relevant local clinical research, and a focus on local service innovation, enhancing rather than fragmenting the collective capacity of existing primary care.
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Sieverink, Floor; Roelofsen, Y.; Hendriks, S.H.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Snoek, F.J.
We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of
Lucina N. Koyio
Full Text Available Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE. Primary healthcare (PHC providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii referral rates for HIV-testing. Design and methods. The study has been designed in two parts: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure.
Rueda-Clausen, C F; Benterud, E; Bond, T; Olszowka, R; Vallis, M T; Sharma, A M
Obesity counselling in primary care is positively associated with self-reported behaviour change in patients with obesity. Obesity counselling is rare, and when it does occur, it is often of low quality because of poor training and/or competency of providers' obesity management, lack of time and economical disincentives, and negative attitude towards obesity and obesity management. 5As frameworks are routinely used for behaviour-change counselling and addiction management (e.g. smoking cessation), but few studies have examined its efficacy for weight management. This study presents pilot data from the implementation and evaluation of an obesity management tool (5As of Obesity Management developed by the Canadian Obesity Network) in a primary care setting. Results show that the tool facilitates weight management in primary care by promoting physician-patient communications, medical assessments for obesity and plans for follow-up care. Obesity remains poorly managed in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management is a theory-driven, evidence-based minimal intervention designed to facilitate obesity counselling and management by primary care practitioners. This project tested the impact of implementing this tool in primary care clinics. Electronic self-administered surveys were completed by pre-screened obese subjects at the end of their appointments in four primary care clinics (over 25 healthcare providers [HCPs]). These measurements were performed before (baseline, n = 51) and 1 month after implementing the 5As of Obesity Management (post-intervention, n = 51). Intervention consisted of one online training session (90 min) and distribution of the 5As toolkit to HCPs of participating clinics. Subjects completing the survey before and after the intervention were comparable in terms of age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, satisfaction and self-reported health status (P > 0.2). Implementing the 5As of Obesity Management resulted in a twofold increase
Koyio, Lucina N; van der Sanden, Wil J M; van der Ven, Andre; Creugers, Nico; Merkx, Matthias A W; Frencken, Jo E
An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE). Primary healthcare (PHC) providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i) the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii) referral rates for HIV-testing. THE STUDY HAS BEEN DESIGNED IN TWO PARTS: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure. The project is funded by the Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC). We would like to thank all participating health facilities and health care workers for their willingness to take part in this study. LNK also thanks the Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment.
Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A
Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.
dearth of information on patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care. This study sought ... with the doctor. Satisfaction rates were: 94.9% technical quality, ... of the delivery of care into several dimensions of contributed by studies carried out in Western. 14 ... efficiency of services as an index of patient needs of its clients. Secondly ...
Mercer, Alec; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Daulatuzzaman, Muhammad; Reid, Joanna
This paper considers evidence of the effectiveness of a non-governmental organization (NGO) primary health care programme in rural Bangladesh. It is based on data from the programme's management information system reported by 27 partner NGOs from 1996-2002. The data indicate relatively high coverage has been achieved for reproductive and child health services, as well as lower infant and child mortality. On the basis of a crude indicator of socio-economic status, the programme is poverty-focused. There is good service coverage among the poorest one-third and others, and the infant and child mortality differential has been eliminated over recent years. A rapid decline in infant mortality among the poorest from 1999-2002 reflects a reduction in neonatal mortality of about 50%. Allowing for some under-reporting and possible misclassification of deaths to the stillbirths category, neonatal mortality is relatively low in the NGO areas. The lower child and maternal mortality for the NGO areas combined, compared with estimates for Bangladesh in recent years, may at least in part be due to high coverage of reproductive and child health services. Other development programmes implemented by many of the NGOs could also have contributed. Despite the limited resources available, and the lower infant and child mortality already achieved, there appears to be scope for further prevention of deaths, particularly those due to birth asphyxia, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoeal disease and accidents. Maternal mortality in the NGO areas was lower in 2000-02 than the most recent estimate for Bangladesh. Further reduction is likely to depend on improved access to qualified community midwives and essential obstetric care at government referral facilities.
Hans, Parminder K; Gray, Carolyn Steele; Gill, Ashlinder; Tiessen, James
Aim This qualitative study investigates how the Electronic Patient-Reported Outcome (ePRO) mobile application and portal system, designed to capture patient-reported measures to support self-management, affected primary care provider workflows. The Canadian health system is facing an ageing population that is living with chronic disease. Disruptive innovations like mobile health technologies can help to support health system transformation needed to better meet the multifaceted needs of the complex care patient. However, there are challenges with implementing these technologies in primary care settings, in particular the effect on primary care provider workflows. Over a six-week period interdisciplinary primary care providers (n=6) and their complex care patients (n=12), used the ePRO mobile application and portal to collaboratively goal-set, manage care plans, and support self-management using patient-reported measures. Secondary thematic analysis of focus groups, training sessions, and issue tracker reports captured user experiences at a Toronto area Family Health Team from October 2014 to January 2015. Findings Key issues raised by providers included: liability concerns associated with remote monitoring, increased documentation activities due to a lack of interoperability between the app and the electronic patient record, increased provider anxiety with regard to the potential for the app to disrupt and infringe upon appointment time, and increased demands for patient engagement. Primary care providers reported the app helped to focus care plans and to begin a collaborative conversation on goal-setting. However, throughout our investigation we found a high level of provider resistance evidenced by consistent attempts to shift the app towards fitting with existing workflows rather than adapting much of their behaviour. As health systems seek innovative and disruptive models to better serve this complex patient population, provider change resistance will need to
Huntink, Elke; Heijmans, Naomi; Wensing, Michel; van Lieshout, Jan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important worldwide cause of mortality. In The Netherlands, CVD is the leading cause of death for women and the second cause of death for men. Recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CVD are not well implemented in primary care. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness of a tailored implementation program targeted at practice nurses to improve healthcare for patients with (high risk for) CVD. A two-arm cluster randomized trial is planned. We offer practice nurses a tailored program to improve adherence to six specific recommendations related to blood pressure and cholesterol target values, risk profiling and lifestyle advice. Practice nurses are offered training and feedback on their motivational interviewing technique and an e-learning program on cardiovascular risk management (CVRM). They are also advised to screen for the presence and severity of depressive symptoms in patients. We also advise practice nurses to use selected E-health options (selected websites and Twitter-consult) in patients without symptoms of depression. Patients with mild depressive symptoms are referred to a physical exercise group. We recommend referring patients with major depressive symptoms for assessment and treatment of depressive symptoms if appropriate before starting CVRM. Data from 900 patients at high risk of CVD or with established CVD will be collected in 30 general practices in several geographical areas in The Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is performance of practice nurses in CVRM and reflects application of recommendations for personalized counselling and education of CVRM patients. Patients' health-related lifestyles (physical exercise, diet and smoking status) will be measured with validated questionnaires and medical record audit will be performed to document estimated CVD risk. Additionally, we will survey and interview participating healthcare professionals for exploration of processes of change. The control
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a very common symptom that often leads to reduced quality of life, anxiety and emotional distress, loss of fitness, lack of confidence in balance, unsteadiness and an increased risk of falling. Most dizzy patients are managed in primary care by reassurance and medication to suppress symptoms. Trials have shown that chronic dizziness can be treated effectively in primary care using a self-help booklet to teach patients vestibular rehabilitation exercises that promote neurological adaptation and skill and confidence in balance. However, brief support from a trained nurse was provided in these trials, and this model of managing dizzy patients has not been taken up due to a lack of skills and resources in primary care. The aim of this trial is to evaluate two new alternative models of delivery that may be more feasible and cost-effective. Methods/Design In a single blind two-centre pragmatic controlled trial, we will randomise 330 patients from 30 practices to a self-help booklet with telephone support from a vestibular therapist, b self-help booklet alone, c routine medical care. Symptoms, disability, handicap and quality of life will be assessed by validated questionnaires administered by post at baseline, immediately post-treatment (3 months, and at one year follow-up. The study is powered to test our primary hypothesis, that the self-help booklet with telephone support will be more effective than routine care. We will also explore the effectiveness of the booklet without any support, and calculate the costs of treatment in each arm. Discussion If our trial indicates that patients can cost-effectively manage their dizziness in primary care, then it can be easily rolled out to relieve the symptoms of the many patients in primary care who currently have chronic, untreated, disabling dizziness. Treatment in primary care may reduce the development of psychological and physical sequelae that cause handicap and require
%) was the least common. On bivariate analysis ... the power to determine what their wives do or fail to ... pregnancy care while joint decision-making ... Other maternal health services rendered This data collection was done by a team of trained.
Snyder, Barbara K; Burack, Gail D; Petrova, Anna
Despite published guidelines on the need to provide comprehensive care to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning/queer (LGBTQ) youth, there has been limited research related to the deliverance of primary health care to this population. The goals of this study were to learn about LGBTQ youth's experiences with their primary care physicians and to identify areas for improvement. Youth attending 1 of 5 community-based programs completed a written questionnaire and participated in a focus group discussion regarding experiences at primary care visits, including topics discussed, counselling received, and physician communication. Most of the youth did not feel their health care needs were well met. The majority acknowledged poor patient-provider communication, disrespect, and lack of discussions about important topics such as sexual and emotional health. Participants cited concerns about confidentiality and inappropriate comments as barriers to care. Youth expressed a strong desire to have physicians be more aware of their needs and concerns.
Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon
In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…
Luijks, H.; Biermans, M.; Bor, H.; Weel, C. van; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Grauw, W. de; Schermer, T.
Aims: To explore the longitudinal effect of chronic comorbid diseases on glycemic control (HbA1C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: In a representative primary care cohort of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands (n = 610), we tested
Mullangi, Samyukta; Saint, Sanjay
Addressing the mounting primary care shortage in the United States has been a focus of educators and policy makers, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in 2015, placing increased pressure on the system. The Association of American Medical Colleges recently projected a shortage of as many as 65,000 primary care physicians by 2025, in part because fewer than 20% of medical students are picking primary care for a career. We examined the issue of attracting medical students to primary care through the lens of organizational behavior theory. Assuming there are reasons other than lower income potential for why students are inclined against primary care, we applied various principles of the Herzberg 2-factor theory to reimagine the operational flow and design of primary care. We conclude by proposing several solutions to enrich the job, such as decreasing documentation requirements, reducing the emphasis on specialty consultations, and elevating physicians to a supervisory role.
Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield
Result: Majority of the mothers (89.2%) had primary/secondary education and 69.4% were traders. Most ... regards immunization, 22.7% of the children were not fully immunized. A total of 69 ..... Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the. 17.
Hammersen, Friederike; Goetz, Katja; Soennichsen, Andreas; Emcke, Timo; Steinhaeuser, Jost
Primary care physicians account for the majority of antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care in Germany. Respiratory diseases are, regardless of effectiveness, often treated with antibiotics. Research has found this use without indication to be caused largely by communication problems (e.g. expectations on the patient's part or false assumptions about them by the physician). The present randomised controlled trial (RCT) study evaluates whether communication training for primary care physicians can reduce the antibiotic prescribing rate for respiratory tract infections. The study consists of three groups: group A will receive communication training; group B will be given the same, plus additional, access to an evidence-based point-of-care tool; and group C will function as the control group. The primary endpoint is the difference between intervention and control groups regarding the antibiotic prescribing rate before and after the intervention assessed through routine data. The communication skills are captured with the help of the communication instrument MAAS-Global-D, as well as individual videos of physician-patient consultations recorded by the primary care physicians. These skills will also be regarded with respect to the antibiotic prescribing rate. A process evaluation using qualitative as well as quantitative methods should provide information about barriers and enablers to implementing the communication training. The trial contributes to an insight into the effectiveness of the different components to reduce antibiotic prescribing, which will also be supported by an extensive evaluation. Communication training could be an effective method of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care. DRKS00009566 DATE REGISTRATION: 5 November 2015.
Coupé, Veerle M. H.; Knottnerus, Bart J.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; ter Riet, Gerben
Background Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to diagnose UTIs in women who contacted their general practitioner (GP) with painful and/or frequent micturition between 2006 and 2008 in and around Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Methods This is a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 196 women who underwent four tests: history, urine stick, sediment, dipslide, and the gold standard, a urine culture. Decision trees were constructed reflecting 15 diagnostic strategies comprising different parallel and sequential combinations of the four tests. Using the decision trees, for each strategy the costs and the proportion of women with a correct positive or negative diagnosis were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to estimate uncertainty surrounding costs and effects. Uncertainty was presented using cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves. Results Most sequential testing strategies resulted in higher proportions of correctly classified women and lower costs than parallel testing strategies. For different willingness to pay thresholds, the most cost-effective strategies were: 1) performing a dipstick after a positive history for thresholds below €10 per additional correctly classified patient, 2) performing both a history and dipstick for thresholds between €10 and €17 per additional correctly classified patient, 3) performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a sediment if the dipstick was negative for thresholds between €17 and €118 per additional correctly classified patient, 4) performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a dipslide if the dipstick was negative for thresholds above €118 per
Judith E Bosmans
Full Text Available Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria.To compare the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to diagnose UTIs in women who contacted their general practitioner (GP with painful and/or frequent micturition between 2006 and 2008 in and around Amsterdam, The Netherlands.This is a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 196 women who underwent four tests: history, urine stick, sediment, dipslide, and the gold standard, a urine culture. Decision trees were constructed reflecting 15 diagnostic strategies comprising different parallel and sequential combinations of the four tests. Using the decision trees, for each strategy the costs and the proportion of women with a correct positive or negative diagnosis were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to estimate uncertainty surrounding costs and effects. Uncertainty was presented using cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves.Most sequential testing strategies resulted in higher proportions of correctly classified women and lower costs than parallel testing strategies. For different willingness to pay thresholds, the most cost-effective strategies were: 1 performing a dipstick after a positive history for thresholds below €10 per additional correctly classified patient, 2 performing both a history and dipstick for thresholds between €10 and €17 per additional correctly classified patient, 3 performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a sediment if the dipstick was negative for thresholds between €17 and €118 per additional correctly classified patient, 4 performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a dipslide if the dipstick was negative for thresholds above €118 per additional correctly classified
Bosmans, Judith E; Coupé, Veerle M H; Knottnerus, Bart J; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Ter Riet, Gerben
Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria. To compare the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to diagnose UTIs in women who contacted their general practitioner (GP) with painful and/or frequent micturition between 2006 and 2008 in and around Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This is a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 196 women who underwent four tests: history, urine stick, sediment, dipslide, and the gold standard, a urine culture. Decision trees were constructed reflecting 15 diagnostic strategies comprising different parallel and sequential combinations of the four tests. Using the decision trees, for each strategy the costs and the proportion of women with a correct positive or negative diagnosis were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to estimate uncertainty surrounding costs and effects. Uncertainty was presented using cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves. Most sequential testing strategies resulted in higher proportions of correctly classified women and lower costs than parallel testing strategies. For different willingness to pay thresholds, the most cost-effective strategies were: 1) performing a dipstick after a positive history for thresholds below €10 per additional correctly classified patient, 2) performing both a history and dipstick for thresholds between €10 and €17 per additional correctly classified patient, 3) performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a sediment if the dipstick was negative for thresholds between €17 and €118 per additional correctly classified patient, 4) performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a dipslide if the dipstick was negative for thresholds above €118 per additional correctly classified patient
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about teething the world over and especially ... children`s out-patients, dental and the ear, nose and throat clinics of a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... parents, health care workers and personal experiences were the sources of beliefs ... None (0%) of the respondents had prior knowledge of proven causes of ear.
enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.
these lines: eating together 261/669 (39%), hugging 149/668 (22%), shaking ... Level of education was associated with positive attitudes towards ocular .... the about 250 ethnic groups of Nigeria. ..... ocular cancer are reflection of challenges ... Care: Focus Groups with Older African ... youths in a Nigerian local population.
May 1, 2012 ... with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria ... includes contributions from families, charges have been .... employees at 23.5%, self employed 19.1% of showed that most of the respondents (41.3%).
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Escobar, JI; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, RC; Holman, A; Compton, W
The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impair...
Leibowitz, Ruth; Day, Susan; Dunt, David
The organization of after-hours primary medical care services is changing in many countries. Increasing demand, economic considerations and changes in doctors' attitudes are fueling these changes. Information for policy makers in this field is needed. However, a comprehensive review of the international literature that compares the effects of one model of after-hours care with another is lacking. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the international literature to determine what evidence exists about the effect of different models of out-of-hours primary medical care service on outcome. Original studies and systematic reviews written since 1976 on the subject of 'after-hours primary medical care services' were identified. Databases searched were Medline/Premedline, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Current Contents, Cochrane Reviews, DARE, EBM Reviews and EconLit. For each paper where the optimal design would have been an interventional study, the 'level' of evidence was assessed as described in the National Health and Medical Research Council Handbook. 'Comparative' studies (levels I, II, III and IV pre-/post-test studies) were included in this review. Six main models of after-hours primary care services (not mutually exclusive) were identified: practice-based services, deputizing services, emergency departments, co-operatives, primary care centres, and telephone triage and advice services. Outcomes were divided into the following categories: clinical outcomes, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction. The results indicate that the introduction of a telephone triage and advice service for after-hours primary medical care may reduce the immediate medical workload. Deputizing services increase immediate medical workload because of the low use of telephone advice and the high home visiting rate. Co-operatives, which use telephone triage and primary care centres and have a low home visiting rate, reduce immediate medical workload. There is little
Ono, Sarah S.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Green, Larry A.; Kaufman, Arthur; Solberg, Leif I.; Miller, William L.; Woodson, Tanisha Tate; Sweeney, Shannon M.; Cohen, Deborah J.
Health care extension is an approach to providing external support to primary care practices with the aim of diffusing innovation. EvidenceNOW was launched to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular preventive care in the primary care setting. Seven regional grantee cooperatives provided the foundational elements of health care extension—technological and quality improvement support, practice capacity building, and linking with community resources—to more than two hundred primary care practices in each region. This article describes how the cooperatives varied in their approaches to extension and provides early empirical evidence that health care extension is a feasible and potentially useful approach for providing quality improvement support to primary care practices. With investment, health care extension may be an effective platform for federal and state quality improvement efforts to create economies of scale and provide practices with more robust and coordinated support services. PMID:29401016
Posey, L Michael; Tanzi, Maria G
To review relevant trends threatening primary care and the evidence supporting use of nonphysicians in primary and chronic care of patients with diabetes. Current medical and pharmacy literature as selected by authors. The care needed by patients with diabetes does not fit well into our current medical model for primary care, and an adequate supply of physicians is not likely to be available for primary care roles in coming years. Patients with diabetes who are placed on evidence-based regimens, are educated about their disease, are coached in ways that motivate them to lose weight and adopt other therapeutic lifestyle changes, and are adhering to and persisting with therapy will soon have improved clinical parameters. These quickly translate into fewer hospitalizations and emergency department visits. A growing body of literature supports the use of pharmacists and other nonphysicians in meeting the needs of patients with diabetes. Pharmacists should join nurse practitioners, specially trained nurses, and physician assistants as integral members of the health care team in providing care to patients with diabetes and, by logical extension, other chronic conditions. Demand for primary care is likely to outstrip the available supply of generalist physicians in the coming years. In addition to nurse practitioners and physician assistants, pharmacists should be considered for key roles in future interdisciplinary teams that triage and provide direct care to patients, including those with diabetes and other chronic conditions.
Quanjel, Tessa C C; Struijs, Jeroen N; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk
In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the healthcare system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study is focused on a cardiology Primary Care Plus intervention in which cardiologists provide consultations with patients in a primary care setting in order to prevent unnecessary referrals to the hospital. This study explores which patients with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints should be excluded from Primary Care Plus and referred directly to specialist care in the hospital. This is a retrospective observational study based on quantitative data. Data collected between January 1 and December 31, 2015 were extracted from the electronic medical record system. Logistic regression analyses were used to select patient groups that should be excluded from referral to Primary Care Plus. In total, 1525 patients were included in the analyses. Results showed that male patients, older patients, those with the referral indication 'Stable Angina Pectoris' or 'Dyspnoea' and patients whose reason for referral was 'To confirm disease' or 'Screening of unclear pathology' had a significantly higher probability of being referred to hospital care after Primary Care Plus. To achieve efficiency one should exclude patient groups with a significantly higher probability of being referred to hospital care after Primary Care Plus. NTR6629 (Data registered: 25-08-2017) (registered retrospectively).
Kingston, Mark Rhys; Evans, Bridie Angela; Nelson, Kayleigh; Hutchings, Hayley; Russell, Ian; Snooks, Helen
Emergency admission risk prediction models are increasingly used to identify patients, typically with one or more chronic conditions, for proactive management in primary care to avoid admissions, save costs and improve patient experience. To identify and review the published evidence on the costs, effects and implementation of emergency admission risk prediction models in primary care for patients with, or at risk of, chronic conditions. We shall search for studies of healthcare interventions using routine data-generated emergency admission risk models. We shall report: the effects on emergency admissions and health costs; clinician and patient views; and implementation findings. We shall search ASSIA, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, HMIC, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE and Scopus from 2005, review references in and citations of included articles, search key journals and contact experts. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed by two independent reviewers. No ethical permissions are required for this study using published data. Findings will be disseminated widely, including publication in a peer-reviewed journal and through conferences in primary and emergency care and chronic conditions. We judge our results will help a wide audience including primary care practitioners and commissioners, and policymakers. CRD42015016874; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ramli, Anis Safura; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Daud, Maryam Hannah; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Tg-Abu-Bakar-Sidik, Tg Mohd Ikhwan; Bujang, Mohamad Adam; Chew, Boon How; Rahman, Thuhairah; Tong, Seng Fah; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Lee, Verna K M; Ng, Kien Keat; Ariffin, Farnaza; Abdul-Hamid, Hasidah; Mazapuspavina, Md Yasin; Mat-Nasir, Nafiza; Chan, Chun W; Yong-Rafidah, Abdul Rahman; Ismail, Mastura; Lakshmanan, Sharmila; Low, Wilson H H
The chronic care model was proven effective in improving clinical outcomes of diabetes in developed countries. However, evidence in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EMPOWER-PAR intervention (based on the chronic care model) in improving clinical outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus using readily available resources in the Malaysian public primary care setting. This was a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel, matched pair, controlled trial using participatory action research approach, conducted in 10 public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Five clinics were randomly selected to provide the EMPOWER-PAR intervention for 1 year and another five clinics continued with usual care. Patients who fulfilled the criteria were recruited over a 2-week period by each clinic. The obligatory intervention components were designed based on four elements of the chronic care model i.e. healthcare organisation, delivery system design, self-management support and decision support. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c diabetes mellitus patients were recruited at baseline (intervention: 471 vs. 417). At 1-year, 96.6 and 97.8% of patients in the intervention and control groups completed the study, respectively. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of both groups were comparable. The change in the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c target was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (intervention: 3.0% vs. -4.1%, P diabetes in the Malaysian public primary care setting. Registered with: ClinicalTrials.gov.: NCT01545401 . Date of registration: 1st March 2012.
Koslov, Steven; Trowbridge, Elizabeth; Kamnetz, Sandra; Kraft, Sally; Grossman, Jeffrey; Pandhi, Nancy
Primary care is considered the foundation of an effective health care system. However, primary care departments at academic health centers have numerous challenges to overcome when trying to achieve the Triple Aim. As part of an organizational initiative to redesign primary care at a large academic health center, departments of internal medicine, general pediatrics and adolescent medicine, and family medicine worked together to comprehensively redesign primary care. This article describes the process of aligning these three primary care departments: defining panel size, developing a common primary care job description, redesigning the primary care compensation plan, redesigning the care model, and developing standardized staffing. Prior to the initiative, the rate of patient satisfaction was 85%, anticoagulation measurement 65%, pneumococcal vaccination 85%, breast cancer screening 79%, and colorectal cancer screening 69%. These rates all improved to 87%, 75%, 88%, 80%, and 80% respectively. Themes around key challenges to departmental integration are identified: (1) implementing effective communication strategies; (2) addressing specialty differences in primary care delivery; (3) working within resource limitations; and (4) developing long-term sustainability. Primary care in this large academic health center was transformed through developing a united primary care leadership team that bridged individual departments to create and adopt a common vision and solutions to shared problems. Our collaboration has achieved improvements across patient satisfaction, clinical safety metrics, and publicly-reported preventive care outcomes. The description of this experience may be useful for other academic health centers or other non-integrated delivery systems undertaking primary care practice transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This thesis aimed to get insight into the elements that form (the strength of) primary care (PC) in Europe, their determinants and their impact on health care system outcomes. The results strengthen the evidence-base for policymakers to prioritise PC strengthening on the health policy agenda and
Background A constructive patient safety culture is a main prerequisite for patient safety and improvement initiatives. Until now, patient safety culture (PSC) research was mainly focused on hospital care, however, it is of equal importance in primary care. Measuring PSC informs practices on their
K M Holtzer-Goor
Full Text Available Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands.A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS located with the general practitioner (GP. This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer, home care, informal care, and implementation costs.With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%, or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved.Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting.
Physiotherapy in Primary Care Triage - the effects on utilization of medical services at primary health care clinics by patients and sub-groups of patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a case-control study.
Bornhöft, Lena; Larsson, Maria E H; Thorn, Jörgen
Primary Care Triage is a patient sorting system used in some primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in Sweden where patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are triaged directly to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sorting/triaging patients seeking a PHCC for MSD directly to physiotherapists affects their utilization of medical services at the clinic for the MSD and to determine whether the effects of the triaging system vary for different sub-groups of patients. A retrospective case-control study design was used at two PHCCs. At the intervention clinic, 656 patients with MSD were initially triaged to physiotherapists. At the control clinic, 1673 patients were initially assessed by general practitioners (GPs). The main outcome measures were the number of patients continuing to visit GPs after the initial assessment, the number of patients receiving referrals to specialists/external examinations, doctors' notes for sick-leave or prescriptions for analgesics during one year, all for the original MSD. Significantly fewer patients triaged to physiotherapists required multiple GP visits for the MSD or received MSD-related referrals to specialists/external examinations, sick-leave recommendations or prescriptions during the following year compared to the GP-assessed group. This applies to all sub-groups except for the group with lower extremity disorders, which did not reach significance for either multiple GP visits or sick-leave recommendations. The reduced utilization of medical services by patients with MSD who were triaged to physiotherapists at a PHCC is likely due to altered management of MSD with initial assessment by physiotherapists.
Aletras Vassilis H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare technical and scale efficiency of primary care centers from the two largest Greek providers, the National Health System (NHS and the Social Security Foundation (IKA and to determine if, and how, efficiency is affected by various exogenous factors such as catchment population and location. Methods The sample comprised of 194 units (103 NHS and 91 IKA. Efficiency was measured with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA using three inputs, -medical staff, nursing/paramedical staff, administrative/other staff- and two outputs, which were the aggregated numbers of scheduled/emergency patient visits and imaging/laboratory diagnostic tests. Facilities were categorized as small, medium and large (30,000 respectively to reflect catchment population and as urban/semi-urban or remote/island to reflect location. In a second stage analysis, technical and scale efficiency scores were regressed against facility type (NHS or IKA, size and location using multivariate Tobit regression. Results Regarding technical efficiency, IKA performed better than the NHS (84.9% vs. 70.1%, Mann-Whitney P P P = 0.103. As for scale efficiency, IKA again outperformed the NHS (89.7% vs. 85.9%, Mann-Whitney P = 0.080, but results were reversed in respect to facility size and location. Specifically, larger units performed better (96.3% vs. 90.9% vs. 75.9%, Kruskal-Wallis P P Conclusion Variations appeared to exist in the productive performance of the NHS and IKA as the two main primary care providers in Greece. These variations reflect differences in primary care organization, economical incentives, financial constraints, sociodemographic and local peculiarities. In all technical efficiency comparisons, IKA facilities appeared to outperform NHS ones irrespective of facility size or location. In respect to scale efficiency, the results were to some extent inconclusive and observed differences were mostly insignificant, although
Jorgensen, Jens Erik; Afzali, Tamana; Riis, Allan
in patients in primary care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic search will be performed on PubMed, EMBASE, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDRO), Cochrane and PROSPERO from their inception until September 2017. Published peer......-reviewed human experimental and observational studies with quantitative or qualitative designs will be included. Two independent reviewers will identify papers by reviewing titles and abstracts. Papers passing the initial selection will be appraised by two reviewers, based on their full texts. Furthermore...
Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma
Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...
Long, Theodore; Chaiyachati, Krisda; Bosu, Olatunde; Sircar, Sohini; Richards, Bradley; Garg, Megha; McGarry, Kelly; Solomon, Sonja; Berman, Rebecca; Curry, Leslie; Moriarty, John; Huot, Stephen
Workforce projections indicate a potential shortage of up to 31,000 adult primary care providers by the year 2025. Approximately 80 % of internal medicine residents and nearly two-thirds of primary care internal medicine residents do not plan to have a career in primary care or general internal medicine. We aimed to explore contextual and programmatic factors within primary care residency training environments that may influence career choices. This was a qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-person interviews. Three primary care internal medicine residency programs were purposefully selected to represent a diversity of training environments. Second and third year residents were interviewed. We used a survey guide developed from pilot interviews and existing literature. Three members of the research team independently coded the transcripts and developed the code structure based on the constant comparative method. The research team identified emerging themes and refined codes. ATLAS.ti was used for the analysis. We completed 24 interviews (12 second-year residents, and 12 third-year residents). The age range was 27-39 years. Four recurrent themes characterized contextual and programmatic factors contributing to residents' decision-making: resident expectations of a career in primary care, navigation of the boundary between social needs and medical needs, mentorship and perceptions of primary care, and structural features of the training program. Addressing aspects of training that may discourage residents from careers in primary care such as lack of diversity in outpatient experiences and resident frustration with their inability to address social needs of patients, and strengthening aspects of training that may encourage interests in careers in primary care such as mentorship and protected time away from inpatient responsibilities during primary care rotations, may increase the proportion of residents enrolled in primary care training programs who pursue
Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Brault, Isabelle; Pineault, Raynald; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Prud'homme, Alexandre; D'Amour, Danielle
Nurses are identified as a key provider in the management of patients in primary care. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' experience of care in primary care as it pertained to the nursing role. The aim was to test the hypothesis that, in primary health care organizations (PHCOs) where patients are systematically followed by a nurse, and where nursing competencies are therefore optimally used, patients' experience of care is better. Based on a cross-sectional analysis combining organizational and experience of care surveys, we built 2 groups of PHCOs. The first group of PHCOs reported having a nurse who systematically followed patients. The second group had a nurse who performed a variety of activities but did not systematically follow patients. Five indicators of care were constructed based on patient questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate linear mixed models with random intercepts and with patients nested within were used to analyze the experience of care indicators in both groups. Bivariate analyses revealed a better patient experience of care in PHCOs where a nurse systematically followed patients than in those where a nurse performed other activities. In multivariate analyses that included adjustment variables related to PHCOs and patients, the accessibility indicator was found to be higher. Results indicated that systematic follow-up of patients by nurses improved patients' experience of care in terms of accessibility. Using nurses' scope of practice to its full potential is a promising avenue for enhancing both patients' experience of care and health services efficiency.
Crabtree, Benjamin F.
I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.
Fawcett, Kenneth J; Brummel, Stacy; Byrnes, John J
Primary care practices can no longer consider ongoing quality assessment and management processes to be optional. There are ever-increasing demands from any number of interested parties for objectively measured proof of outcomes and quality of care. Primary Care Partners (PCP), a 16-site ambulatory affiliate of the Spectrum Health system in Grand Rapids, Michigan, began such a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in 2005. The intent was to develop an ongoing systematic process that would raise its performance potential and improve patient outcomes in the areas of chronic disease management and preventive services. This article describes the partnerships PCP established, specific benchmarks and measurements used, processes utilized, and results to date. This could be used as a roadmap for other primary care systems that are working to establish CQI in their daily operations.
Full Text Available Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care.Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices.326/361 (90.3% doctors, 163/186 (87.6% nurses and 3591 patients (41.8% returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42% and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range of 21% (3% to 39% of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management.Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.
...] Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services... organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer model designed to... the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I...
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L
The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy.
Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels; Le Lay, Agathe; Hemels, Michiel E
The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.
The CUPCIG (CAM-Use in Primary Care in Germany) Study:Part I-Pain. Study Protocol of a Pilot-trial to Assess Feasibility, Acceptability and Perceived Effectiveness of CAM in Pain Disorders in Primary Care.
Schencking, Martin; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Bassüner, Susanne; Redaelli, Marcus
There is limited valid data available on CAM procedures for chronic joint and neuropathic pain in primary care in Germany. Indiviual CAM qualifications of the general practitioners (GPs) and the potential of cost reduction through CAM treatment are almost unknown. The aim of this pilot trial preceding the main study is to examine the survey mode, to estimate the response rate by GPs with or without an additional qualification for CAM, and to identify the status quo in therapeutic approaches for chronic pain disorders in primary care. This is a cross-sectional study with an ex post facto design among German GPs consisting of 2 parts: In a first step, a pilot trial precedes the main study targeting 200 GPs with and 200 GPs without additional qualification in CAM in a selected region. The results of the CUPCIG study comprise the distribution of pain types treated in primary care practices, the GPs' attitude toward complementary pain therapy, pharmacological or CAM treatment, the estimate of cost reduction through CAM treatment of pain, the application of diverse CAM procedures, and biographical data. The CUPCIG study serves to compile pain therapy approaches in primary care in Germany with respect to the individual CAM expertise of the GPs. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Sciarra, Elaine Cristina; Franco, Laércio Joel; Cardoso, Marly Augusto
To evaluate the impact of a low-cost nutritional intervention in changing the lifestyle of adults. Randomised clinical trial. Primary health-care centre in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. We randomly assigned 104 adults (83 women and 21 men aged 30-65 years, body mass index 24-35 kg m(-2), non-diabetic) into two groups: nutrition counselling and control. Each subject in the intervention group received three individualised nutritional counselling sessions during the first 6 months aimed at increasing intakes of fruits, vegetables and olive oil, reducing saturated fat and improving physical activity. Body composition, biochemical indicators and lifestyle were assessed at baseline and at 6 months and 1 year in both groups. After 6 months of follow-up, body weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total and saturated fat, and dietary energy and cholesterol levels showed a more significant decrease among subjects in the intervention group than in the control group (P olive oil (P < 0.05). After 12 months of follow-up, most of the outcomes were maintained. The low-cost nutritional intervention programme improved serum lipids profile and weight control, and appeared to be feasible for use at a primary health-care centre in a developing country.
The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels
The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path dec...... clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.......The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three......, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS costs. Analyses were conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives. The human capital approach was used to estimate societal cost of lost productivity. Costs were reported...
van Hoeve, Jolanda C; Vernooij, Robin W M; Lawal, Adegboyega K; Fiander, Michelle; Nieboer, Peter; Siesling, Sabine; Rotter, Thomas
The high impact of a cancer diagnosis on patients and their families and the increasing costs of cancer treatment call for optimal and efficient oncological care. To improve the quality of care and to minimize healthcare costs and its economic burden, many healthcare organizations introduce care pathways to improve efficiency across the continuum of cancer care. However, there is limited research on the effects of cancer care pathways in different settings. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis described in this protocol is to synthesize existing literature on the effects of oncological care pathways. We will conduct a systematic search strategy to identify all relevant literature in several biomedical databases, including Cochrane library, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. We will follow the methodology of Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC), and we will include randomized trials, non-randomized trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies. In addition, we will include full economic evaluations (cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-benefit analyses), cost analyses, and comparative resource utilization studies, if available. Two reviewers will independently screen all studies and evaluate those included for risk of bias. From these studies, we will extract data regarding patient, professional, and health systems outcomes. Our systematic review will follow the PRISMA set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Following the protocol outlined in this article, we aim to identify, assess, and synthesize all available evidence in order to provide an evidence base on the effects of oncological care pathways as reported in the literature. PROSPERO CRD42017057592 .
Lakin, Joshua R; Block, Susan D; Billings, J Andrew; Koritsanszky, Luca A; Cunningham, Rebecca; Wichmann, Lisa; Harvey, Doreen; Lamey, Jan; Bernacki, Rachelle E
The Institute of Medicine recently called for systematic improvements in clinician-led conversations about goals, values, and care preferences for patients with serious and life-threatening illnesses. Studies suggest that these conversations are associated with improved outcomes for patients and their families, enhanced clinician satisfaction, and lower health care costs; however, the role of primary care clinicians in driving conversations about goals and priorities in serious illness is not well defined. To present a review of a structured search of the evidence base about communication in serious illness in primary care. MEDLINE was searched, via PubMed, on January 19, 2016, finding 911 articles; 126 articles were reviewed and selected titles were added from bibliography searches. Review of the literature informed 2 major topic areas: the role of primary care in communication about serious illness and clinician barriers and system failures that interfere with effective communication. Literature regarding the role that primary care plays in communication focused primarily on the ambiguity about whether primary care clinicians or specialists are responsible for initiating conversations, the benefits of primary care clinicians and specialists conducting conversations, and the quantity and quality of discussions. Timely and effective communication about serious illness in primary care is hampered by key clinician barriers, which include deficits in knowledge, skills, and attitudes; discomfort with prognostication; and lack of clarity about the appropriate timing and initiation of conversations. Finally, system failures in coordination, documentation, feedback, and quality improvement contribute to lack of conversations. Clinician and system barriers will challenge primary care clinicians and institutions to meet the needs of patients with serious illness. Ensuring that conversations about goals and values occur at the appropriate time for seriously ill patients will
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Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.
Coskeran, Thomas; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Gillmore, Gavin; Tornberg, Roger
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, high levels of which are associated with geological formations such as those found in Northamptonshire and North Oxfordshire in the UK. The UK's National Radiological Protection Board have designated both districts as radon Affected Areas. Radiation levels due to radon, therefore, exceed 200 Bq m -3 , the UK's domestic Action Level, in over one percent of domestic properties. Because of radon's radioactivity, exposure to the gas can potentially cause lung cancer, and has been linked to some 2000 deaths a year in the UK. Consequently, when radiation levels exceed the Action Level, remediation against radon's effects is recommended to householders. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of remediation measures in Northamptonshire and North Oxfordshire by estimating cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained in four Primary Care Trusts, organisations that play a key public health policy role in the UK's National Health Service. The study is the first to apply this approach to estimating the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes. Central estimates of cost per quality-adjusted life-year in the four Primary Care Trusts range from Pounds 6143 to Pounds 10 323. These values, when assessed against generally accepted criteria, suggest the remediation programmes in the trusts were cost-effective. Policy suggestions based on the estimates, and designed to improve cost-effectiveness further, are proposed for the four Primary Care Trusts and the UK's National Health Service
Wholey, Douglas R; White, Katie M; Adair, Richard; Christianson, Jon B; Lee, Suhna; Elumba, Deborah
Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of primary care treatment of patients with chronic illness is an important goal in reforming the U.S. health care system. Reducing occupational conflicts and creating interdependent primary care teams is crucial for the effective functioning of new models being developed to reorganize chronic care. Occupational conflict, role interdependence, and resistance to change in a proof-of-concept pilot test of one such model that uses a new kind of employee in the primary care office, a "care guide," were analyzed. Care guides are lay individuals who help chronic disease patients and their providers achieve standard health goals. The aim of this study was to examine the development of occupational boundaries, interdependence of care guides and primary care team members, and acceptance by clinic employees of this new kind of health worker. A mixed methods, pilot study was conducted using qualitative analysis; clinic, provider, and patient surveys; administrative data; and multivariate analysis. Qualitative analysis examined the emergence of the care guide role. Administrative data and surveys were used to examine patterns of interdependence between care guides, physicians, team members, and clinic staff; obtain physician evaluations of the care guide role; and evaluate the effect of care guides on patient perceptions of care coordination and follow-up. Evaluation of implementation of the care guide model showed that (a) the care guide scope of practice was clearly defined; (b) interdependent relationships between care guides and providers were formed; (c) relational triads consisting of patient, care guide, and physician were created; (d) patients and providers were supported in managing chronic disease; and (e) resistance to this model among traditional employees was minimized. The feasibility of implementing a new care model for chronic disease management in the primary care setting, identifying factors associated with a positive
Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Hungin, Amrit Pali
Diverticular disease is a chronic and common condition, and yet the impact of diverticular disease in primary care is largely unknown. The diagnosis of diverticular disease relies on the demonstration of diverticula in the colon, and the necessary investigations are often not available in primary care. The specificity and sensitivity of symptoms, clinical signs and laboratory tests alone are generally low and consequently the diagnostic process will be characterized by uncertainty. Also, the criteria for symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease in the absence of macroscopic inflammation are not clearly defined. Therefore both the prevalence of diverticular disease and the incidence of diverticulitis in primary care are unknown. Current recommendations for treatment and follow-up of patients with acute diverticulitis are based on studies where the diagnosis has been verified by computerized tomography. The results cannot be directly transferred to primary care where the diagnosis has to rely on the interpretation of symptoms and signs. Therefore, one must allow for greater diagnostic uncertainty, and safety netting in the event of unexpected development of the condition is an important aspect of the management of diverticulitis in primary care. The highest prevalence of diverticular disease is found among older patients, where multimorbidity and polypharmacy is common. The challenge is to remember the possible contribution of diverticular disease to the patient's overall condition and to foresee its implications in terms of advice and treatment in relation to other diseases.
Arnold, L M; Gebke, K B; Choy, E H S
Fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic disorder defined by widespread pain, often accompanied by fatigue and sleep disturbance, affects up to one in 20 patients in primary care. Although most patients with FM are managed in primary care, diagnosis and treatment continue to present a challenge, and patients are often referred to specialists. Furthermore, the lack of a clear patient pathway often results in patients being passed from specialist to specialist, exhaustive investigations, prescription of multiple drugs to treat different symptoms, delays in diagnosis, increased disability and increased healthcare resource utilisation. We will discuss the current and evolving understanding of FM, and recommend improvements in the management and treatment of FM, highlighting the role of the primary care physician, and the place of the medical home in FM management. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of FM by searching PubMed and references from relevant articles, and selected articles on the basis of quality, relevance to the illness and importance in illustrating current management pathways and the potential for future improvements. The implementation of a framework for chronic pain management in primary care would limit unnecessary, time-consuming, and costly tests, reduce diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes. The patient-centred medical home (PCMH), a management framework that has been successfully implemented in other chronic diseases, might improve the care of patients with FM in primary care, by bringing together a team of professionals with a range of skills and training. Although there remain several barriers to overcome, implementation of a PCMH would allow patients with FM, like those with other chronic conditions, to be successfully managed in the primary care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swen, Joachim Jesse
In many patients drugs do not show the expected efficacy, whereas in other patients they cause toxic effects, sometimes even at low dose. Response rates to major classes of drugs range from 25 to 60 percent. For some patients, the reason for this variability may be explained by genetic variation.
the mobile phones of health workers and their role as a source of hospital acquired infection. The study utilised ..... grew organisms which is much lower than may not be as effective as regular hand. 7 .... Akinyemi KO, Atapu AD, Adetona. 2011 ...
Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Olesen, Frede
BACKGROUND. Palliative care for cancer patients is an important part of a GP's work. Although every GP is frequently involved in care for terminally ill cancer patients, only little is known about how these palliative efforts are perceived by the patients and their families, a knowledge...... that is vital to further improve palliative care in the primary sector.AIM. The aim of the study was to analyse the quality of palliative home care with focus on the GP's role based on evaluations by relatives of recently deceased cancer patients and professionals from both the primary and secondary health care...... approach.RESULTS. The analyses revealed several key areas, e.g.: 1) How to take, give and maintain professional responsibility for palliative home care. 2) A need for transparent communication both among primary care professionals and among professionals across the primary/secondary interface. 3...
Saxena, Ramesh; West, Cheryl
As the population of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) grows at an alarming rate, primary care physicians will increasingly be involved in the management of these patients. Early recognition of CKD and timely referral to a nephrologist when glomerular filtration rate approaches 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) is extremely important to improve ESRD outcome and appropriate selection of dialysis modality. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains a viable treatment option for ESRD patients. PD is less expensive dialysis modality and may provide a survival advantages over hemodialysis in first 2 to 4 years of treatment. Preserving residual renal function (RRF) is of paramount importance to prolong the survival outcomes in PD patients. Thus preservation of RRF is an important goal in the management of PD patients. Every effort should be made to avoid nephrotoxic drugs like aminoglycosides and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and limit the use of radiocontrast agents in PD patients with RRF. Judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent peritonitis would further help to reduce morbidity from PD. Protecting peritoneal membrane from long-term toxic and metabolic effects of the conventional glucose-based solutions is another objective to further improve PD outcome. Development of new, more biocompatible PD solutions holds promise for the future. One such solution, icodextrin, is now approved for use in the United States. Although extremely safe to use, it is associated with unique metabolic effects that may concern primary care physicians. They include false elevation of blood glucose, a reversible increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and a false decline in serum amylase. Monitoring of glycemia by assays that use glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinoline quinone enzymes should be avoided and serum amylase alone should not be relied on in diagnosing pancreatitis in patients on icodextrin.
Dadich, Ann; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan
Research suggests that the channels through which evidence-based practices are communicated to healthcare professionals can shape the ways they engage with, and use, this information. For instance, there is evidence to suggest that information should be communicated via sources that are deemed to be credible, like government departments, professional bodies and peers. This article examines the contention that information should be communicated via credible sources. More specifically, the article examines the different communication channels through which primary care clinicians learnt of resources on evidence-based sexual healthcare - namely, clinical aides and online training programs. Furthermore, the article determines whether these communication channels influenced the perceived impact of the resources. Primary care clinicians in Australia (n = 413), notably General Practitioners (n = 214) and Practice Nurses (n = 217), were surveyed on the GP Project - a suite of resources to promote evidence-based sexual healthcare within primary care. Survey items pertained to the source of information about the resources (or communication channel), perceived usefulness of the resources, frequency of use, subsequent contact with the Sexual Health Infoline and a sexual health clinic, as well as the perceived impact of the resources. To determine the relationships between the different communication channels and the perceived impact of the resources, a one-way ANOVA using Tukey's post-hoc test, an independent sample t-test, a χ(2) test, and a Kruskal-Wallis H test were performed where appropriate. Of the respondents who were aware of the clinical aides (49.9%), the largest proportion became aware of these through an educational event or a colleague. Of those who were aware of the online training programs (36.9%), the largest proportion became aware of these through a professional body or government organisation, either directly or via their website. Although both resource
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary incontinence affects approximately 5% (800.000 of the Dutch population. Guidelines recommend pelvic floor muscle/bladder training for most patients. Unfortunately, general practitioners use this training only incidentally, but prescribe incontinence pads. Over 50% of patients get such pads, costing €160 million each year. Due to ageing of the population a further increase of expenses is expected. Several national reports recommend to involve nurse specialists to support general practitioners and improve patient care. The main objective of our study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of involving nurse specialists in primary care for urinary incontinence. This paper describes the study protocol. Methods/Design In a pragmatic prospective multi centre two-armed randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands the availability and involvement for the general practitioners of a nurse specialist will be compared with usual care. All consecutive patients consulting their general practitioner within 1 year for urinary incontinence and patients already diagnosed with urinary incontinence are eligible. Included patients will be followed for 12 months. Primary outcome is severity of urinary incontinence (measured with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF. Based on ICIQ-UI SF outcome data the number of patients needed to include is 350. For the economic evaluation quality of life and costs will be measured alongside the clinical trial. For the longer term extrapolation of the economic evaluation a Markov modelling approach will be used. Discussion/Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first trial on care for patients with urinary incontinence in primary care that includes a full economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness modelling exercise from the societal perspective. If this intervention proves to be effective and cost-effective, implementation of this
Escobar, J I; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, R C; Holman, A; Compton, W
The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impaired in their physical functioning than patients without the disorder. Of the various psychopathologies examined, major depressive syndromes were the most frequent among patients with hypochondriasis. Interestingly, unlike somatization disorder, hypochondriasis was not related to any demographic factor. Hypochondriasis is a relatively rare condition in primary care that is largely separable from somatization disorder but seems closely intertwined with the more severe depressive syndromes.
Favin, M; Parlato, P; Kessler, S
The 1st generation of primary health care efforts were assessed in order to temper future efforts with implementation realities. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the American Public Health Association (APHA) studied 52 primary health care (PHC) projects from 1980-82, documenting the numerous lessons learned. The contrast between the ideology of PHC and field realities provides valuable insights which must be fed back into 2nd generation projects. The projects were in 33 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Near East. Approximately 1/3 were national level efforts; one-half, variously sized regional efforts; and the remainder, small scale pilot efforts. The sources of information were project documents and interviews with individuals who knew field activities firsthand. All the projects had as their primary goal provision of low-cost health services to previously unserved rural communities, using community personnel, and strengthening community institutions. Regarding overall assessment, while data continue to be limited on the impact of the approach on health status, there are some positive indications, especially for the projects of longer duration. For example, in Nepal and Thailand, there were modest improvements in health status of the target population in 2 project areas. A project in Kitui, Kenya reported reductions in infant mortality rates. A PHC program in Panama was responsible for decreases in the incidence of diarrhea, parasites, and typhoid. Many of the projects have been successful in setting up a PHC structure that extends coverage for health measures such as immunizations, family planning, and prenatal care. Many new facilities are in place. Skills of health workers have been upgraded, and new categories of paraprofessionals have been trained. Additionally, sizable numbers of community health workers have been trained and deployed. There is some evidence that in a few cases projects have
Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. de; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary
Oksman, Erja; Linna, Miika; Hörhammer, Iiris; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Talja, Martti
The burden of chronic disease and multimorbidity is rapidly increasing. Self-management support interventions are effective in reduce cost, especially when targeted at a single disease group; however, economical evidence of such complex interventions remains scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate a cost-effectiveness analysis of a tele-based health-coaching intervention among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). A total of 1570 patients were blindly randomized to intervention (n = 970) and control (n = 470) groups. The intervention group received monthly individual health coaching by telephone from a specially trained nurse for 12-months in addition to routine social and healthcare. Patients in the control group received routine social and health care. Quality of life was assessed at the beginning of the intervention and follow-up measurements were made after 12 months health coaching. The cost included all direct health-care costs supplemented with home care and nursing home-care costs in social care. Utility was based on a Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) measurement (15D instrument), and cost effectiveness was assessed using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The cost-effectiveness of health coaching was highest in the T2D group (ICER €20,000 per Quality-Adjusted Life Years [QALY]). The ICER for the CAD group was more modest (€40,278 per QALY), and in the CHF group, costs increased with no marked effect on QoL. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that at the societal willingness to pay threshold of €50,000 per QALY, the probability of health coaching being cost effective was 55% in the whole study group. The cost effectiveness of health coaching may vary substantially across patient groups, and thus interventions should be targeted at selected subgroups of chronically ill. Based on the results of this study, health coaching improved the QoL of
Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Baker, Richard
The increasing prevalence of diabetes is a major health problem. The detection and treatment of prediabetes can delay the onset of diabetes and presents an important diabetes prevention strategy. Using data from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we studied visits by adults aged ≥45 years without diagnosed diabetes who had an HbA1c test within 90 days of the visit (n = 518 unweighted visits; n = 11,167,004 weighted visits). HbA1c results were categorized into normal, prediabetes, and diabetes, and we examined patient characteristics (age, sex, race, payer type, body mass index) and treatment of prediabetes. Among visiting adults, 54.6% had a normal HbA1c value, 33.6% had prediabetes, and 11.9% had diabetes. Of those patient visits with HbA1c consistent with prediabetes, the number of patients diagnosed with prediabetes was too low for a reliable population estimate. Indication of treatment in the medical record (lifestyle modification counseling and/or metformin) was present in 23.0% of those with diagnosed or undiagnosed prediabetes. The most common treatment was lifestyle modification counseling. Our findings show that there are missed opportunities for diabetes prevention in primary care. Providers need to change their approach to prediabetes and play a more effective role in preventing diabetes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
This is a retrospective report on the importance of Kark and Cassel's 1952 paper on community-oriented primary care (COPC). In 1978, WHO and UNICEF endorsed COPC. However, the ideas girding and framing this approach had first been given full expression in practice some four decades earlier. In Depression-Era South Africa, Sidney Kark, a leader of the National Department of Health, converted the emergent discipline of social medicine into a unique form of comprehensive practice and established the Pholela Health Center, which was the explicit model for COPC. COPC as founded and practiced by Kark was a community, family and personal practice; it also was a multidisciplinary and team practice. Furthermore, the innovations of COPC entailed monitoring, evaluation, and research. Evaluation is the essence of Kark and Kassel's paper, which offers a convincing demonstration of the effects of COPC. Its key findings include the following: 1) that there was a decline in the incidence of syphilis in the area served by the health center; 2) that diet and nutrition improved; and 3) that the crude mortality rate as well as the infant mortality rate--the standard marker--declined in Pholela. In the succeeding decades, OPC had an international legacy (through WHO and H. Jack Geiger's influence in the US Office of Economic Opportunity), which came full circle in the 1980s, when a young generation of South Africans began to search their history for models for their health care programs at the dawn of the post-Apartheid Era.
Elder, William G; Munk, Niki; Love, Margaret M; Bruckner, Geza G; Stewart, Kathryn E; Pearce, Kevin
While efficacy of massage and other nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain is established, stakeholders have called for pragmatic studies of effectiveness in "real-world" primary health care. The Kentucky Pain Research and Outcomes Study evaluated massage impact on pain, disability, and health-related quality of life for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. We report effectiveness and feasibility results, and make comparisons with established minimal clinically important differences. Primary care providers referred eligible patients for 10 massage sessions with community practicing licensed massage therapists. Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36v2 measures obtained at baseline and postintervention at 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed with mixed linear models and Tukey's tests. Additional analyses examined clinically significant improvement and predictive patient characteristics. Of 104 enrolled patients, 85 and 76 completed 12 and 24 weeks of data collection, respectively. Group means improved at 12 weeks for all outcomes and at 24 weeks for SF-36v2's Physical Component Summary and Bodily Pain Domain. Of those with clinically improved disability at 12 weeks, 75% were still clinically improved at 24 weeks ( P < 0.01). For SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summaries, 55.4% and 43.4%, respectively, showed clinically meaningful improvement at 12 weeks, 46.1% and 30.3% at 24 weeks. For Bodily Pain Domain, 49.4% were clinically improved at 12 weeks, 40% at 24 weeks. Adults older than age 49 years had better pain and disability outcomes than younger adults. Results provide a meaningful signal of massage effect for primary care patients with chronic low back pain and call for further research in practice settings using pragmatic designs with control groups. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Becker, Annette; Held, Heiko; Redaelli, Marcus; Chenot, Jean F; Leonhardt, Corinna; Keller, Stefan; Baum, Erika; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Kochen, Michael M; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Strauch, Konstantin
Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial. To study the cost-effectiveness of 2 low back pain guideline implementation (GI) strategies. Several evidence-based guidelines on management of low back pain have been published. However, there is still no consensus on the effective implementation strategy. Especially studies on the economic impact of different implementation strategies are lacking. This analysis was performed alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of 2 GI strategies (physician education alone [GI] or physician education in combination with motivational counseling [MC] by practice nurses)--both compared with the postal dissemination of the guideline (control group, C). Sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, and cost data were collected by interview at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. low back pain-related health care costs were valued for 2004 from the societal perspective. For the cost analysis, 1322 patients from 126 general practices were included. Both interventions showed lower direct and indirect costs as well as better patient outcomes during follow-up compared with controls. In addition, both intervention arms showed superiority of cost-effectiveness to C. The effects attenuated when adjusting for differences of health care utilization prior to patient recruitment and for clustering of data. Trends in cost-effectiveness are visible but need to be confirmed in future studies. Researchers performing cost-evaluation studies should test for baseline imbalances of health care utilization data instead of judging on the randomization success by reviewing non-cost parameters like clinical data alone.
Anaf, Julia; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Labonte, Ron; Javanparast, Sara; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael
To examine case studies of good practice in intersectoral action for health as one part of evaluating comprehensive primary health care in six sites in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Interviews with primary health care workers, collaborating agency staff and service users (Total N=33); augmented by relevant documents from the services and collaborating partners. The value of intersectoral action for health and the importance of partner relationships to primary health care services were both strongly endorsed. Factors facilitating intersectoral action included sufficient human and financial resources, diverse backgrounds and skills and the personal rewards that sustain commitment. Key constraining factors were financial and time limitations, and a political and policy context which has become less supportive of intersectoral action; including changes to primary health care. While intersectoral action is an effective way for primary health care services to address social determinants of health, commitment to social justice and to adopting a social view of health are constrained by a broader health service now largely reinforcing a biomedical model. Effective organisational practices and policies are needed to address social determinants of health in primary health care and to provide a supportive context for workers engaging in intersectoral action. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Jan L. Losby
Full Text Available Objectives: Increasing demands on primary care providers have created a need for systems-level initiatives to improve primary care delivery. The purpose of this article is to describe and present outcomes for 2 such initiatives: the Pennsylvania Academy of Family Physicians’ Residency Program Collaborative (RPC and the St Johnsbury Vermont Community Health Team (CHT. Methods: Researchers conducted case studies of the initiatives using mixed methods, including secondary analysis of program and electronic health record data, systematic document review, and interviews. Results: The RPC is a learning collaborative that teaches quality improvement and patient centeredness to primary care providers, residents, clinical support staff, and administrative staff in residency programs. Results show that participation in a higher number of live learning sessions resulted in a significant increase in patient-centered medical home recognition attainment and significant improvements in performance in diabetic process measures including eye examinations (14.3%, P = .004, eye referrals (13.82%, P = .013, foot examinations (15.73%, P = .003, smoking cessation (15.83%, P = .012, and self-management goals (25.45%, P = .001. As a community-clinical linkages model, CHT involves primary care practices, community health workers (CHWs, and community partners. Results suggest that CHT members successfully work together to coordinate comprehensive care for the individuals they serve. Further, individuals exposed to CHWs experienced increased stability in access to health insurance ( P = .001 and prescription drugs ( P = .000 and the need for health education counseling ( P = .000. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate that these 2 system-level strategies have the promise to improve primary care delivery. Additional research can determine the extent to which these strategies can improve other health outcomes.
Holman, G Talley; Beasley, John W; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Stone, Jamie A; Smith, Paul D; Wetterneck, Tosha B
Primary care efficiency and quality are essential for the nation's health. The demands on primary care physicians (PCPs) are increasing as healthcare becomes more complex. A more complete understanding of PCP workflow variation is needed to guide future healthcare redesigns. This analysis evaluates workflow variation in terms of the sequence of tasks performed during patient visits. Two patient visits from 10 PCPs from 10 different United States Midwestern primary care clinics were analyzed to determine physician workflow. Tasks and the progressive sequence of those tasks were observed, documented, and coded by task category using a PCP task list. Variations in the sequence and prevalence of tasks at each stage of the primary care visit were assessed considering the physician, the patient, the visit's progression, and the presence of an electronic health record (EHR) at the clinic. PCP workflow during patient visits varies significantly, even for an individual physician, with no single or even common workflow pattern being present. The prevalence of specific tasks shifts significantly as primary care visits progress to their conclusion but, notably, PCPs collect patient information throughout the visit. PCP workflows were unpredictable during face-to-face patient visits. Workflow emerges as the result of a "dance" between physician and patient as their separate agendas are addressed, a side effect of patient-centered practice. Future healthcare redesigns should support a wide variety of task sequences to deliver high-quality primary care. The development of tools such as electronic health records must be based on the realities of primary care visits if they are to successfully support a PCP's mental and physical work, resulting in effective, safe, and efficient primary care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Scott E Conard,1 Maureen Reni Courtney21ACAP Health, Dallas, 2College of Nursing, University of Texas, Arlington, TX, USAAbstract: Primary care medicine in the United States is undergoing a revolutionary shift. Primary care providers and their staff have an extraordinary chance to create and participate in exciting new approaches to care. New strategies will require courage, flexibility, and openness to change by every member of the practice team, especially the lead clinician who is most often the physician, but can also be the nurse practitioner or physician's assistant. Providers must first recognize their need to alter their fundamental identity to incorporate a new kind of leadership role—that of the MDCEO™ (i.e., the individual clinician who leads the practice to ensure that quality, service, and financial systems are developed and effectively managed. This paper provides a practical vision and rationale for the required transition in primary care, pointing the way for how to achieve new practice effectiveness through new leadership roles. It also provides a model to evaluate the status of a primary care practice. The authors have extensive experience in working with primary care providers to radically evolve their clinical practices to become MDCEOs™. The MDCEO™ will articulate the vision and strategy for the practice, define and foster the practice culture, and create and facilitate team development and overall high level functioning. Each member of the team can then begin to lead their part of the practice: a 21st century population-oriented, purpose-based practice resulting in increased quality of care, improved patient outcomes, greater financial success, and enhanced peace of mind.Keywords: primary health care organization and administration, health care reform, leadership, patient-centered care
Miller, P; Lukert, B; Broy, S; Civitelli, R; Fleischmann, R; Gagel, R; Khosla, S; Lucas, M; Maricic, M; Pacifici, R; Recker, R; Sarran, H S; Short, B; Short, M J
The shift in health care delivery from a subspecialty to primary care system has transferred the responsibility of preventing osteoporotic fractures from specialists in metabolic bone disease to the web of physicians--family practitioners, general internists, pediatricians, and gynecologists--who provide the bulk of primary care. The challenge for this group of physicians is to decrease the rising prevalence of osteoporotic hip and vertebral fractures while operating within the cost parameters. It is the goal of this brief summary to provide primary practitioners with focused guidelines for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on new and exciting developments. Prevention and treatment will change rapidly over the next decade and these advances will require changes in these recommendations. We identified patients at risk for osteoporosis and provided indications for bone mass measurement, criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis, therapeutic interventions, and biochemical markers of the disease. Prevention and treatment are discussed, including hormone replacement therapy and use of calcitonin, sodium fluoride, bisphosphonates, and serum estrogen receptor modulators. Postmenopausal osteoporosis should no longer be an accepted process of aging. It is both preventable and treatable. Primary care physicians must proactively prevent and treat osteoporosis in their daily practice, and combination therapies are suggested.
Although meniscal tears are a very common phenomenon uncertainty exists about the diagnosis and treatment of meniscal tears in primary care. This thesis aims to provide evidence for general practitioners and physical therapists regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected
Wilson, A.; Windak, A.; Oleszczyk, M.; Wilm, S.; Hasvold, T.; Kringos, D.
This chapter will be devoted to the dimensions which have been grouped in the framework as “process” and that focus on essential features of service delivery in primary care. In addition to the breadth of services delivered, a comparative overview will be provided of variation in access to services,
Veenstra, Petra; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; de Jong, Gosse; Baarveld, Frans; van den Berg, J. S. Peter
Introduction Migraine is a common disorder with a high burden. Adequate treatment results in improvement of quality of life. Migraine patients are mainly treated by general practitioners (GPs), but there is still room for improvement. This study investigated whether primary care nurses could improve
Mastellos, Nikolaos; Andreasson, Anna; Huckvale, Kit; Larsen, Mark; Curcin, Vasa; Car, Josip; Agreus, Lars; Delaney, Brendan
Opportunistic recruitment is a highly laborious and time-consuming process that is currently performed manually, increasing the workload of already busy practitioners and resulting in many studies failing to achieve their recruitment targets. The Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) platform enables automated recruitment, data collection and follow-up of patients, potentially improving the efficiency, time and costs of clinical research. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of TRANSFoRm in improving patient recruitment and follow-up in primary care trials. This multi-centre, parallel-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will compare TRANSFoRm-supported with standard opportunistic recruitment. Participants will be general practitioners and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease from 40 primary care centres in five European countries. Randomisation will take place at the care centre level. The intervention arm will use the TRANSFoRm tools for recruitment, baseline data collection and follow-up. The control arm will use web-based case report forms and paper self-completed questionnaires. The primary outcome will be the proportion of eligible patients successfully recruited at the end of the 16-week recruitment period. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of recruited patients with complete baseline and follow-up data and the proportion of participants withdrawn or lost to follow-up. The study will also include an economic evaluation and measures of technology acceptance and user experience. The study should shed light on the use of eHealth to improve the effectiveness of recruitment and follow-up in primary care research and provide an evidence base for future eHealth-supported recruitment initiatives. Reporting of results is expected in October 2015. EudraCT: 2014-001314-25.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the
Elliot B Tapper
Full Text Available The complications of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD are dependent on the presence of advanced fibrosis. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the US, the optimal evaluation of NAFLD likely involves triage by a primary care physician (PCP with advanced disease managed by gastroenterologists.We compared the cost-effectiveness of fibrosis risk-assessment strategies in a cohort of 10,000 simulated American patients with NAFLD performed in either PCP or referral clinics using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model. The strategies included use of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE, the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS, combination testing with NFS and VCTE, and liver biopsy (usual care by a specialist only. NFS and VCTE performance was obtained from a prospective cohort of 164 patients with NAFLD. Outcomes included cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY and correct classification of fibrosis.Risk-stratification by the PCP using the NFS alone costs $5,985 per QALY while usual care costs $7,229/QALY. In the microsimulation, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, the NFS alone in PCP clinic was the most cost-effective strategy in 94.2% of samples, followed by combination NFS/VCTE in the PCP clinic (5.6% and usual care in 0.2%. The NFS based strategies yield the best biopsy-correct classification ratios (3.5 while the NFS/VCTE and usual care strategies yield more correct-classifications of advanced fibrosis at the cost of 3 and 37 additional biopsies per classification.Risk-stratification of patients with NAFLD primary care clinic is a cost-effective strategy that should be formally explored in clinical practice.
to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...
Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.
Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard
Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.
Valaitis, Ruta K; O'Mara, Linda; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; Murray, Nancy; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Meagher-Stewart, Donna
AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration. Furthermore, no papers were found that considered factors at the intrapersonal level. This paper aims to explore these gaps in a Canadian context. This interpretative descriptive study involved key informants (service providers, managers, directors, and policy makers) who participated in one h telephone interviews to explore their perceptions of influences on successful primary care and public health collaboration. Transcripts were analyzed using NVivo 9.FindingsA total of 74 participants [from the provinces of British Columbia (n=20); Ontario (n=19); Nova Scotia (n=21), and representatives from other provinces or national organizations (n=14)] participated. Five interpersonal factors were found that influenced public health and primary care collaborations including: (1) trusting and inclusive relationships; (2) shared values, beliefs and attitudes; (3) role clarity; (4) effective communication; and (5) decision processes. There were two influencing factors found at the intrapersonal level: (1) personal qualities, skills and knowledge; and (2) personal values, beliefs, and attitudes. A few differences were found across the three core provinces involved. There were several complex interactions identified among all inter and intra personal influencing factors: One key factor - effective communication - interacted with all of them. Results support and extend our understanding of what influences
Thrun, Mark W
Expansions in health care coverage, a comprehensive framework for HIV prevention and care, electronic medical records, and novel HIV prevention modalities create a current opportunity to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic in the United States. HIV is increasingly disproportionately found in populations historically at higher risk, including gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender women, injection drug users, and persons of color. This underscores the need for providers to identify persons at higher risk for HIV and assure the provision of screening and prevention services. In turn, universal screening for HIV-testing every adolescent and adult at least once in their lifetime-will increasingly be necessary to find the infrequent cases of HIV in lower risk populations. In both these domains, primary care providers will play a unique role in complementing traditional providers of HIV prevention and care services by increasing the proportion of their patients who have been screened for HIV, opening dialogues around sexual health, including asking about sexual orientation and gender identity, and prescribing antivirals as pre- and postexposure prophylaxis for their non-HIV-infected patients. Primary care providers must understand and embrace their importance along the HIV prevention and care continuum.
Full Text Available Abstract China is a country with vast regional differences and uneven economic development, which have led to widening gaps between the rich and poor in terms of access to healthcare, quality of care, and health outcomes. China's healthcare reform efforts must be tailored to the needs and resources of each region and community. Building and strengthening primary care within the Chinese health care system is one way to effectively address health challenges. This paper begins by outlining the concept of primary care, including key definitions and measurements. Next, results from a number of studies will demonstrate that primary care characteristics are associated with savings in medical costs, improvements in health outcomes and reductions in health disparities. This paper concludes with recommendations for China on successfully incorporating a primary care model into its national health policy, including bolstering the primary care workforce, addressing medical financing structures, recognizing the importance of evidence-based medicine, and looking to case studies from countries that have successfully implemented health reform.
Gupta, Samir; Moosa, Dilshad; MacPherson, Ana; Allen, Christopher; Tamari, Itamar E
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in adults. International guidelines have emphasized the importance of regular spirometry for asthma control evaluation. However, spirometry use in primary care remains low across jurisdictions. We sought to design and evaluate a knowledge translation intervention to address both the poor quality of spirometry and the underuse of spirometry in primary care. We designed a 1-year intervention consisting of initial interactive education and hands-on training followed by unstructured peer expert mentoring (through an online portal, email, telephone, videoconference, fax, and/or in-person). We recruited physician and allied health mentees from across primary care sites in Ontario, Canada. We compared spirometry-related knowledge immediately before and after the 1-year intervention period and the quality of spirometry testing and the usage of spirometry in patients with asthma in the year before and the year of the intervention. Seven of 10 (70 %) invited sites participated, including 25/90 (28 %) invited allied health mentees and 23/68 (34 %) invited physician mentees. We recruited 7 physician mentors and 4 allied health mentors to form 3 mentor-mentee pods. Spirometry knowledge scores increased from 21.4 +/- 3.1 pre- to 27.3 +/- 3.5 (out of 35) (p Spirometry acceptability and repeatability criteria were met by 59/191 (30.9 %) spirometries and 86/193 (44.6 %) spirometries [odds ratio 1.7 (1.0, 3.0)], in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Spirometry was ordered in 75/512 (14.6 %) and 129/336 (38.4 %) respiratory visits (p spirometry in real world primary care settings. A future controlled study should assess the impact of this intervention on patient outcomes, its cost-effectiveness, and its sustainability.
In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.
Rogan, Lisa; Boaden, Ruth
Purpose Principal-agent theory (PAT) has been used to understand relationships among different professional groups and explain performance management between organisations, but is rarely used for research within primary care. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether PAT can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care. Design/methodology/approach Purposive sampling was used to identify a range of general practices in the North-west of England. Interviews were carried out with directors, managers and clinicians in commissioning and regional performance management organisations and within general practices, and the data analysed using matrix analysis techniques to produce a case study of performance management. Findings There are various elements of the principal-agent framework that can be applied in primary care. Goal alignment is relevant, but can only be achieved through clear, strategic direction and consistent interpretation of objectives at all levels. There is confusion between performance measurement and performance management and a tendency to focus on things that are easy to measure whilst omitting aspects of care that are more difficult to capture. Appropriate use of incentives, good communication, clinical engagement, ownership and trust affect the degree to which information asymmetry is overcome and goal alignment achieved. Achieving the right balance between accountability and clinical autonomy is important to ensure governance and financial balance without stifling innovation. Originality/value The principal-agent theoretical framework can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care; although it is likely that only partial goal alignment will be achieved, dependent on the extent and level of alignment of a range of factors.
Harris, R; Bridgman, C; Ahmad, M; Bowes, L; Haley, R; Saleem, S; Singh, R; Taylor, S
Care pathways have been used in a variety of ways: firstly to support quality improvement through standardising clinical processes, but also for secondary purposes, by purchasers of healthcare, to monitor activity and health outcomes and to commission services. This paper focuses on reporting a secondary use of care pathways: to commission and monitor performance of primary dental care services. Findings of a project involving three dental practices implementing a system based on rating patients according to their risk of disease and need for care are outlined. Data from surgery-based clinical databases and interviews from commissioners and providers are reported. The use of both process and outcome key performance indicators in this context is discussed, as well as issues which arise such as attributability of outcome measures and strategic approaches to improving quality of care.
Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J
To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71-0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Ngunyulu, R N; Peu, M D; Mulaudzi, F M; Mataboge, M L S; Phiri, S S
Collaborative HIV care between the nurses and traditional health practitioners is an important strategy to improve health care of people living with HIV. To explore and describe the views of nurses regarding collaborative HIV care in primary healthcare services in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. A qualitative, descriptive design was used to explore and describe the views of nurses who met the study's inclusion criteria. In-depth individual interviews were conducted to collect data from purposively selected nurses. Content analysis was used to analyse data. Two main categories were developed during the data analysis stage. The views of nurses and health system challenges regarding collaborative HIV care. The study findings revealed that there was inadequate collaborative HIV care between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners. It is evident that there is inadequate policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation regarding collaboration in HIV care. The study findings might influence policymakers to consider the importance of collaborative HIV care, and improve the quality of care by strengthening the referral system and follow-up of people living with HIV and AIDS, as a result the health outcomes as implied in the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 might be improved. Training and involvement of traditional health practitioners in the nursing and health policy should be considered to enhance and build a trustworthy working relationship between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners in HIV care. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
This paper explores the entrepreneurial role of dentists in primary care dentistry. It reviews the changing context of dentistry, not least the reforms being introduced by the health and social care bill. It suggests that this new context will reinforce the need to consider the business side of dental practice, in particular, the importance of quality, creativity and innovation, alongside the importance of meeting the needs of patients. An entrepreneurial approach will be required in order to sustain dental practice in an increasingly competitive environment.
Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill
Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siersma, Volkert; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Reventlow, Susanne
Rationale, aims and objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of electronic and postal reminders for increasing adherence to the quality assurance programme for the international normalized ratio (INR) point-of-care testing (POCT) device inprimary care. Methods: All 213...... family practices that use the Elective Laboratory of the Capital Region, Denmark, and regularly conduct INR POCT were randomly allocated into two similarly sized groups. During the 4-month intervention, these practices were sent either computer reminders (ComRem) or computer generated postal reminders...... (Postal) if they did not perform a split test to check the quality of their INR POCT for each calendar month. The adherence of the practices was tracked during the subsequent 8 months subdivided into two 4-month periods both without intervention. Outcomes were measures of split test procedure adherence...
O Dea, Angela
The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.
McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Fardy, H John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M; Pinnock, Hilary
This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a series of eight interviews conducted with members of the IPCRG faculty. Educational interventions sit within complex healthcare, economic, and policy contexts. It is essential that any development project considers the local circumstances in terms of economic resources, political circumstances, organisation and administrative capacities, as well as the specific quality issue to be addressed. There is limited evidence (in terms of changed clinician behaviour and/or improved health outcomes) regarding the merits of different educational and quality improvement approaches. Features of educational interventions that were most likely to show some evidence of effectiveness included being carefully designed, multifaceted, engaged health professionals in their learning, provided ongoing support, were sensitive to local circumstances, and delivered in combination with other quality improvement strategies. To be effective, educational interventions must consider the complex healthcare systems within which they operate. The criteria for the IPCRG E-Quality awards thus require applicants not only to describe their proposed educational initiative but also to consider the practical and local barriers to successful implementation, and to propose a robust evaluation in terms of changed clinician behaviour or improved health outcomes.
Crampton, P; Dowell, A C; Bowers, S
To describe key organisational characteristics of selected third sector (non-profit and non-government) primary health care organisations. Data were collected, in 1997 and 1998, from 15 third sector primary care organisations that were members of a network of third sector primary care providers, Health Care Aotearoa (HCA). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of managers and key informants using a semi-structured interview schedule, and from practice computer information systems. Overall the populations served were young: only 4% of patients were aged 65 years or older, and the ethnicity profile was highly atypical, with 21.8% European, 36% Maori, 22.7% Pacific Island, 12% other, and 7.5% not stated. Community services card holding rates were higher than recorded in other studies, and registered patients tended to live in highly deprived areas. HCA organisations had high patient to doctor ratios, in general over 2000:1, and there were significant differences in management structures between HCA practices and more traditional general practice. Third sector organisations provide services for populations that are disadvantaged in many respects. It is likely that New Zealand will continue to develop a diverse range of primary care organisational arrangements. Effort is now required to measure quality and effectiveness of services provided by different primary care organisations serving comparable populations.
Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth
Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... of five patients had had previous episodes, one-fourth were on sick leave, and the LBP considerably limited daily activities. The general practice patients were slightly older and less educated, more often females, and generally worse on all disease-related parameters than chiropractic patients. All...
Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José
The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly
In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.
Goldberg, D. P.; Reed, G. M.; Robles, R.
Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated...... with distress or dysfunction. HA involves persistent, intrusive fears of having an illness or intense preoccupation with and misinterpretation of bodily sensations. This study examined how the proposed descriptions for BSS and HA corresponded to what was observed by working primary care physicians (PCPs......) in participating countries, and the relationship of BSS and HA to depressive and anxiety disorders and to disability. Method PCPs referred patients judged to have BSS or HA, who were then interviewed using a standardized psychiatric interview and a standardized measure of disability. Results Of 587 patients...
Mallett, Ross; Bakker, Edward; Burton, Maria
The aim of the present study was to establish if physiotherapy self-referral (SR) is viable, cost effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting. In an urban National Health Service (NHS) primary care physiotherapy service, waiting times, attendance rates and treatment ratios (thus, episode-of-care costs) were deemed unsustainable. The introduction of 'Any Qualified Provider' is imminent and will drive NHS physiotherapy services to compete directly with private counterparts. Current literature, healthcare policy and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy strongly advocate SR to promote value for money and improve the patient experience. A repeated measure prospective cohort study introduced an SR pathway parallel to existing general practice (GP) referrals and compared costs, attendance and data relating to the patient experience across groups. SR referral groups were found to have a higher proportion of female patients presenting with acute conditions. Cost minimization analysis indicated an average 32.3% reduction in episode-of-care cost with an SR-initiated intervention. An estimated cost minimization of between £84,387.80 and £124,472.06 was calculated if SR were to be expanded service-wide. SR referral reduced waiting times and improved patient satisfaction relating to waiting times and communication compared with traditional pathways. The results of the present study showed that the introduction of the described SR pathway was feasible, cost-effective and offered comparable care. Certain aspects of the SR patient experience compared more favourably than those studied in traditional GP referral routes. They also added to an existing body of evidence supporting SR with a variety of administrative processes in various socioeconomic settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sayed Mahdi Madani
Full Text Available the primary health cares are among the individuals’ primary rights and their outsourcing can pave the way to more suitable use of resources for the field inside and outside of the organization and in this way make possible the better cares. The aim of this study was to determine the type of primary health cares that can be outsourced in Iran; this study embarked upon specifying which one, among the primary health cares, has ability of being outsourced by contractors outside the organization. This applied study has been done by a descriptive and cross-sectional method. According to the other studies at first a general framework was founded; hence the main framework with respect to the opinions of 30 experts. Thereafter a questionnaire was compiled for ensuring its correctness and gathering other experts’ opinions. The method of experts’ judgment was used for validity and for its reliability with distribution of 30 copies the method of calculating Cronbach’ salpha, which was 0.925. Then it was distributed among experts and 786 questionnaires were completed and collected; by using the method of factor of factor and confirmatory analysis as well as the descriptive statistics we embarked upon investigating and deducing the results. For statistical investigation the software SPSS21 and AMOS20 were used. In the factor of outsourcing activities one factor only covering 55.25% of variables variance was discovered. The results suggest that the item q10, “possibility of outsourcing the concrete activities”, with factor load of 0.791 and the item q6, "outsourcing and standardization", with factor load of 0.668 have respectively the highest load and the lowest one in the definition of the factor of cares of outsourcing. The more the primary health cares are more concrete, more simple, more standardized and have the further differentiability, their successful outsourcing is highly possible; in addition only those activities are able to be
Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Kale, Minal; Robbins, Laura; Pfister, David; Fortier, Elizabeth; Pocus, Valerie; Chimonas, Susan; Weingart, Saul N
Relatively little attention has been devoted to the role of communication between physicians as a mechanism for individual and organisational learning about diagnostic delays. This study's objective was to elicit physicians' perceptions about and experiences with communication among physicians regarding diagnostic delays in cancer. Qualitative analysis based on seven focus groups. Fifty-one physicians affiliated with three New York-based academic medical centres participated, with six to nine subjects per group. We used content analysis to identify commonalities among primary care physicians and specialists (ie, medical and surgical oncologists). Perceptions and experiences with physician-to-physician communication about delays in cancer diagnosis. Our analysis identified five major themes: openness to communication, benefits of communication, fears about giving and receiving feedback, infrastructure barriers to communication and overcoming barriers to communication. Subjects valued communication about cancer diagnostic delays, but they had many concerns and fears about providing and receiving feedback in practice. Subjects expressed reluctance to communicate if there was insufficient information to attribute responsibility, if it would have no direct benefit or if it would jeopardise their existing relationships. They supported sensitive approaches to conveying information, as they feared eliciting or being subject to feelings of incompetence or shame. Subjects also cited organisational barriers. They offered suggestions that might facilitate communication about delays. Addressing the barriers to communication among physicians about diagnostic delays is needed to promote a culture of learning across specialties and institutions. Supporting open and honest discussions about diagnostic delays may help build safer health systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use
Westwood, Marie; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Lang, Shona; Luyendijk, Marianne; Zaim, Remziye; Stirk, Lisa; Al, Maiwenn; Armstrong, Nigel; Kleijnen, Jos
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK. Presenting symptoms that can be associated with CRC usually have another explanation. Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) detect blood that is not visible to the naked eye and may help to select patients who are likely to benefit from further investigation. To assess the effectiveness of FITs [OC-Sensor (Eiken Chemical Co./MAST Diagnostics, Tokyo, Japan), HM-JACKarc (Kyowa Medex/Alpha Laboratories Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), FOB Gold (Sentinel/Sysmex, Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy), RIDASCREEN Hb or RIDASCREEN Hb/Hp complex (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany)] for primary care triage of people with low-risk symptoms. Twenty-four resources were searched to March 2016. Review methods followed published guidelines. Summary estimates were calculated using a bivariate model or a random-effects logistic regression model. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) that were associated with different faecal occult blood tests and direct colonoscopy referral. Modelling comprised a diagnostic decision model, a Markov model for long-term costs and QALYs that were associated with CRC treatment and progression, and a Markov model for QALYs that were associated with no CRC. We included 10 studies. Using a single sample and 10 µg Hb/g faeces threshold, sensitivity estimates for OC-Sensor [92.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 86.9% to 95.3%] and HM-JACKarc (100%, 95% CI 71.5% to 100%) indicated that both may be useful to rule out CRC. Specificity estimates were 85.8% (95% CI 78.3% to 91.0%) and 76.6% (95% CI 72.6% to 80.3%). Triage using FITs could rule out CRC and avoid colonoscopy in approximately 75% of symptomatic patients. Data from our systematic review suggest that 22.5-93% of patients with a positive FIT and no CRC have other significant bowel pathologies. The results of the base-case analysis suggested minimal difference in QALYs between all of the
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom
Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...
ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS
PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...
This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their researc...
Full Text Available The management of depression in the primary care setting should ideally take a biological, psychological, and sociologicalapproach. Antidepressants are the most commonly used biological agents in the treatment of depression. Psychologicaltherapies and psychosocial interventions improve the outcome of treatment when combined with pharmacotherapy.Clinical depression is treatable and thus efforts should be made to alleviate the suffering of patients with depression.
Hulme, C; Robinson, P G; Saloniki, E C; Vinall-Collier, K; Baxter, P D; Douglas, G; Gibson, B; Godson, J H; Meads, D; Pavitt, S H
Objective To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a new blended dental contract incentivising improved oral health compared with a traditional dental contract based on units of dental activity (UDAs). Design Non-randomised controlled study. Setting Six UK primary care dental practices, three working under a new blended dental contract; three matched practices under a traditional contract. Participants 550 new adult patients. Interventions A new blended/incentive-driven primary care dentistry contract and service delivery model versus the traditional contract based on UDAs. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was as follows: percentage of sites with gingival bleeding on probing. Secondary outcomes were as follows: extracted and filled teeth (%), caries (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)), oral health-related quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14)). Incremental cost-effective ratios used OHIP-14 and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from the EQ-5D-3L. Results At 24 months, 291/550 (53%) patients returned for final assessment; those lost to follow-up attended 6.46 appointments on average (SD 4.80). The primary outcome favoured patients in the blended contract group. Extractions and fillings were more frequent in this group. Blended contracts were financially attractive for the dental provider but carried a higher cost for the service commissioner. Differences in generic health-related quality of life were negligible. Positive changes over time in oral health-related quality of life in both groups were statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first UK study to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a blended contract in primary care dentistry. Although the primary outcome favoured the blended contract, the results are limited because 47% patients did not attend at 24 months. This is consistent with 39% of adults not being regular attenders and 27% only visiting their dentist when
Albers-Heitner, P.C.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Joore, M.M.; Berghmans, B.L.; Nieman, F.F.; Venema, P.P.; Severens, J.J.; Winkens, R.R.
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) primary care management is substandard, offering care rather than cure despite the existence of guidelines that help to improve cure. Involving nurse specialists on incontinence in general practice could be a way to improve care for UI patients. AIMS: We studied
Loeb, Danielle F; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Candrian, Carey; Bayliss, Elizabeth A
Primary care physicians play unique roles caring for complex patients, often acting as the hub for their care and coordinating care among specialists. To inform the clinical application of new models of care for complex patients, we sought to understand how these physicians conceptualize patient complexity and to develop a corresponding typology. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with internal medicine primary care physicians from 5 clinics associated with a university hospital and a community health hospital. We used systematic nonprobabilistic sampling to achieve an even distribution of sex, years in practice, and type of practice. The interviews were analyzed using a team-based participatory general inductive approach. The 15 physicians in this study endorsed a multidimensional concept of patient complexity. The physicians perceived patients to be complex if they had an exacerbating factor-a medical illness, mental illness, socioeconomic challenge, or behavior or trait (or some combination thereof)-that complicated care for chronic medical illnesses. This perspective of primary care physicians caring for complex patients can help refine models of complexity to design interventions or models of care that improve outcomes for these patients. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; And Others
This study identified factors in graduating medical students' choice of primary versus nonprimary care specialty. Subjects were 509 students at the Medical College of Georgia in 1988-90. Students could be classified by such factors as desire for longitudinal patient care opportunities, monetary rewards, perception of lifestyle, and perception of…
Turner, N; Pierse, N; Huang, Q S; Radke, S; Bissielo, A; Thompson, M G; Kelly, H
We present preliminary results of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in New Zealand using a case test-negative design for 28 April to 31 August 2014. VE adjusted for age and time of admission among all ages against severe acute respiratory illness hospital presentation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza was 54% (95% CI: 19 to 74) and specifically against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 65% (95% CI:33 to 81). For influenza-confirmed primary care visits, VE was 67% (95% CI: 48 to 79) overall and 73% (95% CI: 50 to 85) against A(H1N1)pdm09.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is common and has been shown to result in high economic costs to society. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two active therapies, graded-exercise (GET and counselling (COUN with usual care plus a self-help booklet (BUC for people presenting with chronic fatigue. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted with participants consulting for fatigue of over three months’ duration recruited from 31 general practices in South East England and allocated to one of three arms. Outcomes and use of services were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The main outcome measure used in the economic evaluation was clinically significant improvements in fatigue, measured using the Chalder fatigue scale. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the net-benefit approach and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Full economic and outcome data at six months were available for 163 participants; GET = 51, COUN = 58 and BUC = 54. Those receiving the active therapies (GET and COUN had more contacts with care professionals and therefore higher costs, these differences being statistically significant. COUN was more expensive and less effective than the other two therapies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GET compared to BUC was equal to £987 per unit of clinically significant improvement. However, there was much uncertainty around this result. Conclusion This study does not provide a clear recommendation about which therapeutic option to adopt, based on efficiency, for patients with chronic fatigue. It suggests that COUN is not cost-effective, but it is unclear whether GET represents value for money compared to BUC. Clinical Trial Registration number at ISRCTN register: 72136156
Sloane, P D; Dallara, J; Roach, C; Bailey, K E; Mitchell, M; McNutt, R
We sought to determine the types of dizziness problems that are commonly seen in primary care practices, and to bring to light clinical and demographic factors that predict management decisions. We undertook a prospective cohort study with a 6-month follow-up using data gathered in nine primary care practices in two North Carolina counties. Subjects were 144 dizziness patients examined by primary care physicians. Data collected included demographic characteristics, a standardized dizziness history, physician estimation of symptom severity and diagnostic certainty, and physician "worry" about arrhythmia, transient ischemic attack, and brain tumor. Physicians reported their management decisions and diagnosis (or differential diagnosis) by responding to a questionnaire after completing the patient encounter. A 6-month follow-up chart review and physician interview were completed on 140 patients (97.2 percent); information obtained included changes in diagnosis and patient mortality. The most common diagnoses were labyrinthitis, otitis media, benign positional vertigo, unspecified presyncope, sinusitis, and transient ischemic attack. The initial diagnosis changed during the 6-month follow-up period in 34 (24.3 percent) of patients. The overall course of these patients was benign, however, with only one death occurring during the 6-month follow-up period. Patients' dizziness tended to be managed using a combination of strategies, including office laboratory testing (33.6 percent), advanced testing (11.4 percent), referral to a specialist (9.3 percent), medication (61.3 percent), observation (71.8 percent), reassurance (41.6 percent), and behavioral recommendations (15.0 percent). Office laboratory testing was associated with younger patient age, a suspected metabolic or endocrine disorder, and physician worry about a cardiac arrhythmia; advanced laboratory testing was associated with suspected cardiovascular or neurologic disorders. Medication tended to be prescribed
Schmidt, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Schulz, Richard
Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual's verbal participation in these triadic interactions. To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty-three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver's own verbal participation. Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient's active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits.
Schmidt, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Schulz, Richard
Objective Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual’s verbal participation in these triadic interactions. Methods To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. Results PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver’s own verbal participation. Conclusion Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Practice Implications Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient’s active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits. PMID:19395224
Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Objective Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Methods Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. Results EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Discussion Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. Conclusions EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. PMID:25627278
O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Jolly, John B.; Fluet, Norman R.; Reis, Michael D.; Stern, Charles H.; Thompson, Alexander W.; Jolly, Gillian A.
The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports change...
Flook, N W; Wiklund, I
To review, from a primary care physician (PCP) perspective, the use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for assessment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and the effectiveness of therapy. While generic and disease-specific PRO instruments have been used in the assessment of GERD, the latter can be considered to be more appropriate as they focus only on problems relevant to the disease in question (and therefore tend to be more responsive to change). Such instruments include the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ). Their use indicates that GERD symptoms are troublesome and significantly reduce patients' HRQL, and that effective treatment of GERD improves HRQL. The GERD Impact Scale (GIS) questionnaire, primarily developed for use within primary care, can also help to determine the impact of symptoms on patients' everyday lives and, in turn, the benefit of appropriately targeted therapy. Notably, these PRO instruments were developed from focus groups of GERD patients, and only aspects rated of highest importance are used in the final instruments. Consequently, PCPs can feel confident that these questionnaires encompass the most relevant points that they are likely to ask in terms of how symptoms affect patients' everyday lives. Primary care physicians are encouraged to make wider use of PRO instruments within routine practice to improve communication with their GERD patients that, in turn, could lead to improved clinical outcomes and greater patient satisfaction.
Bailey Kerry A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.
Assoumou, Sabrina A; Tasillo, Abriana; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Horsburgh, C Robert; Barry, M Anita; Regis, Craig; Kim, Arthur Y; Marshall, Alison; Saxena, Sheel; Smith, Peter C; Linas, Benjamin P
High hepatitis C virus (HCV) rates have been reported in young people who inject drugs (PWID). We evaluated the clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of testing among youth seen in communities with a high overall number of reported HCV cases. We developed a decision analytic model to project quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs (2016 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of 9 strategies for 1-time testing among 15- to 30-year-olds seen at urban community health centers. Strategies differed in 3 ways: targeted vs routine testing, rapid finger stick vs standard venipuncture, and ordered by physician vs by counselor/tester using standing orders. We performed deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) to evaluate uncertainty. Compared to targeted risk-based testing (current standard of care), routine testing increased the lifetime medical cost by $80 and discounted QALYs by 0.0013 per person. Across all strategies, rapid testing provided higher QALYs at a lower cost per QALY gained and was always preferred. Counselor-initiated routine rapid testing was associated with an ICER of $71000/QALY gained. Results were sensitive to offer and result receipt rates. Counselor-initiated routine rapid testing was cost-effective (ICER 26 cases per 100 person-years, or reflex confirmatory testing followed all reactive venipuncture diagnostics. In PSA, routine rapid testing was the optimal strategy in 90% of simulations. Routine rapid HCV testing among 15- to 30-year-olds may be cost-effective when the prevalence of PWID is >0.59%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sippel, J M; Osborne, M L; Bjornson, W; Goldberg, B; Buist, A S
To document smoking cessation rates achieved by applying the 1996 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) smoking cessation guidelines for primary care clinics, compare these quit rates with historical results, and determine if quit rates improve with an additional motivational intervention that includes education as well as spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Randomized clinical trial. Two university-affiliated community primary care clinics. Two hundred five smokers with routinely scheduled appointments. All smokers were given advice and support according to AHCPR guidelines. Half of the subjects received additional education with spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Quit rate was evaluated at 9-month follow-up. Eleven percent of smokers were sustained quitters at follow-up. Sustained quit rate was no different for intervention and control groups (9% vs 14%; [OR] 0.6; 95% [CI] 0.2, 1.4). Nicotine replacement therapy was strongly associated with sustained cessation (OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.3, 19.6). Subjects without insurance were the least likely to use nicotine replacement therapy ( p =.05). Historical data from previously published studies showed that 2% of smokers quit following physician advice, and additional support similar to AHCPR guidelines increased the quit rate to 5%. The sustained smoking cessation rate achieved by following AHCPR guidelines was 11% at 9 months, which compares favorably with historical results. Additional education with spirometry did not improve the quit rate. Nicotine replacement therapy was the strongest predictor of cessation, yet was used infrequently owing to cost. These findings support the use of AHCPR guidelines in primary care clinics, but do not support routine spirometry for motivating patients similar to those studied here.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current approaches for AD prediction are based on biomarkers, which are however of restricted availability in primary care. AD prediction tools for primary care are therefore needed. We present a prediction score based on information that can be obtained in the primary care setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 3.055 non-demented individuals above 75 years recruited via primary care chart registries (Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia, AgeCoDe. After the baseline investigation we performed three follow-up investigations at 18 months intervals with incident dementia as the primary outcome. The best set of predictors was extracted from the baseline variables in one randomly selected half of the sample. This set included age, subjective memory impairment, performance on delayed verbal recall and verbal fluency, on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination, and on an instrumental activities of daily living scale. These variables were aggregated to a prediction score, which achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.84 for AD. The score was applied to the second half of the sample (test cohort. Here, the prediction accuracy was 0.79. With a cut-off of at least 80% sensitivity in the first cohort, 79.6% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 14.7% positive predictive value (PPV and 97.8% negative predictive value of (NPV for AD were achieved in the test cohort. At a cut-off for a high risk population (5% of individuals with the highest risk score in the first cohort the PPV for AD was 39.1% (52% for any dementia in the test cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction score has useful prediction accuracy. It can define individuals (1 sensitively for low cost-low risk interventions, or (2 more specific and with increased PPV for measures of prevention with greater costs or risks. As it is independent of technical aids, it may be used within large scale prevention programs.
Harding, Brittany; Webber, Colleen; Ruhland, Lucia; Dalgarno, Nancy; Armour, Christine M; Birtwhistle, Richard; Brown, Glenn; Carroll, June C; Flavin, Michael; Phillips, Susan; MacKenzie, Jennifer J
To effectively translate genetic advances into practice, engagement of primary care providers (PCPs) is essential. Using a qualitative, phenomenological methodology, we analyzed key informant interviews and focus groups designed to explore perspectives of urban and rural PCPs. PCPs endorsed a responsibility to integrate genetics into their practices and expected advances in genetic medicine to expand. However, PCPs reported limited knowledge and difficulties accessing resources, experts, and continuing education. Rural practitioners' additional concerns included cost, distance, and poor patient engagement. PCPs' perspectives are crucial to develop relevant educational and systems-based interventions to further expand genetic medicine in primary care.
The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Bisognano, Maureen; Reinertsen, James L; Meehan, Thomas P
Leadership is increasingly recognized as a potential factor in the success of primary care quality improvement efforts, yet little is definitively known about which specific leadership behaviors are most important. Until more research is available, the authors suggest that primary care clinicians who are committed to developing their leadership skills should commit to a series of actions. These actions include embracing a theory of leadership, modeling the approach for others, focusing on the goal of improving patient outcomes, encouraging teamwork, utilizing available sources of power, and reflecting on one's approach in order to improve it. Primary care clinicians who commit themselves to such actions will be more effective leaders and will be more prepared as new research becomes available on this important factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Primary Care Informatics Working Group (PCIWG of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA has identified the absence of a national strategy for primary care informatics. Under PCIWG leadership, major national and international societies have come together to create the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics (NAPCI, to promote a connection between the informatics community and the organisations that support primary care. The PCIWG clinical practice subcommittee has recognised the necessity of a global needs assessment, and proposed work in point-of-care technology, clinical vocabularies, and ambulatory electronic medical record development. Educational needs include a consensus statement on informatics competencies, recommendations for curriculum and teaching methods, and methodologies to evaluate their effectiveness. The research subcommittee seeks to define a primary care informatics research agenda, and to support and disseminate informatics research throughout the primary care community. The AMIA board of directors has enthusiastically endorsed the conceptual basis for this White Paper.
Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C
The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary care payment play such a prominent role in the PCMH discussion. FFS payment for office visits has never effectively rewarded all the activities that comprise prototypical primary care and may contribute to the "hamster on a treadmill" problems in current medical practice. Capitation payments are associated with risk adjustment challenges and, perhaps, public perceptions of conflict with patients' best interests. Most payers don't employ and therefore cannot generally place physicians on salary; while in theory such salary payments might neutralize incentives, operationally, "time is money;" extra effort devoted to meeting the needs of a more complex patient will likely reduce the services available to others. Fee-for-service, the predominant physician payment scheme, has contributed to both the continuing decline in the primary care workforce and the capability to serve patients well. Yet, the conceptual alternative payment approaches, modified fee-for-service (including fee bundles), capitation, and salary, each have their own problems. Accordingly, new payment models will likely be required to support restoration of primary care to its proper role in the US health care system, and to promote and sustain the development of patient-centered medical homes.
Browne, Gina; Steiner, Meir; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gafni, Amiram; Byrne, Carolyn; Dunn, Edward; Bell, Barbara; Mills, Michael; Chalklin, Lori; Wallik, David; Kraemer, James
There is little information on the long-term effects and costs of a combination of Sertraline and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for the treatment of dysthymia in primary care. In a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, 707 adults (18-74 years of age inclusive) with DSM-IV dysthymic disorder, with or without past and/or current major depression, as an acute or chronic episode, in a community-based primary care practice in Ontario, Canada, were randomized to treatment with either Sertraline alone (50-200 mg), or IPT alone (10 sessions), or Sertraline plus IPT combined. In the acute treatment phase (first 6 months) all groups received full active treatment. This was followed by an additional 18-month naturalistic follow-up phase. Subjects were assessed for effectiveness of treatment in reducing depressive symptoms using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at 6 months and twice again during the 18-month follow-up by blind independent observers. Treatment costs and subjects' use of other health and social services were also investigated. At 6 months, 586 subjects completed the MADRS questionnaire. There was a significant difference (P=0.025) in mean MADRS scores: 14.3 (Group I); 14.9 (Group II); 16.8 (Group III), using analysis of covariance. Response (40% improvement) rates were 60.2% for Sertraline alone, 46.6% for IPT alone, and 57.5% for Sertraline augmented by IPT (P=0.02). At 2 years, 525 subjects were retained for follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference between Sertraline alone and Sertraline plus IPT in symptom reduction. However, both were more effective than IPT alone in reducing depressive symptoms (P=0.03). There was a statistically significant difference between groups in costs for use of health and social services. The IPT treatment groups had the lower costs for use of health and social services. Sertraline or Sertraline plus IPT was more effective than IPT alone after 6 months. Over the long term (2 years
Liu, Zhixin; Moorin, Rachael; Worthington, John; Tofler, Geoffrey; Bartlett, Mark; Khan, Rabia; Zuo, Yeqin
The National Prescribing Service (NPS) MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program, which was implemented nationally in 2009-2010 in Australia, sought to improve antithrombotic prescribing in stroke prevention using dedicated interventions that target general practitioners. This study evaluated the impact of the NPS MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program on antithrombotic prescribing and primary stroke hospitalizations. This population-based time series study used administrative health data linked to 45 and Up Study participants with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to assess the possible impact of the NPS MedicineWise program on first-time aspirin prescriptions and primary stroke-related hospitalizations. Time series analysis showed that the NPS MedicineWise program was significantly associated with increased first-time prescribing of aspirin (P=0.03) and decreased hospitalizations for primary ischemic stroke (P=0.03) in the at-risk study population (n=90 023). First-time aspirin prescription was correlated with a reduction in the rate of hospitalization for primary stroke (P=0.02). Following intervention, the number of first-time aspirin prescriptions increased by 19.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.6-38.0), while the number of first-time stroke hospitalizations decreased by 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-30.0). Consistent with NPS MedicineWise program messages for the high-risk CVD population, the NPS MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program (2009) was associated with increased initiation of aspirin and a reduced rate of hospitalization for primary stroke. The findings suggest that the provision of evidence-based multifaceted large-scale educational programs in primary care can be effective in changing prescriber behavior and positively impacting patient health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors and NPS MedicineWise. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Greve, Jane
-60 years drawn from the National Health Interview (NHI) survey 2000 and merged to Danish register data, we compare differences in the impact of being overweight and obese relative to being normal weight on the demand for primary physician care. Estimated bodyweight effects vary across latent classes...
Yin Ping Ng
Full Text Available Mental illness-related stigma is common, and is associated with poorer outcomes in people with mental illness. This study evaluated the attitudes of primary care nurses towards people with mental illness and its associated factors; and the effectiveness of a short video-based contact intervention (VBCI in improving these attitudes using a Malay version of the 15-item Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Healthcare Providers (OMS-HC-15-M.A 5-minute VBCI was developed comprising elements of psychoeducation and interviews of people with mental illness and the people they interact with, relating to experience of mental illness and recovery. A pre-post cross-sectional study was conducted on 206 randomly selected primary care nurses in Penang, Malaysia. The OMS-HC-15-M questionnaire was administered before and immediately after participants viewed the VBCI. The difference in mean pre-post VBCI scores using paired t-tests, effect size and standardised response mean (SRM were obtained. Factors correlating to attitudes were obtained using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.Differences in pre-post VBCI score were statistically significant (p<0.001 with a 14% score reduction, a moderate effect size and SRM at 0.97 (0.85-0.11 and 1.1 (0.97-1.2 respectively. By factoring in the Minimal Detectable Change statistic of 7.76, the VBCI produced a significant improvement of attitudes in 30% of the participants. Factors associated with less stigmatising attitudes at baseline were previous psychiatry-related training, desiring psychiatric training, and positive contact with people with mental illness.This is the first study in Malaysia to show that a brief VBCI is effective in improving attitudes of primary care nurses towards people with mental illness in the immediate term. Further studies are needed to determine if these results can be sustained in the longer term and generalizable to other health care professionals. Qualitative studies are warranted to
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
experiences of, and confidence in, managing these patients in primary care, their perceived role and ... KEY WORDS: Gambling addiction; Primary care; General practitioners; Management ..... Petry NM, Blanco C, Auriacombe M, Borges.
García-Molina Sáez, Celia; Urbieta Sanz, Elena; Madrigal de Torres, Manuel; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual; Pérez Cárceles, María D
To quantify and to evaluate the reliability of Primary Care (PC) computerised medication records of as an information source of patient chronic medications, and to identify associated factors with the presence of discrepancies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. General Referral Hospital in Murcia. Patients admitted to the cardiology-chest diseases unit, during the months of February to April 2013, on home treatment, who agreed to participate in the study. Evaluation of the reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records by analysing the concordance, by identifying discrepancies, between the active medication in these records and that recorded in pharmacist interview with the patient/caregiver. Identification of associated factors with the presence of discrepancies was analysed using a multivariate logistic regression. The study included a total of 308 patients with a mean of 70.9 years (13.0 SD). The concordance of active ingredients was 83.7%, and this decreased to 34.7% when taking the dosage into account. Discrepancies were found in 97.1% of patients. The most frequent discrepancy was omission of frequency (35.6%), commission (drug added unjustifiably) (14.6%), and drug omission (12.7%). Age older than 65 years (1.98 [1.08 to 3.64]), multiple chronic diseases (1.89 [1.04 to 3.42]), and have a narcotic or psychotropic drug prescribed (2.22 [1.16 to 4.24]), were the factors associated with the presence of discrepancies. Primary Care computerised medication records, although of undoubted interest, are not be reliable enough to be used as the sole source of information on patient chronic medications when admitted to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Warmelink, J Catja; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K
Inter-professional collaboration is considered essential in effective maternity care. National projects are being undertaken to enhance inter-professional relationships and improve communication between all maternity care providers in order to improve the quality of maternity care in the Netherlands. However, little is known about primary care midwives' satisfaction with collaboration with other maternity care providers, such as general practitioners, maternity care assistance organisations (MCAO), maternity care assistants (MCA), obstetricians, clinical midwives and paediatricians. More insight is needed into the professional working relations of primary care midwives in the Netherlands before major changes are made OBJECTIVE: To assess how satisfied primary care midwives are with collaboration with other maternity care providers and to assess the relationship between their 'satisfaction with collaboration' and personal and work-related characteristics of the midwives, their attitudes towards their work and collaboration characteristics (accessibility). The aim of this study was to provide insight into the professional working relations of primary care midwives in the Netherlands. Our descriptive cross-sectional study is part of the DELIVER study. Ninety nine midwives completed a written questionnaire in May 2010. A Friedman ANOVA test assessed differences in satisfaction with collaboration with six groups of maternity care providers. Bivariate analyses were carried out to assess the relationship between satisfaction with collaboration and personal and work-related characteristics of the midwives, their attitudes towards their work and collaboration characteristics. Satisfaction experienced by primary care midwives when collaborating with the different maternity care providers varies within and between primary and secondary/tertiary care. Interactions with non-physicians (clinical midwives and MCA(O)) are ranked consistently higher on satisfaction compared with
Ansah, John P; Matchar, David B; Malhotra, Rahul; Love, Sean R; Liu, Chang; Do, Young
Using Singapore as a case study, this paper aims to understand the effects of the current long-term care policy and various alternative policy options on the labor market participation of primary informal family caregivers of elderly with disability. A model of the long-term care system in Singapore was developed using System Dynamics methodology. Under the current long-term care policy, by 2030, 6.9 percent of primary informal family caregivers (0.34 percent of the domestic labor supply) are expected to withdraw from the labor market. Alternative policy options reduce primary informal family caregiver labor market withdrawal; however, the number of workers required to scale up long-term care services is greater than the number of caregivers who can be expected to return to the labor market. Policymakers may face a dilemma between admitting more foreign workers to provide long-term care services and depending on primary informal family caregivers.
Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style
Full Text Available Background. There is evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation (PE in patients with symptoms of depression in primary care (PC, but very few studies have assessed this intervention in antidepressant-naïve patients. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a PE program in these patients, since the use of antidepressant (AD medication may interfere with the effects of the intervention. Methods. 106 participants were included, 50 from the PE program (12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions and 56 from the control group (CG that received the usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and remission based on the BDI. The analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Results. The PE program group showed remission of symptoms of 40% (P=0.001 posttreatment and 42% (P=0.012 at 6 months. The analysis only showed significant differences in the BDI score posttreatment (P=0.008; effect size Cohen’s d′=0.55. Conclusions. The PE intervention is an effective treatment in the depressive population not treated with AD medication. Before taking an AD, psychoeducational intervention should be considered.
Ellis, Kerri A; Connolly, Ann; Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Lilly, Craig M
To increase the frequency of communication of patient information between acute and primary care providers. A secondary objective was to determine whether higher rates of communication were associated with lower rates of hospital readmission 30 days after discharge. A validated instrument was used for telephone surveys before and after an intervention designed to increase the frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers. The communication intervention was implemented in 3 adult intensive care units from 2 campuses of an academic medical center. The frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers, the perceived usefulness of the intervention, and its association with 30-day readmission rates were assessed for 202 adult intensive care episodes before and 100 episodes after a communication intervention. The frequency of documented communication increased significantly (5/202 or 2% before to 72/100 or 72% after the intervention; P communication was considered useful by every participating primary care provider. Rates of rehospitalization at 30 days were lower for the intervention group than the preintervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant (41/202 or 23% vs 16/88 or 18% of discharged patients; P = .45; power 0.112 at P = .05). The frequency of communication episodes that provide value can be increased through standardized processes. The key aspects of this effective intervention were setting the expectation that communication should occur, documenting when communication has occurred, and reviewing that documentation during multiprofessional rounds. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing prevalence of diabetes and heightened awareness of the benefits of early and intensive disease management have increased service demands and expectations not only of primary care physicians but also of diabetes specialists. While research has addressed issues related to referral into specialist care, much less has been published about the transition from diabetes specialists back to primary care. Understanding the concerns of family physicians related to discharge of diabetes care from specialist centers can support the development of strategies that facilitate this transition and result in broader access to limited specialist services. This study was undertaken to explore primary care physician (PCP perspectives and concerns related to reassuming responsibility for diabetes care after referral to a specialized diabetes center. Methods Qualitative data were collected through three focus groups. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and sorted with themes identified using a constant comparison method. The study was undertaken through the regional academic referral center for adult diabetes care in Ottawa, Canada. Participants included 22 primary care physicians representing a variety of referral frequencies, practice types and settings. Results Participants described facilitators and barriers to successful transition of diabetes care at the provider, patient and systems level. Major facilitators included clear communication of a detailed, structured plan of care, ongoing access to specialist services for advice or re-referral, continuing education and mentoring for PCPs. Identified provider barriers were gaps in PCP knowledge and confidence related to diabetes treatment, excessive workload and competing time demands. Systems deterrents included reimbursement policies for health professionals and inadequate funding for diabetes medications and supplies. At the PCP-patient interface
Bojar, I; Wdowiak, L; Kwiatosz-Muc, M
The aim of the research is to get to know opinions of primary health care managers concerning working of primary health care and concerning quality of medical services offered by family doctors out-patient clinics. The research among managers of primary health care units took place in all out-patient clinics in Lublin province. Research instrument was survey questionnaire of authors own construction. Results were statistically analyzed. From 460 surveys sent, 108 questionnaires were accepted to analysis. Majority of managers of out-patient clinics of primary health care is satisfied with the way and the quality of work of employed staff. In opinion of 71.3% of managers access to family doctor services is very good. Availability of primary health care services is better estimated by managers of not public units. The occupied local provide comfortable work for the staff in opinion of 78.5% of surveyed managers of out-patient clinics. Managers estimate the level of their services as very good (37.96%) and good (37.96%) comparing to other such a subjects present in the market. Internal program of improving quality is run in 22% of out-patient clinics, which were investigated. Managers of primary health care units assess the quality of their services as good and very good. They estimate positively the comfort and politeness in serving patients as well as technical status of equipment and the lodging. They assess availability of their services as very good. Large group of managers of family doctors practices recognizes neighborhood practices as a competitors.
Depression in the elderly presenting at primary care settings is usually under- detected by primary care physicians. This study assessed the prevalence of depression and the utility of the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) in detecting depression in elderly patients in primary care populations in Ilorin, Nigeria. This was ...
Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas
Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aranda Auserón, Gloria; Elcuaz Viscarret, M Rosario; Fuertes Goñi, Carmen; Güeto Rubio, Victoria; Pascual Pascual, Pablo; Sainz de Murieta García de Galdeano, Enrique
To evaluate the effectiveness of a Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Program on the levels of stress and burnout in Primary Care health professionals. Randomised, controlled clinical trial. Training in Mindfulness was offered to 1,281 health professionals in Navarra (Spain) Primary Care, and 48 of them accepted. The participants were randomly assigned to groups: 25 to the intervention group, and the remaining 23 to the control group. The Mindfulness and Self-Compassion training program consisted of sessions of 2.5chours/week for 8 weeks. The participants had to attend at least 75% of the sessions and perform a daily practical of 45minutes. The levels of mindfulness, self-compassion, perceived stress, and burnout were measured using four questionnaires before and after the intervention. After the intervention, the scores of the intervention group improved significantly in mindfulness (Pmindfulness P=.001; and burnout: emotional fatigue (P=.046). The comparison with the control group showed significant differences in mindfulness (Pmindfulness and self-compassion practices in the health environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
So, Ryuhei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Aoki, Takuya; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Suganuma, Aya M; Furukawa, Toshi A
Low participation rates are one of the most serious disadvantages of Web-based studies. It is necessary to develop effective strategies to improve participation rates to obtain sufficient data. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email and the day of the week of sending the invitation email on the participation rate in a Web-based trial. We conducted a 2×2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. We contacted 2000 primary care physicians from members of the Japan Primary Care Association in January 2017 and randomly allocated them to 1 of 4 combinations of 2 subject lines (presence or absence of an emphasis on a lottery for an Amazon gift card worth 3000 yen or approximately US $30) and 2 delivery days (sending the invitation email on Tuesday or Friday). The primary outcome was the response rate defined as the number of participants answering the first page of the questionnaire divided by the number of invitation emails delivered. All outcomes were collected between January 17, 2017, and February 8, 2017. We analyzed data from 1943 out of 2000 participants after excluding those whose email addresses were invalid. The overall response rate was 6.3% (123/1943). There was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding incentive in the subject line: the risk ratio was 1.12 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.58) and the risk difference was 0.7% (95% CI -1.5% to 2.9%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding sending the email on Tuesday or Friday: the risk ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.38) and the risk difference was -0.1% (95% CI -2.3% to 2.1%). Neither emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email nor varying the day of the week the invitation email was sent led to a meaningful increase in response rates in a Web-based trial with primary care physicians. University Hospital
Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M
Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, T C
Rural primary care programs were established in areas where there was thought to be no competition for patients. However, evidence from site visits and surveys of a national sample of subsidized programs revealed a pattern of competitive responses by the clinics. In this study of 193 rural primary care programs, mail and telephone surveys produced uniform data on the organization, operation, finances, and utilization of a representative sample of clinics. The programs were found to compete in terms of: (1) price, (2) service mix, (3) staff availability, (4) structural accessibility, (5) outreach, and (6) targeting a segment of the market. The competitive strategies employed by the clinics had consequences that affected their productivity and financial stability. The strategies were related to the perceived missions of the programs, and depended heavily upon the degree of isolation of the program and the targeting of the services. The competitive strategy chosen by a particular program could not be predicted based on service area population and apparent competitors in the service area. The goals and objectives of the programs had more to do with their competitive responses than with market characteristics. Moreover, the chosen strategies may not meet the demands of those markets.
Anna Bryndis Blondal
Full Text Available Even though pharmaceutical care is not a new concept in pharmacy, its introduction and development has proved to be challenging. In Iceland, general practitioners are not familiar with pharmaceutical care and additionally no such service is offered in pharmacies or primary care settings. Introducing pharmaceutical care in primary care in Iceland is making great efforts to follow other countries, which are bringing the pharmacist more into patient care. General practitioners are key stakeholders in this endeavor. The aim of this study was to introduce pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care into primary care clinics in Iceland in collaboration with general practitioners by presenting different setting structures. Action research provided the framework for this research. Data was collected from pharmaceutical care interventions, whereby the pharmaceutical care practitioner ensures that each of a patient’s medications is assessed to determine if it is appropriate, effective, safe, and that the patient can take medicine as expected. Sources of data included pharmaceutical care notes on patients, researcher’s notes, meetings, and interviews with general practitioners over the period of the study. The study ran from September 2013 to October 2015. Three separate semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with five general practitioners from one primary health care clinic in Iceland at different time points throughout the study. Pharmaceutical care was provided to elderly patients (n = 125 before and between general practitioners’ interviews. The study setting was a primary care clinic in the Reykjavik area and the patients’ homes. Results showed that the GPs’ knowledge about pharmacist competencies as healthcare providers and their potential in patient care increased. GPs would now like to have access to a pharmacist on a daily basis. Direct contact between the pharmacist and GPs is better when working in the same physical space
Schneider, Antonius; Hilbert, Bernadett; Hörlein, Elisabeth; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Linde, Klaus
In their everyday practice, primary-care physicians are often asked to refer patients to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care. Such referrals are problematic, and one might suspect that patients who make such requests are more likely to have mental comorbidities predisposing them toward higher utilization of health-care services. In a cross-sectional study, 307 patients of 13 primary-care practices who requested referral to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care were given a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) containing questions that related to depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and somatoform disorder (independent variables). Further information was obtained about these patients' primary-care contacts, referrals, and days taken off from work with a medical excuse over the course of one year (dependent variables). A regression model was used to compare these patients with 977 other primary-care patients. The groups of patients who did and did not request specialist referral without a primary-care appointment did not differ to any statistically significant extent with respect to mental comorbidity. In the overall group, somatoform disorder was found to be associated with a high rate of primary-care contacts (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-4.3). High rates of referral were strongly correlated (percentage of variance explained, R²) with depression (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0; R² = 35.3%), anxiety (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.8-9.6; R² = 34.5%), panic disorder (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.1-16.4; R² = 34.3%), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0; R² = 34.6%). Taking a long time off from work with a medical excuse was correlated with depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), anxiety (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Mental comorbidity contributes to the increased utilization of health-care services. This should be borne in mind whenever a patient requests many referrals to
Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der
This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health
levels of respect for the experience and knowledge of care home staff. Conclusions Care homes are a hub for a wide range of NHS activity, but this is ad hoc with no recognised way to support working together. Integration between care homes and local health services is only really evident at the level of individual working relationships and reflects patterns of collaborative working rather than integration. More integrated working between care homes and primary health services has the potential to improve quality of care in a cost- effective manner, but strategic decisions to create more formal arrangements are required to bring this about. Commissioners of services for older people need to capitalise on good working relationships and address idiosyncratic patterns of provision to care homes.The low response rate is indicative of the difficulty of undertaking research in care homes.
Stevenson, Matt D; Scope, Alison; Sutcliffe, Paul A
To assess the cost-effectiveness of group cognitive behavior therapy (gCBT) in comparison with routine primary care for women with postnatal depression in the UK. Our analysis was based on a systematic literature review of the relative clinical effectiveness of gCBT compared with routine primary care and further reviews, supplemented with expert opinion of the likely cost of providing gCBT and the duration of comparative advantage for gCBT. Raw data were used to estimate a statistical relationship between changes in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) values and changes in short-form six dimensions' (SF-6D) values. A mathematical model was constructed, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to estimate the mean cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and to evaluate the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). The mean cost per QALY from the stochastic analysis was estimated to be pound36,062; however, there was considerable uncertainty around this value. The EVPI was estimated to be greater than pound64 million; the key uncertainties were in the cost per woman of providing treatment and in the statistical relationship between changes in EPDS values and changes in SF-6D values. The expected value of perfect partial information for both of these parameters was in excess of pound25 million. Given the current information, the use of gCBT does not appear to be cost-effective; however, this decision is uncertain. The value of information analyses conducted indicates that further research to provide robust information on key parameters is needed and appears justified in cost-effective terms.
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom
An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Allwright Shane PA
Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
A randomized matched-pairs study of feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of systems consultation: a novel implementation strategy for adopting clinical guidelines for Opioid prescribing in primary care.
Quanbeck, Andrew; Brown, Randall T; Zgierska, Aleksandra E; Jacobson, Nora; Robinson, James M; Johnson, Roberta A; Deyo, Brienna M; Madden, Lynn; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Alagoz, Esra
This paper reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an innovative implementation strategy named "systems consultation" aimed at improving adherence to clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing in primary care. While clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing have been developed, they have not been widely implemented, even as opioid abuse reaches epidemic levels. We tested a blended implementation strategy consisting of several discrete implementation strategies, including audit and feedback, academic detailing, and external facilitation. The study compares four intervention clinics to four control clinics in a randomized matched-pairs design. Each systems consultant aided clinics on implementing the guidelines during a 6-month intervention consisting of monthly site visits and teleconferences/videoconferences. The mixed-methods evaluation employs the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. Quantitative outcomes are compared using time series analysis. Qualitative methods included focus groups, structured interviews, and ethnographic field techniques. Seven clinics were randomly approached to recruit four intervention clinics. Each clinic designated a project team consisting of six to eight staff members, each with at least one prescriber. Attendance at intervention meetings was 83%. More than 80% of staff respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statements: "I am more familiar with guidelines for safe opioid prescribing" and "My clinic's workflow for opioid prescribing is easier." At 6 months, statistically significant improvements were noted in intervention clinics in the percentage of patients with mental health screens, treatment agreements, urine drug tests, and opioid-benzodiazepine co-prescribing. At 12 months, morphine-equivalent daily dose was significantly reduced in intervention clinics compared to controls. The cost to deliver the strategy was $7345 per clinic. Adaptations were
Mohr, David C; Ho, Joyce; Duffecy, Jenna; Reifler, Douglas; Sokol, Leslie; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Jin, Ling; Siddique, Juned
Primary care is the most common site for the treatment of depression. Most depressed patients prefer psychotherapy over antidepressant medications, but access barriers are believed to prevent engagement in and completion of treatment. The telephone has been investigated as a treatment delivery medium to overcome access barriers, but little is known about its efficacy compared with face-to-face treatment delivery. To examine whether telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) reduces attrition and is not inferior to face-to-face CBT in treating depression among primary care patients. A randomized controlled trial of 325 Chicago-area primary care patients with major depressive disorder, recruited from November 2007 to December 2010. Eighteen sessions of T-CBT or face-to-face CBT. The primary outcome was attrition (completion vs noncompletion) at posttreatment (week 18). Secondary outcomes included masked interviewer-rated depression with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D) and self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Significantly fewer participants discontinued T-CBT (n = 34; 20.9%) compared with face-to-face CBT (n = 53; 32.7%; P = .02). Patients showed significant improvement in depression across both treatments (P treatment differences at posttreatment between T-CBT and face-to-face CBT on the Ham-D (P = .22) or the PHQ-9 (P = .89). The intention-to-treat posttreatment effect size on the Ham-D was d = 0.14 (90% CI, -0.05 to 0.33), and for the PHQ-9 it was d = -0.02 (90% CI, -0.20 to 0.17). Both results were within the inferiority margin of d = 0.41, indicating that T-CBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT. Although participants remained significantly less depressed at 6-month follow-up relative to baseline (P adherence compared with face-to-face delivery, but at the cost of some increased risk of poorer maintenance of gains after treatment cessation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00498706.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions
Stigler, Florian L; Starfield, Barbara; Sprenger, Martin; Salzer, Helmut J F; Campbell, Stephen M
There is emerging evidence that strong primary care achieves better health at lower costs. Although primary care can be measured, in many countries, including Austria, there is little understanding of primary care development. Assessing the primary care development in Austria. A primary care assessment tool developed by Barbara Starfield in 1998 was implemented in Austria. This tool defines 15 primary care characteristics and distinguishes between system and practice characteristics. Each characteristic was evaluated by six Austrian primary care experts and rated as 2 (high), 1 (intermediate) or 0 (low) points, respectively, to their primary care strength (maximum score: n = 30). Austria received 7 out of 30 points; no characteristic was rated as '2' but 8 were rated as '0'. Compared with the 13 previously assessed countries, Austria ranks 10th of 14 countries and is classified as a 'low primary care' country. This study provides the first evidence concerning primary care in Austria, benchmarking it as weak and in need of development. The practicable application of an existing assessment tool can be encouraging for other countries to generate evidence about their primary care system as well.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited. There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of primary care, and a lack of knowledge of structures and strategies conducive to strengthening primary care in Europe. The EC funded project Primary Health Care Activity Monitor for Europe (PHAMEU aims to fill this gap by developing a Primary Care Monitoring System (PC Monitor for application in 31 European countries. This article describes the development of the indicators of the PC Monitor, which will make it possible to create an alternative model for holistic analyses of primary care. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature published between 2003 and July 2008 was carried out. This resulted in an overview of: (1 the dimensions of primary care and their relevance to outcomes at (primary health system level; (2 essential features per dimension; (3 applied indicators to measure the features of primary care dimensions. The indicators were evaluated by the project team against criteria of relevance, precision, flexibility, and discriminating power. The resulting indicator set was evaluated on its suitability for Europe-wide comparison of primary care systems by a panel of primary care experts from various European countries (representing a variety of primary care systems. Results The developed PC Monitor approaches primary care in Europe as a multidimensional concept. It describes the key dimensions of primary care systems at three levels: structure, process, and outcome level. On structure level, it includes indicators for governance, economic conditions, and workforce development. On process level, indicators describe access, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care services. On outcome level, indicators
Sandy, Lewis G; Schroeder, Steven A
The current dilemmas in primary care stem from 1) the unintended consequences of forces thought to promote primary care and 2) the "disruptive technologies of care" that attack the very function and concept of primary care itself. This paper suggests that these forces, in combination with "tiering" in the health insurance market, could lead to the dissolution of primary care as a single concept, to be replaced by alignment of clinicians by economic niche. Evidence already exists in the marketplace for both tiering of health insurance benefits and corresponding practice changes within primary care. In the future, primary care for the top tier will cater to the affluent as "full-service brokers" and will be delivered by a wide variety of clinicians. The middle tier will continue to grapple with tensions created by patient demand and bureaucratic systems but will remain most closely aligned to primary care as a concept. The lower tier will become increasingly concerned with community health and social justice. Each primary care specialty will adapt in a unique way to a tiered world, with general internal medicine facing the most challenges. Given this forecast for the future, those concerned about primary care should focus less on workforce issues and more on macro health care financing and organization issues (such as Medicare reform); appropriate training models; and the development of a conception of primary care that emphasizes values and ethos, not just function.
de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; dos Santos, Walquíria Jesusmara; Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; da Silveira, Edilene Aparecida Araújo; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra
To know the experience of male users' in the primary health care and to build data based theory that represents this experience. This is a qualitative study, in which was used the reference of Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively, methodological and theoretical. We interviewed 33 male users of three units of primary health care. After comparative analysis of data was built the data based theory feeling excluded, which includes: living with prejudice; living with the limitations of infra-structure services; reflecting on the health service environment. The analysis showed the need for a change in logistics services and professionals' attitude guided in respectful and effective communication, the problem solving in readiness in attendance, in addressing gender issues. For to take care of men users of the Unified Health System and/or preserve their health, the construction of another rationality in health is imperative, based on reflection and respect for the autonomy and individuality of the male gender.
Poghosyan, Lusine; Norful, Allison A; Fleck, Elaine; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Talsma, AkkeNeel; Nannini, Angela
Despite recent focus on patient safety in primary care, little attention has been paid to errors of omission, which represent significant gaps in care and threaten patient safety in primary care but are not well studied or categorized. The purpose of this study was to develop a typology of errors of omission from the perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs) and understand what factors within practices lead to or prevent these omissions. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data from 26 PCPs, both physicians and nurse practitioners, from the New York State through individual interviews. One researcher conducted all interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti, Berlin by 3 researchers using content analysis. They immersed themselves into data, read transcripts independently, and conducted inductive coding. The final codes were linked to each other to develop the typology of errors of omission and the themes. Data saturation was reached at the 26th interview. PCPs reported that omitting patient teaching, patient followup, emotional support, and addressing mental health needs were the main categories of errors of omission. PCPs perceived that time constraints, unplanned patient visits and emergencies, and administrative burden led to these gaps in care. They emphasized that organizational support and infrastructure, effective teamwork and communication, and preparation for the patient encounter were important safeguards to prevent errors of omission within their practices. Errors of omission are common in primary care and could threaten patient safety. Efforts to eliminate them should focus on strengthening organizational attributes of practices, improving teamwork and communication, and assigning manageable workload to PCPs. Practice and policy change is necessary to address gaps in care and prevent them before they result in patient harm. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Chen, P C
The definition of primary health care is basically the same, but the wide variety of concepts as to the form and type of worker required is largely due to variations in economic, demographic, socio-cultural and political factors. Whatever form it takes, in many parts of the developing world, it is increasingly clear that primary health care must be provided by non-physicians. The reasons for this trend are compelling, yet it is surprisingly opposed by the medical profession in many a developing country. Nonetheless, numerous field trials are being conducted in a variety of situations in several countries around the world. Non-physician primary health care workers vary from medical assistants and nurse practitioners to aide-level workers called village mobilizers, village volunteers, village aides and a variety of other names. The functions, limitations and training of such workers will need to be defined, so that an optimal combination of skills, knowledge and attitudes best suited to produce the desired effect on local health problems may be attained. The supervision of such workers by the physician and other health professionals will need to be developed in the spirit of the health team. An example of the use of non-physicians in providing primary health care in Sarawak is outlined.
Baik, Seong-Yi; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Gonzales, Junius J
Depression is prevalent in primary care (PC) practices and poses a considerable public health burden in the United States. Despite nearly four decades of efforts to improve depression care quality in PC practices, a gap remains between desired treatment outcomes and the reality of how depression care is delivered. This article presents a real-world PC practice model of depression care, elucidating the processes and their influencing conditions. Grounded theory methodology was used for the data collection and analysis to develop a depression care model. Data were collected from 70 individual interviews (60 to 70 min each), three focus group interviews (n = 24, 2 h each), two surveys per clinician, and investigators' field notes on practice environments. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed for analysis. Surveys and field notes complemented interview data. Seventy primary care clinicians from 52 PC offices in the Midwest: 28 general internists, 28 family physicians, and 14 nurse practitioners. A depression care model was developed that illustrates how real-world conditions infuse complexity into each step of the depression care process. Depression care in PC settings is mediated through clinicians' interactions with patients, practice, and the local community. A clinician's interactional familiarity ("familiarity capital") was a powerful facilitator for depression care. For the recognition of depression, three previously reported processes and three conditions were confirmed. For the management of depression, 13 processes and 11 conditions were identified. Empowering the patient was a parallel process to the management of depression. The clinician's ability to develop and utilize interactional relationships and resources needed to recognize and treat a person with depression is key to depression care in primary care settings. The interactional context of depression care makes empowering the patient central to depression care delivery.
García-Martínez, F J; Pascual, J C; López-Martín, I; Pereyra-Rodríguez, J J; Martorell Calatayud, A; Salgado-Boquete, L; Labandeira-García, J
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a prevalent disease that is noted for its clinical variability and by its severe impact on quality of life. A meticulous scientific literature review is presented in this article in order to give an update on what is known on this condition. Primary Care physicians obviously play an important role in the early diagnosis and management of hidradenitis suppurativa. This review aims to provide a current and practical overview about this disease in order to optimise the healthcare for these patients by making the best use of available resources. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Angeline Wan Seng Lian
Full Text Available The Clinical Practice Guidelines on Management of Neonatal Jaundice 2003 was updated by a multidisciplinary development group and approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia in 2014. A systematic review of 13 clinical questions was conducted using evidence retrieved mainly from Medline and Cochrane databases. Critical appraisal was done using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Recommendations were formulated based on the accepted 103 evidences and tailored to local setting as stated below. Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is a common condition seen in primary care. Multiple risk factors contribute to severe NNJ, which if untreated can lead to adverse neurological outcomes. Visual assessment, transcutaneous bilirubinometer (TcB and total serum bilirubin (TSB are the methods used for the detection of NNJ. Phototherapy remains the mainstay of the treatment. Babies with severe NNJ should be followed-up to detect and manage sequelae. Strategies to prevent severe NNJ include health education, identification of risk factors, proper assessment and early referral.
Mroz, Tracy M.; Fogelberg, Donald J.; Leland, Natalie E.
As our health care system continues to change, so do the opportunities for occupational therapy. This article provides an update to a 2012 Health Policy Perspectives on this topic. We identify new initiatives and opportunities in primary care, explore common challenges to integrating occupational therapy in primary care environments, and highlight international works that can support our efforts. We conclude by discussing next steps for occupational therapy practitioners in order to continue to progress our efforts in primary care. PMID:29689169
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhetoric of primary health care philosophy in the district health system is widely cited as a fundamental component of the health transformation process in post-apartheid South Africa. Despite South Africa’s progress and attempts at implementing primary health care, various factors still limit its success. Discussion Inconsistencies and poor understanding of primary care and primary health care raises unrealistic expectations in service delivery and health outcomes, and blame is apportioned when expectations are not met. It is important for all health practitioners to consider the contextual influences on health and ill-health and to recognise the role of the underlying determinants of ill-health, namely, social, economic and environmental influences. The primary health care approach provides a strong framework for this delivery but it is not widely applied. There is a need for renewed political and policy commitments toward quality primary health care delivery, re-orientation of health care workers, integration of primary health care activities into other community-based development, improved management skills and effective coordination at all levels of the health system. There should also be optimal capacity building, and skills development in problem-solving, communication, networking and community participation. Summary A well-functioning district health system is required for the re-engineering of primary health care. This strategy requires a strong leadership, a strengthening of the current district heath system and a greater emphasis on health promotion, prevention, and community participation and empowerment.
Ballvé Moreno, José Luis; Pujol Ribó, Gloria; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Bonet Esteve, Anna; Rafecas Ruiz, Montserrat; Zarza Carretero, Elvira
To study internal communication between primary care health professionals Cross-sectional, descriptive. Catalan Health Institute Costa de Ponent Primary Care Area, Spain. All workers in the area (n=3565). Three part questionnaire: a) sociodemographic questions; b) questions scoring from 0 to 10 the current importance and operation of certain aspects; and c) questions on new communication tools. Of those sent a questionnaire, 39% (n=1388) responded, with a mean age of 43.2 years (95% CI, 42.75- 43.65), 28.9% being male. The major differences between importance and current events were said to be "to be informed of projects before they appear in the communication media," "by official routes and not by rumour," and "to be aware of projects of other teams." The least communicated within teams. The doctors considered upward communication to be more important. Doctors are those who appreciate communication within teams better and the professionals of the users services unit (UAU) less so. Doctors are the ones who give more importance to being informed of projects at the time. 55% do not use the intranet, mainly due to lack of time. The second reason is that they find it difficult. Sixty-two per cent read e-mail >2-3 times per week. Eighty-nine per cent want an electronic bulletin. The older workers use new technologies less. Downward, upward, and sideways communication needs to be improved, particularly upwards by doctors, and that of the teams for the UAU professionals. Intranet tools must be provided that make the work easier and training in handling new technologies must be offered.
Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep
To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of preventive health services in primary care is lacking. One of the main barriers is lack of time. We estimated the amount of time primary care physicians spend on important preventive health services. Methods We analyzed a large dataset of primary care (family and internal medicine visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2001–4; analyses were conducted 2007–8. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the amount of time spent delivering each preventive service, controlling for demographic covariates. Results Preventive visits were longer than chronic care visits (M = 22.4, SD = 11.8, M = 18.9, SD = 9.2, respectively. New patients required more time from physicians. Services on which physicians spent relatively more time were prostate specific antigen (PSA, cholesterol, Papanicolaou (Pap smear, mammography, exercise counseling, and blood pressure. Physicians spent less time than recommended on two "A" rated ("good evidence" services, tobacco cessation and Pap smear (in preventive visits, and one "B" rated ("at least fair evidence" service, nutrition counseling. Physicians spent substantial time on two services that have an "I" rating ("inconclusive evidence of effectiveness", PSA and exercise counseling. Conclusion Even with limited time, physicians address many of the "A" rated services adequately. However, they may be spending less time than recommended for important services, especially smoking cessation, Pap smear, and nutrition counseling. Future research is needed to understand how physicians decide how to allocate their time to address preventive health.
Franx, Gerdien; Dixon, Lisa; Wensing, Michel; Pincus, Harold
Extensive research exists that collaborative primary care-mental health models can improve care and outcomes for patients. These programs are currently being implemented throughout the United States and beyond. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and to generate an overview of strategies currently used to implement such models in daily practice. Six overlapping strategies to implement collaborative primary care-mental health models were described in 18 selected studies. We identified interactive educational strategies, quality improvement change processes, technological support tools, stakeholder engagement in the design and execution of implementation plans, organizational changes in terms of expanding the task of nurses and financial strategies such as additional collaboration fees and pay for performance incentives. Considering the overwhelming evidence about the effectiveness of primary care-mental health models, there is a lack of good studies focusing on their implementation strategies. In practice, these strategies are multifaceted and locally defined, as a result of intensive and required stakeholder engagement. Although many barriers still exist, the implementation of collaborative models could have a chance to succeed in the United States, where new service delivery and payment models, such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home and the Accountable Care Organization, are being promoted.
Hung, Dorothy Y; Harrison, Michael I; Martinez, Meghan C; Luft, Harold S
We examined a wide range of performance outcomes after Lean methodology-a leading strategy to enhance efficiency and patient value-was implemented and scaled across all primary care clinics in a nonprofit, ambulatory care delivery system. Using a stepped wedge approach, we assessed changes associated with the phased introduction of Lean-based redesigns across 46 primary care departments in 17 different clinic locations. Longitudinal analysis of operational metrics included: workflow efficiency, physician productivity, operating expenses, clinical quality, and satisfaction among patients, physicians, and staff. We used interrupted time series analysis with generalized linear mixed models to estimate Lean impacts over time. Projected outcomes in the absence of changes (ie, counterfactuals) were compared with observed outcomes after Lean redesigns were implemented, and mean differences were assessed using 95% bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). We observed systemwide improvements in workflow efficiencies (eg, 95% CI, 5.8-10.4) and physician productivity (95% CI, 3.9-27.2), with no adverse effects on clinical quality. Patient satisfaction increased with respect to access to care (95% CI, 15.2-20.7), handling of personal issues (95% CI, 2.1-6.9), and overall experience of care (95% CI, 11.0-17.0), but decreased with respect to interactions with care providers (95% CI, -13.4 to -5.7). Departmental operating costs decreased, and annual staff and physician satisfaction scores increased particularly among early adopters, with key improvements in employee engagement, connection to purpose, relationships with staff, and physician time spent working. Lean redesigns can benefit primary care patients, physicians, and staff without negatively impacting the quality of clinical care. Study results may lead other delivery system leaders to innovate using Lean techniques and may further enhance support for Lean learning among public and private payers.
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L; White, Bert
In recent years, hospitals and payers have increased their efforts to improve the quality of patient care by encouraging provider adherence to evidence-based practices. Although the individual provider is certainly essential in the delivery of appropriate care, a team perspective is important when examining variation in quality. In the present study, the authors modeled the relationship between a measure of aggregate job satisfaction for members of primary care teams and objective measures of quality based on process indicators and intermediate outcomes. Multilevel analyses indicated that aggregate job satisfaction ratings were associated with higher values on both types of quality measures. Team-level job satisfaction ratings are a potentially important marker for the effectiveness of primary care teams in managing patient care.
Hall, Jennifer; Cohen, Deborah J; Davis, Melinda; Gunn, Rose; Blount, Alexander; Pollack, David A; Miller, William L; Smith, Corey; Valentine, Nancy; Miller, Benjamin F
To identify how organizations prepare clinicians to work together to integrate behavioral health and primary care. Observational cross-case comparison study of 19 U.S. practices, 11 participating in Advancing Care Together, and 8 from the Integration Workforce Study. Practices varied in size, ownership, geographic location, and experience delivering integrated care. Multidisciplinary teams collected data (field notes from direct practice observations, semistructured interviews, and online diaries as reported by practice leaders) and then analyzed the data using a grounded theory approach. Organizations had difficulty finding clinicians possessing the skills and experience necessary for working in an integrated practice. Practices newer to integration underestimated the time and resources needed to train and organizationally socialize (onboard) new clinicians. Through trial and error, practices learned that clinicians needed relevant training to work effectively as integrated care teams. Training efforts exclusively targeting behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) and new employees were incomplete if primary care clinicians (PCCs) and others in the practice also lacked experience working with BHCs and delivering integrated care. Organizations' methods for addressing employees' need for additional preparation included hiring a consultant to provide training, sending employees to external training programs, hosting residency or practicum training programs, or creating their own internal training program. Onboarding new employees through the development of training manuals; extensive shadowing processes; and protecting time for ongoing education, mentoring, and support opportunities for new and established clinicians and staff were featured in these internal training programs. Insufficient training capacity and practical experience opportunities continue to be major barriers to supplying the workforce needed for effective behavioral health and primary care integration
Rachel L. Ross
Full Text Available Risk stratification (RS in primary care is frequently used by policy-makers, payers, and health systems; the process requires risk assessment for adverse health outcomes across a population to assign patients into risk tiers and allow care management (CM resources to be targeted effectively. Our objective was to understand the approach to and perception of RS in primary care practices. An online survey was developed, tested, and administered to 148 representatives o