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Sample records for primary callus induction

  1. Factors influencing callus induction and plant regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2012-01-12

    ). Effect of basal medium on callus induction and plant regeneration. Three different kinds of basal mediums (MS, N6 and SH) were used to investigate their effects on callus induction and regeneration. Significant differences ...

  2. Improved embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pramod Pantha

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... solidified with 4.0 g l-1. Gelzan (Phyto Technology Laboratory). Pantha et al. 2167. Callus induction was performed under dark at 28°C (Isotemp. Incubator, Fisher Scientific, Hanover Park, IL, USA). Primary shoots from seed were removed 10 days after inoculation and subculture was done 3 weeks after ...

  3. Enhancement of callus induction and regeneration efficiency from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... efficiency from embryo cultures of Datura stramonium ... cycle (callus induction and plant regeneration) for Datura stramonium by adjusting carbon sources and ... induction and development in various species, it is not.

  4. Callus induction and plant regeneration of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez,Ingrid; Dorta,Fernando; Cuadros-Inostroza,Álvaro; Peña-Cortés,Hugo

    2012-01-01

    A callus induction and plant regeneration protocol was developed from leaf and thorn explants for the plant Ulex europaeus. Explants were incubated on 2% sucrose half-strength Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS) with various combinations of plant growth regulators and antioxidants. The best frequency of callus and shoot formation was obtained with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 mg/l x kinetin (Kin) 0.2 mg/l (DK Medium; callus induction) and zeatin (Z) 1 mg/l (DK medium; shoot induction)...

  5. Optimization of callus induction and regeneration system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 2Plant Biotechnology, NIGAB, National Agriculture Research Center Park Road Islamabad, Pakistan. Accepted 30 June ... transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Surface sterilization and callus induction. Seeds were ...

  6. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), yeast extract and coconut water .... transformed (control) plantlets using CTAB method (Doyle and .... Embryogenic Sugarcane Callus by Image Analysis.

  7. Callus induction via different growth regulators from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-17

    Jun 17, 2011 ... NAA, naphthylacetic acid α; BAP, benzyl aminopurine; µM, micro mole. Chickpeas are a good source of zinc, folate and are very high in dietary fiber and thus, .... auxin, the callus inductions rates increased and induction time decreased ..... clonal variation and giving birth to traits of agronomic importance.

  8. Regenerative callus induction and biochemical analysis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurva P. Gauchan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevia Leaves are the principal source of stevioside, which is estimated to be 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar. Stevioside has clinical significance as they are reported to maintain glucose levels in human blood. Owing to the difficulties in propagation of stevia through seeds and vegetative methods, callus culture has been an efficient alternative for generation of stevioside. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and standardized protocol for maximum induction and multiplication of callus from a leaf. Callus culture was established from leaves in MS basal media fortified with various combinations (BAP, NAA, 2,4-D, KN, IBA and concentrations of phytohormones. The best callusing (100% was recorded in MS media supplemented with (2,4-D 1.0mg/l + NAA 1.0mg/l. The callus was harvested after 4 weeks and screened for the presence of various bioactive compounds. The qualitative results showed that the extracts of callus contained bioactive compounds like flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, tannins, sterols and saponins thereby making callus one of the sources for extraction of various secondary metabolites.

  9. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protocols for in vitro micro propagation of sugarcane through callus culture from foliage leaves (Bugun et al., ... protocol for specific genotypes. Sucrose is the most important type of sugar produced from sugarcane. ... laboratories via plant tissue culture technique. (Lorenzo and Ganzalez, 1998). This allows for an extended ...

  10. callus induction and proliferation from cotyledon explants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013-07-19

    Jul 19, 2013 ... between the tested cytokinins and the 2,4-D in callus induction and growth index. Similar results have also been obtained in soybean (Glycine max L.) (Sairam et al., 2003). In contrast to this finding, calli were reportedly induced from cotyledon explants on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D in combination ...

  11. Optimization of callus induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient regeneration system was developed using germinating seeds of two cultivars of sweet sorghum, Sorghum bicolor 'Yuantian No.1' and 'M81E', as explants. We tested different media supplements effects on callus induction. The effects of combinations of 2,4-D, KT, sucrose, agar and proline at different ...

  12. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Diamant. The tuber segments were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  13. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fu Chunhua, Cheng Lei, Lu Gan, Maoteng Li, Ying Yang, Longjiang Yu. Abstract. Glabridin is a major biologically active flavonoid isolated specifically from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has many pharmacological activities.

  14. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and ...

  15. Callus induction and flavonoid production on the immature seed of Stelechocarpus burahol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibah, N. A.; Moeljopawiro, S.; Dewi, K.; Indrianto, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stelechocarpus burahol [(Bl.) Hook. f. & Th.] is one of the medicinal plants. In vitro callus induction studies on S. burahol were carried out to determine phytohormone requirement for optimum callus induction. Immature seed explants were cultured on MS medium by adding different kinds and different concentrations of plant growth regulators (picloram and 2,4-D) under light and dark conditions. The results showed that callus formation was initiated on the 18,50th to the 55th days. The best condition for optimum callus induction was found on MS medium, which was supplemented with 7.5 mg/L picloram and was maintained in the dark condition. The callus induction varied from 60% to 100%. The callus that produced the highest flavonoid was grown on the medium with the addition of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D. In conclusion, the results represented a suitable medium for S.burahol callus induction.

  16. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction somatic embryogenesis of hybird tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S. A.; Shah, S. H.; Ali, S.; Ali, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90 percentage was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87 percentage was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments. (author)

  17. Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    1996-01-01

    . The explants were cultured on urashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.6, 22.6 or 31.7 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Three types of callus were formed but only one was embryogenic and regenerated plants. Callus induction and formation of embryogenic callus depended on the type and developmental......-propagated shoots and older leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Immature inflorescences smaller than 2.5 cm produced a higher percentage of embryogenic callus than larger more mature inflorescences. Embryogenic callus derived from immature inflorescences had the highest regeneration capacity. Differences in 2......,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations had no significant effect on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and plant regeneration....

  18. Effect of sorbitol in callus induction and plant regeneration in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Key words: Callus induction, plant regeneration, wheat, 2,4-D, sorbitol. INTRODUCTION ... regeneration is better on hormone-free medium or that .... AB (interaction). 15 ... element and creates osmotic stress as reported by.

  19. Optimization of induction, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Han, Lijuan; Li, Shaomei; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and the medicinal position is its root. This perennial herb grows vigorously only in specific areas and the environment. Tissue culture induction of callus and plant regeneration is an important and effective way to obtain large scale cultures of A. sinensis. The objective was to optimize the inductive, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of A. sinensis. Tissue culture conditions for A. sinensis were optimized using leaves and petioles (types I and II) as explants source. Murashige and Skoog (MS) and H media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7.5 g/L agar, and varying concentrations of plant growth regulators were used for callus induction. In addition, four different basal media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 30 g/L sucrose were optimized for callus subculture. Finally, growth kinetics of A. sinensis cultured on different subculture media was investigated based on callus properties, including fresh weight, dry weight, medium pH, callus relative fresh weight growth, callus relative growth rate (CRGR), and sucrose content. MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L BA, 0.7 mg/L 2,4-D, 30 g/L sucrose and 7.5 g/L agar resulted in optimal callus induction in A. sinensis while petiole I was found as the best plant organ for callus induction. The B5 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.2 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose displayed the best results in A. sinensis callus subculture assays. The optimized conditions could be one of the most potent methods for large-scale tissue culture of A. sinensis.

  20. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  1. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  2. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  3. Induction and multiplication of callus from endosperm of Cycas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usage of medicinal plants in traditional medication has gained the attraction from global and local markets, mainly to cure diseases or simply for health maintenance. Callus cultures were initiated from the endosperm of the medicinal plant Cycas revoluta, cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  4. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cananga odorata callus was initiated from petals of the C. odorata flowers on MS medium and B5 vitamins containing 30 g/L sugar and 3 g/L agar. The medium was also supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), and combinations of NAA with 6-benzylaminpurine (BAP) as the plant ...

  5. Callus induction via different growth regulators from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars KK-1 and Hassan-2K on MS and B5 media containing different combinations and concentrations of growth regulators. Different MS and B5 callusing media containing varying level of 2, 4-D (2 and 4 mg/l), NAA (0.50 ...

  6. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... toum state and later spread to other part of the country ..... Effect of different concentrations of IBA and MS salt strength on rooting percentage, ... study for tissue culture of potato can get enough callus and plant regeneration efficiency to perform transgenic operation. Moreover, as the potentiality of shoot ...

  7. In vitro studies on callus induction in gamma-irradiated velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Misra, Pragati; Shukla, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays are often used for developing plants varieties that are agriculturally and economically important and have high productivity potential with the minimum input. Ionizing radiations are currently a very important way to create genetic variability that is not exists in nature or that is not available to the breeder. Irradiation treatments performed at in vitro culture has been also employed to increase genetic variability and mutants as a potential source of new commercial cultivars. Large number of research reports suggests also that mutagenesis in combination with tissue culture has high potential in plant breeding programs. Mucuna pruriens L., also known as velvet bean, contains L-DOPA, a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and formulation of the seed power has been studied for management of Parkinson's disease. Seeds were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (10 kGy, 20 kGy and 30 kGy) using 60 Co as source, at National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) Lucknow. Gamma treated and untreated seeds (control) were inoculated in MS media supplemented with different phytohormone concentrations and combinations. The best callus induction was observed in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l kinetin, 2 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed poor callus induction in the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction was poor in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 2.0 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed even poor callus induction under the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction frequency was in declined gradually with the increasing dose of gamma radiation. Gamma treated seeds developed greenish and fragile callus and also showed decreased weight as compare to control which was white greenish, compact and heavier. (author)

  8. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  9. The influence of different hormone concentration and combination on callus induction and regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Jubair, T A; Haque, A K M F; Mukti, I J

    2008-06-15

    The influence of media composition on callus induction and subsequent regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth has been studied. High frequency (96.43%) callus induction was obtained when nodal segments from in vitro raised shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA. The callus differentiated into adventitious shoots when it was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on half-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA.

  10. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  11. Effects of plant growth regulators on seed germination and callus induction of hylocereus costaricensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) belongs to the family Cactaceae and are climbing vines which have received worldwide attention in recent years. However, there are still lack of information on the protocols for the establishment of In vitro culture system. In the present study, seed germination percentage were determined by culturing seeds on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 ppm 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) together with either 0, 0.5 or 0.8 ppm of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Germination percentage was the highest by using plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 1 ppm BAP and 0 ppm IBA (93.33%). Subsequently, the cotyledons from seedlings of the germinated seeds were used for subsequent callus induction. Small pieces of cotyledons were excised and cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.5 ppm of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) together with either 0, 0.9 or 1.8 ppm of BAP. Callus induction percentage was highest using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 3.6 ppm 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP (75%). Hence, 3.6 ppm of 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP was the best combination for callus induction of Hylocereus costaricensis. (author)

  12. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  13. Callus Induction of Gendarussa (Justicia gendarussa by Various Concentration of 2,4-D, IBA, and BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Kusuma Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., a medicinal plant, is Acanthaceae that has many functions. Furthermore, the compounds in gendarussa must be produced in high quantity and quality by applying callus culture method. Accordingly, it is important to study the effects of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP on callus induction of gendarussa leaves. This research design utilized a factorial design with two factors (2,4-D and IBA: 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/L and BAP: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L. The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, each of which was repeated 3 times. Observation was carried out in 6 weeks. Data on the time of callus formation, percentage of explants formed callus, and callus morphology were analyzed descriptively,while data on fresh and dry weight were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA (α = 0.5. Interestingly, the results showed that various concentration of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP affected callus induction from leaf explants of gendarussa. We concluded that the most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable. Moreover, the optimum treatment will be used to produce secondary metabolite and seed synthetic by cell suspension culture.

  14. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqin; Xie Ming; Jiang Guihua; Sun Congbo; Huang Pule; Wu Yanjun; Wu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60 Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  15. Optimization of callus induction of Zataria multiflora under the effect of different plant growth regulators and explant source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosavat*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Lamiaceae family is rich in favorable secondary metabolites which have different medicinal properties and also use in food, cosmetic and sanitary industry. Zataria multiflora Boiss. is an aromatic and bushy plant containing specific pharmaceutical components which is only distributed in certain regions of Iran. Tissue culture technologies could be suitable for in vitro production of Zataria. Methods: In this study, callus production and callus related traits of Zataria was evaluated at in vitro condition. Callus induction was performed on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels of plant growth regulators including different cytokinins (Kinetin, benzyl amino purine and auxins (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtalen acetic acid and two different explant (hypocotyl and leaf. Results: The friable calli with yellow-green color only appeared from leaf explants on three different treatments including: 1: 2.5 (mg/L 2,4-D; 2: 2 (mg/L  2,4-D; 3: [2 (mg/L 2,4-D+ 1 (mg/L Kin].  The best callus induction (75% was obtained at 2,4-D (2 mg/L + Kin (1 mg/L after 2 month of incubation under the photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark. The highest callus growth rate (CGR (0.072 mm/day and callus fresh weight (0.135 g were denoted to the treatment of 2 mg/L (2,4-D.  Conclusion: The benefits of the protocol described here include the possibility of its use throughout the callus culture for commercial production of suitable secondary metabolites of Zataria in rapid time and huge scale.

  16. Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  17. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  18. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

  19. Assessment of silver nitrate on callus induction and in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato (solanum lycopersicum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Ali, S.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro morphogenesis is greatly influenced by a gaseous plant growth regulator (ethylene). The effect of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) and different plant growth regulators were assessed on callus induction, In vitro shoot regeneration and multiple primordial shoots per explant in tomato. The maximum callus induction frequency was recorded culturing hypocotyls, while In vitro shoot regeneration frequency and the number of primordial shoots per explant were significantly higher when leaf discs were used as explants. The callus induction frequency was improved by the supplementation of 10-15 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/ in MS basal media along with 2.0 mg/l IAA, 2.5 mg/l BAP and yielded the highest callus induction frequency (91.33%) in cv. Rio Grande, followed by Roma (88.33%) and Moneymaker (82.66%). Similarly, the highest In vitro shoot regeneration frequency (96.66, 92.66 and 90%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker on MS media fortified with 0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP along with 8-10 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/. AgNO/sub 3/ also had promotive effect on induction of multiple shoots per explant. These findings indicate that ethylene is linked with the suppression of In vitro morphogenesis in tomato and AgNO3 interacts with ethylene and enhances callus induction and In vitro shoot regeneration in tomato. (author)

  20. A survey of the effect of explants type, plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on callus induction in Papaver bracteatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus culture is necessary for production of suspension cell culture in plant breeding programs. Regarding to the application of Papaver bracteatum as an important medicinal plant in production of benzophenantridine alkaloids, this study was performed to find the most suitable hormone combination and explant type for achieving to high percentage of callus induction fresh weight and somatic embryogenesis in this plant. For this purpose, hypocotyl explants were cultured in ½MS media containing active charcoal (2 and 4 mgL-1 in combination of different concentrations of NAA, 2,4-D (0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mgL-1 and BA (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1. The seed explants were cultured in same treatments without active charcoal. Also, somatic embryogesis induction using seed explants in ½MS media containing different concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mgL-1 with BA 0.5 mgL-1 were investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (43.6%, 54% in hypocotyls explants were obtained in the ½MS media containing 2 mgL-1 active charcoal and 2 mgL-1 2,4-D and 5 mgL-1 NAA in companion with BA 0.5 mgL-1 respectively. The maximum callus induction (84% was obtained in ½MS medium with 1 mgL-1 2,4-D without active charcoal. The highest callus fresh weight (0.35% was obtained in MS media with 0.5 mgL-1 2,4-D andthe maximum rate of somatic embryogenesis induction (77% was observed in ½MS media containing 1 mgL-1 2,4-D with 0.5 mgL-1 BA.

  1. Callus induction and formation of Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ starting from foliar sections of in vitro plants

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    Nydia del Rivero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar sections of in vitro plants of Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ were used as explants for the induction and formation of callus. The formation of callus was evaluated in two culture mediums (MS and Nitsch, modified to which the growth regulators 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D were added in four concentrations 2.26, 4.52, 6.78 and 9.04 μM and the addition of 6-Benzilaminopurine (6-BAP to a concentration of 2.22 μM keeping it constant for both culture mediums. The treatments were placed in darkness at 28±2ºC during 45 days. Characteristics of the callus, such as colour and form, were also described . The results showed, in the statistical analysis, a significant interaction among the factors in study (concentrations of the growth regulator and type of culture medium. The calluses obtained presented translucent cream yellow colour with nodular structures. Callus were formed in the two culture medium used, however, the biggest explants percentage that allowed the formation of these structures was observed in the culture medium MS modified when a concentration of 6.78 μM 2,4-D was used . It was demonstrated that it is possible to use foliar sections of in vitro plants to form callus in Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ in the culture medium MS with the nitrates reduced in a half and 2,4-D. Key words: callus formation, culture medium, in vitro culture, micropropagation, growth regulators

  2. The role of 2,4-D and auxin-binding proteins during the induction of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus in Zea mays (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of the growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of callus in cultured immature embryos of Zea mays (L). In maize, two types of embryogenic callus can be induced in immature zygotic embryos.
    Type I

  3. Study of Androgenesis Ability and Callus Induction in Four Varieties of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill by Anther Culture

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    R. Najib

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill is one of the most important vegetables which in addition of its importance as a food, is utilized as a model plant for cytological and cytogenetic studies. Tomato breeding programs are often based on the production and selection of hybrid plants. Producing hybrid plants and application of features that is needed to breed pure lines with high specific combining abilities, is highly required.New technologies such as doubled haploid can be an effective strategy to provide pure lines in tomato. Generation of homozygous doubled haploid lines through induction of androgenesis is a promising alternative method to the classical breeding programs. However, this technology is poorly developed in tomato so that some improvements in methodology are required. Genotype and stages of microspore development are critical factors for induction of androgenesis in tomato. Among them, the genotype is more important than other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of callus induction from anthers in some tomato genotypes. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the androgenic response and callus induction through anther culture in tomato, four varieties including Mobil-Netherlands, Baker, U. S. Agriseed and Khoram were chosen. To determine the appropriate stage of microspore development for anther culture, cytologycal studies were accomplished at different size length of flower buds (2-7.9 mm. Flower buds were incubated at 4oC for 15 minutes and stained in acetocarmin %4 solution. Based on cytological studies in four tested cultivars, flower buds with size length 4-4.9 mm were chosen, as they had the highest frequency of meiotic microspores to microspores mid uninucleate. Pretreatments were colchicine solution (250 mgr/L at 4 °C for 48 h. The anthers were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mgr/L IAA and 1 mgr/L 2ip. All changes in frequency of callus induction and diameter of

  4. Optimization of Callus Induction and Regeneration in Two Fenugreek Landraces as a Medicinal Plant during in vitro Condition

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    Hasan Hasani Jifroudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum is a medicinal plant extensively distributed in most regions of the world. Fenugreek is an annual plant from the family of papilionaceae, leguminosae. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used extensively to prepare extracts and powders for medicinal uses. Its root, leaf and seed contain a number of important medicinal compounds such as polysaccharide, galactomannan, different saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, mucilage, volatile oil and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. Establishment of an efficient callus induction and direct regeneration protocol is an essential prerequisite in harnessing the advantage of cell and tissue culture for genetic improvement. For the successful application of the tissue culture technique in plant breeding, callus induction and plant regeneration potential of each plant must be determined. The present study was performed in order to determine the optimum concentration of plant growth regulators (IBA + TDZ for producing of in vitro plantlet using cotyledon and hypocotyl as an explant for two different Iranian genotypes (Ardestani and Neyshabouri. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Ardestani and Neyshabouri genotypes were used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. The medium used in this investigation was MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Then seeds were germinated on MS medium. For callus induction and direct shoot regeneration, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants were excised from 8-day-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of IBA and TDZ. In this experiment, two combinations (TDZ + IBA were used. In the first composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ had five levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg l-1 and in the second composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mg l-1 and TDZ

  5. (Tongkat Ali) for callus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap root, fibrous root, cotyledon and ... other countries of the South-East Asia region and widely distributed ..... Indian ginseng plantlets from stem callus. Plant Cell ...

  6. Studies on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Medicinal Plant Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. from Leaf and Petiole Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hadizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. belongs to Asteraceae family is commonly known as witloof chicory. The leaves and the roots of this medicinal plant are edible and commonly used as salad. Some varieties are also cultivated as coffee substitute after roasting the roots. All parts of the plant contain these volatile oils, with the majority of the toxic components concentrated in the plant's root. In folk medicine, the plant is used for the treatment of diarrhea, spleen enlargement, fever, and vomiting. Antihepatotoxic activity on damaged rat’s liver sections and anti-bacterial activity of this crop has been recently reported. In vitro regeneration from leaf explants with various hormonal combinations has been reported previously. Moreover, in vitro regeneration of Chicory from cotyledon explants using different combinations of plant growth regulators has been studied. Also, a protocol for the regeneration of plantlets from leaf and petiole explants of witloof chicory has been developed. The aim of the present investigation was optimization of callus induction and shoot regeneration from leaf and petiole tissues of Chicory (Esfahan genotype. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Esfahan genotype was used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. Seeds were first washed with running tap water for 30 min then seeds were surface sterilized by dipping in 70% ethanol for 90 s and rinsed with sterile distilled water, followed by immersing in 5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 25 min and thereafter rinsed for 30 min with sterile distilled water. The basal medium used in this investigation was MS. For shoot regeneration, leaf and petiole explants (5 mm segments were excised from 4-week-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of NAA / BA and KIN / BA in two separate experiments. Experiments were performed factorial based on completely randomized design. Cultures were incubated at 25

  7. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on  Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction  in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown

  8. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown.

  9. Callus induction and biomass accumulation in vitro in explants from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Calalb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following features were determined: biological (the optimal histogen as explant and the optimal age of donor fruit, biotechnological (type, dosage and combination of growth regulators supplements in culture medium Murashige and Skoog as well as sucrose dosage, and physical (light regime, to induce callusing and biomass accumulation in vitro from the succulent chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot fruit. It turned out that it was much easier to induce callus from explants composed of the epicarp and hypoderm cut from fruits at 50–60 days after flowering. The role of light regime and varied supplementation of the basic MS medium with different doses of growth regulators was established; they resulted in four pigmented carpomass: violet, cream-pink, cream-white and green. The best combinations for the proliferation of fruit callus were culture media with 0.2–2.5 mg × dm-3 2,4-D+0.5 mg × dm-3 KIN +60 g × dm-3sucrose, while for fruit biomass accumulation enriched with phenolic substances – 2.5–3.5 mg × dm-3 NAA+0.5 mg × dm-3 KIN+60 g × dm-3sucrose. The chemical study of phenolic compounds by HPLC coupled with the mass spectrometry method identified chlorogenic acid, hiperozide, quercetrin, isoquercitrin and rutozide quantitatively and qualitatively in all pigmented carpomass and fruits; an exception is p-coumaric present only qualitatively in green carpomass and absent in fruit and quercetol absent in green carpomass.

  10. In Vivo Fast Induction of Homogeneous Autopolyploids via Callus in Sour Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has been demonstrated as a very effective approach in fruit tree improvement. Sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu is a promising diploid wild, traditional fruit species (2n = 2x = 24 that is rich in vitamin C, which is the main rootstock of Chinese jujube (Z. jujuba Mill.. The novel method we developed for rapid in vivo induction of homogeneous autopolyploids (IVIHA via callus in Chinese jujube was first applied and further optimized in sour jujube. Under optimized conditions, an average of one pure autotetraploid shoot could be regenerated from one treated branch, thereby indicating a relatively high efficiency rate. A total of 9 pure autotetraploid genotypes were created, and one of these was released as a new cultivar named ‘Zhuguang’ in 2015. Moreover, unexpected octoploids and hexaploids were also simultaneously created and detected. The leaves of tetraploids were thicker, broader, and darker in color than those of the original diploids, whereas the leaf sizes of octoploids were much smaller compared to that of diploids. However, stoma size increased with the occurrence of ploidy, mainly from diploid to octoploid. The well grown ploidies of jujube included diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Anatomical observation indicated that adventitious buds/shoots emerged from the callus that formed on the cut, which was then followed by the development of connective vascular tissues between the adventitious bud and the stock plant tissue. This study demonstrates the universality of the IVIHA method that was initially developed in Chinese jujube, as well as provides a foundation for high-efficiency pure polyploid induction in sour jujube.

  11. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  12. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Farzinebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94% and leaf explants (89% when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8±1.0, were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1. The best root induction (92% and mean number (7.6±0.5 from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80% was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts.

  13. The Effect of Different Hormones on Callus Induction, Regeneration and Multiplication of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Safarnejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus; Iridaceae is an important economic and medicinal crop in Iran. The saffron that is an herbaceous triploid geophyte is used mainly as a source of secondary metabolites having aromatic and medicinal value. The plant develops annually from buds on the mother corm – i.e. a thickened stem - which acts as a resting, perennating storage organ. In this research in vitro propagation of Crocus sativus through direct and indirect methods has been studied. Corm slices as explants were sterilized and transferred to MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that use of HgCl2 0.15% for 20 minutes is the best treatment for sterilization. The results of ANOVA of direct regeneration indicated that the most corm formation was observed in 2 mg/l BAP. Maximum callus induction was achieved on MS supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 2 mg/l BAP. As results indicate the most number of embryos were obtained in MS medium containing 0.15 mg/ l NAA. Also this medium was suitable for germination of embryo. Corm formation was only observed in MS supplemented with1 mg/l 2, 4-D + 2 mg/l BAP in the indirect method. The corm was transferred to JF pot for adaptation and then it was transferred to the pot and soil for growing.

  14. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Amygdalus communis

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    Naimeh SHARIFMOGHADAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.

  15. Callus induction and plant regeneration by Brazilian new elite wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Gruszka Vendruscolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction of genotypes responsive to tissue culture and the development of an efficient regenerationsystem are the first steps towards transgenic plant production. Nine Brazilian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes werecultivated in vitro to evaluate the embryogenetic capacity. The explants (immature zygotic embryos were tested in twodifferent culture media, MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962 and modified MS - MMS (Zhou et al. 1995 with decreasing dosagesof hormone regulators. Three distinct phases were observed in each medium: induction, maintenance and regeneration. Afterinduction, the somatic embryogenesis of calli was evaluated every 21 days. Genotypes responded differently to the differentculture media. The embryogenic response of genotype CD104 was best in both culture media tested. On MMS, the values ofcallus induction, plant regeneration and ratio of regenerated plantlets per rescued embryo of this genotype were 100%, 99.5%and 1.1%, respectively. Genotypes CD104, CD200126 and CDFAPA 2001129 were most responsive on MS (regenerationcapacity of 37.5%, 33.5% and 33% respectively, and therefore interesting for genetic transformation in plant breedingprograms that develop new elite cultivars with a commercial purpose.

  16. [Influence of genotype, explant type and component of culture medium on in vitro callus induction and shoot organogenesis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliluev, M R; Bogoutdinova, L R; Baranova, G B; Baranova, E N; Kharchenko, P N; Dolgov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of explant type as well as of the type of growth regulators and concentration on callus induction processes and somatic organogenesis of shoots was studied in vitro on four tomato genotypes of Russian breeding. Cytological study of callus tissue was conducted. It was established that tomato varieties possess a substantially greater ability to indirect shoot organogenesis compared with the F1 hybrid. The highest frequency of somatic organogenesis of shoots, as well as their number per explant, was observed for most of the genotypes studied during the cultivation of cotyledons on Murashige-Skoog culture medium containing 2 mg/l of zeatin in combination with 0.1 mg/l of 3-indoleacetic acid. An effective protocol of indirect somatic organogenesis of shoots from different explants of tomato varieties with a frequency of more than 80% was developed.

  17. Study on Effect of Type of Explant and Hormone on Callus Induction and Regeneration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sajjadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the medicinal plants that contain active components and medicinal materials. Tissue culture of saffron can improve the quality and quantity of the saffron product, increase its export and the farmers’ income. In this study, 36 different types of hormone combinations in the dark and 9 different treatments of hormone combinations in cold (4°C, using different saffron explants (bulb, leaf, scales around leaf and distal parts of the leaf were studied in tissue culture. To investigate the growth of corms, the callus formation and the regeneration rate, three replications for each treatment were used and the length of shoot (cm, the callus formation percentage and the regeneration percentage were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Among the types of explants, only explants from bulbs produced the callus on MS medium containing 2 mg.l-1 BAP and 1 mg.l-1 IBA in both the dark and cold conditions. The highest percentage of regeneration was obtained in MS medium with hormonal composition of 0.3 mg.l-1 TDZ, 1 mg.l-1 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 IBA and 0.01 mg.l-1 GA3 in the cold conditions.

  18. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    flavonoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolic com-pounds. (Blando et al. .... TP content of the callus were estimated according to the method of. Slinkard and ..... quantification of phenolic compounds in grapes by HPLC-PDA-ESI-. MS on a ...

  19. Teaching Inductive Reasoning in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Els; Hamers, Jo H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Vermeer, Adri

    2002-01-01

    Used a three-phase teaching procedure based on the development of metacognition to extend emphasis on inductive reasoning in primary education to Grades 3 and 4. Found that teachers could apply the programs as intended, but needed support to shift attention from reasoning product to reasoning process. Program learning effects indicated that better…

  20. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  1. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  2. Efeito da concentração de sais e fitorreguladores na indução de calos em carqueja Callus induction in "carqueja" as affected by salt concentrations and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Guimarães Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar condições nutricionais e hormonais para maximizar a produção de calos friáveis de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC]. Foi verificado que a iniciação de calo é dependente de fitorreguladores e da concentração do meio. A melhor indução de calo ocorreu em meio MS contendo 50% da concentração de sais, inositol e vitaminas, suplementado com 15,0 mM ANA. Proliferação de brotos foi obtida pelo uso de TDZ.The influence of various growth regulators and medium concentrations, in different quantities, on the in vitro callus induction of carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.] was evaluated. It was found that the callus initiation was dependent on both, the growth regulator and medium concentration. The highest callus induction and development were obtained by using 15.0 mM 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA as growth regulators and half strength of salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol of Murashige and Skoog medium. In vitro shoot proliferation was obtained by using thidiazuron.

  3. Regeneration of Stevia Plant Through Callus Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. M.; Shah, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that conventionally propagated by seed or by cuttings or clump division which has a limitation of quality and quantity seed material. In present study, callus culture technique was tried to achieve rapid plant multiplication for quality seed material. Callus induction and multiplication medium was standardized from nodal as well as leaf sagments. It is possible to maintain callus on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyl amino purine and naphthalene acetic acid. Maximum callus induction was obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium incorporated with 6-benzyl amino purine (2.0-3.0 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (2.0 mg/l) treatments. However, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine+2.0 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid was found to be the best for callus induction. Higher regeneration frequency was noticed with Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine+0.2 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid. Regenerated plants were rooted better on ¼ Murashige and Skoog strength supplemented with 0.1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. The rooted plantlets were hardened successfully in tera care medium with 63 per cent survival rate. The developed protocol can be utilized for mass production of true to type planting material on large scale independent of season, i.e. external environmental conditions. PMID:20177455

  4. Callus remodelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodowska, Justyna; Bielski, Jan; Kromka-Szydek, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the healing process of the callus using bone remodelling approach. A new mathematical model of bone remodelling is proposed including both underload and overload resorption, as well as equilibrium and bone growth states. The created model is used to predict the stress-stimulated change in the callus density. The permanent and intermittent loading programs are considered. The analyses indicate that obtaining a sufficiently high values of the callus density (and hence the elasticity) modulus is only possible using time-varying load parameters. The model predictions also show that intermittent loading program causes delayed callus healing. Understanding how mechanical conditions influence callus remodelling process may be relevant in the bone fracture treatment and initial bone loading during rehabilitation.

  5. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  6. Effect Of Explant Source And Different Medium Culture On Friable Embryogenic Callus Induction Of Four Cultivars Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice Prosper Yandia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC for protoplast isolation we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC of four cassava cultivars M61033 Rendre Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mgl 24-D MS supplemented with 10 mgl BAP and GD supplemented with 12mgl picloram using apical bud AB and immature leaves lobes ILL as explants. In general in the medium GD12mgl picloram the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 to 87 and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB however we have observed with explants ILL the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41 to 75 and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS28 mgl 24-D have induced with explants AB the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43 to 57 and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8 however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 to 49 and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS210 mgl BAP with BA explants however the efficiencies ranged from 6 to 11 and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4 to 7 and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations GD Gressoff and Doy MS Murashige and Skoog 24-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid BAP Benzylamino-purin-Acid AB Apical Bud ILL Immature Leaves lobes

  7. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    .6 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoot apices and leaves from in vitro-propagated shoots, and immature inflorescences from greenhouse-grown plants were used as explants for callus induction and formation. Suspension cultures initiated from embryogenic callus of immature inflorescences were used...

  8. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  9. Indução de calos friáveis em explantes foliares de Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd Induction of friable callus in leaf explants of Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Régis Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O salix é uma árvore ornamental adaptada a terrenos úmidos, sendo considerada uma espécie importante para a recomposição de áreas ciliares degradadas. A madeira pode ser empregada na indústria em geral. Apesar de produzir grande quantidade de sementes, estas não possuem alta percentagem de germinação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estabelecimento in vitro de salix através da indução e formação de calos friáveis em explantes foliares, visando a uma posterior regeneração de plantas para a propagação massal desta espécie. Explantes foliares foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962, acrescido de diferentes concentrações de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0; 8,0; 10,0 e 12,0mg L-1 e combinações entre ácido naftalenoacético e benzilaminopurina, ambos em concentrações de 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0mg L-1. Os resultados demonstram que explantes inoculados na ausência de reguladores de crescimento não apresentam a formação de calos friáveis. Significativa produção de calos friáveis (90% é obtida utilizando-se 6,0mg L-1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético. A utilização de concentração individual de ácido naftalenoacético ou benzilaminopurina, além de induzir a calogênese também foi capaz de promover rizogênese.Salix is an ornamental tree adapted to humid soils being considered an important species used in depleted areas. Its wood may be used in all kinds of industries. Although the production of seeds is large, the germination is reduced. The objective of this work was to establish salix in vitro through the induction and formation of friable callus of leaf explants to provide future regeneration of plants for mass propagation of the species. Leaf explants were inoculated in MS medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 supplemented with different concentrations of 2-4-diclorofenoxiacetic acid (0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 6.0; 8.0 and 12.0mg L-1 and combinations

  10. Indução de calo a partir de eixo embrionário de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. Callus induction from coconut embryogenic axis (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicia Karinne Pereira Gomes

    2004-04-01

    factorial scheme (4 concentrations of 2,4-D x 5 segments of the embryogenic axis. The axes were excised longitudinally out of zigotic embryos and were then disinfected with sodium hipocloride (0.2% for two minutes, washed with sterile distilled water, and soaked for two minutes in a solution of sterile citric acid (100 mg.L-1. The embryogenic axes were split in five segments corresponding to positions A, B, C, D and E, and transferred to Petri dishes containing the culture media Y3, suplemented with four concentrations of 2,4-D (10-4; 1.36x10-4; 3.62x10-4; 4.52x10-4 M, sucrose (50 g.L-1, activated charcoal (2.5 g.L-1 and vitamins of Morel and Wetmore. The Petri dishes were incubated in a dark atmosphere under the temperature of 25 ± 2ºC. After 15 days of inoculation, the segments A and B in the concentration of 10-4 M of 2,4-D presented 97.5% of explants with friable callus, and 92,5% and 80%, respectively, in the concentrations of 1.36x10-4 M of 2,4-D. The E segment, in both concentrations, presented 60% of callus formation. After 30 days of inoculation, the segments A and B promoted 100% and 97.5% in the concentration of 10-4 M, and 90% and 80%, respectively, in the concentrations of 1.36x10-4 M. The E segment promoted 55% to 57.5% of callus induction in both concentrations.

  11. Plant regeneration system from cotyledons-derived calluses cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to successfully establish plant regeneration system with cotyledons of. Stylosanthes guianensis Sw. cv. 'Reyan 2' as explants. In this study, the following results were obtained; (1) the highest rates of callus induction on medium MS with 3.0 mg L-1 2, 4-D with cotyledons.

  12. Evaluation of different carbon sources for high frequency callus culture with reduced phenolic secretion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prem Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient protocol was developed to control excessive phenolic compound secretion during callus culture of cotton. As cotton is naturally rich in phenolic compounds factors influencing the phenolic compound secretion, callus induction and proliferation were optimized for getting high frequency callus culture. Different carbon sources such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose were tested at various concentrations to control phenolic secretion in callus culture. Among them, 3% maltose was found to be the best carbon source for effectively controlling phenolic secretion in callus induction medium. High frequency of callus induction was obtained on MSB5 medium supplemented with 3% Maltose, 2,4-D (0.90 μM and Kinetin (4.60 μM from both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. The best result of callus induction was obtained with hypocotyl explant (94.90% followed by cotyledon explant (85.20%. MSB5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.45 μM along with 2iP (2.95 μM gave tremendous proliferation of callus with high percentage of response. Varying degrees of colors and textures of callus were observed under different hormone treatments. The present study offers a solution for controlling phenolic secretion in cotton callus culture by adjusting carbon sources without adding any additives and evaluates the manipulation of plant growth regulators for efficient callus culture of SVPR-2 cotton cultivar.

  13. The effects of callus age, UV irradiation and incubation time on trans-resveratol production in grapevine callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of callus age, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and incubation time were investigated for the induction of trans-resveratrol production in callus cultures of Kalecik karası (Clone 12) Vitis vinifera L. grape cultivar. Part of leaves (~1 cm 2 ) were taken from one year old grapevines grown in greenhouse and then were cultured in Gamborg B-5 media including 2% saccarose, 0.8% agar, 1.0 μM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.1 μM 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). After the second subculture, 12 and 15 days old callus tissues were exposed to 254 nm UV light at 10 cm distance from the source for 10 and 15 min. Trans-resveratrol was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Trans-resveratrol concentration of control callus ranged from 0.56 to 0.96 μg g fw -1 . The highest trans-resveratrol production was obtained from 12 and 15 days-old callus irradiated for 10 min. at the 48th hours of incubation (2.42 μg g fw -1 ). Considering the highest value of trans-resveratrol concentration in controls and experiments, it was determined that UV irraditation in Kalecik karası elicitated the trans-resveratrol production by 2.5 times. (author) [tr

  14. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khonkaen 40002, Thailand. ... The genetic transformation was achieved ..... image processing. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 3(5): 297-301. Nasir NM, Qureshi RH, Aslam M (2000). Effect of salinity on emergence of sugarcane lines. Pak.

  15. Morphological Characterization and Identification of Coffea liberica Callus of Somatic Embryogenesis Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Ardiyani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other types of coffee, Liberica coffee is more difficult to be propagates using clonal methods. Meanwhile, demand for planting materials and consumption of this type of coffee is increasing lately. The objective of this paper is to present results of the work on morpological characterization of Liberica coffee (Coffea liberica callus produced by somatic embryogenesis propagation. This research used C. liberica Arruminensis clone. This clone was one of Liberica coffee clones which had superior taste. Main activitis carried out in this experiment were explant sterilization, explant induction and histological analysis on the callus produced. The result of this research showed that non embryogenic callus was higher (72% than embryogenic callus (28%. The callus description can be used to identify type and characteristic of the callus. Therefore, it can be a parameter to choose type of callus for propagation material. This is important because choosing the right callus is determine of the succesfully process of Liberica somatic embryogenesis. Keywords: somatic embryogenesis, Liberica, embryogenic, non-embryogenic

  16. Generation and multiplication of plantlets from callus derived from Haplopappus gracilus (Nutt.) Gray and their karyotype analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, R. P.; O'Connor, S. A.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Unopened flower heads of Haplopappus gracilis (2n = 4) provided primary explants for callus production and subsequent induction of organized growth. Callus was initiated from small (3-5 mm in length) floral buds with benzylaminopurine (BAP) (44.4 micromoles; 10 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.54 micromole; 0.1 mg/l). Lowering the BAP level to 4.44 micromoles (1 mg/l) but maintaining the NAA level, gave rise to organized but highly compressed shoot growing points from an otherwise undifferentiated callus mass. Shoots selected from such cultures were maintainable and could be proliferated by growing 1-1.5-cm stem tip cuttings on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (solidified with agar) containing 0.444 micromole (0.1 mg/l) BAP and 0.054 micromole (0.01 mg/l) NAA. The stem tip multiplication rates obtainable by these means permit reliable strategies for shoot multiplication or production of rooted plantlets. Prolonged subculture and maintenance of shoots on growth regulator-free medium leads to in vitro flowering and greatly reduces rooting capacity. Karyotype analysis of chromosomes from root tip cells at metaphase and chromosome measurements show that karyologically uniform plantlets (based on chromosome number and morphology) can be obtained.

  17. Inductive foraging: improving the diagnostic yield of primary care consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Physicians attempting to make a diagnosis arrive at specific hypotheses early in their encounter with patients. Further data are collected in the light of these early hypotheses. While this hypothetico-deductive model has been accepted as both a description of physicians' data gathering and a norm, little attention has been paid to the preceding stage of the consultation. It is suggested that 'inductive foraging' is a relevant and appropriate mode of data acquisition for the first part of the patient encounter. Research evidence from cognitive psychology and medical reasoning research is discussed. With inductive foraging, 'pattern failure' rather than 'pattern recognition' is the mode of discovery. Largely, guidance should be left to the patient to lead the clinician into areas where departures from normality are to be found. This is in contrast to active and focused 'deductive inquiry,' which should be used only after most aetiologies, but a few have eliminated. Especially when the prevalence of serious disease is low, and a wide range of diagnoses must be evaluated, such as in General Practice, inductive foraging is a rational and efficient diagnostic strategy. Previously, too little attention has been paid to the initial stage of the consultation. Premature closure at this point may result in diagnostic error.

  18. Induction of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency of callus induction was observed at relatively low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg L-1) of both 2,4-D or 4-FA. However, high concentrations (3, 4 and 5 mg L-1) of either auxin suppressed callus induction. When applied for the first time, 1.0 mg L-1 4-FA markedly improved the frequency of callus induction (up ...

  19. Appraisal of beta-Phellandrene in Callus Cultures of Momordica charantia L. Cultivars, Jaunpuri and Jhalri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Tariq, A.; Ajaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite beta-phellandrene was analyze in callus cultures of two varieties of Momordica charantia L. i.e. Jaunpuri and Jhalri. Conditions for seed germination and callus induction were optimized. Seedlings grown under aseptic conditions served as explant sources. 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium were scrutinized as the most suitable combination of plant growth regulators with different concentrations for callus induction in both the varieties. Cotyledon explant of (cultivars) cv. Jaunpuri revealed maximum callus induction with 1.0 mgl/sup -1/ BAP and 1.5 mgl/sup -1/ 2,4-D in eight days as compared to internode, apical bud and leaf. Cotyledon and leaf explants of cv. Jhalri responded to 1.5 mgl/sup -1/ BAP and 1.0 mgl/sup -1/ 2,4-D in nine days for callus and internode and apical bud with 1.0 mgl-l BAP and 1.5 mgl-l 2,4-D. Best grown calli from different explants were analyzed through GC-MS for production of secondary metabolites. Along with other secondary metabolites beta-phellandrene was the most prominent secondary metabolites found in in vitro grown callus cultures of both the varieties. The callus cultures of cv. Jaunpuri produced substantial amount of beta-phellandrene i.e. up to 30 percent of the total secondary metabolites as compared to calli from cv. Jhalri explants. The callus cultures of M. charantia can prove the best alternative, rapid and uninterrupted source for natural beta-phellandrene production. (author)

  20. Morpho-anatomical characterization of embryogenic calluses from immature zygotic embryo of peach palm during somatic embryogenesis =

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterizenodular embryogenic calluses from zygotic embryos of peach palm during the induction of somatic embryogenesis. Immature zygotic embryos were pre-treated in MS medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (25 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. After three months, primary calluses were transferred to MS induction medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (450 μM. After six months, the embryogenic calluses were then histologically analyzed and cultivated in the maturation medium. The competent tissues of the zygotic embryos differentiated embryogenic calluses under action of both Picloram and 2,4-D auxins (450 μM, where the presence of multi-granular structures were observed. Histological observations showed that in the nodular embryogenic calluses, the outlying parenchymal cells exhibit cellular characteristics of high mitotic activity. Differentiation of tracheal elements exists in embryogenic calluses connecting the callus to the explant. The evaluated cytokinin/auxin interaction influences the development of embryogenic calluses and globular structures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfoanatomicamente calos nodulares embriogênicos originados de embriões zigóticos de pupunheira durante a indução da embriogênese somática. Embriões zigóticos imaturos de pupunha foram inicialmente pré-tratados em meio de cultura MS, solidificado com 2,5 g L-1 de phytagel® e suplementado com Picloram e 2,4-D na concentração de 25 μM e BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. Após três meses, os calos primários foram transferidos para meio de indução, com Picloram e 2,4-D (450 μM. Após seis meses, os calosnodulares embriogênicos formados foram então analisados histologicamente e repicados para o meio de maturação para a progressão das estruturas multigranulares embriogênicas. Verificou-seque os tecidos competentes dos embriões zigóticos imaturos diferenciaram nódulos embriogênicos pela ação de ambas

  1. Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures of Oncidium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J -T.; Chang, W -C.

    2000-12-07

    An efficient method was established for high frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of a hybrid of sympodial orchid (Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey'). Compact and yellow-white embryogenic calli formed from root tips and cut ends of stem and leaf segments on 1/2 MS [11] basal medium supplemented with 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea (TDZ, 0.1-3 mg/l), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 3-10 mg/l) and peptone (1 g/l) for 4-7 weeks. Embryogenic callus was maintained by subculture on the same medium for callus induction and proliferated 2-4 times (fresh weight) in 1 month. Initiation of somatic embryogenesis and development up to the protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) from callus cultures was achieved on hormone-free basal medium. Regenerants were recovered from somatic embryos (SEs) after transfer to the same medium and showed normal development. The optimized protocol required about 12-14 weeks from the initiation of callus to the plantlet formation. Generally, the frequency of embryo formation of root-derived callus was higher than stem- and leaf-derived calli. Combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and TDZ significantly promoted embryo formation from callus cultures. The high-frequency (93.8%) somatic embryogenesis and an average of 29.1 SEs per callus (3x3 mm(2)) was found in root-derived callus on a basal medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l TDZ. Almost all the SEs converted and the plantlets grew well with an almost 100% survival rate when potted in sphagnum moss and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  2. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Schuabb Heringer

    Full Text Available The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E and non-embryogenic (NE callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L(-1 of activated charcoal (AC. Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L(-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project, including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus.

  3. Factors affecting callus and protoplast production and regeneration of plants from garlic tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Nabulsi, I.

    2001-08-01

    Five cultivars of garlic, two explants, six callusing media, six regeneration media, two kinds of light and several doses of gamma irradiation were used to determine the best conditions for callus induction and plant regeneration from garlic tissue cultures. Also, some experiments were conducted to study the possibility to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The experiment showed that medium MS9 was good for regenerating plant directly from basal plate without going through callus phase. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among used cultivars in their ability to form callus. No significant difference was observed between 16 hr light and complete darkness in callus growth. However, appearance of callus was generally better on darkness. Cultivar varied in their ability to regenerate and interaction between cultivars and media was observed. Cultivar kisswany was the best in regeneration (38%) and medium MS47 was the best among used media (35%). Light type played a significant role in regeneration of plants where red light was much better than white light in inducing regeneration (68% vs 36%). ANOVA revealed significant effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on stimulation regeneration of plant whereas high doses prevented regeneration. Many experiments were conducted to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The best method for culturing was the droplet and the best conditions for incubation were complete darkness at 25 Degreed centigrade. This lead to formation of cell wall but no cell division was observed (author)

  4. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony L; Menard, Patrice; Fock, Isabelle; Choi, Young H; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Bahut, Muriel; Payet, Bertrand; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-05-05

    Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM) containing TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS) arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.3 mg l(-1)) during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)). By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS) analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P tissue culture, phenolic compounds such

  5. SALT segmented primary mirror: laboratory test results for FOGALE inductive edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh; Buous, Sébastien; Buckley, David; Gillingham, Peter

    2010-07-01

    At the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), in collaboration with FOGALE Nanotech, we have been testing the recently-developed new generation inductive edge sensors. The Fogale inductive sensor is one technology being evaluated as a possible replacement for the now defunct capacitance-based edge sensing system. We present the results of exhaustive environmental testing of two variants of the inductive sensor. In addition to the environmental testing including RH and temperature cycles, the sensor was tested for sensitivity to dust and metals. We also consider long-term sensor stability, as well as that of the electronics and of the glue used to bond the sensor to its supporting structure. A prototype design for an adjustable mount is presented which will allow for in-plane gap and shear variations present in the primary mirror configuration without adversely disturbing the figure of the individual mirror segments or the measurement accuracy.

  6. Fatty acids, phenols content, and antioxidant activity in Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Zúñiga, M.E.; Arano-Varela, H.; Buendía-González, L.; Orozco-Villafuerte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures were established in order to produce fatty acids (lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic and stearic acids) and phenolic compounds. Highest callus induction (100%) was obtained in treatments containing 2.32 or 4.65 μM Kinetin (KIN) with 2.26 or 6.80 μM 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Highest fatty acids (FA) production (48.57 mg g-1), highest total phenol content (TPC; 57.1 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1) and highest antioxidant activity (EC...

  7. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants derived callus of evening primrose (oenothera biennis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.; Shafi, N.; Ghani, S.; Fatima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Evening primrose were aseptically grown and leaf explants were used for establishment of callus culture. The Excellent growth in callus biomass was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4, -D and TDZ. For optimal growth of bud and shoot regeneration, fortification of IAA along with TDZ, or BAP was found to be essential. Rooting (70%) could be inducted on hormone free MS-medium. This percentage improved to 98 when NAA was added to the medium. The plantlets thus obtained were transferred to the field successfully after passing through the process of hardening. (author)

  8. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  9. Responses of some selected Malaysian rice genotypes to callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... embryogenic callus culture (Yin et al., 1993). In this study, overall, the callus from the MS medium had a good texture. Furthermore, some genotypes also produced better callus in other concentrations of 2,4-D treatment, however, the quality of callus was not as good as those in. 10 µM 2,4-D. Notably, the ...

  10. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The

  11. Effect of irradiation and colchicine on callus and somatic embryo formation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzimega, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the mutagenic effect of gamma radiation on sprouting and height in four local cassava accessions. The four cassava accessions were assessed for their callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability from leaf lobes from gamma irradiated stakes as well as colchicine treated leaf lobes on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. The cassava accessions were irradiated at 0, 32, 35, 45 and 50 Gy and planted in pots filled with loamy soil. The height of the shoots was measured with rule after sprouting. The leaf lobes were collected from the shoots and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram. Another set of leaf lobes were treated with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 g/l colchicine for one hour and thereafter culture on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2,4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram as described above. Callus induction from leaf lobes in 45 and 50 Gy were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the irradiation. On the other hand, Callus induction from leaf lobes in 0.1-0.25 g/l colchicine were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the mutagenic treatment whereas callus induced from leaf lobes in 0.05 g/l colchicine was not significantly (p≤0.05) affected. Callus induced on 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l picloram gave the best response in Ankrah and all control tested while Tomfa recorded the least. Colchicine at a concentration of 0.05 g/l and radiation dose of 32 Gy treatments gave the best response of callusing. Callus induction decreased with increasing colchicine concentration and gamma irradiation. Callus derived from irradiated and colchicine leaf lobes appeared soft but friable and tiny, compact, respectively, predominately with creamy to brown colouration. Calli obtained were sub-cultures on embryo regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with 0.01mg/1 NAA and o.1 mg/1 BAP. There was no plantlet regeneration. Instead

  12. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Callusing and root induction in air layering was evaluated aiming at evolution of procedure for mass clonal propagation of mature ortets of five tropical broadleaf species differing in their potential for adventitious root formation in shoot cuttings as: Anogiessus latifolia < Boswellia serrata < Dalbergia latifolia < Gmelina arborea < Dalbergia sissoo. Two experiments were conducted in rainy season during consecutive years; without application of growth regulators in the first year and with growth regulators (T1 - water, T2- 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid, T3-100 ppm thiamine-HCl and T4 -combination of T2 + T3 in the next year. Air layered branches were detached from the trees to record percentage of alive airlayers, callusing and rooting (% as well as root number and root length. Response to air layering was found to be highly variable in five tree species but appeared to be feasible procedure for clonal propagation of mature ortets of B. serrata and D. sissoo with 100% (in auxin + thiamine treatment and 83.3% (in auxin treatment success, respectively. Maximum callusing (% was found in D. latifolia while no callusing was observed in D. sissoo, which is most easy-to-root among all five species. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers as significant negative correlation of callusing (% and adventitious root formation was recorded in air layers of five tropical broadleaved tree species. Application of exogenous auxin alone or in combination with thiamine circumvents callusing to ensure direct development of roots for successful air layering.

  13. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  14. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  15. Callus regeneration from stem explants of Pseudarthira viscida (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... regeneration frequency have come from tissue culture work done in ... Table 1. In vitro responses from stem callus of Psudarthria viscida Wight & Arn. Growth .... plantlets regeneration from cotyledonary callus of Tomato.

  16. Production of parthenolide in organ and callus cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, callusing capacity and weight of callus of different explants under different treatments were also determined. Parthenolide content was determined in the explants as well as in callus using RP-HPLC on Luna C18 column and SPD-10A UV detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile: water (55 : 45) and the ...

  17. Efeito de thidiazuron na indução e manutenção de calos de erva-baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L. Effects of thidiazuron on callus induction and maintenance of Cordia verbenacea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Alves Lameira

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do Thidiazuron (TDZ na formação e manutenção de calos de Cordia verbenacea. Segmentos caulinares com 3 a 4cm de comprimento provenientes de mudas cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram desinfestados em solução contendo hipoclorito de sódio comercial a 30% e duas gotas de detergente por 10 minutos, sendo 5 minutos em agitação. Posteriormente, foram excisados e inoculados com 5mm de tamanho em meio sólido a 0,6% de Murashige & Skoog (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 - MS, complementado com 0,22; 0,68: 2,04 e 6,l3uM de TDZ. A formação de calos ocorreu em todos os tratamentos com 10 a 15 dias de cultivo Os tratamentos que apresentaram o explante com a maior área coberta com calos, em média 75%, foram 2,04 e 6,13miM de TDZ. Somente nesses tratamentos os calos aumentaram de volume e mantiveram a coloração inicial quando transferidos para o meio fresco de cultura. Os tratamentos com menores concentrações de TDZ apresentaram explantes com 50% da área coberta com calos e quando transferidos para o meio fresco de cultura ocorreu a paralisação do crescimento com a posterior morte dos calos.The influence of thidiazuron on calius formation and maintenance of Corola verbenacea was evaluated. Stem segments with 3 to 4cm length were excisedfrom greenhouse plants and surface sterilized with 30% commercial sodium hypochiorite for 10 minutes. Explants were inoculated with 5mm on Murashige and Skoog (MVRASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 - MSsolid médium (0.6% suppiemented with 0.22, 0.68, 2.04 and 6.13muM TDZ. Calius induction was observed 10 to 15 days after incubation. The media contaming, 2.04 and 6.13uM TDZ induced 75% expiam with calius. The calius when transferred to fresh culture médium exhibited active growth. The treatments containing lower concentration induced 50% expiam with caltus that when transferred to fresh culture médium, showed no development.

  18. Solar fed DC-DC single ended primary inductance converter for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendranath, K. V.; Viswanath, Y.; Babu, K. Suresh; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents 34 to 36 volts. SEPIC converter for solar fed applications. Now days, there has been tremendous increase in the usage of solar energy and this solar energy is most valuable energy source available all around the world. The solar energy system require a Dc-Dc converter in order to modulate and govern the changing output of the panel. In this paper, a system comprising of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter [SEPIC] integrated with solar panel is proposed. This paper proposes SEPIC power converter design that will secure high performance and cost efficiency while powering up a LAMP load. This power converter designed with low output ripple voltage, higher efficiency and less electrical pressure on the power switching elements. The simulation and prototype hardware results are presented in this paper.

  19. Vaginal type-II mucosa is an inductive site for primary CD8+ T-cell mucosal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichuan; Sui, Yongjun; Kato, Shingo; Hogg, Alison E.; Steel, Jason C.; Morris, John C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen -bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8+ T cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T cell immune induction. PMID:25600442

  20. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations...

  1. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.

  2. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Chen Qiufang; Wang Cailian; Lu Yimei

    1999-09-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  3. Induction and multiplication of callus from endosperm of Cycas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... 2School of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. 3Agrotechnology and Bioscience Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. Accepted 11 April, 2008. The usage of medicinal plants in traditional medication has ...

  4. Effect of seasonal collection on callus Induction, proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hevea brasiliensis that is grown in Thailand and Southeast Asia is a very valuable source of natural rubber. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal effect on plantlet regenera-tion through somatic embryogenesis from anther culture. Thus, this study discussed the effect of season on ...

  5. Callus induction from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia biglobosa (Locust bean) were cultured in vitro to investigate their callogenic capacity. Established cultures were obtained and maintained on MS medium supplemented with either 2,4-D or NAA, each of concentration range of 0.4 – 1.0 mg/L. In general, while higher concentrations of ...

  6. Effect of different plant hormones on callus induction in Gymnema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... The tissue cultures of medicinal plants have a wide range of industrial application (Ghosh, 2005). Explant sterilization is a major step in culture establishment of perennial trees or shrub. Proper concentration of sterili- zing agent is a key factor (Roy and Saha, 1997). This was determined by applying different ...

  7. callus induction from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMO0+ and B.E. AYISIRE. Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria. (Submitted: 31 May 2004; Accepted: 31 October 2004). Abstract ..... of Nigeria: Implications for food security. pp. 265-. 283. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Conference. Proceedings Series No. 3. Ayisire, B.E., Obembe, 0.0.

  8. Callus induction, direct and indirect organogenesis of ginger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... with combinations of 0.5 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) with different concentrations of BAP. (1.00 ... culture techniques provide an alternative means of plant ... Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software.

  9. Optimization of callus induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... from germinating seeds of sweet sorghum (Sorghum ... In previous work, immature embryo, ... explants for in vitro culture as they can be stored and are ..... Girijashankar V, Sharma HC, Sharma KK, Swathisree V, Prasad LS,.

  10. Efficient callus induction and indirect plant regeneration from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... that J. curcas oil can yield a high quality biodiesel has led ... manufacturing of soap and candles, illumination, fish poison, inhibitor of watermelon mosaic virus, and nuts collected from a non-toxic Mexican variety are roasted.

  11. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Institute of Resource Biology and Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of. Science and .... preparation of semi-thin sections, the collected samples were first treated as .... Auxin-orientation effects on somatic embryogenesis from immature ... Study On Techniques for.

  12. Callus induction and growth in transgenic potato genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Solanum tuberosum L.). This has resulted in a range of protocols and procedures being established by researchers since tissue culture gained an importance in plant propagation, conservation and breeding (Ahloowalia 1982; Wareh et al., 1989).

  13. Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) is a highly adaptable variety among citrus cultivars in the climate of the region of Panjab, Pakistan and citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first of the citrus fruits known to become visible in the Mediterranean Basin. In Sylhet region of Bangladesh, it is commonly known as Zara lemon ...

  14. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... tems have been used for improvement of sunflower, but these techniques are mainly limited by the tissue culture response of commercial varieties (Nestares et al., 2002). In sunflower, reports on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves and meristematic tissues of young plantlets are available ...

  15. Induction of callus and somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Parkia biglobosa, an endangered multipurpose woody angiosperm, cotyledon explants obtained from 7-day old aseptically germinated seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4-1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid ...

  16. CPEB1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS induction in rat primary astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Hyun Joo, So; Shin, Chan Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 is increased by LPS stimulation in rat primary astrocytes. → JNK regulates expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 in reactive astrocytes. → Down-regulation of CPEB1 using siRNA inhibits oxidative stress and iNOS induction by LPS stimulation. → CPEB1 may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in reactive astrocytes induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Upon CNS damage, astrocytes undergo a series of biological changes including increased proliferation, production of inflammatory mediators and morphological changes, in a response collectively called reactive gliosis. This process is an essential part of the brains response to injury, yet much is unknown about the molecular mechanism(s) that induce these changes. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) in the regulation of inflammatory responses in a model of reactive gliosis, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. CPEB1 is an mRNA-binding protein recently shown to be expressed in astrocytes that may play a role in astrocytes migration. After LPS stimulation, the expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 was increased in rat primary astrocytes in a JNK-dependent process. siRNA-induced knockdown of CPEB1 expression inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of iNOS as well as NO and ROS production, a hallmark of immunological activation of astrocytes. The results from the study suggest that CPEB1 is actively involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in astrocytes, which might provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism after brain injury.

  17. Production of friable embryogenic callus and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generation of embryogenic callus is a key step in genetic engineering of many crop species, including cassava. Protocols for generation of friable embryogenic callus (FEC) have been lacking for Ugandan cassava genotypes, thereby delaying their genetic engineering for agronomic and other desirable traits. The objective ...

  18. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was the optimization of the conditions of callus and cell suspension culture of Elaeagnus angustifolia for the production of condensed tannins. The effects of different conditions on the callus growth and the production of condensed tannins were researched. The leaf tissue part of E. angustifolia was ...

  19. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  20. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots.

  1. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  2. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the

  3. Effect of applied pressure on callus formation and its relevance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect of applied pressure on callus formation, cell differentiation and its importance in grafting. Callus was formed earlier in pressure-free explants. The importance of applied pressure in graft formation was indicated by the fusion of callus cells in capped explant experiments. Where callus grew from the edges, a cambium ...

  4. A computational technique to measure fracture callus in radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Trevor J; Madey, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Dan C; Byrd, Gregory D; Sanderson, Jason M; Bottlang, Michael

    2010-03-03

    Callus formation occurs in the presence of secondary bone healing and has relevance to the fracture's mechanical environment. An objective image processing algorithm was developed to standardize the quantitative measurement of periosteal callus area in plain radiographs of long bone fractures. Algorithm accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using surrogate models. For algorithm validation, callus formation on clinical radiographs was measured manually by orthopaedic surgeons and compared to non-clinicians using the algorithm. The algorithm measured the projected area of surrogate calluses with less than 5% error. However, error will increase when analyzing very small areas of callus and when using radiographs with low image resolution (i.e. 100 pixels per inch). The callus size extracted by the algorithm correlated well to the callus size outlined by the surgeons (R2=0.94, p<0.001). Furthermore, compared to clinician results, the algorithm yielded results with five times less inter-observer variance. This computational technique provides a reliable and efficient method to quantify secondary bone healing response. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Myostatin (GDF-8) Deficiency Increases Fracture Callus Size, Sox-5 Expression, and Callus Bone Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Kellum, Ethan; Starr, Harlan; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Immel, David; Fulzele, Sadanand; Wenger, Karl; Hamrick, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and mice lacking myostatin show increased muscle mass. We have previously shown that myostatin deficiency increases bone strength and biomineralization throughout the skeleton, and others have demonstrated that myostatin is expressed during the earliest phase of fracture repair. In order to determine the role of myostatin in fracture callus morphogenesis, we studied fracture healing in mice lacking myostatin. Adult wild-type ...

  6. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchardt, A.J.; Wagner, A.A.; Basse, P.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral hyperplastic callus formation as a complication of fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. The clinical and radiographic findings and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchardt, A.J. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)); Wagner, A.A. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)); Basse, P. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of bilateral hyperplastic callus formation as a complication of fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. The clinical and radiographic findings and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.).

  8. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Establishment of the callus ... study provided an efficient way for E. angustifolia cell suspension culture to produce secondary metabolite. .... was also observed that in these treatments the stem.

  9. GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, M; Nakano, Y; Kitaoka, S [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U-/sup 14/C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also.

  10. Establishment of callus from Opuntia robusta Wendl., a wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coco santos

    2013-04-22

    Apr 22, 2013 ... plants produce tender cladodes, consumed as vegetable and fruits (prickly pear) .... The highest callus amount was obtained in media supplemented ... CO2 during carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions, improves the ...

  11. Submicrosecond linear pulse transformer for 800 kV voltage with modular low-inductance primary power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Popov, G. V.; Sedin, A. A.; Feduschak, V. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A pulsed power source with voltage amplitude up to 800 kV for fast charging (350–400 ns) of the forming line of a high-current nanosecond accelerator is developed. The source includes capacitive energy storage and a linear pulse transformer. The linear transformer consists of a set of 20 inductors with circular ferromagnetic cores surrounded by primary windings inside of which a common stock adder of voltage with film-glycerol insulation is placed. The primary energy storage consists of ten modules, each of which is a low-inductance assembly of two capacitors with a capacitance of 0.35 μF and one gas switch mounted in the same frame. The total energy stored in capacitors is 5.5 kJ at the operating voltage of 40 kV. According to test results, the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the source are the following: shock capacitance = 17.5 nF, inductance = 2 μH, resistance = 3.2 Ω.

  12. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F.; Karbowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.)

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of callus culture and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The callus culture extract (CCE) gave the lowest MIC value of 0.78 mg/ mL for most of the bacteria and fungi and the lowest MBC values of 0.78 mg/ mL and 1.56 mg/ mL against bacteria and fungi, respectively. ... Keywords: Crotalaria retusa; In vitro propagation; Callus culture; Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity ...

  14. Short primary linear drive designed for synchronous and induction operation mode with on-board energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Neto, Tobias Rafael

    2012-06-28

    guide way (induction rail or stationary magnets), and the energy and information should be transmitted contactless to the active vehicle. Regarding the features of the material handling application, the short or long primary topology can be used. Short primary linear drives on passive track are advantageous in material handling applications, where high precision, moderate dynamic, very long track and closed paths are required. Nevertheless, depending on the requirements of the section, the costs can be reduced considerably by using a simple induction rail at the long transporting sections, instead of permanent magnets on the track. Therefore, in this thesis a combined operation of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) and linear induction motor (LIM) is applied to operate the short primary as vehicle, avoiding adjustment or releasing of the material during the drive cycle. In summary, the passive track will consist of two section types: a high thrust force section (processing station) with PMLSM and a low thrust force section with LIM (transporting section). To the author's knowledge, using two operation modes (PMLSM / LIM) in the same drive is a new approach. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of employing the short primary linear motor for a flexible manufacturing system, in which a contactless energy transmission provides the basic power and an ultracapacitor (UC) storage system provides the peak power. The system uses a bidirectional DC-DC converter between the ultracapacitor bank and the DC-link, to make sure that the ultracapacitor can store the braking energy and supply the peak power demanded by the active vehicle. A control strategy has been developed for controlling the ultracapacitor to deliver the peak of power, to charge, to protect against overvoltage and to recover the energy generated when the vehicle is braking. A control strategy for the transition between the two operation modes (PMLSM / LIM

  15. Experimental study upon the effect of irradiation on callus formation of fracture. Observation of vascular alteration and callus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, F [Nippon Dental Coll., Tokyo

    1981-02-01

    Irradiation effects on callus formation after bone fracture were studied in rats with fractured right lower extremity. Follow-up study was continued for 112 days since 3000 rad was irradiated to the fractured site 3 days after bone fracture. Callus formation was noted in both of the outer and inner part (bone marrow) of the diaphysis before 14 days after bone fracture, but it was slow and sparse compared with that of non-irradiated group. Callus formation tended to disappear gradually from the outside of the diaphysis after 28 days after bone fracture. Strong disturbance was found in the surrounding vascular system at this time. Inside of the diaphysis, callus formation was restricted the end of the fracture, where lamellar calluses fused together. Changes in vascular system remained until 56 days after bone fracture. Vascular distribution was most dense 28 days after bone fracture. In many of the calluses which have established fusion, findings suggested excessive calcification in the trabeculae. Vascular distribution at this time was sparse, vascular formation was markedly suppressed in the bone marrow, and very little vascular formation was found in the fractured edges of the bone.

  16. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S. S.; Mozdarani, H.; Rezaei Tavirani, M.; Heydari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  17. Study on delineation of tumor volume of primary locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jinhua; Dong Shi; Jin Feng; Wu Weili; Gan Jiaying; Chen Haixia; Li Yuanyuan; Gong Xiuyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANC) according to imageological changes before and after induction chemotherapy (IC) in order to decrease high dose area and protect normal tissue better. Methods: Between Mar 2010 to Jan 2011, 11 patients with LANC were enrolled and treated with TPF regimen followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, target volumes were delineated based on fused CT imaging before and after IC following project determination. Tumor target volumes after and before IC were respectively delineated according to imaging tumor residues and were overlaid by CTV nx in order to ensure radical doses for the imaging tumor volume before IC, the resulting differences of tumor target volumes of IC before and after were measured and analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Before and after IC, the average volumes of GTV nx were respectively 44.72 cm 3 and 28.87 (t=3.89, P=0.003), the average volumes of GTV nd were respectively 32.76 cm 3 and 19.82 cm 3 (t=2.47, P=0.033), the volumes of maximum dose area in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball decreased (t=2.93-4.59, all P<0.05). Conclusions: LANC treated by 3 cycle TPF regimen followed by IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy shows significant shrinkage of tumor volume. The volume of high dose region which caused by normally recovered tissues were decreased by re-delineation of target volume in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball of CT images after IC. (authors)

  18. Mutation induction in γ-irradiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells and molecular analysis of the HPRT- mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Hei, Tom K.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined various radiobiological parameters using commercially-available primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, which can be subcultured more than 20 population doublings, and have established the mutation system in order to characterize the molecular changes in γ-irradiated primary cells. The survival curve, obtained after irradiation of cells with 137 Cs γ-rays, indicates that the D 0 , D q , and n values are 1.34 Gy, 1.12 Gy, and 2.3, respectively. The induction of HPRT - mutation was dose-dependent and the mutant fraction increased in a non-linear fashion. Since the doubling number of NHBE cells is limited, DNA was extracted directly from the single mutant colonies and alteration in the HPRT gene locus was analyzed using multiplex PCR technique. Among spontaneous mutants, the proportion with total and partial deletions of the gene was 10.0% (2/20) and 60.0% (12/20), respectively, while 30.0% (6/20) did not have any detectable changes in the nine exons examined. On the other hand, the fraction of total deletion increased by more than 2-fold among mutants induced by γ-rays in that 26.3% (10/38) of them showed the total gene deletions. Twenty-five out of 38 γ-induced mutants (65.8%) had partial deletions and 3 mutants (7.9%) had no detectable alteration. The present results showed that γ-irradiation efficiently induced HPRT gene mutation in primary human epithelial cells and that most of the induced mutants suffered larger deletions compared to that observed in spontaneous mutants. This system provides a useful tool for determination of mutagenicity and understanding the molecular mechanisms of environmental carcinogens in primary human bronchial cells

  19. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia; Guerra, Marcelo; Colaco, Waldeciro; Meunier, Isabelle; Camara, Terezinha R.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F 1 ) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F 2 ) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 5.0 mg L -1 KIN and 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 1.0 mg L -1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  20. Influence of auxins combinations on accumulation of reserpine in the callus of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, S; Kumari, B D Ranjitha

    2007-11-01

    Reserpine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used to treat hypertension because of its hypotensive property and psychiatric disorders because of its tranquilizing effect. Protocol has been standardized to enhance the synthesis of reserpine in leaf derived calli of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. by adjusting the auxins combinations in the medium consisting of MS nutrient salts and B5 vitamins. Auxins such as naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were used in 1-5 microM concentration along with 9 microM concentration of 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), which was found suitable for callus induction. The combination of (2,4-D) with NAA had been proved to accumulate maximum amount of reserpine followed by 2,4-D with IBA. The IAA with 2,4-D combination yielded very less amount of reserpine than the other combinations and 9 microM 2,4-D alone. The results suggest that there may be synergetic effect of NAA with 2,4-D and IBA with 2,4-D for increase in the biomass and reserpine accumulation and antagonistic effect of IAA with 2,4-D for the above said factors in the callus.

  1. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  2. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. X-ray induction of immortalization in primary rat embryo cells associated with and without tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, E.; Oberley, L.W.; Guernsey, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures of primary rat embryo fibroblasts were irradiated with X-rays (3 Gy). After 14 days the majority of colonies in both irradiated and control plates had senesced. Surviving clones were ring isolated from irradiated and control plates and grown in culture. A phase of rapid proliferation after isolation was observed, followed by a decline (crisis) leading to senescence. Several clones from the irradiated plates were able to recover from this crisis and gave rise to continuous cell lines, while all colonies from control plates senesced. Three types of cells have been identified among the irradiated survivors: (1) immortal fully transformed, capable of growth in soft agar (Aga/sup +/) and tumor formation, (2) immortal normal, not able to grow in soft agar (Aga/sup -/) and nontumorigenic, and (3) immortal Aga/sup -/ cells which progressed to malignancy (Aga/sup +/, tumorigenicity) after further sub-culture. These data support the suggestion that X-rays can induce immortalization of mammalian cells in the absence of tumorigenicity, in addition to (and separate from) the fully tumorigenetic state

  4. Primary induction of vitellogenin mRNA in the rooster by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A T; Deeley, R G; Gordon, J I; Udell, D S; Mullinix, K P; Goldberger, R F

    1978-01-01

    We have studied the kinetics of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in rooster liver after a primary injection of 17beta-estradiol. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA have been determined both by hybridization of total cellular RNA to vitellogenin cDNA and by translation of vitellogenin mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system. The results obtained by both methods of analysis are in good agreement and indicate that vitellogenin mRNA is present in the liver of normal roosters at a level of 0-5 molecules per liver cell and increases in amount during the 3 days following injection of estrogen, reaching a level of almost 6000 molecules per cell at the peak of the response. The level of vitellogenin mRNA declined exponentially during the next 14 days with a half-life of 29 hr, reaching a level of less than 10 molecules per cell at 17 days after injection of the hormone. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA after stimulation with estrogen have been correlated with the in vivo rate of synthesis of the vitellogenin polypeptide. The results indicate that the rate of vitellogenin synthesis is closely correlated with the level of vitellogenin mRNA. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that vitellogenin mRNA does not exist in the liver in an untranslated form after withdrawal from estrogen. PMID:273910

  5. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  6. Effects of auxins and cytokinins on tomato callus from anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on growth substance requirements of tomato callus derived from anthers for culture in vitro. Linsmaier and Skoog (1965 medium was used with various levels of auxins (IAA and NAA and cytokinins (K and BAP. The results show that cytokinin is an absolute requirement for callus growth irrespective of the auxin level. The optimum concentration of auxin in combination with cytokinin was found to be 5 μM of NAA or 25 μM of IAA, with 5 μM of K or BAP. Callus growth on media with NAA and cytokinin was superior to that on IAA, amounting to 6.05 g per piece on medium with 5 μM of NAA and BAP. Tissues grown on this medium have the highest water content. At the onset of culture the tissue is characterized by weak growth and attains its maximal increase in fresh weight after 6 weeks.

  7. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  8. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Karbowski, A. [Orthopaedische Abtl., Krankenhaus der Augustinerinnen, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  9. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  10. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifullah Mohammed

    Full Text Available Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13 and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW and Echioidinin (ED. Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l–1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26488879

  12. Regeneration from embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ehab

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... Micropropagation, through seed culture has been studied in C. martinii ... Effect of 2,4-D on total and embryogenic callus production ... ethanol for 1 min, followed by immersion in 20% Clorox (NaOCl ... Three flasks from each treatment were cultured. ... shaker at 110 rpm. ...... Plants cultivated in bioreactor of.

  13. Observation of antioxidant activity of leaves, callus and suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound was found in Justicia gendarussa via total phenolic content (TPC) and α,α-diphenyl-β-pycrilhydrazil hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. The assays were applied on aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves, callus culture and cell suspension culture.

  14. Explant age, auxin concentrations and media type affect callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of explant age of oil palm (Elaeis huineensis) embryo axes, 15 and 18 weeks after anthesis (WAA), media type (Eeuwens and Murashige and Skoog) supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D on callus production employing standard in vitro techniques were investigated. The results of the study showed ...

  15. Production of friable embryogenic callus and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Generation of embryogenic callus is a key step in genetic engineering of many crop species, including cassava. ... CBSD is caused by two Ipomovirus; Cassava .... through a 1 mm2 pore-sized steel wire mesh using a spatula.

  16. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  17. Sugar alcohols-induced oxidative metabolism in cotton callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) may cause oxidative damage in plants if used in higher concentration. Our present experiment was undertaken to study physiological and metabolic responses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) callus against mannitol and sorbitol higher doses. Both markedly declined mean values of ...

  18. Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calli obtained from two sugarcane cultivars (R570 and CP59-73) were exposed to different osmotic stress intensities followed by a period of stress relief. Relative rate growth, callus water content and changes in organic and inorganic solutes were determined at the end of stress and relief periods. After the stress period, ...

  19. Stimulation of reserpine biosynthesis in the callus of Rauvolfia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So enhancing this alkaloid in the already available system is a beneficial approach. Tryptophan is the starting material in the biosynthesis of reserpine. Callus was induced from leaf explants of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. on MS medium supplemented with the combination of 9 μM 2,4-D and 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l tryptophan.

  20. Metabolomic homeostasis shifts after callus formation and shoot regeneration in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Ray, Kamalika; Sadhna, Sadhna; Pandey, Arun Kumar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Plants can regenerate from a variety of tissues on culturing in appropriate media. However, the metabolic shifts involved in callus formation and shoot regeneration are largely unknown. The metabolic profiles of callus generated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cotyledons and that of shoot regenerated from callus were compared with the pct1-2 mutant that exhibits enhanced polar auxin transport and the shr mutant that exhibits elevated nitric oxide levels. The transformation from cotyledon to callus involved a major shift in metabolite profiles with denser metabolic networks in the callus. In contrast, the transformation from callus to shoot involved minor changes in the networks. The metabolic networks in pct1-2 and shr mutants were distinct from wild type and were rewired with shifts in endogenous hormones and metabolite interactions. The callus formation was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of metabolites involved in cell wall lignification and cellular immunity. On the contrary, the levels of monoamines were upregulated in the callus and regenerated shoot. The callus formation and shoot regeneration were accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid in wild type and mutants. The transformation to the callus and also to the shoot downregulated LST8 and upregulated TOR transcript levels indicating a putative linkage between metabolic shift and TOR signalling pathway. The network analysis indicates that shift in metabolite profiles during callus formation and shoot regeneration is governed by a complex interaction between metabolites and endogenous hormones. PMID:28481937

  1. Callus induction and plant regeneration of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5 via anther culture Indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir do cultivo in vitro de anteras de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rabello Brasileiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Different growth regulators combinations were tested on the production of anther callus in tomato cultivar IPA 5. Calli were induced on media supplemented with 1.0mgL-1 gibberellic acid (GA3, 0.05mgL-1 alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA plus 0.1mgL-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 1.0mgL-1 BAP plus 1.0mgL-1 NAA. The medium containing 1.0mgL-1 BAP and 1.0mgL-1 NAA produced the highest calli frequency, and promoted plant regeneration by indirect organogenesis, when calli were transferred to 0.01mgL-1 BAP and 0.001mgL-1 NAA. Plants regenerated presented tetraploid cells and rare diploid cells. These tetraploid plants could be used as source for further obtainment of trisomic lines, for the purpose of genic localization studies and protein compounds analysis.Diferentes combinações de reguladores de crescimento foram testadas na produção de calos a partir do cultivo de anteras de tomate cultivar IPA 5. Calos foram induzidos no meio suplementado com 1,0mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 + 0,05mgL-1 de alfa-ácido naftalenoacético (ANA + 0,1mgL-1 de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, ou com 1,0mgL-1 de BAP + 1,0mgL-1 de ANA. O meio contendo 1,0mgL-1 de BAP e 1,0mgL-1 de ANA produziu a maior freqüência de calos e promoveu a regeneração de plantas através de organogênese indireta, quando os calos foram transferidos para 0,01mgL-1 de BAP e 0,001mgL-1 de ANA. As plantas regeneradas apresentaram células tetraplóides e, raramente, células diplóides. Estas plantas tetraplóides podem servir como fonte para posterior obtenção de linhagens trissômicas, para serem utilizadas em estudos de localização gênica e em análises de compostos protéicos.

  2. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv Coker-312 callus culture was assessed in terms of its usefulness as a system for investigating the effect of nitrates from different chemical compounds of nitrogen on embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. Both sources and ...

  3. Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Hennicke G.; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Schlatter, Josef; Wuerth, Kirsten; Janzowski, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic/-carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by several Aspergillus- and Penicillium-strains. Humans are exposed to OTA via food contamination, a causal relationship of OTA to human endemic Balkan nephropathy is still under debate. Since DNA-adducts of OTA or its metabolites could not be identified unambiguously, its carcinogenic effectiveness might be related to secondary effects, such as oxidative cell damage or cell proliferation. In this study, OTA mediated induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity (necrosis, growth inhibition, apoptosis) and modulation of glutathione were investigated in cell lines (V79, CV-1) and primary rat kidney cells. After 24 h incubation, viability of V79 cells was strongly decreased by OTA concentrations >2.5 μmol/L, whereas CV-1 cells were clearly less sensitive. Strong growth inhibition occurred in both cell lines (IC 50 ∼2 μmol/L). Apoptosis, detected with an immunochemical test and with flow cytometry, was induced by >1 μmol/L OTA. Oxidative DNA damage, detected by comet assay after additional treatment with repair enzymes, was induced in all cell systems already at five-fold lower concentrations. Glutathione in CV-1 cells was depleted after 1 h incubation (>100 μmol/L). In contrast, an increase was measured after 24 h incubation (>0.5 μmol/L). In conclusion, OTA induces oxidative DNA damage at low, not yet cytotoxic concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage might initiate cell transformation eventually in connection with proliferative response following cytotoxic cell death. Both events might represent pivotal factors in the chain of cellular events leading into nephro-carcinogenicity of OTA

  4. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  5. [Flavonoid glycosides from callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Dao; Duan, Rui-Gang; Zou, Jian-Hua; Li, Jun-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Yue; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Qiu-Hong; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, preparative thin-layer chromatography, and preparative HPLC, were employed to isolate the chemical constituents from callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis. Structures of the compounds were elucidated based on UV, IR, MS and NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Totally, seven flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the callus cultures and identified as kaempferol-3-O-[6″-(3″'-methoxy)-malonyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2), kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), isoquercitrin(5), quercetin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6) and kaempferol-3-(6″-malonyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(7), respectively.All these compounds were isolated from callus cultures of D. versipellis for the first time.Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were firstly obtained from plant materials of D. versipellis, and compound 1 was a new compound. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  7. Morphohistobiochemical characteristics of embryogenic and nonembryogenic callus cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Debata, B K; Mukherjee, P S; Malik, S K

    2001-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas callus culture raised in a medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) alone or 2,4-D in combination with benzyl adenine, were found to be embryogenic. Supplementation of exogenous chemicals, such as 5 g/l NaCI or 0.7 g/l proline together with a mild dose of 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D, enhanced somatic embryogenesis significantly in all the genotypes tested. Morphological, growth, physiological, histological, and biochemical characteristics of the embryogenic callus were different from the nonembryogenic callus. The former was compact, slow growing, and nodular compared with the fast growing, fragile, nonembryogenic callus. The embryogenic callus tissue had more dry matter, protein and reducing sugar contents compared with the less embryogenic callus. The somatic embryogenic response remained steady in the cultures for up to 96 weeks.

  8. Study on the secondary metabolic regulation of callus of Panax quinquefolium L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meiping; Wang Yi; Sun Chunyu; Li Xianggao

    2003-01-01

    The effects of precursors with different kind, concentration, growth phase, time and different ATP, nicotinic acid concentration on the callus growth and saponin formation with the buds of Panax quinquefolium L. has been studied. The results showed that 0.1% mevalonic acid inhibited the callus growth but promoted the saponin formation; L-leucine of 100 mg/L had no obvious effects on callus growth, but promoted the saponin formation; Mg(Ac) 2 of 444 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin content. The optimum time for precursor feeding is at the beginning of regeneration. The optimum time for mevalonic acid is 6h; ATP of 160 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin formation. Nicotinic acid of 1.0 mg/L promoted callus growth and saponin formation. With 4000 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays, the saponin content has been increased 1 time compared with nonirradiation

  9. Callus features of regenerate fracture cases in femoral lengthening in achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devmurari, Kamlesh N.; Song, Hae Ryong; Modi, Hitesh N.; Venkatesh, K.P.; Ju, Kim Seung; Song, Sang Heon

    2010-01-01

    We studied the callus features seen in cases of regenerate fracture in femoral lengthening using a monolateral fixator in achondroplasia to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the probability of callus fracture. The radiographs of 28 cases of femoral lengthening in 14 patients, 14 cases of callus fracture, and 14 cases without callus fracture were retrospectively analyzed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The average lengthening of 9.4 cm (range 7.5-11.8 cm) was achieved, which was 41% (range 30-55%) of the original length and the average timing of callus fracture was 470 days (range 440-545 days) after surgery in the callus fracture group. While the average lengthening of 9.1 cm (range 8-9.7 cm) was achieved, this was 30% (range 28-32%) of the original length in the group of patients without callus fracture. The callus was atypically shaped, there was a 48% average (range 30-72%) reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, and a lucent pathway was present in all cases of regenerate fracture. A lucent pathway was seen in all fracture cases with concave, lateral, and atypical shapes, and there was more than 30% lengthening and 30% reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, which are the warning signs for regenerate fractures. These signs help the surgeon to predict the outcome and guide him in planning for any additional interventions. The Ru Li classification is an effective method for the evaluation of the chance of callus fracture. (orig.)

  10. Callus features of regenerate fracture cases in femoral lengthening in achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devmurari, Kamlesh N.; Song, Hae Ryong; Modi, Hitesh N.; Venkatesh, K.P.; Ju, Kim Seung; Song, Sang Heon [Korea University Medical College, Institute for Rare Diseases and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    We studied the callus features seen in cases of regenerate fracture in femoral lengthening using a monolateral fixator in achondroplasia to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the probability of callus fracture. The radiographs of 28 cases of femoral lengthening in 14 patients, 14 cases of callus fracture, and 14 cases without callus fracture were retrospectively analyzed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The average lengthening of 9.4 cm (range 7.5-11.8 cm) was achieved, which was 41% (range 30-55%) of the original length and the average timing of callus fracture was 470 days (range 440-545 days) after surgery in the callus fracture group. While the average lengthening of 9.1 cm (range 8-9.7 cm) was achieved, this was 30% (range 28-32%) of the original length in the group of patients without callus fracture. The callus was atypically shaped, there was a 48% average (range 30-72%) reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, and a lucent pathway was present in all cases of regenerate fracture. A lucent pathway was seen in all fracture cases with concave, lateral, and atypical shapes, and there was more than 30% lengthening and 30% reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, which are the warning signs for regenerate fractures. These signs help the surgeon to predict the outcome and guide him in planning for any additional interventions. The Ru Li classification is an effective method for the evaluation of the chance of callus fracture. (orig.)

  11. Effects of Low Dose DD Radiation on Callus Growth of Lithospermum erythrorhizon S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.; Kim, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of low dose DD-radiation on the callus growth of Lithospermum erythrorhizon S. cultured on different medium and lighting condition was investigated. The 8 Gy irradiation stimulated callus growth on LS medium supplemented with BA 2 mg/L and NAA 2mg/L, however, the growth of callus was more effective on LS medium supplemented with BA 1 mg/L and NAA 1 mg/L under 16 hrs day light

  12. Locked plating of distal femur fractures leads to inconsistent and asymmetric callus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Trevor J; Henderson, Chris E; Madey, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Dan C; Marsh, J Lawrence; Bottlang, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Locked plating constructs may be too stiff to reliably promote secondary bone healing. This study used a novel imaging technique to quantify periosteal callus formation of distal femur fractures stabilized with locking plates. It investigated the effects of cortex-to-plate distance, bridging span, and implant material on periosteal callus formation. Retrospective cohort study. One Level I and one Level II trauma center. Sixty-four consecutive patients with distal femur fractures (AO types 32A, 33A-C) stabilized with periarticular locking plates. Osteosynthesis using indirect reduction and bridge plating with periarticular locking plates. Periosteal callus size on lateral and anteroposterior radiographs. Callus size varied from 0 to 650 mm2. Deficient callus (20 mm2 or less) formed in 52%, 47%, and 37% of fractures at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postsurgery, respectively. Callus formation was asymmetric, whereby the medial cortex had on average 64% more callus (P=0.001) than the anterior or posterior cortices. A longer bridge span correlated minimally with an increased callus size at Week 6 (P=0.02), but no correlation was found at Weeks 12 and 24 postsurgery. Compared with stainless steel plates, titanium plates had 76%, 71%, and 56% more callus at Week 6 (P=0.04), Week 12 (P=0.03), and Week 24 (P=0.09), respectively. Stabilization of distal femur fractures with periarticular locking plates can cause inconsistent and asymmetric formation of periosteal callus. A larger bridge span only minimally improves callus formation. The more flexible titanium plates enhanced callus formation compared with stainless steel plates.

  13. Role for therapeutic drug monitoring during induction therapy with TNF antagonists in IBD: evolution in the definition and management of primary nonresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Gils, Ann; Rutgeerts, Paul; Levesque, Barrett G; Vermeire, Séverine; Sandborn, William J; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2015-01-01

    : Primary nonresponse and primary nonremission are important limitations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists, occurring in 10% to 40% and 50% to 80% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. The magnitude of primary nonresponse differs between phase III clinical trials and cohort studies, indicating differences, e.g., in definition, patient population or blinding. The causes of nonresponse can be attributed to the drug (pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity), the patient (genetics, disease activity), the disease (type, location, severity), and/or the treatment strategy (dosing regimen, combination therapy). Primary nonresponse has been attributed to "non-TNF-driven disease" which is an overly simplified and potentially misleading approach to the problem. Many patients with primary nonresponse could successfully be treated with dose optimization during the induction phase or switching to another TNF antagonist. Therefore, primary nonresponse is frequently not a non-TNF-driven disease. Recent studies from rheumatoid arthritis and preliminary data from inflammatory bowel disease evaluating therapeutic drug monitoring have suggested that early measurement of drug and anti-drug antibody concentrations could help to define primary nonresponse and rationalize patient management of this problem. Moreover, a modeling approach including pharmacological parameters and patient-related covariants could potentially be predictive for response to the treatment. We describe an overview of this evolution in thinking, underpinned by previous findings, and assess the potential role of early measurement of drug and antidrug antibody concentrations in the definition and management of primary nonresponse.

  14. Investigation of radiosensitivity and growth dynamics for callus tissues Crepis Capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsek, Eh.; Glinkova, E.; Ismailova, Eh.N.

    1983-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of three kinds of callus tissues (Crepis capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris) manifested in the change of fresh weight after γ-irradiation has been investigated. Irradiated callus arowth showed decrease with increasing doses. It is shown that the radiosensitivity of ''young'' callus tissues is determined by the kind of the plant. Callus of Phaseolis has been found to have the highest radioresistance, while that of Crepis has the lowest one. Radiosensitivity of ''old'' callus tissues is the same for all kinds. Potential mechanism of radiosensitivity of callus tissUes are discussed

  15. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  16. Factors Associated With Callus in Patients with Diabetes, Focused on Plantar Shear Stress During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Masako; Mori, Taketoshi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Effect of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomassa and flavonoid content of callus culture from leaves of Gynura procumbens Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisa, Aryana; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to know the effect of concentration of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomass and flavonoid content of callus cultures from leaves of sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens Merr.). This study was experimental research with complete randomized design. Callus induction was treated in MS medium supplemented with NAA 2 mg/L, BAP 1 mg/L and sucrose concentration (10 g/L, 30 g/L and 50 g/L) respectively were combined with erythrose-4-phosphate (0 µM, 2,5 µM and 5 µM) and phenylalanine (0 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L), each treatment were repeated four times. After six weeks of culture, fresh and dry weight of calli were measured and extracted with ethanol absolut. Crude extract ethanolic of callus was analyzed used by a modified colorimetric with spectrophotometer method. The best yield of calli biomass (0,672 ± 0,112 gram of fresh weight and 0,033 ± 0,009 gram of dry weight) was obtained in treatment of 30 g/L sucrose of and 5 µM erythrose-4-phosphate. The highest total flavonoid content was obtained of calli treated with 30 g/L of sucrose and 3 mg/L of phenylalanine (3633,4 ppm quercetin/gram dry weight and 15777,8 ppm kaempferol/gram dry weight).

  18. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum as a potent elicitor in production of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol in peanut calluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Hua; Lin, Yi-Ju; Kuo, Chang-Hsin; Ku, Kuo-Lung

    2010-09-08

    Phytoalexins t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol, the well-known health-promoting active components in plants, are secondary metabolites generated upon biotic or abiotic stresses. We have reported UV-irradiated peanut callus is a potent means to produce these compounds (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 3877). In this work, the effects of fungi and chemical elicitors on induction of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol were examined. Results showed the investigated fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Reishi Ganoderma lucidum were generally more effective than chemical stress methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and sucrose. As high as 15.46+/-9.85 microg of t-resveratrol and 6.93+/-2.03 microg of t-piceatannol could be elicited in each gram of callus by sterilized G. lucidum mycelium (80 mg). Although much more sterilized G. ludicum mycelia was required to induce similar level of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol in comparison to the sterilized B. theobromae mycelia (1 mg), uptake of the G. ludicum mycelium may provide a variety of health-promoting effects. Our findings suggest G. ludicum mycelium-treated peanut callus is a good source of bioactive components.

  19. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  20. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  1. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  2. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  3. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D. The gymnemic acid content increased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D along with NaCl. Key words: In vitro, Gymnema sylvestre, callus culture, gymnemic acid, salt ...

  4. Interaction of callus selection media and stress duration for in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callus culture is a novel approach addressing cultured cells as selection units independent of whole plant. Natural variations for drought tolerance existing among cell lines can be exploited in vitro in the presence of suitable concentration of osmoticum and stress duration. The study was aimed to standardized callus ...

  5. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Amemiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation and fast neutrons on the growth of Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt) A. Gray callus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Wajda, L.; Korzonek, M.; Polska Akademia Nauk, Krakow. Inst. Fizjologii Roslin)

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of the callus of Haplopappus gracilis to gamma radiation and fast neutrons was studied. High doses of radiation cause inhibition of callus growth. At small doses the effect is less pronounced. Stimulation of callus growth was seen. Apart from morphological changes, ionizing radiations lowered the fresh weight ratio of the callus. The RBE value for 5.5 MeV neutrons depended on the dose rate of radiation and the combination of growth medium. (author)

  7. Proliferation Potential of 18-Month-Old Callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. De Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS media, 32.22 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g. Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 μM was economically better.

  8. Strontium Is Incorporated into the Fracture Callus but Does Not Influence the Mechanical Strength of Healing Rat Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Olsen, Jakob; Birkedal, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    in callus bone mineral content (P\\0.05). However, after 8 weeks of healing, no difference was found in either callus volume or bone mineral content. SrR did not influence maximum load or stiffness of the fractures after either 3 or 8 weeks of healing. EDX showed that Sr was incorporated into the callus...

  9. Outcome of children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) experiencing primary induction failure in the AIEOP AML 2002/01 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarello, Paola; Fagioli, Franca; Basso, Giuseppe; Putti, Maria C; Berger, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Rizzari, Carmelo; Menna, Giuseppe; Masetti, Riccardo; Locatelli, Franco

    2015-11-01

    Paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who fail induction due to primary resistance to chemotherapy account for a significant proportion of cases and have a particularly dismal prognosis. We report the clinical and biological data, and final outcome of 48 paediatric patients with primary-resistant AML enrolled in the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica AML 2002/01 clinical trial. These patients had a significantly higher white blood cell count at diagnosis compared to other AML patients. Cytogenetic and molecular features did not differ between patients with primary induction failure and patients allocated to the high-risk group. For the whole patient population, the probability of overall survival, event-free survival (EFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 21·8% ± 6·2, 20·4% ± 5·9, and 49·5% ± 11·3, respectively. Twenty-eight (58%) patients received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); 3 were autologous and 25 were allogeneic. Patients who underwent HSCT had improved EFS (31·2% vs. 5%, P < 0·0001). Only one of the 20 patients who did not receive HSCT is alive and disease free. The 19 patients in complete remission at time of HSCT showed significantly better DFS than the 9 with active disease (46% vs. 0%, P = 0·02). This study represents one of the largest series with long-term follow up of paediatric AML patients with primary refractory disease. Children who underwent transplantation had an encouraging long-term outcome. Disease recurrence remains the major cause of treatment failure; a better understanding of the disease biology is desirable to develop more effective treatment strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Control of gravitropic orientation. I. Non-vertical orientation by primary roots of maize results from decay of competence for orthogravitropic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Clifford E.; Pickard, Barbara G.

    2004-01-01

    Plant organs may respond to gravity by vertical (orthogravitropic), oblique (plagiogravitropic) or horizontal (diagravitropic) growth. Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) provide a good system for studying such behaviours because they are reportedly capable of displaying all three responses. In current work using maize seedlings of the Silver Queen cultivar, stabilisation of growth at an oblique orientation was commonplace. Hypothetically, plagiogravitropism may be accomplished either by a process we call graded orthogravitropism or by hunting about a sensed non-vertical setpoint. In graded orthotropism primary bending is unidirectional and depends on facilitative stimuli that determine its extent. The hallmark of the setpoint mechanism is restorative curvature of either sign following a displacement; both diagravitropism and orthogravitropism are based on setpoints. Roots settled in a plagiogravitropic orientation were tested with various illumination and displacement protocols designed to distinguish between these two hypotheses. The tests refuted the setpoint hypothesis and supported that of graded orthotropism. No evidence of diagravitropism could be found, thus, earlier claims were likely based on inadequately controlled observations of graded orthotropism. We propose that orthotropism is graded by the sequential action of dual gravity receptors: induction of a vectorial gravitropic response requires gravitational induction of a separate facilitative response, whose decay in the absence of fresh stimuli can brake gravitropism at plagiotropic angles.

  11. Embryogenesis in gamma-irradiated habituated ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange as affected by auxin and by tissue age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1977-01-01

    The response of habituated embryogenic ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange, Citrus sinensis, to gamma irradiation was studied. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when only callus, but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture modified the response to irradiation as regards optimal dose for embryogenesis and radiosensitivity. Radiation intensities also modified callus response to radiation dose. Addition of unirradiated IAA to irradiated callus cultures increased embryo formation and furthered development of embryos into plantlets, with some combinations of radiation dose and IAA concentration. Addition of IAA also decreased radiosensitivity at high doses (32 kR). (author)

  12. MRT letter: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic imaging of soft callus formation in fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Lauren Nicole Miller; de Bakker, Chantal Marie-Jeanne; Lusic, Hrvoje; Gerstenfeld, Louis Charles; Grinstaff, Mark W; Morgan, Elise Feng-I

    2012-01-01

    Formation of a cartilaginous soft callus at the site of a bone fracture is a pivotal stage in the healing process. Noninvasive, or even nondestructive, imaging of soft callus formation can be an important tool in experimental and pre-clinical studies of fracture repair. However, the low X-ray attenuation of cartilage renders the soft callus nearly invisible in radiographs. This study utilized a recently developed, cationic, iodinated contrast agent in conjunction with micro-computed tomography to identify cartilage in fracture calluses in the femora of C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice. Fracture calluses were scanned before and after incubation in the contrast agent. The set of pre-incubation images was registered against and then subtracted from the set of post-incubation images, resulting in a three-dimensional map of the locations of cartilage in the callus, as labeled by the contrast agent. This map was then compared to histology from a previous study. The results showed that the locations where the contrast agent collected in relatively high concentrations were similar to those of the cartilage. The contrast agent also identified a significant difference between the two strains of mice in the percentage of the callus occupied by cartilage, indicating that this method of contrast-enhanced computed tomography may be an effective technique for nondestructive, early evaluation of fracture healing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  14. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  15. Uptake and fate of IAA in apple callus tissue using IAA-1-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.; Lavee, S.

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of young growing and older non-growing apple callus tissues in a medium containing IAA-1- 14 C resulted in rapid disappearance of the IAA. In old calluses (3 months), the major portion of IAA was lost by decarboxylation (90% after 4 hr) and very little (1.4%) was maintained by the tissue. In young calluses, after 4 hr in light, decarboxylation reached 20% and absorption 35% of the labelled IAA. Some decomposition of IAA was caused by photolysis and autoclaving (19% and 3%, respectively) but the final distribution of radioactivity was not affected. Factors such as sucrose concentration in the incubation medium, distilled water as incubation medium, and cutting of the callus did not affect tissue behavior. Special precautions were taken to eliminate non-biological decomposition of IAA. Therefore, we believe that the rapid CO 2 evolution is of enzymatic nature. This theory is supported by the drop in decarboxylation after killing of the callus, and the increase of decarboxylation with age. No enzyme was secreted by the callus into the medium after 24 hr of incubation, and IAA decomposition in old tissues is done probably on the surface. Absorption of IAA increased with increasing callus size and decarboxylation decreased. (auth.)

  16. α(1) adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, actively contracts early rat rib fracture callus ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart J; Dooley, Philip C; McDonald, Aaron C; Djouma, Elvan; Schuijers, Johannes A; Ward, Alex R; Grills, Brian L

    2011-05-01

    Early, soft fracture callus that links fracture ends together is smooth muscle-like in nature. We aimed to determine if early fracture callus could be induced to contract and relax ex vivo by similar pathways to smooth muscle, that is, contraction via α(1) adrenergic receptor (α(1) AR) activation with phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation via β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2) AR) stimulation with terbutaline. A sensitive force transducer quantified 7 day rat rib fracture callus responses in modified Krebs-Henseliet (KH) solutions. Unfractured ribs along with 7, 14, and 21 day fracture calluses were analyzed for both α(1) AR and β(2) AR gene expression using qPCR, whilst 7 day fracture callus was examined via immunohistochemistry for both α(1) AR and β(2) AR- immunoreactivity. In 7 day callus, PE (10(-6)  M) significantly induced an increase in force that was greater than passive force generated in calcium-free KH (n = 8, mean 51% increase, 95% CI: 26-76%). PE-induced contractions in calluses were attenuated by the α(1) AR antagonist, prazosin (10(-6)  M; n = 7, mean 5% increase, 95% CI: 2-11%). Terbutaline did not relax callus. Gene expression of α(1) ARs was constant throughout fracture healing; however, β(2) AR expression was down-regulated at 7 days compared to unfractured rib (p contract. We propose that increased concentrations of α(1) AR agonists such as noradrenaline may tonically contract callus in vivo to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Mitochondria are the primary target in the induction of apoptosis by chiral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Qian, Chen; Hou, Xiao-Juan; Ji, Liang-Nian; Chao, Hui

    2014-03-01

    A series of novel chiral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (Δ-Ru1, Λ-Ru1, Δ-Ru2, Λ-Ru2, Δ-Ru3, Λ-Ru3) were synthesized and evaluated to determine their antiproliferative activities. Colocalization, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay studies showed that these ruthenium(II) complexes accumulated preferentially in the mitochondria and exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cells in vitro. The complex Δ-Ru1 is of particular interest because it was found to have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations comparable to those of cisplatin and better activity than cisplatin against a cisplatin-resistant cell line, A549-CP/R. Δ-Ru1 induced alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells, which involved the regulation of Bcl-2 family members and the activation of caspases. Taken together, these data suggest that Δ-Ru1 may be a novel mitochondria-targeting anticancer agent.

  18. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V

    2005-10-01

    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone.

  19. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  20. In vitro elicitation, isolation, and characterization of conessine biomolecule from Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. callus and its larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Gaurav; Das, Ram; Kumar, Ravindra; Agrawal, Veena

    2018-03-01

    In vitro elicitation of an important compound conessine has been done in the bark-derived callus culture of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. employing different elicitors. For induction of callus, green bark explants excised from field-grown plants were cultured on MS medium augmented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM) of various growth regulators such as BA, IBA, NAA, and 2,4-D either alone or in combinations. The maximum amount of conessine (458.18 ± 0.89 d μg/g dry wt.) was achieved in callus developed on MS medium supplemented with 5 μM BA and 5 μM 2,4-D through HPLC analysis. Elicitation in conessine content in the above callus was achieved employing a variety of organic (phenylalanine, tyrosine, chitosan, tryptophan, casein hydrolysate, proline, sucrose, and yeast extract) as well as inorganic elicitors (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 , As 2 O 3 , CuSO 4 , NaCl, and CdCl 2 ) in different concentrations. The optimum enhancement in conessine content (3518.58 ± 0.28 g  μg/g dry wt.) was seen at the highest concentration (200 mg/L) of phenylalanine. The enhancement was elicitor specific and dose dependent. The overall increment of the conessine content was seen in the order of phenylalanine > tryptophan > Pb(NO 3 ) 2 > sucrose > NaCl > As 2 O 3 > casein hydrolysate > CdCl 2 > chitosan > proline > yeast extract > CuSO 4 > tyrosine. The isolation and purification of conessine was done using methanol as a solvent system through column chromatography (CC) and TLC. The isolated compound was characterized by FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, and HRMS which confirmed with the structure of conessine. The bioassays conducted with the isolated compound revealed a strong larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi Liston with LC 50 and LC 90 values being 1.93 and 5.67 ppm, respectively, without harming the nontarget organism, Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Harada, after 48 h of treatment. This is our first report for the isolation and elicitation of conessine

  1. Rhein triggers apoptosis via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase-4 and intracellular calcium in primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KoraMagazi, Arouna [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dandan [Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yousef, Bashir; Guerram, Mounia [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yu, Feng, E-mail: yufengcpu14@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-04-22

    Rhein is an active component of rhubarb; a traditional Chinese medicine reported to induce apoptosis and cause liver toxicity. However, rhein's apoptotic-inducing effects, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action on hepatic cells need to be further explored. In the present study, rhein was found to trigger apoptosis in primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells as showed by annexin V/PI double staining assay and nuclear morphological changes demonstrated by Hoechst 33258 staining. Moreover, it was observed that the mechanism implicated in rhein-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent, presumably via ER-stress associated pathways, as illustrated by up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Meanwhile, caspase-4 as a hallmark of ER-stress, was also showed to be activated following by caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, rhein also promoted intracellular elevation of calcium that contributed in apoptosis induction. Interestingly, pre-treatment with calpain inhibitor I reduced the effects of rhein on apoptosis induction and JNK activation. These data suggested that rhein-induced apoptosis through ER-stress and elevated intracellular calcium level in HL-7702 cells. - Highlights: • Rhein triggers apoptotic cell death on primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells. • Rhein leads to caspase-4 activation in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein causes elevation of intracellular calcium concentrations in HL-7702 cells.

  2. Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towata, Tomomi [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Komizu, Yuji [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Suzu, Shinya [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ueoka, Ryuichi, E-mail: ueoka@life.sojo-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Okada, Seiji, E-mail: okadas@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}(EO){sub 21}) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells. HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death. These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

  3. Callus induction and regeneration efficiency of spring barley cultivars registered in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerhantová, V.; Ehrenbergerová, J.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 10 (2004), s. 456-462 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : immature zygotic embryos * auxin * 2,4-D-picloram Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  4. Further improvement of N6 medium for callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... bryos before or after transformation (Wang et al., 2009). Comparing to rice and ... regeneration, which heavily depends on several model inbred lines, such as ..... Tang FD, Liang YJ, Han SJ, Gong WG, Ding BY (2004). Effect of ... Wang K, Frame B, Ishida Y, Komari T (2009) Maize Genetic. Transformation.

  5. The Effect of Electric Field on Callus Induction with Rape Hypocotyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Holda, M.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    60c, 11/12 (2005), s. 876-882 ISSN 0939-5075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Electric Field * Rape * Growth Regulators Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2005

  6. The GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masao; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kitaoka, Shozaburo

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U- 14 C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also. (auth.)

  7. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrocky, I.; Seidl, G.; Grill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Callus culture development of two varieties of Tagetes erecta and carotenoid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Benítez-García

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: WF callus appeared to be a suitable candidate as a source of different carotenoids, and tested varieties could represent an alternative for further studies about in vitro pigment production.

  9. Embryogenic competence acquisition in sugarcane callus is associated with differential H+ pump abundance and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamani, Lucas Z; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Ramos, Alessandro C; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Thelen, Jay J; Silveira, Vanildo

    2018-06-22

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biological process in several plant species, including sugarcane. Proteomics approaches have shown that H + pumps are differentially regulated during somatic embryogenesis; however, the relationship between H + flux and embryogenic competence is still unclear. This work aimed to elucidate the association between extracellular H + flux and somatic embryo maturation in sugarcane. We performed a microsomal proteomics analysis and analyzed changes in extracellular H + flux and H + pump (P-H + -ATPase, V-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase) activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. A total of 657 proteins were identified, 16 of which were H + pumps. We observed that P-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase were more abundant in embryogenic callus. Compared with non-embryogenic callus, embryogenic callus showed higher H + influx, especially on maturation day 14, as well as higher H+ pump activity (mainly P-H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activity). H+-PPase appears to be the major H + pump in embryogenic callus during somatic embryo formation, functioning in both vacuole acidification and PPi homeostasis. These results provide evidence for an association between higher H + pump protein abundance and, consequently, higher H + flux and embryogenic competence acquisition in the callus of sugarcane, allowing for optimization of the somatic embryo conversion process by modulating the activities of these H + pumps.

  10. Using callus culture to study the drought tolerance of wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić Ankica

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the drought tolerance under in vitro conditions of two winter wheat (T. aestivum L. cultivars, Košuta and Renesansa. The tolerance was tested on a modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 nutrient medium to which polyethylene glycol (PEG was added at three different concentrations: 10%, 20% and 30%. Calluses from the control group were grown on a medium without PEG. After four months of growing on these mediums, fresh weight and dry matter content in the callus tissue were determined. We found significant differences in genotype response to different PEG concentrations The highest concentration (30% was lethal to the isolated embryos, so at this concentration no calluses formed in any of the genotypes. At 10 and 20% PEG, there was a significant decrease in the fresh callus weight in both genotypes. Thus, at the lowest concentration ( 10% PEG, the fresh weight decreased by 90% in Košuta and by 93% in Renesansa relative to the control. Due to callus dehydration in the presence of PEG, the dry matter content in the calluses of both genotypes increased with increasing PEG concentrations in the medium. In Košuta, the dry matter content increased from 8.7% (control to 24.9% (20% PEG, while in Renesansa it increased from 8.6% (control to 39.7% (20% PEG.

  11. Experimental study upon the effect of irradiation on callus formation of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Fujio

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation effects on callus formation after bone fracture were studied in rats with fractured right lower extremity. Follow-up study was continued for 112 days since 3000 rad was irradiated to the fractured site 3 days after bone fracture. Callus formation was noted in both of the outer and inner part (bone marrow) of the diaphysis before 14 days after bone fracture, but it was slow and sparse compared with that of non-irradiated group. Callus formation tended to disappear gradually from the outside of the diaphysis after 28 days after bone fracture. Strong disturbance was found in the surrounding vascular system at this time. Inside of the diaphysis, callus formation was restricted the end of the fracture, where lamellar calluses fused together. Changes in vascular system remained until 56 days after bone fracture. Vascular distribution was most dense 28 days after bone fracture. In many of the calluses which have established fusion, findings suggested excessive calcification in the trabeculae. Vascular distribution at this time was sparse, vascular formation was markedly suppressed in the bone marrow, and very little vascular formation was found in the fractured edges of the bone. (Ueda, J.)

  12. EFFECT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AGE AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS BROWNING OF COCONUT ENDOSPERM CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZARUS AGUS SUKAMTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of physiological age and growth regulators affecting callus browning ofcoconut endosperm was investigated. Solid endosperm explants of four coconut fruits fromsame brunches of two coconut cultivars “Samoan Dwarf ” were grown on modified Murashigeand Skoog (MS formula with addition of 10 mg l putresine, 2.50 g l activated charcoal (AC,1.70 g l phytagel, 0, 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D or 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (Picloram combined with 10 M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA.Callogenesis occurred on 98.83% of explants. Callus browning between different physiologicalages (antipodal and micropylar tissues of coconut endosperm at 9, 26 and 31 weeks of culture(WOC was significantly different, but not at 16 and 21 WOC. Auxins of 2,4-D and Picloramdid not affect significantly callus browning of endosperm cultures. Auxin doses at 10 , 10 , and10 M decreased significantly callus browning at 9 and 16 WOC, respectively, but at 10 Mbrowning was less significant compared to other doses at 21 WOC. Auxin dose at 10 M causedless significant browning compared to other doses at 31 WOC. The addition of BA decreasedsignificantly callus browning at 9 WOC, but did not affect callus browning thereafter.

  13. Is the primary event in radiation-induced chronic myelogenous leukemia the induction of the t(9; 22) translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, M. (Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-05-18

    The probability that ionizing radiation induces a t(9;22) reciprocal translocation with its break points confined to the same regions as the break points for the Philadelphia (Ph') translocation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has been calculated to be 7 x 10[sup -12] per cell and gray. This figure was used to estimate the number of individuals among the atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with such an induced translocation. For 9196 atomic bomb survivors who received a mean organ dose equivalent to bone marrow of 0.85 sievert, the estimate is done that the number of individuals with a radiation-induced t(9;22) translocation in one of the pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow is of the order of 50. The observed number of affected individuals with CML within the same cohort is 18. Even if the estimate of the number of individuals has relatively large errors, this indicates that the primary event in the radiation-induced CML cases can be a radiation-induced t(9;22) reciprocal translocation. (Author).

  14. Induction of polyploidization in leukemic cell lines and primary bone marrow by Src kinase inhibitor SU6656

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Brian J.; Blake, Noel; Gandhi, Manish J.; Reems, Jo Anna; Drachman, Jonathan G.

    2005-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) undergo successive rounds of endomitosis during differentiation, resulting in polyploidy (typically, 16-64N). Previous studies have demonstrated that this occurs through an interruption of normal cell cycle progression during anaphase. However, the molecular mechanism(s) controlling this unique process is undefined. In the present report, we examine the effect of an Src kinase inhibitor, SU6656, on thrombopoietin (TPO)-induced growth and differentiation. Remarkably, when SU6656 (2.5 μM) was added to a megakaryocytic cell line, UT-7/TPO, the cells ceased cell division but continued to accumulate DNA by endomitosis. During this interval, CD41 and CD61 expression on the cell surface increased. Similar effects on polyploidization and MK differentiation were seen with expanded primary MKs, bone marrow from 2 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, and other cell lines with MK potential. Our data suggest that SU6656 might be useful as a differentiation-inducing agent for MKs and is an important tool for understanding the molecular basis of MK endomitosis. PMID:15677565

  15. Temporal kinetics and concentration-response relationships for induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A in primary cultures of beagle dog hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard A; Tyler, Lindsey O; Krol, Wojciech L; Silver, Ivin S; Webster, Lindsey O; Clark, Philip; Chen, Liangfu; Banks, Troy; LeCluyse, Edward L

    2006-01-01

    Compared to other species, little information is available on the xenobiotic-induced regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the beagle dog. Dogs are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for many study types, including those that will impact decisions on compound progression. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the temporal kinetics of drug-induced changes in canine CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A mRNA and enzymatic activity, and (2) to characterize concentration-response relationships for CYP1A2, CYP2B11, and CYP3A12 using primary cultures of canine hepatocytes treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), and rifampin (RIF), respectively. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA exhibited maximal expression (12,700-fold and 206-fold, respectively) after 36 h of treatment with BNF. PB treatment, but not RIF treatment, caused maximal induction of CYP2B11 mRNA (149-fold) after 48 h of treatment. CYP3A12 and CYP3A26 mRNA levels were increased maximally after 72 h of treatment with PB and RIF (CYP3A12, 35-fold and 18-fold, and CYP3A26, 72-fold and 22-fold with PB and RIF treatment, respectively). Concentration-response relationships for BNF induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (EROD) (EC(50) = 7.8 +/- 4.2 microM), PB induced 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation (BROD) (EC(50) = 123 +/- 30 microM), and PB and RIF induced testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (EC(50) = 132 +/- 28 microM and 0.98 +/- 0.16 microM) resembled the relationship for human CYP induction compared to that of rodent. Interestingly, RIF had no effect on CYP2B11 expression, which represents a species difference overlooked in previous investigations. Overall, the induction of dog CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A exhibits characteristics that are intermediate to those of rodent and human. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  17. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cynomolgus monkey primary hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Sanderson, J.T.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) make up for 39% of the worldwide flame-retardants market. One groups of BFR, Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flameretardants in plastic materials, paints, and textile fabrics. Some PBDEs have been found to be lipophilic and persistent, and consequently bioaccumulate. Recently, levels of some PBDEs have been increasing in fish, wildlife, and in human tissue. The structural similarity of certain PBDE congeners to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that these compounds might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). If some of these PBDEs were to act as Ah receptor agonists, they would warrant inclusion in the toxic equivalence factor (TEF) concept. CYP1A1 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme that is involved in phase 1 biotransformation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as estrogens. Many CYP enzymes detoxify xenobiotics or bioactivate xenobiotics to reactive intermediates. Although CYP1A1 is expressed in all mammals, there are differences in expression levels among species and tissues. To study the possible dioxin-like effects of environmentally most relevant PBDEs (BDE47, 77, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), the Ah receptor-mediated induction CYP1A1 was studied in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) primary hepatocytes. CYP 1A1 is the major enzyme that catalyses the deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin to resorufin. This ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylation (EROD) activity was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity.

  18. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  19. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  20. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro callogenesis induction of Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman Dressler & W.E. Higgins (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Coutiño-Cortés

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman Dressler & W.E. Higgins, is a native orchid from Mexico, considered as threatened species in the NOM-ECOL-059-SEMARNAT-2010, mainly due to the disappearance of its natural habitat and illegal collection during the flowering season. The aim of this research was to induce in vitro callogenesis using different types of explants and phytoregulators, in order to establish a mass production technique as a contribution to the conservation of this species. We evaluated leaf and pseudobulb pith explants growing in semi-solid medium MS, adding BAP, 2, 4-D, Kin, the combination of BAP/2 and 4-D/Kin/Sad and a control without any type of plant growth regulators. Statistical analysis showed that pseudobulb pith explants are more suitable for in vitro callus induction in comparison to leaf explants, because of a lower percentage of contamination (18.8% in pith and 73.2% in leaves. Likewise, the pseudobulb pith explants showed increased callus formation (10.8% in comparison to leaf explants (7.6%. Regarding the phytoregulators employed, BAP promoted increased callus formation (17% compared to other phytoregulators (7-10%. This is the first report of the use of pseudobulb pith as an explant for callus induction in G. skinneri.

  2. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  3. In vitro assay of the inhibitory effect of neem callus and leaf extracts on some phytopathogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gaali, E.; Mukhtar, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of neem (Azadirachta indica) callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of drechslera rostrata, fusarium oxysporum and alterneria alternata was assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of the extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media containing 20 mg/ml of neem callus extract, while the inhibition rate of the mycelial growth of the same species reached 61% when inoculated in a medium containing the same concentration of neem leaf extract. The subsequent concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts gave similar trends of inhibition on the fungi cultured on extract amended agar plates. (Author)

  4. Effects of gamma-rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, Taro; Amano, Etsuo

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma- and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seedling growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Eriksson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2.4-D supplemented media were measured as an index of radiation damage. Comparing the seedling height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non-irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obrained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seem to be appropriate for both the seedling and callus growth of rice. (auth.)

  5. Effects of gamma rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, T.; Amano, E.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seeding growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Erickson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2,4-D supplemented media were measured as an index radiation damage. Comparing the seeding height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obtained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seems to be appropriate for both the seeding and callus growth of rice. (author)

  6. Divergent regeneration-competent cells adopt a common mechanism for callus initiation in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Guifang; Liu, Wu; Shi, Jianmin; Wang, Hua; Qi, Meifang; Li, Jiqin; Qin, Peng; Ruan, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yijing; Xu, Lin

    2017-06-01

    In tissue culture, the formation of callus from detached explants is a key step in plant regeneration; however, the regenerative abilities in different species are variable. While nearly all parts of organs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana are ready for callus formation, mature regions of organs in monocot rice ( Oryza sativa ) and other cereals are extremely unresponsive to tissue culture. Whether there is a common molecular mechanism beyond these different regenerative phenomena is unclear. Here we show that the Arabidopsis and rice use different regeneration-competent cells to initiate callus, whereas the cells all adopt WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 ( WOX11 ) and WOX5 during cell fate transition. Different from Arabidopsis which maintains regeneration-competent cells in mature organs, rice exhausts those cells during organ maturation, resulting in regenerative inability in mature organs. Our study not only explains this old perplexity in agricultural biotechnology, but also provides common molecular markers for tissue culture of different angiosperm species.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on Callus formation and regeneration of wheat immature embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Four Egyptian bread wheat cultivars; G164, G168, SK61 and Sids1, were tested for their response to six gamma irradiation treatments; 1, 2, 3 Gy (as low doses) and 10, 20, 30 Gy (as high doses) in addition to 0 Gy (as a control) in terms of callus formation and regeneration of immature embryos. Low doses of gamma irradiations ( 1, 2 and 3 Gy) showed favourable effects on both traits; number of regenerated calli and number of shoots per callus comparing with the control (0 Gy), while high doses; 10, 20 and 30 Gy, had the worst effect comparing with the control (0 Gy). G164 cultivar was shown to get the best response in terms of callus formation and regeneration when exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. In conclusion, gamma irradiation can serve in increasing regeneration efficiency of Egyptian bread wheat cells when used in low doses

  8. Establishment of an Arabidopsis callus system to study the interrelations of biosynthesis, degradation and accumulation of carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Rodriguez-Franco, Marta; Cazzonelli, Christopher Ian; Álvarez, Daniel; Wüst, Florian

    2018-01-01

    The net amounts of carotenoids accumulating in plant tissues are determined by the rates of biosynthesis and degradation. While biosynthesis is rate-limited by the activity of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), carotenoid losses are caused by catabolic enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. We established a system based on non-green Arabidopsis callus which allowed investigating major determinants for high steady-state levels of β-carotene. Wild-type callus development was characterized by strong carotenoid degradation which was only marginally caused by the activity of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases. In contrast, carotenoid degradation occurred mostly non-enzymatically and selectively affected carotenoids in a molecule-dependent manner. Using carotenogenic pathway mutants, we found that linear carotenes such as phytoene, phytofluene and pro-lycopene resisted degradation and accumulated while β-carotene was highly susceptible towards degradation. Moderately increased pathway activity through PSY overexpression was compensated by degradation revealing no net increase in β-carotene. However, higher pathway activities outcompeted carotenoid degradation and efficiently increased steady-state β-carotene amounts to up to 500 μg g-1 dry mass. Furthermore, we identified oxidative β-carotene degradation products which correlated with pathway activities, yielding β-apocarotenals of different chain length and various apocarotene-dialdehydes. The latter included methylglyoxal and glyoxal as putative oxidative end products suggesting a potential recovery of carotenoid-derived carbon for primary metabolic pathways. Moreover, we investigated the site of β-carotene sequestration by co-localization experiments which revealed that β-carotene accumulated as intra-plastid crystals which was confirmed by electron microscopy with carotenoid-accumulating roots. The results are discussed in the context of using the non-green calli carotenoid assay system for approaches targeting high

  9. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V mimicking osteosarcoma: 4-year follow-up with resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, R.L.V.; Amaral, D.T. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jesus-Garcia, Filho R. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Saraiva, G. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Endocrinology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, A.R.C. [University of California San Diego, Department of MSK Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D.

    2006-06-15

    We report a case of hyperplastic callus formation that occurred in both femurs in a patient with type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), with 4-year follow-up and resolution. The clinical, histological and imaging aspects of this condition are discussed. Recognition of the hyperplastic callus formation in this particular type of OI is important in order to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V mimicking osteosarcoma: 4-year follow-up with resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, R.L.V.; Amaral, D.T.; Jesus-Garcia, Filho R.; Saraiva, G.; Fernandes, A.R.C.; Resnick, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of hyperplastic callus formation that occurred in both femurs in a patient with type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), with 4-year follow-up and resolution. The clinical, histological and imaging aspects of this condition are discussed. Recognition of the hyperplastic callus formation in this particular type of OI is important in order to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Secondary Metabolite Content in Roots and Callus of Paeonia Anomala L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. ZARIPOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in the process of introduction in vitro culture the change of secondary metabolite content may take place we compared the chemical composition of plant material of wild-growing plants of Paeonia anomala introduced and produced using the methods of clonal micropropagation, callus tissue.The content of phenolic compounds, that is catechins and gallatos was compared. Paeoniflorin content was estimated by direct spectrophotometry of methanol extracts (λ = 231,7 nm, ε 1% 1 sm = 265.4. Integral characteristic of the obtained extracts was received by comparison of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer SP - 121 within wave diapason 300 - 460 nm.Light absorption curves of methanol extracts had two distinct peaks at λ = 232 nm and λ = 275 nm typical of paeoniflorin. Paeoniflorin content was 80 % higher in young peony roots than in control plant. This glycoside content in callus culture was 44 % higher than in wild-growing plant roots and 26 % lower than in plantlet roots.The use of ethanol as extragent showed a higher content of extracted substances in callus tissue. The comparison of the obtained spectra in the region corresponding to phenolic compound absorption shows the highest phenolic compound content in callus tissue and young plant roots. Judging by light absorption maximum it may be phenolic acids. The lowest phenolic compound content was determined in adult wild-growing plant roots, where a high phlobaphene content was visually observed.The conducted research confirms the fact that callus culture of Paeonia anomala L. is a perspective producer of monoterpene glycosides and phenolic compounds. Extracts from plantlets and callus culture exceed in biological active substance content rootstock extracts of open air plants.

  12. Fully automated segmentation of callus by micro-CT compared to biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Tischer, Thomas

    2017-07-11

    A high percentage of closed femur fractures have slight comminution. Using micro-CT (μCT), multiple fragment segmentation is much more difficult than segmentation of unfractured or osteotomied bone. Manual or semi-automated segmentation has been performed to date. However, such segmentation is extremely laborious, time-consuming and error-prone. Our aim was to therefore apply a fully automated segmentation algorithm to determine μCT parameters and examine their association with biomechanics. The femura of 64 rats taken after randomised inhibitory or neutral medication, in terms of the effect on fracture healing, and controls were closed fractured after a Kirschner wire was inserted. After 21 days, μCT and biomechanical parameters were determined by a fully automated method and correlated (Pearson's correlation). The fully automated segmentation algorithm automatically detected bone and simultaneously separated cortical bone from callus without requiring ROI selection for each single bony structure. We found an association of structural callus parameters obtained by μCT to the biomechanical properties. However, results were only explicable by additionally considering the callus location. A large number of slightly comminuted fractures in combination with therapies that influence the callus qualitatively and/or quantitatively considerably affects the association between μCT and biomechanics. In the future, contrast-enhanced μCT imaging of the callus cartilage might provide more information to improve the non-destructive and non-invasive prediction of callus mechanical properties. As studies evaluating such important drugs increase, fully automated segmentation appears to be clinically important.

  13. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Potential of Antidiabetic Herb Alternanthera sessilis: Comparative Analyses of Leaf and Callus Solvent Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Khoo, Chee-Siong; Tee, Chong-Siang; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Alternanthera sessilis is a medicinal herb which is consumed as vegetable and used as traditional remedies of various ailments in Asia and Africa. This study aimed to investigate the antiglucosidase and antioxidant activity of solvent fractions of A. sessilis leaf and callus. Leaf and callus methanol extracts were fractionated to produce hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. Antiglucosidase and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities as well as total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and total coumarin (TC) contents were evaluated. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis was performed on leaf and callus fractions with the strongest antiglucosidase activity. Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractions. Callus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 34.12 μg/mL) activity, respectively, among callus fractions. LEF and CEF were identified as noncompetitive and competitive α-glucosidase inhibitors, respectively. LEF and CEF had greater antiglucosidase activity than acarbose. Leaf fractions had higher phytochemical contents than callus fractions. LEF had the highest TP, TF, and TC contents. Antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities of leaf fractions correlated with phytochemical contents. LEF had potent antiglucosidase activity and concurrent antioxidant activity. CEF had the highest antiglucosidase activity among all fractions. Callus culture is a promising tool for enhancing production of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractionsCallus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 34.12

  14. Unilateral Palmar Callus and Irritant Hand Eczema – Underreported Signs of Dependency on Crutches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg amputees who can’t use prostheses and patients with arthritis are often dependent on crutches. Their chronic use can exert significant friction forces. The palmar skin will respond by forming a hyperkeratotic callus. We report for the first time unilateral palmar callus formation caused by friction from using crutches. Another possible adverse effect is the triggering of irritant contact dermatitis by the handholes of crutches. We report two cases with hand dermatitis due to the chronic dependence on crutches and discuss treatment options.

  15. Differential radiosensitivity of seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.A.; Rao, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of γ-irradiation on seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata showed striking differences in radiosensitivity as reflected in differences in mean fresh and dry weights, seedling height and morphology. Seeds subjected to low doses (4-6 kR) of irradiation showed stimulation of seedling height. Direct exposure of seedlings to high doses (10 kR) of irradiation caused inhibition in their development. Callus cultures, however, were more radioresistant compared to seeds and seedlings. Tissues grown on either an irradiated nutrient medium or on a medium in which sucrose alone had been irradiated, showed a marked inhibition in their growth potential

  16. Distribution of Trans-Anethole and Estragole in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill of Callus Induced from Different Seedling Parts and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan AFIFY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seeds from local cultivar of fennel were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS without plant growth regulators. Different types of explants from the growing seedling such as cotyledonal leaves, hypocotyls, epicotyls and roots were cultured on MS medium, contained different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D either alone or with kinetin. Differential responses in the essential oil constituents were observed in the induction and development of callus. The major components of essential oils includes estragole, trans-anethole, limonene and fenchone were studied under different conditions to find out the best methods which could be used to reduce the amount of estragole (not favorite for human consumption and increase the amount of trans-anethole.

  17. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Thinh, N T; Santangelo, E; Mini, P [Centro Ricerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs.

  18. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Thinh, N.T.; Santangelo, E.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip (Tulipa tarda Stapf.) from seed-derived explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Małgorzata; Bach, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip ( Tulipa tarda Stapf). Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Some explants were subjected to chilling at 5°C for 12 wk. The culture media contained 3 or 6% sucrose and was supplemented with either no growth regulators, either 0.5 μM 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) or 18.9 or 94.6 μM abscisic acid (ABA). Cultures were maintained in the dark at 20°C. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP. Callus was formed from up to 96% of explants derived from non-chilled adventitious bulbs that were treated with 3% sucrose and 0.5 μM BAP. Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants. Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. The media with BAP promoted the formation of adventitious bulbs at a rate of 56-92% from non-chilled explants, whereas a maximum rate of 36% was observed from chilled explants. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus. The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly.

  20. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Anti-aging activities of Pyrus pyrifolia var culta plant callus extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 95 °C for 2 h and filtering through .... callus extract also exhibited dose-dependent .... toxic effects on the skin. ... copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two .... herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying.

  2. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus, shoot and root formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root and stem explants of fluted pumpkin were cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The explants were observed for callus, root and shoot formation parameters after four months. Differences among explants, plant growth regulators and their interaction were ...

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of the callus mechanical properties during bone transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)

  4. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, I. [Diagnostic Center Meidling, Vienna (Austria); Seidl, G. [Diagnostic Center Meidling, Vienna (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria); Grill, F. [Orthopaedisches Spital Wien Speising, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-05-01

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  5. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus initiation in wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in the Biotechnology laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria to study the effect of some plant growth regulators on the in vitro initiation of callus using the leaves of Chiyong variety of Artemisia annua. The explants were sterilized and incubated on Murashige ...

  6. Teacher induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijaard, D.; Buitink, J.; Kessels, C.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGraw, B.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher induction programs are intended to support the professional development of beginning teachers and thereby contribute to the reduction of teacher attrition during the early teaching years. Teacher induction programs are often based upon a deficit model with a focus on the better organization

  7. Growth and accumulation of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis through callus culture and suspension culture method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini Sutini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess flavan-3-ol biomass in C. sinensis through callus cultures and suspension cultures derived from leaf explants. Callus initiation of both cultures were using Murashige and Skoog medium were enriched with plant growth regulators Naphtha-lene Acetic Acid 3.0 mg/L and kinetin 2.0 mg/L. The procedures in this study were: (1 callus initiation by cutting the leaves of C. sinen-sis shoots then planted on Murashige and Skoog medium that were enriched with plant growth regulators, (2 sub callus culture on fresh medium that enriched with the same growth regulators, (3 suspension culture initiation of liquid callus, (4 growth examination of callus and suspension cultures in week 12, (5 examination of qualitative-quantitative content of flavan-3-olin suspension cultures at week 4. The results show that suspension cultures contain biomass flavan-3-ol that increase in the same manner of the increase of callus age and weight

  8. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam (Germany); Roschger, Paul [4th Medical Department, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1140 Vienna (Austria); Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N, E-mail: fratzl@mpikg.mpg.d [Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite- University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  9. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N

    2010-01-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  10. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  11. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  12. Comparação de diferentes metodologias para obtenção de cultura de calos de Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni = Comparison of different methodologies for obtaining callus cultures from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Patrão

    2007-07-01

    adequatecombination of phytoregulators, provided greater callus induction velocity and multiplication than the media that using MS nutrients. New experiments will be conducted after reaching genetic stability of the calluses, seeking to evaluate the capacity of these calluses to biosynthesize GDS.

  13. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  14. Expression of chalcone synthase genes in coleoptiles and primary leaves of Secale cereale L. after induction by UV radiation: evidence for a UV-protective role of the coleoptile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussühl, K.; Rohde, W.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74) clones from rye were isolated and characterized. Two of these clones were used for analysis of CHS gene activities in response to ultraviolet and visible radiation in the coleoptile and the primary leaf of the rye seedling. The time-dependence of CHS gene activation and the spatial distribution of CHS were studied by investigation of enzyme activities and CHS mRNA levels, including in situ RNA hybridization. In the primary leaf strong induction of CHS gene activity was localized in the epidermal layers and only marginally found in the mesophyll. The coleoptile showed an even higher response to UV irradiation, but CHS gene activity was evenly distributed throughout the tissues. It is suggested that, in addition to its function as a mechanical protection for the primary leaf during seed germination and seedling emergence through the soil, the coleoptile may also protect the emerging seedling from harmful radiation

  15. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning.......We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  16. An environment with strong gravitational and magnetic field alterations synergizes to promote variations in Arabidopsis thaliana callus global transcriptional state

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using diamagnetic levitation we have exposed A. thaliana in vitro callus cultures to five environments with different levels of effective gravity (from levitation...

  17. The Extraction Process of Trimethyl Xanthina in Vitro Culture of Callus Camellia Sinensis with ethyl Acetate Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyl xanthina is one of the compounds contained bioactive culture in vitro Cammelia sinensis callus which is widely used in the field of food, beverage, agriculture and health industries. The presence of trimethyl xanthina on food, beverages and health is needed in a certain amount depending on the use which is achieved by the user. To get a certain amount of trimethyl xanthina from callus culture of Cammelia sinensis, the extraction process is performed on the water solvent, as well as non-solvent water / organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. The purpose of this study was to obtain profile of trimethyl xanthina in the extraction of Cammelia sinensis callus. The experimental methods used consisted of dissolution, filtration, extraction with water solvent and ethyl acetate, then followed by identification of trimethyl xanthina using HPLC. The results shows the profile form of trimethyl xanthina of Cammelia sinensis callus have similarities with the standard form of trimethyl xanthina.

  18. Plants regeneration of a papaya hybrid (IBP 42-99 from callus obtained from apexes of in vitro plants.

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    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba there realizes innumerable efforts to increase the food production and especially the fruit trees Inside which the papaya has great importance. In this sense studies are realized to obtain plants resistant to virus that they need of tools that they support and increase the indexes of obtaining transgenic line in the events of transformation specifically in a papaya hybrid. As main objective was to develop a protocol for the regeneration of plants of papaya hybrid from callus obtained of in vitro plant apexes.plan to develop a tool that supports and increases the indexes of obtaining line transgenic in the events of transformation in a hybrid of papaya.In vitro plants of the hybrid IBP 42-99 were used as plant material. The culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh was used and the growth regulators that permitted the obtaining of the best callus with embryogenic structures were studied, and also, the concentrations in which they were more efficient were adjusted. The capacity of callus formation from different parts of the stem of the in vitro plants was studied. Different culture medium for the regeneration of papaya plants from the obtained callus was studied. It was possible to obtain callus by combining 6-BAP with ANA and AIA. The best results are obtained when segments from in vitro plants shoot, 1 cm length from the meristem, were used. Also, by eliminating the meristem in the apexes, an increase in the callus formation capacity of the explant was achieved. Plants were obtained from callus using the culture medium MS supplement with 0.09mg.l-1 of AIA, 0.01mg.l-1 of AG3 and 2mg.l-1 of Zeatin and the best percentage was achieved with the callus coming from the treatments with less concentration of 6-BAP and AIA. Key words: culture medium, micropropagation, organogenesis, segments

  19. Genetic Dissection of Maize Embryonic Callus Regenerative Capacity Using Multi-Locus Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlang Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative capacity of the embryonic callus, a complex quantitative trait, is one of the main limiting factors for maize transformation. This trait was decomposed into five traits, namely, green callus rate (GCR, callus differentiating rate (CDR, callus plantlet number (CPN, callus rooting rate (CRR, and callus browning rate (CBR. To dissect the genetic foundation of maize transformation, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the five traits were performed in a population of 144 inbred lines genotyped with 43,427 SNPs. Using the phenotypic values in three environments and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP values, as a result, a total of 127, 56, 160, and 130 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs were identified by mrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, ISIS EM-BLASSO, and pLARmEB, respectively. Of these QTNs, 63 QTNs were commonly detected, including 15 across multiple environments and 58 across multiple methods. Allele distribution analysis showed that the proportion of superior alleles for 36 QTNs was <50% in 31 elite inbred lines. Meanwhile, these superior alleles had obviously additive effect on the regenerative capacity. This indicates that the regenerative capacity-related traits can be improved by proper integration of the superior alleles using marker-assisted selection. Moreover, a total of 40 candidate genes were found based on these common QTNs. Some annotated genes were previously reported to relate with auxin transport, cell fate, seed germination, or embryo development, especially, GRMZM2G108933 (WOX2 was found to promote maize transgenic embryonic callus regeneration. These identified candidate genes will contribute to a further understanding of the genetic foundation of maize embryonic callus regeneration.

  20. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D.

  1. The effect of gamma radiation and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea on cultured maize callus growth and plant regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Duncan, D.R.; Widholm, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Regenerable maize calli of two inbred lines were exposed to 0 to 100 Gy of gamma rays or treated with 0 to 30 mM of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) to determine their effect on growth and plant regeneration capability. Both growth and plant regeneration capacity decreased with increasing levels of either gamma radiation or ENU; however, plant regeneration capacity was more sensitive to either agent than growth. The 50% inhibition dose (I 50 ) for callus growth (fresh-weight gain) was approximately 100 Gy of gamma radiation and 30 mM ENU. The I 50 for plant regeneration capacity of treated callus was approximately 25 Gy of gamma radiation and 2.5 mM ENU. The decrease in plant regeneration capacity correlated with a change in tissue composition of the treated callus from a hard, yellow and opaque tissue to a soft, grayish-yellow and translucent tissue. This change was quantified by measuring the reduction of MnO 4 - to MnO 2 (PR assay) by the callus. These results suggest that the effect of gamma radiation or ENU on plant regeneration capacity must be taken into consideration if these potentially mutagenic agents are to be used on maize callus cultures, for the purpose of producing useful mutations at a whole plant level. The data also suggest that the PR assay may be useful for predicting the actual plant regeneration capacity of maize callus. (author)

  2. Microcolony formation from embryogenic callus-derived protoplasts of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic callus of oil palm induced from young leaves of seedlings DxP was used as initial material for protoplast isolation. Various combinations of cellulase Onozuka RS and macerozyme R-10 were tested. Isolated protoplasts were cultured by various methods in MS medium supplemented with different phytohormones. The results revealed that 2% cellulase RS in combination with 2% macerozyme R-10 (adjusted osmoticum to 0.4 M by manitol yielded the highest number of viable protoplasts (1x107 per gram fresh weight. Dicamba at concentration 2 mg/l with 1 mg/l 6-benzyladenin (BA containing in phytagel semisolidified MS medium promoted the highest division of 2.3-4.0%. First division of the protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture. Microcolony formation (8-10 cells was seen after three weeks of culture. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  3. Chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory effect of rauvolfian, a pectic polysaccharide of Rauvolfia callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V; Vinter, V G; Patova, O A; Markov, P A; Nikitina, I R; Ovodova, R G; Popova, G Yu; Shashkov, A S; Ovodov, Yu S

    2007-07-01

    The pectic polysaccharide named rauvolfian RS was obtained from the dried callus of Rauvolfia serpentina L. by extraction with 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate. Crude rauvolfian RS was purified using membrane ultrafiltration to yield the purified rauvolfian RSP in addition to glucan as admixture from the callus, with molecular weights 300 and 100-300 kD, respectively. A peroral pretreatment of mice with the crude and purified samples of rauvolfian (RS and RSP) was found to decrease colonic macroscopic scores, the total area of damage, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons as compared with a colitis group. RS and RSP were shown to stimulate production of mucus by colons of the colitis mice. RSP appeared to be an active constituent of the parent RS. The glucan failed to possess anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Nano-copper-bearing stainless steel promotes fracture healing by accelerating the callus evolution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Wang,1,* Guoyuan Li,1,* Ling Ren,2,* Xiangdong Kong,1 Yugang Wang,1 Xiuguo Han,1 Wenbo Jiang,3 Kerong Dai,1 Ke Yang,2 Yongqiang Hao11Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Special Materials and Device Research Department, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 3Medical 3D Printing Innovation Research Center, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Treatment for fractures requires internal fixation devices, which are mainly produced from stainless steel or titanium alloy without biological functions. Therefore, we developed a novel nano-copper-bearing stainless steel with nano-sized copper-precipitation (317L-Cu SS. Based on previous studies, this work explores the effect of 317L-Cu SS on fracture healing; that is, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, osteogenesis-related gene expression, and lysyl oxidase activity of human bone mesenchymal stem cells were detected in vitro. Sprague–Dawley rats were used to build an animal fracture model, and fracture healing and callus evolution were investigated by radiology (X-ray and micro-CT, histology (H&E, Masson, and safranin O/fast green staining, and histomorphometry. Further, the Cu2+ content and Runx2 level in the callus were determined, and local mechanical test of the fracture was performed to assess the healing quality. Our results revealed that 317L-Cu SS did not affect the proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells, but promoted osteogenic differentiation and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. In addition, 317L-Cu SS upregulated the lysyl oxidase activity. The X-ray and micro-CT results showed that the callus evolution efficiency and fracture healing speed were

  5. Cloning of the queen variety pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) merr) through the callus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Santos, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    Crown sections of pineapple were inoculated aseptically in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with varying levels of benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with napthalene acetic acid (NAA). Callus was induced from crown sections that was grown in MS with 0 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA, 2 ppm BA + 6 ppm NAA. These calli when grown continuously in the same medium developed profusely into shoots. Callus and shoots developed profusely at medium containing 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA. Calli that were further sub-cultured in MS with 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA produced multiple shoots. Calli and shoots that were further sub-cultured in 0 to 4 ppm BA to 4 to 6 ppm NAA formed roots. Results showed that complete plantlets were produced from crown sections of pineapple variety Queen in MS medium supplemented with the different treatment combinations of BA and NAA. (Author). 9 refs.; 1 fig

  6. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  7. UV-radiation and the flavonoid content in callus culture of Ononis arvensis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumowa, L.; Psotowa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discussed a possible influence on the production of secondary metabolites - the flavonoids, by the method of elicitation in the callus cultures of Ononis arvensis L., the elicitor employed being the UV 254 and 366 nm and the sun-lamp. In some cases there was an increase in the production of flavonoids particularly 60, 120, 240 and 300 s after sun-lamp irradiation and in case of 15 and 30 min irradiation with UV-254 nm

  8. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandapani, M; Antony, A; Subba Rao, P V [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-03-01

    Hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek were studied to determine their potential for synthesizing phenolics, particularly those which are intermediates in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The cultures were found to be capable of synthesizing an array of phenolic compounds characteristic of higher plants. Both phenylalanine-U-/sup 14/C and cinnamic acid-U-/sup 14/C were found to be efficient precursors of these phenolics.

  9. In vitro anti-microbial activity of extracts from the callus cultures of some Nigella species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, P.; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš; Rada, V.; Kokoška, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2006), s. 285-288 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC926.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Nigella * callus culture * antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  10. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  11. High Triterpenic Acids Production in Callus Cultures from Fruit Pulp of Two Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Callus formation in bone fractures combined with brain injury in rat

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    Yu-Ping Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the speed of bony union and the serum levels of biomarkers in the setting of bone fractures combined with brain injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: sham, brain injury, bone fracture, and bone fracture plus brain injury groups. The serum levels of biochemical markers, namely, nerve growth factor (NGF, Wnt-3a, Dickkopf-related protein-1, receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, were measured on the days 1, 3, 7, and 14 following injury. Bony union was evaluated using radiographs every week for 6 weeks. Results: Compared with the brain injury group and bone fracture group, the radiographs of the bone fracture plus brain injury group revealed enhanced callus formations in week 2. From week 3, the callus formation did not differ significantly among the groups. The serum levels of the biomarkers varied at different time points. The serum levels of NGF on days 1 and 3, Wnt-3a on days 3 and 14, and ACTH on days 1, 3, and 7 were significantly higher in the bone fracture plus brain injury group than in the bone fracture group. Conclusions: Brain injury increases callus formation in simultaneous bone fracture. Considering the time point, early NGF, Wnt-3a, and ACTH elevation might be associated with early callus formation enhancement. The results indicate that these brain injury-induced biomarkers might play crucial role in accelerating bone healing.

  13. Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Caretto, Sofia; Linsalata, Vito; Colella, Giovanni; Mita, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O 2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO 2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO 2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO 2 /bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO 2 ) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited

  15. Are bone turnover markers capable of predicting callus consolidation during bone healing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P; Bail, H J; Schell, H; Michel, R; Amthauer, H; Bragulla, H; Duda, G N

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the following bone turnover markers to monitor the course of callus consolidation during bone healing: Carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP), skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIlINP). Since interfragmentary movements have been proven to possess the ability to document the progression of bone healing in experimental studies, correlations between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements in vivo were investigated. Therefore, two different types of osteosyntheses representing different mechanical situations at the fracture site were compared in an ovine osteotomy model. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and postoperatively in weekly intervals over a nine-week healing period. At the same intervals, interfragmentary movements were measured in all sheep. After nine weeks, animals were sacrificed and the tibiae were evaluated both mechanically and histologically. Wide interindividual ranges were observed for all bone turnover markers. The systemic PICP level did not increase with callus consolidation. The bone-healing model seemed to influence the systemic level of PIIINP and sALP but no general correlation between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements could be detected. No differences between the different types of osteosyntheses and thus the different mechanical situations were observed. All analyzed markers failed as general predictors for the course of callus consolidation during bone healing.

  16. Additions of precursors and elicitors improve geranylgeraniol production in Croton stellatopilosus callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraithip Wungsintaweekul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for enhancing GGOH production in Croton stellatopilosus callus culture included additions of precursors (sodium acetate-NA, sodium pyruvate-NP, mevalonic acid lactone-MVA and elicitors (methyl jasmonate-MJ, acetylsalicylic acid-ASA, yeast extract-YE. Treated cells were evaluated for their GGOH contents by GC-FID and compared with the nontreated cells as controls. Additions of NA (25 mg/L, NP (50 mg/L and MVA (100 mg/L resulted in an enhancement of GGOH productivity to 0.61 mg/g DW, 0.52 mg/g DW and 0.70 mg/g DW, respectively, compared to the control culture (0.29 mg/g DW. Callus cultures elicited with MJ at 30 mg/L for 24 h stimulated GGOH production to 0.35 mg/g DW compared to the control culture (0.07 mg/g DW. Cells also responded to ASA (20 mg/L, 2 days and YE (0.25 g/L, 4 days and produced GGOH contents of 0.46 mg/g DW and 1.37 mg/g DW, respectively. This study has shown that isoprenoid precursors and conventional elicitors enhanced GGOH production in the C. stellatopilosus callus culture.

  17. EFFECT OF AUXIN AND CYTOKININ ON VINCRISTINE PRODUCTION BY CALLUS CULTURES OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. (APOCYNACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Catharanthus roseus L. were established to verify whether they produce vincristine as the intact plant. Different growth regulator combinations were applied to Murashige and Skoog (MS medium to influence the level of production of vincristine. The effects of various combinations (0.5 µM to 3.0 µM of auxin and cytokinin on the growth and accumulation of vincristine were investigated. MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D 1.0 µM and 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin 1.0 µM was used to support the growth of callus cultures and the maximum amount of dry biomass (598.04 mg was produced after seven weeks of culture. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from callus cultures of C. roseus revealed that the cultures produced vincristine. The concentrations of the growth regulators alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and kinetin played a critical role in the production of vincristine.

  18. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...

  19. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Zaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  20. Induction of mutations in garlic by combined use of gamma-rays and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rou, Zhen Hai [Horticultural Research Inst., Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    1997-07-01

    Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of garlic on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l KIN + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Plantlets were induced from leaf calli on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/l IAA. Bulblets were induced from plantlets on MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l ITA. Callus growth and plantlets induction were remarkably inhibited with irradiation doses of 8 and 10 Gy. It was found that doses of 3 and 5 Gy were suitable to induce variation. Somatic embryos were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 500 mg/l casein, 1000 mg/l yeast extract and 3 to 5% sucrose. (author). 11 tabs.

  1. Induction of mutations in garlic by combined use of gamma-rays and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Hai Rou

    1997-01-01

    Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of garlic on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l KIN + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Plantlets were induced from leaf calli on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/l IAA. Bulblets were induced from plantlets on MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l ITA. Callus growth and plantlets induction were remarkably inhibited with irradiation doses of 8 and 10 Gy. It was found that doses of 3 and 5 Gy were suitable to induce variation. Somatic embryos were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 500 mg/l casein, 1000 mg/l yeast extract and 3 to 5% sucrose. (author). 11 tabs

  2. Glutamatergic induction of CREB phosphorylation and Fos expression in primary cultures of the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus in vitro is mediated by co-ordinate activity of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurov, I L; McNulty, S; Best, J D; Sloper, P J; Hastings, M H

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of Syrian hamsters to light 1 h after lights-off rapidly (10 min) induced nuclear immunoreactivity (-ir) to the phospho-Ser133 form of the Ca2+/cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (pCREB) in the retinorecipient zone of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Light also induced nuclear Fos-ir in the same region of the SCN after 1 h. The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker MK801 attenuated the photic induction of both factors. To investigate glutamatergic regulation of pCREB and Fos further, tissue blocks and primary cultures of neonatal hamster SCN were examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry in vitro. On Western blots of SCN tissue, the pCREB-ir signal at 45 kDa was enhanced by glutamate or a mixture of glutamatergic agonists (NMDA, amino-methyl proprionic acid (AMPA), and Kainate (KA)), whereas total CREB did not change. Glutamate or the mixture of agonists also induced a 56 kDa band identified as Fos protein in SCN tissue. In dissociated cultures of SCN, glutamate caused a rapid (15 min) induction of nuclear pCREB-ir and Fos-ir (after 60 min) exclusively in neurones, both GABA-ir and others. Treatment with NMDA alone had no effect on pCREB-ir. AMPA alone caused a slight increase in pCREB-ir. However, kainate alone or in combination with NMDA and AMPA induced nuclear pCREB-ir equal to that induced by glutamate. The effects of glutamate on pCREB-ir and Fos-ir were blocked by antagonists of both NMDA (MK801) and AMPA/KA (NBQX) receptors. In the absence of extracellular Mg2+, MK801 blocked glutamatergic induction of Fos-ir. However, the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist was no longer effective at blocking glutamatergic induction of either Fos-ir or pCREB-ir, consistent with the model that glutamate regulates gene expression in the SCN by a co-ordinate action through both NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors. Glutamatergic induction of nuclear pCREB-ir in GABA-ir neurones was blocked by KN-62 an inhibitor of Ca2+/Calmodulin (Ca

  3. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper....... The method has proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel. A new design of an adjustable flux concentrator for induction heating tube-to-plate joints is proposed and tested on a variety...

  4. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  5. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  6. The combination effect of auxin and cytokinin on in vitro callus formation of Physalis angulata L. - A medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Firdiana, Elok Rifqi

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) is one member of Solanaceae that has a potential as herbal medicine. This plant grows wild in the crop fields, forest edges, etc. However, ciplukan is increasingly difficult to find recently. In vitro callus is an alternative source to produce secondary metabolite production as well as to regenerate plants through indirect organogenesis. This study aims to identify the response of hypocotyl explants on in vitro callus formation induced by a combination of auxin and cytokinins. Two types of cytokinins, Kinetin and BAP (0.5 ppm) were combined with three types of auxin, i.e. 2.4-D, IBA and IAA, at three concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm. In all combinations of cytokinin and auxin, 50-100% of hypocotyl explants derived from in vitro seedling were able to produce callus either in a compact or watery friable texture. In MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D, callus FW (fresh weight) began to decline in the fourth week after culture. Callus FW that increased until 5 weeks of culture was obtained in medium IAA 0.5 + Kin 0.5, IBA 1.0 + Kin 0.5 and IBA 1 + BA 0.5. Almost all calli induced on a medium + Kinetin also produced roots. While medium + BAP was able to induce shoots regeneration.

  7. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  8. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-07-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  9. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose. Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  11. Biological effects of fast neutron irradiation on callus tissues of Tecoma stans Juss. and Ammi visnaga Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supniewska, J.H.; Dohnal, B.; Cebulska Wasilewska, A.; Huczkowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    Callus tissues of Tecoma stans Juss. and Ammi visnaga Lam. were subjected to fast neutron irradiation. Nine doses were applied within the range of 100 - 10.000 cGy. Small doses caused growth stimulation. Intermediate and high doses caused morphological changes, reduced growth and biosynthesis of biologically active substances (monoterpene alkaloids in T. stans, furanochromones in A. visnaga). In A. visnaga neutron irradiation considerably decreased the chlorophyll content in callus tissues. The radiosensitivity of A. visnaga at 50% growth reduction level was 1.5 times higher than that of the callus of T. stans. The recovery of the tissues takes place during a subculturing course. Three to 7 months after neutron exposure growth and biosynthesis reach the control level. (author)

  12. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  13. Nitrogen-15 uptake by whole plants and root callus cultures of inbred maize lines and their F1 hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenova, Y.; Karadimova, M.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of nitrogen-15 by 3 maize genotypes was investigated. Comparative analysis of N15 assimilation and distribution in the organs of intact plants of two self-pollinated lines and their F1 hybrid and also in a callus tissue of roots of the same genotypes was made. From the results the conclusion is drawn that the N-use efficiency of the female line is higher than that of the male line both in intact plants and callus tissues from roots. This fact indicates that the N-use efficiency is determined not only by the functions of the cells in the shoots, suggesting the participation of the photosynthetic carboxylases but also by the functions of cells without a photosynthesizing apparatus. The N-use efficiency in the F1 hybrid manifests ''heterosis'', in spite of the intact plants or root callus tissues are being studied. (author)

  14. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  15. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz Culture by Addition of Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz. This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes which role in reserpine production and callus growth. The research was conducted in two steps, using Completely Randomized Design. The first step was the callus initiation to promote callus growth. Second step was the treatment to induce reserpine production. The callus was divided into five groups: 0; 5; 10; 20; 40; and 80 µM. Morphology, wet weight, dry weight, growth rate, and reserpine content of callus were determined after 15 treatment day. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by DMRT 5%. The result showed that reserpine production increased in addition of 5 µM and 10 µM Cu2+ in callus culture of R. serpentina and reduced in addition of Cu2+ more than 10 µM. The callus growth significantly decreased by increasing concentration of Cu2+.

  16. Callus Distraction Versus Single-Stage Lengthening With Bone Graft for Treatment of Brachymetatarsia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc D; Pinegar, David M; Rincker, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia deformity is a cosmetically displeasing anomaly that can become physically symptomatic. The surgical techniques most commonly used to repair the anomaly include single-stage lengthening with a bone graft, callus distraction, or a combination of bone grafting and callus distraction. A systematic review of the published data was performed to compare the outcomes of these 3 surgical procedures. A total of 61 studies reporting the use of callus distraction or single-stage lengthening, or both, for the treatment of brachymetatarsia were included in the present review. The incidence of major postoperative complications after callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure was 49 (12.62%), 13 (3.72%), and 3 (33.33%), respectively. The number of minor complications with callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure was 152 (39.18%), 55 (15.76%), and 1 (11.11%); the mean percentage of the original length achieved was 37.36%, 25.98% and 36.00%; and the mean length achieved was 17.5, 13.2, and 14.0 mm, respectively. The healing index (mo/cm) and healing time was 2.31 and 16.04 weeks, 1.90 and 9.35 weeks, and 3.93 and 14.62 weeks for callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure, respectively. Our findings indicate that the callus distraction technique is associated with greater length gained but results in greater complication rates and requires almost twice the time to heal. Single-stage lengthening with a bone graft was associated with fewer complications and faster healing times than callus distraction but with lesser gains in length. From the information reported in the studies we reviewed, the prevalence of bilateral brachymetatarsia was 44.52%, and the female/male ratio was 13.7:1. Both of these findings seem to contradict the usual data given (72% for bilateral brachymetatarsia and a female/male ratio of 25:1). Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and

  17. Induction of genetic instability in ρ53 in primary cultures of normal human urothelium exposed low-dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Harney, J.; Gamble, S.; Arrand, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that primary explant cultures of human urothelium exposed to low doses of gamma radiation subsequently exhibit a high level of stable P53 but it was not clear from those studies whether this protein stabilisation occurred through epigenetic events or as a result of mutation. In these experiments, primary urothelium cultures from five different patients were exposed to 0.5 and 5 Gy γ- radiation from a 60 Cobalt source and allowed to grow for 7- 10 division cycles to allow development of any radiation-induced, non lethal changes in the urothelial cells. C-myc, Bcl-2, and stable P53 protein expression was found to be elevated in cultures following both radiation doses. Following 0.5 Gy exposure, the cultures also developed multiple distinct 'foci' of rapidly-dividing cells which strongly over-expressed P53. These grew on a background of morphologically normal cells. When such foci were selectively analysed for their p53 mutation status by PCR-SSCPE, there was evidence that they contained cells which had developed changes to thr p53 gene post-irradiation. These changes appeared to occur more frequently in focal cells than in cells of normal morphological appearance in the same culture. DNA sequence analysis of the p53 gene in 0.5 Gy-induced foci displayed frame shift mutations in some cases. These results may have mechanistic importance given the controversy regarding low-dose radiation effects and p53-related genomic instability. (authors)

  18. Enlargement of induced variations by combined method of chronic irradiations with callus culture in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of gamma ray irradiation and callus culture upon induced variation of the regeneratives. The populations regenerated from young leaf tissue of chronic irradiated plnats grown under a gamma field receiving a total dose of 300 and 100 Gy, showed rather wider variation on quantitative characters than plants from populations of the non-irradiated. This variation extended in both negative and positive directions. Analysis of variance also revealed that variation and heritability in broad sense of most agronomic characters increased significantly among the subclones as the irradiation done rose. Principal component analysis also indicated that the subclones from the irradiated population were more variable than the non-irradiated. Such variation with higher heritability could be transmitted to the following generations by clonal propagation and utilized as genetic sources in mutation breeding. The combined method with chronic irradiation followed by tissue culture is evaluated as an effective method of widening mutation spectrum and increasing mutation frequency in regenerated plants. In addition, this method is valid to improve any crop species which can regenerate plants through callus culture. (author)

  19. Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Wetten, Andrew C; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    *Relatively little is known about the timing of genetic and epigenetic forms of somaclonal variation arising from callus growth. We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees. *For genetic change, we used 15 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers from four source trees and from 233 regenerated plants. For epigenetic change, we used 386 methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers on leaf and explant (staminode) DNA from two source trees and on leaf DNA from 114 regenerants. *Genetic variation within source trees was limited to one slippage mutation in one leaf. Regenerants were far more variable, with 35% exhibiting at least one mutation. Genetic variation initially accumulated with culture age but subsequently declined. MSAP (epigenetic) profiles diverged between leaf and staminode samples from source trees. Multivariate analysis revealed that leaves from regenerants occupied intermediate eigenspace between leaves and staminodes of source plants but became progressively more similar to source tree leaves with culture age. *Statistical analysis confirmed this rather counterintuitive finding that leaves of 'late regenerants' exhibited significantly less genetic and epigenetic divergence from source leaves than those exposed to short periods of callus growth.

  20. Biotransformation of isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside by Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yuhua; Jiang, Zhe; Hou, Yue; Jiao, Kun; Yan, Chunyan; Li, Ning

    2017-01-15

    Isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, identified from traditional medicinal herbal Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has been demonstrated to be a natural neuroinflammatory inhibitor. In order to obtain more derivatives with potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects, biotransformation was carried out. According to the characteristics of coumarin skeleton, suspension cultures of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus (A. sinensis callus) were employed because of the presence of diverse phenylpropanoids biosynthetic enzymes. As a result, 15 products were yielded from the suspension cultures, including a new coumarin: 8'-dehydroxymethyl cleomiscosin A (1), together with 14 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the biotransformed pathways were discussed. Among them, compound 13 was transformed from isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, while compounds 1-6, 10-12, 14-15 were derived from the culture medium stimulated by the substrate. The biotransformation processes include hydroxylation, oxidation and esterification. Furthermore, their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated in BV2 microglial cells. It is worth noting that, 1, 1'-methanediylbis(4-methoxybenzene) (3), obtucarbamates A (5), 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (10) and 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (11) exhibited significant inhibitory effect against neuroinflammation with IC 50 values at 1.22, 10.57, 1.02 and 0.76μM respectively, much stronger than that of the positive control minocycline (IC 50 35.82μM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  2. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  3. Inductive line energy storage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The inductive energy storage (IES) generator has long been considered to be the most efficient system for energy usage in large pulsed power system at the MA level. A number of parameters govern the efficiency of energy transfer between the storage capacitors and the load, and the level of current deliverable to the load. For high power system, the energy storage capacitors are arranged as a Marx generator. The primary constraints are the inductances in the various parts of the circuit, in particular, the upstream inductance between the Marx and the POS, and the downstream inductance between the POS and the load. This paper deals with the effect of replacing part of the upstream inductance with a transmission line and introduces the new concept of an inductive line for energy storage (ILES). Extensive parametric scans were carried out on circuit simulations to investigate the effect of this upstream transmission line. A model was developed to explain the operation of the ILES design based on the data obtained. Comparison with an existing IES generator shows that the ILES design offers a significant improvement in the maximum current and hence energy delivered to an inductive load. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  4. Induction of HO-1 by carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 attenuates thrombin-induced COX-2 expression and hypertrophy in primary human cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the cytoprotective byproducts of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and exerts anti-inflammatory action in various models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying CO-induced HO-1 expression in primary human cardiomyocytes remain largely unidentified. We used primary left ventricle myocytes as a model and applied CO releasing molecule (CORM)-2 to investigate the relationship of CO and HO-1 expression. We herein used Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity and EIA to investigate the role of HO-1 expression protecting against thrombin-mediated responses. We found that thrombin-induced COX-2 expression, PGE 2 release and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers (increase in ANF/BNP, α-actin expression and cell surface area) was attenuated by pretreatment with CORM-2 which was partially reversed by hemoglobin (Hb) or ZnPP (an inhibitor of HO-1 activity), suggesting that HO-1/CO system may be of clinical importance to ameliorate heart failure through inhibition of inflammatory responses. CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein expression, mRNA and promoter was attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors of Pyk2 (PF431396), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-5), p38 (SB202530), JNK1/2 (SP600125), FoxO1 (AS1842856) and Sp1 (mithramycin A). The involvement of these signaling components was further confirmed by transfection with respective siRNAs, consistent with those of pharmacological inhibitors. These results suggested that CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression is mediated through a Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/FoxO1/Sp1-dependent manner and exerts a cytoprotective effect in human cardiomyocytes. - Graphical abstract: In summary, CORM-2 treatment induces Pyk2 transactivated PDGFR, which induces PI3K/Akt/MAPK activation, and then recruits Sp1/Foxo1 transcriptional factors to regulate HO-1 gene expression in primary human cardiomyocytes. - Highlights: • CORM-2 induces HO-1 expression. • Pyk2-dependent PDGFR activates PI3K/Akt/MAPK pathway in CORM-2-induced HO-1

  5. Induction of HO-1 by carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 attenuates thrombin-induced COX-2 expression and hypertrophy in primary human cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Ageing Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin-Kou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Ageing Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology and Graduate Institute of Health Industry Technology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the cytoprotective byproducts of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and exerts anti-inflammatory action in various models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying CO-induced HO-1 expression in primary human cardiomyocytes remain largely unidentified. We used primary left ventricle myocytes as a model and applied CO releasing molecule (CORM)-2 to investigate the relationship of CO and HO-1 expression. We herein used Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity and EIA to investigate the role of HO-1 expression protecting against thrombin-mediated responses. We found that thrombin-induced COX-2 expression, PGE{sub 2} release and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers (increase in ANF/BNP, α-actin expression and cell surface area) was attenuated by pretreatment with CORM-2 which was partially reversed by hemoglobin (Hb) or ZnPP (an inhibitor of HO-1 activity), suggesting that HO-1/CO system may be of clinical importance to ameliorate heart failure through inhibition of inflammatory responses. CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein expression, mRNA and promoter was attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors of Pyk2 (PF431396), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-5), p38 (SB202530), JNK1/2 (SP600125), FoxO1 (AS1842856) and Sp1 (mithramycin A). The involvement of these signaling components was further confirmed by transfection with respective siRNAs, consistent with those of pharmacological inhibitors. These results suggested that CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression is mediated through a Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/FoxO1/Sp1-dependent manner and exerts a cytoprotective effect in human cardiomyocytes. - Graphical abstract: In summary, CORM-2 treatment induces Pyk2 transactivated PDGFR, which induces PI3K/Akt/MAPK activation, and then recruits Sp1/Foxo1 transcriptional factors to regulate HO-1 gene expression in primary human cardiomyocytes. - Highlights: • CORM-2 induces HO-1 expression. • Pyk2-dependent PDGFR activates PI3K/Akt/MAPK pathway in CORM-2-induced HO

  6. Induction of resistance to gray mold with benzothiadiazole modifies amino acid profile and increases proanthocyanidins in grape: primary versus secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Rossoni, Mara; Borgo, Michele; Ferrara, Luigia; Faoro, Franco

    2005-11-16

    Field treatments of grapevine (cv. Merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH, 0.3 mM) induced resistance against gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Both incidence and severity of the disease were reduced. The resistance was associated with an increase of total polyphenols in berry skins, in particular, the proanthocyanidin fraction, that increased up to 36%. The amino acid profile of leaves was also modified by treatments, particularly lysine, that augmented 4-fold. Other amino acids involved in resistance mechanisms to either biotic or abiotic stress increased as well. These results indicate that BTH treatments can be used to control gray mold, thereby limiting an excessive use of fungicides, and could be exploited to increase the content of micronutrients of high nutritional value, arising from both primary and secondary metabolisms.

  7. Suppression by thimerosal of ex-vivo CD4+ T cell response to influenza vaccine and induction of apoptosis in primary memory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Loison

    Full Text Available Thimerosal is a preservative used widely in vaccine formulations to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination in multidose vials of vaccine. Thimerosal was included in the multidose non-adjuvanted pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine Panenza. In the context of the analysis of the ex-vivo T cell responses directed against influenza vaccine, we discovered the in vitro toxicity Panenza, due to its content in thimerosal. Because thimerosal may skew the immune response to vaccines, we investigated in detail the ex-vivo effects of thimerosal on the fate and functions of T cells in response to TCR ligation. We report that ex-vivo exposure of quiescent or TCR-activated primary human T cells to thimerosal induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, exposure to non-toxic concentrations of thimerosal induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of TCR-activated T cells, and inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN gamma, IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, IL-2, as well as the chemokine MCP1. No shift towards Th2 or Th17 cells was detected. Overall these results underline the proapoptotic effect of thimerosal on primary human lymphocytes at concentrations 100 times less to those contained in the multidose vaccine, and they reveal the inhibitory effect of this preservative on T-cell proliferation and functions at nanomolar concentrations.

  8. Carcinogenesis induction with diethylnitrosamine in mice: A tumor model for the evaluation of unresectable primary or metastatic liver carcinoma treatment with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, F.; Anselmi, C.E.; Hunsche, A.; Fernandes, D.D.; Berdichevski, E.H.; Cembrani, L.; Anselmi, O.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Several agents such as chemical substances, radiation and virus are capable of experimentally inducing cancer in the liver. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in this disease are still obscure, but despite the etiological agents varying widely, the alterations induced by them demonstrate notable similarities. Considering the possibility of treatment of inoperable human hepatocarcinomas with Lipiodol-131I, Lipiodol-188Rhenium or 90YMicrospheres as a novel alternative, we developed a rat tumour model to test the effects of these radiopharmaceutical therapies. It was intended to verify the potential of hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) after partial hepatectomy (HP 70%) in Wistar rats, to analyze the histological modifications produced in the liver of the rats subjected to tumor induction and to verify the immuno-histochemical alterations through the antibody Ki67 and of the protein GSTpi after this process. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology - FFFCMPA. Diethylnitrosamine was administered 24 hrs. after surgery in continuous doses of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight through the drinkable water ingested by the rats. The dose was changed on a weekly basis during the period of 90 days. These rats were divided in four groups. Group-1: 5 rats subjected to pilot experiment for improvement of the anaesthetic and operative techniques. Group-2: 15 rats subjected to HP. Group-3: 15 rats that received DEN. Group-4: 15 rats subjected to HP plus DEN. After sacrificing animals (121 days after the surgical procedure) the livers were removed for histological and immuno-histochemical verification. During macroscopic evaluation, numerous frankly carcinomatous lesions of different dimensions were noticed, and in microscopic examination 100% of the lesions were hepatocarcinomas in group-4, with 73% expression of GSTpi and 67% occurrence of Ki67. In group-2 no tumour was noticed though there was 7

  9. Minimal lethal concentration of hyrgromycin B in calli induction and shoot multiplication process of Digitalis purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kairúz Hernández-Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Digitalis are characterized by the production of cardenolides, drugs widely used worldwide in the treatment of heart failure. In previous research a transformation protocol was developed from leaf disc of Digitalis purpurea L., using geneticin as selection marker. However some escapes in the selection process were obtained. So it is necessary to develop a more efficient selection scheme using another selective agent. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to select the minimum lethal concentration of hygromycin B during callus induction and shoots multiplication of D. purpurea. For callus induction we studied five concentrations of hygromycine B (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 mg l-1 during 28 days. Besides, the effect in shoot multiplication of four concentrations of hygromycine B (25, 50, 75, 100 mg l-1 was studied during 30 days. The minimal lethal concentration for callus formation was 12 mg l-1. In the case of shoot multiplication, 100% mortality was showed at 75 mg l-1 strictly after 30 days. The proposed selection scheme is recommended for future work at genetic transformation in this species. Keywords: cardenolides, genetic transformation, hpt, selection

  10. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, ... conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and ... phenolic compounds for prevention of disorders related to.

  11. Effect of gamma-radiation on callus initiation and oraganogenesis in the tissue culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Song, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally agreed that ionizing radiations stimulate cell division, growth and development in various organisms including animals and plants. Differentiating tissues are the most sensitive to radiation. The present experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on callus initiation and organogenesis from the stem in the culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. When the stem segments were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L kinetin, with 1 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), with 2 mg/L kinetin and 1 mg/L 2,4-D, the shoots and callus were differentiated 14 days after cultivation. Callus was especially formed on the MS medium with 2,4-D and/or kinetin and the formation was promoted by 1 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma radiation. The formation of the shoot clusters on the MS medium with 2 mg/L kinetin were prominent in the 5 Gy-irradiated groups. It is concluded that that gamma radiation enhanced the callus initiation and organogenesis in the tissue culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L

  12. Cold Response of Dedifferentiated Barley Cells at the Gene Expression, Hormone Composition, and Freezing Tolerance Levels: Studies on Callus Cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vashegyi, I.; Marozsan-Toth, Z.; Galiba, G.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Toth, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 337-349 ISSN 1073-6085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ABA * Barley * Callus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013

  13. Oxygen regulation of uricase and sucrose synthase synthesis in soybean callus tissue is exerted at the mRNA level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Z T; Larsen, K; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lowering oxygen concentration on the expression of nodulin genes in soybean callus tissue devoid of the microsymbiont has been examined. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from tissue cultivated in 4% oxygen and in normal atmosphere. Quantitative mRNA hybridization experiments using nodule...

  14. A Framework of Mathematics Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of the literature in inductive reasoning, a framework for prescribing and assessing mathematics inductive reasoning of primary school students was formulated and validated. The major constructs incorporated in this framework were students' cognitive abilities of finding similarities and/or dissimilarities among attributes and…

  15. Growing, regeneration and radiosensibility of sugarcane callus (Saccharum spp. hybrid var. “SP 70-1284” treated with gamma radiation source 60Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio Valdez Balero

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Calluses in growth of sugar cane, variety “SP 70-1284”, were radiated with a source of 60Co. The studied doses were between 10 and 80 Gy. The affectation of the Gamma radiation source 60Co in the growth of the callus and the regeneration of plants was evaluated. The results indicated that the dose that diminished the growth of callus in a value under 50% was the one of 30 Gy, and also the dose that diminished the regenerative capacity of the callus below to the 50% of the population was the one of 30 Gy. The results showed that for this variety of sugar cane doses superior to 30Gy of Gamma radiations jeopardizes the growth and the later regeneration of the callus. Its application is recommended to induce genetic variability in the variety of sugar cane “SP 70-1284”, as well as in programs of genetic improvement by mutations, in susceptible varieties of the sugar cane red blight (Puccinia melanocephala Syd using calluses in growth. Key words: callus, hybrid, in vitro, improvement, rust, Saccharum sp, variability

  16. Efficient production of a bioactive Bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2A self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. Bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. We here reported the first plant-derived Bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. Codon-optimized Bevacizumab light chain (BLC and heavy chain (BHC genes were designed, synthesized as a polyprotein with a 2A self-cleavage linker peptide from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, cloned into a plant binary vector under a constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, and transformed into rice nuclear genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot and western blot analyses confirmed the integration and expression of BLC and BHC genes in transgenic rice callus. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis indicated that the rice-derived Bevacizumab mAb was biologically active and the recombinant mAb was expressed at high levels (160.7-242.8 mg kg-1FW in transgenic rice callus. The mAb was purified by using protein A affinity chromatography and the purified antibody was tested for its binding affinity with its target hVEGF antigen by ELISA. Rice callus produced Bevacizumab and a commercial Bevacizumab (Avastin were shown to have similar binding affinity to hVEGF. These results indicated that rice callus produced Bevacizumab could have similar biological activity and might potentially be used as a cost-effective biosimilar molecule in future cancer treatment.

  17. Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callus of JATROPHA CURCAS: a Biotechnological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, A. G.; Lele, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports a rapid plant-based biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Jatropha curcas L. The particle size and morphological analyses were carried out using Zetasizer, SEM, TEM. The physicochemical properties were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopic, IR and DSC. The formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 421 nm. The silver nanoparticle was found to be a negatively charged with size ranging from 2 nm to 50 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticle is uniformly spherical and has a dispersion ratio of 0.14. The physicochemical study using DSC indicated significant thermal stability and crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. This intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is simple, cheap and eco-friendly than other mechanical and chemical approaches.

  18. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  19. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration of goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemets, A I; Klimkina, L A; Tarassenko, L V; Blume, Y B

    2003-02-01

    Efficient methods in totipotent callus formation, cell suspension culture establishment and whole-plant regeneration have been developed for the goosegrass [ Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] and its dinitroaniline-resistant biotypes. The optimum medium for inducing morphogenic calli consisted of N6 basal salts and B5 vitamins supplemented with 1-2 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2 mg l(-1) glycine, 100 mg l(-1) asparagine, 100 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. The presence of organogenic and embryogenic structures in these calli was histologically documented. Cell suspension cultures derived from young calli were established in a liquid medium with the same composition. Morphogenic structures of direct shoots and somatic embryos were grown into rooted plantlets on medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 1 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kn) and 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 3% sucrose, 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. Calli derived from the R-biotype of E. indica possessed a high resistance to trifluralin (dinitroaniline herbicide) and cross-resistance to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl (phosphorothioamidate herbicide), as did the original resistant plants. Embryogenic cell suspension culture was a better source of E. indica protoplasts than callus or mesophyll tissue. The enzyme solution containing 1.5% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% driselase, 1% pectolyase Y-23, 0.5% hemicellulase and N(6) mineral salts with an additional 0.2 M KCl and 0.1 M CaCl(2) (pH 5.4-5.5) was used for protoplast isolation. The purified protoplasts were cultivated in KM8p liquid medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D and 0.2 mg l(-1) Kn.

  20. Responses of meristematic callus cells of two Cynodon dactylon genotypes to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgareeb, Sumita; Cooke, John A; Watt, M Paula

    2004-11-01

    Responses to Al3+ of embryogenic callus cells of an Al-sensitive (Al-S) and Al-resistant (Al-R) Cynodon dactylon genotype were evaluated with regard to Al3+ toxicity and resistance. A chemical equilibrium speciation model (MINTEQA2) was used to ensure the availability of the Al3+ ion in culture media, which was supplied as 0.08-2.3 mM Al3+ for 2-8 weeks. Increasing Al3+ concentration and exposure time had a greater negative impact on the Al-S than on the Al-R genotype, in terms of callus growth rate and frequency of non-embryogenic cells. Exposure to 0.8 mM Al3+ for 2 weeks resulted in an 88% reduction in the Al-S meristematic cell number, whereas that of the Al-R genotype remained unaffected. In addition, the Al-S cells accumulated three times more Al in the nucleus than did the Al-R cells, suggesting that Al interfered with mitosis. The Al-R cells appeared to exclude Al3+ from its cells through an increase in extracellular pH (4.34 in Al-R and 4.08 in Al-S) and by the immobilisation of Al in the cell wall (33% more in Al-R). The results showed that by studying the cellular responses to Al3+ it is possible to discriminate between the Al-S and Al-R C. dactylon genotypes.

  1. Statistically optimized biotransformation protocol for continuous production of L-DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Shrirang Appasaheb; Surwase, Shripad Nagnath; Jadhav, Shekhar Bhagwan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant; Jadhav, Jyoti Prafull

    2013-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine), a modified amino acid, is an expansively used drug for the Parkinson's disease treatment. In the present study, optimization of nutritional parameters influencing L-DOPA production was attempted using the response surface methodology (RSM) from Mucuna monosperma callus. Optimization of the four factors was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. The optimized levels of factors predicted by the model include tyrosine 0.894 g l(-1), pH 4.99, ascorbic acid 31.62 mg l(-1)and copper sulphate 23.92 mg l(-1), which resulted in highest L-DOPA yield of 0.309 g l(-1). The optimization of medium using RSM resulted in a 3.45-fold increase in the yield of L-DOPA. The ANOVA analysis showed a significant R (2) value (0.9912), model F-value (112.465) and probability (0.0001), with insignificant lack of fit. Optimized medium was used in the laboratory scale column reactor for continuous production of L-DOPA. Uninterrupted flow column exhibited maximum L-DOPA production rate of 200 mg L(-1) h(-1) which is one of the highest values ever reported using plant as a biotransformation source. L-DOPA production was confirmed by HPTLC and HPLC analysis. This study demonstrates the synthesis of L- DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus using a laboratory scale column reactor.

  2. Comparação de diferentes metodologias para obtenção de cultura de calos de Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1090 Comparison of different methodologies for obtaining callus cultures from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1090

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    adequate combination of phytoregulators, provided greater callus induction velocity and multiplication than the media that using MS nutrients. New experiments will be conducted after reaching genetic stability of the calluses, seeking to evaluate the capacity of these calluses to biosynthesize GDS

  3. Modeling and analysis with induction generators

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, M Godoy

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceAcknowledgmentsAuthorsPrinciples of Alternative Sources of Energy and Electric GenerationScope of This ChapterLegal DefinitionsPrinciples of Electrical ConversionBasic Definitions of Electrical PowerCharacteristics of Primary SourcesCharacteristics of Remote Industrial, Commercial, and Residential Sites and Rural EnergySelection of the Electric GeneratorInterfacing Primary Source, Generator, and LoadExample of a Simple Integrated Generating and Energy-Storing SystemSolved ProblemsSuggested ProblemsReferencesSteady-State Model of Induction GeneratorsScope of This ChapterInterconnection and Disconnection of the Electric Distribution NetworkRobustness of Induction GeneratorsClassical Steady-State Representation of the Asynchronous MachineGenerated PowerInduced TorqueRepresentation of Induction Generator LossesMeasurement of Induction Generator ParametersBlocked Rotor Test (s = 1)No-Load Test (s = 0)Features of Induction Machines Working as Generators Interconnected to the Distribution NetworkHigh-...

  4. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  5. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  6. Teaching inductive reasoning in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, E.; Hamers, J.H.M.; Sijtsma, K.; Vermeer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results demonstrated that the teachers were able to apply the programs as intended, although they needed support to shift their attention from the reasoning product to the reasoning process. They also experienced difficulties in implementing the role swap between the teacher and the pupils in the

  7. Absence of arabinan in the side chains of the pectic polysaccharides strongly associated with cell walls of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia non-organogenic callus with loosely attached constituent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, H; Ishii, T; Satoh, S

    2001-10-01

    When leaf disks from haploid plants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. were transformed with T-DNA and cultured on shoot-inducing medium, nonorganogenic callus. designated nolac (for non-organogenic callus with loosely attached cells), appeared on approximately 7% of leaf disks. In contrast, normal callus was generated on T-DNA-transformed leaf disks from diploid plants and on non-transformed leaf disks from haploid and diploid plants. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the middle lamellae and the cell walls of one line of mutant callus (nolac-H14) were barely stained by ruthenium red. even after demethylesterification with NaOH, whereas the entire cell wall and the middle lamella were strongly stained in normal callus. In cultures of nolac-H14 callus, the level of sugar components of pectic polysaccharides in the hemicellulose fraction was reduced and that in the culture medium was elevated, as compared with cultures of normal callus. These results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are not retained in the cell walls and middle lamellae of nolac-H14 callus. In nolac-H14, the ratio of arabinose to galactose was low in the pectic polysaccharides purified from all cell wall fractions and from the medium, in particular, in the hemicellulose fractions. The low levels of arabinofuranosyl (T-Araf, 5-Araf, 2,5-Araf, and 3,5-Araf) residues in the pectic polysaccharides of the hemicellulosic fraction of nolac-H,14 indicated that no neutral-sugar side chains, composed mainly of linear arabinan. were present in nolac-H14. Arabinose-rich pectins. which are strongly associated with cellulose-hemicellulose complexes, might play an important role in intercellular attachment in the architecture of the cell wall.

  8. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.M.; Kearsley, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sarris, M.; De Murrell, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  9. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Miyako N; Ota, Erika; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-08-14

    Induction of labour using pharmacological and mechanical methods can increase complications. Complementary and alternative medicine methods including hypnosis may have the potential to provide a safe alternative option for the induction of labour. However, the effectiveness of hypnosis for inducing labour has not yet been fully evaluated. To assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour compared with no intervention or any other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014), handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted key personnel and organisations in the field for published and unpublished references. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of acceptable quality comparing hypnosis with no intervention or any other interventions, in which the primary outcome is to assess whether labour was induced. Two review authors assessed the one trial report that was identified (but was subsequently excluded). No RCTs or cluster-RCTs were identified from the search strategy. There was no evidence available from RCTs to assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour. Evidence from RCTs is required to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for labour induction. As hypnosis may delay standard care (in case standard care is withheld during hypnosis), its use in induction of labour should be considered on a case-by-case basis.Future RCTs are required to examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnotic relaxation for induction of labour among pregnant women who have anxiety above a certain level. The length and timing of the intervention, as well as the staff training required, should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the views and experiences of women and staff should also be included in future RCTs.

  10. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  11. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus.

  12. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled substrates for the study of oleuropein biosynthesis in Olea europaea callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrilli, Anna Maria; Maggi, Agnese; Casagrande, Valentina; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    We propose the cell culture approach to investigate oleuropein (1) biogenesis in Olea europaea L. We suggest employing olive callus cultures to identify the iridoidic precursor of oleuropein. In fact, we confirmed that callus cells from olive shoot explants are able to produce key secoiridoid as 1. To enable this approach, we synthesised and characterised deuterium-labelled iridoidic precursors belonging both to the loganin and the 8-epiloganin series. These iridoids are [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-8-epi-loganin (2(D)), [8,10-(2)H2]-8-epi-loganin (4(D)) and [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-loganin (3(D)).

  13. Rule Induction-Based Knowledge Discovery for Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qipeng; Fan, Zhong; Kaleshi, Dritan; Armour, Simon M D

    2015-01-01

    Rule induction is a practical approach to knowledge discovery. Provided that a problem is developed, rule induction is able to return the knowledge that addresses the goal of this problem as if-then rules. The primary goals of knowledge discovery are for prediction and description. The rule format knowledge representation is easily understandable so as to enable users to make decisions. This paper presents the potential of rule induction for energy efficiency. In particular, three rule induct...

  14. Biomass Yield and Steviol Glycoside Production in Callus and Suspension Culture of Stevia rebaudiana Treated with Proline and Polyethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced production of steviol glycosides (SGs) was observed in callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana treated with proline and polyethylene glycol (PEG). To study their effect, yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of proline (2.5-10 mM) and PEG (2.5-10 %) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension culture biomass (i.e. both fresh and dry weight content) was increased with 5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, while at further higher concentrations, they got reduced. Further, quantification of SGs content in callus (collected at 15th day) and suspension culture (collected at 10th and 15th day) treated with and without elicitors was analysed by HPLC. It was observed that chemical stress enhanced the production of SGs significantly. In callus, the content of SGs increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.09 and 1.83 % with 7.5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, respectively, which was about 4.0 and 7.0 times higher than control. However, in the case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of proline and polyethylene glycol enhanced the SG content from 1.36 (control) to 5.03 and 6.38 %, respectively, on 10th day which were 3.7 times and 4.7 times higher than control.

  15. Intramedullary Mg2Ag nails augment callus formation during fracture healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, Katharina; Saito, Hiroaki; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Gasser, Andreas; Hort, Norbert; Feyerabend, Frank; Schlüter, Hartmut; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Hesse, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Intramedullary stabilization is frequently used to treat long bone fractures. Implants usually remain unless complications arise. Since implant removal can become technically very challenging with the potential to cause further tissue damage, biodegradable materials are emerging as alternative options. Magnesium (Mg)-based biodegradable implants have a controllable degradation rate and good tissue compatibility, which makes them attractive for musculoskeletal research. Here we report for the first time the implantation of intramedullary nails made of an Mg alloy containing 2% silver (Mg2Ag) into intact and fractured femora of mice. Prior in vitro analyses revealed an inhibitory effect of Mg2Ag degradation products on osteoclast differentiation and function with no impair of osteoblast function. In vivo, Mg2Ag implants degraded under non-fracture and fracture conditions within 210days and 133days, respectively. During fracture repair, osteoblast function and subsequent bone formation were enhanced, while osteoclast activity and bone resorption were decreased, leading to an augmented callus formation. We observed a widening of the femoral shaft under steady state and regenerating conditions, which was at least in part due to an uncoupled bone remodeling. However, Mg2Ag implants did not cause any systemic adverse effects. These data suggest that Mg2Ag implants might be promising for intramedullary fixation of long bone fractures, a novel concept that has to be further investigated in future studies. Biodegradable implants are promising alternatives to standard steel or titanium implants to avoid implant removal after fracture healing. We therefore developed an intramedullary nail using a novel biodegradable magnesium-silver-alloy (Mg2Ag) and investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the implants on bone remodeling under steady state and fracture healing conditions in mice. Our results demonstrate that intramedullary Mg2Ag nails degrade in vivo over time without

  16. Overexpression of a repressor MdMYB15L negatively regulates anthocyanin and cold tolerance in red-fleshed callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Yang, Guanxian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yicheng; Zhang, Tianliang; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2018-04-14

    The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Knocking out the bHLH binding sequence of MdMYB15L (LBSMdMYB15L) prevented LBSMdMYB15L from interacting with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing LBSMdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Together, these results suggested that an apple repressor MdMYB15L might play a key role in the cold signaling and anthocyanin metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Taxus yunnanensis Callus and Their Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hua Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant constituents could act as chelating/reducing or capping agents for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The green synthesis of AgNPs has been considered as an environmental friendly and cost-effective alternative to other fabrication methods. The present work described the biosynthesis of AgNPs using callus extracts from Taxus yunnanensis and evaluated their antibacterial activities in vitro and potential cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Callus extracts were able to reduce silver nitrate at 1 mM in 10 min. Transmission electron microscope (TEM indicated the synthesized AgNPs were spherical with the size range from 6.4 to 27.2 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the AgNPs were in the form of nanocrystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR suggested phytochemicals in callus extracts were possible reducing and capping agents. The AgNPs exhibited effective inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogen bacteria and the inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria was stronger than that of Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, they exhibited stronger cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and induced noticeable apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, but showed lower cytotoxic against normal human liver cells (HL-7702. Our results suggested that biosynthesized AgNPs could be an alternative measure in the field of antibacterial and anticancer therapeutics.

  18. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  19. Callus formation of american Persea Mill. cultivar Catalina starting from segments of leaves of in vitro plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Freire Seijo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of establishing protocols for the regeneration of fruit-trees through out the organogenesis and the somatic embryogenesis is based on the possibility to use them in the propagation of the species or in programs of genetic improvement. Specifically the Catalina cultivar is very coveted in Cuba, however it has not been introduced in vitro. The present work had the objective of forming callus starting from leaves of in vitro plants from avocado tree of the Catalina cultivar. The phase of multiplication of the in vitro plants was carried out in temporary immersion systems in order to favour the expansion of the leaves. Erlenmeyers 1.0l were used In the TIS and immersions every four and eight hours with a minute of duration were carried out. The effect of the Picloram, the 6 BAP and the 2,4-D on leaves of in vitro plants for the formation of callus was studied. The plants with more quality were obtained when immersions every 8 hours were carried out. It was also possible to form callus using sections of leaves of in vitro plants as explants in a culture medium with 0.1 Picloram mgl-1. Key words: in vitro plant leaves, temporary immersion system

  20. Global Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Proteins in the Wheat Callus Infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Ke; Lv, Dongwen; Wu, Chengjun; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Pei; Lin, Zhishan; Du, Lipu; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO) analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops. PMID:24278131

  1. Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, containing the hygromycin-phosphotransferase gene as selection marker. After two weeks on selection medium, hygromycin-resistant calli were transferred to regeneration medium. Regenerated shoots were extracted every 5 days (over a 30-day period and classified into three classes according to their morphological structure: class I: vigorous shoot having typical bipolar structure; class II: shoot having small root compared to apical length, or shoot without roots; class III: shoots having an abnormal appearance, such as malformed leaves or albinism. Individualised shoots were transferred to MS medium containing hygromycin for evaluating their resistance to antibiotics. A relationship was observed between regenerated shoots’ morphological characteristics and the percentage of shoots’ viability on hygromycin. Class I prevailed at early shoot extraction and was the most resistant to hygromycin. Drastic class I reduction was found with later shoot extraction, whilst classes II and III became increased. Likewise, shoot viability became radically reduced on MS medium containing hygromycin. This result might be applied for improving efficiency regarding obtaining transgenic rice plants, taking into account the best time for obtaining high percentages of hygromycin-resistant shoots having the best morphological characteristics.

  2. Global analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins in the wheat callus infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhou

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS. A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops.

  3. Influence of different methods of internal bone fixation on characteristics of bone callus in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correct choice of osteosynthesis method is a very important factor in providing the optimal conditions for appropriate healing of the fracture. There are still disagreements about the method of stabilization of some long bone fractures. Critically observed, no method of fracture fixation is ideal. Each osteosynthesis method has both advantages and weaknesses. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the experimental application of three different internal fixation methods: plate fixation, intramedullary nail fixation and self-dynamisable internal fixator (SIF. Methods. A series of 30 animals were used (Lepus cuniculus as experimental animals, divided into three groups of ten animals each. Femoral diaphysis of each animal was osteotomized and fixed with one of three implants. Ten weeks later all animals were sacrificed and each specimen underwent histological and biomechanical testing. Results. Histology showed that the healing process with SIF was more complete and bone callus was more mature in comparison to other two methods. During biomechanical investigation (computerized bending stress test, it was documented with high statistical significance that using SIF led to stronger healing ten weeks after the operation. Conclusion. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that SIF is a suitable method for fracture treatment.

  4. Changes in auxin activity in tumourous and normal tobacco calluses treated with morphactin IT 3233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of morphactin IT 3233 in 1-40 mg/dm3 concentrations to the medium inhibited the growth in vitro of normal and tumourous tobacco calluses. The auxin activity (estimated by the Avena coleoptile straight growth test of the acid ether extracts from these tissues increased. The activity of zone I (Rf 0.2-0.4, 0.5, solvent system: butanol:water:ammonia 10:10:1 in normal tissues increased more intensively than that of zone II (Rf 0.6-0.8, 0.9. In tumourous tissues, however, these changes were smaller and they concerned merely zone I of auxin activity (Rf 0.0-0.5. It seems that the mechanism of morphactin activity in both kinds of tissue is different. It may be supposed that the excessive accumulation of auxins induces growth inhibition of tissues. A previously found increase in the activity of IAA-oxidase influenced by morphactin might be considered as an adaptation to a higher level of IAA.

  5. Phytochemical and biological study of callus cultures of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hanaa H; Metwally, Ghada F

    2017-08-01

    As in vitro plant cultures are used extensively to produce bioactive metabolites, our goal was to establish calli from Tulbaghia violacea Harv. flowers and assess the tissue phytochemically and biologically. Murashige & Skoog medium(MS) + 22.6 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid +2.2 μM benzylaminopurine induced callus from flowers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) analyses of n-hexane extracts of calli(HC) and flowers(HF) revealed 33 and 32 components(92.6 and 98.5%, respectively). Hydrocarbons were predominant in HC (55.0%), whereas a higher percentage of oxygenated compounds was found in HF(74.6%). Trans(E)-anethole(39.1%) and 16-hentriacontanone (30.3%) dominated in HF and HC, respectively. However, sulphur compounds were only detected in HF. Quantitative estimation of thiosulphinates, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in ethanolic extracts of calli(EC) and flowers(EF) showed much higher contents in EF. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening of extracts demonstrated that EF was the most potent, followed by HF and EC; conversely, HC was inactive. Although HC and EC were less biologically active, these calli could be an alternative source of bioactive metabolites.

  6. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  7. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  8. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  10. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  11. In Vivo Evaluation of Fracture Callus Development During Bone Healing in Mice Using an MRI-compatible Osteosynthesis Device for the Mouse Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Müller-Graf, Fabian; Matthys, Romano; Abaei, Alireza; Jonas, René; Gebhard, Florian; Rasche, Volker; Ignatius, Anita

    2017-11-14

    Endochondral fracture healing is a complex process involving the development of fibrous, cartilaginous, and osseous tissue in the fracture callus. The amount of the different tissues in the callus provides important information on the fracture healing progress. Available in vivo techniques to longitudinally monitor the callus tissue development in preclinical fracture-healing studies using small animals include digital radiography and µCT imaging. However, both techniques are only able to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized tissue. Consequently, it is impossible to discriminate cartilage from fibrous tissue. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes anatomical structures based on their water content and might therefore be able to noninvasively identify soft tissue and cartilage in the fracture callus. Here, we report the use of an MRI-compatible external fixator for the mouse femur to allow MRI scans during bone regeneration in mice. The experiments demonstrated that the fixator and a custom-made mounting device allow repetitive MRI scans, thus enabling longitudinal analysis of fracture-callus tissue development.

  12. Mutation induction by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.; Stoll, U.; Schneider, E.

    1994-10-01

    Mutation induction by heavy ions is compared in yeast and mammalian cells. Since mutants can only be recovered in survivors the influence of inactivation cross sections has to be taken into account. It is shown that both the size of the sensitive cellular site as well as track structure play an important role. Another parameter which influences the probability of mutation induction is repair: Contrary to naive assumptions primary radiation damage does not directly lead to mutations but requires modification to reconstitute the genetic machinery so that mutants can survive. The molecular structure of mutations was analyzed after exposure to deuterons by amplification with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The results-although preliminary-demonstrate that even with densely ionizing particles a large fraction does not carry big deletions which suggests that point mutations may also be induced by heavy ions.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L. is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lashermes Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%. At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L.) is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation) and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%). At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our results make Agrobacterium

  15. Effects of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on the Formation of Shikonon Derivatives in Callus Cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.; Lee, Y.B.; Kim, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of low dosage r-radiation on the cell growth and the formation of shikonin derivatives were investigated in callus cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon under different medium and light conditions. Gamma radiation significantly affected the cell growth and formation of shikonin derivatives, depending on the culture conditions. In the cell cultures grown on M09 medium, 2 Gy and 16 /Gy of r-radiation increased the calli growth and the formation of shikonin derivatives, respectively under 16 hr day light condition

  16. [Dynamics of genome changes in Rauwolfia serpentina callus tissue upon the switch to conditions of submerged cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonova, E V; Adnof, D M; Andreev, I O; Kunakh, V A

    2008-01-01

    Genome of Rauwolfia serpentina callus cells was found to fail undergo the noticeable changes for several early passages upon the switch from surface to submerged cultivation in the liquid medium of special composition. After subsequent 4-6 passages in submerged culture RAPD spectra polymorphism was revealed which may reflect the changes in DNA sequence as well as in the structure of cell population that forms the strain. Introduction of the intermediary passage on the agar-solidified medium of more simple composition prior to transfer into liquid medium appeared not to affect essentially the level and the pattern of genome changes.

  17. Influence of hydroxyurea on nucleic acids content and 3H-uridine incorporation in callus and tumorous tobacco tissues cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In callus and tumor tissues of Nicotiana tabacum cultured for 39 days in media supplemented with various concentrations of hydroxyurea (1.3 x 10-4 M - 1.3 x 10-3 M a decrease of DNA content (ca. 24 per cent in callus tissue and ca. 23 per cent in tumour tissue and a decrease of RNA content (over 10 per cent and ca. 9 per cent in callus and tumour tissue, respectively was observed. The autoradiographic method showed that a long-lasting action of this com-pound inhibits RNA synthesis. A stronger inhibitory influence of hydroxyurea upon incorporation of 3H-uridine from the incubation medium was revealed.

  18. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  19. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  20. Influence of thiamine on the post-irradiation effect caused by fast neutrons or gamma radiation in callus cultures of Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt) A. Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajda, L.; Korzonek, M.

    1979-01-01

    Influence of thiamine within the investigated range of concentrations 1.5 to 12.0 mg/l on the postirradiation effect caused by fast neutrons or gamma irradiation was found in cultures of Haplopappus gracilis callus. The lowest sensitivity to fast neutrons was noticed in callus grown on nutrient combination 1.5 to 3.0 and 12.0 to 3.0 mg/l of thiamine. On the contrary the highest sensitivity to gamma radiation was shown by cultures grown on nutrient media: 1.5 to 3.0 mg/l; all the other investigated thiamine concentrations caused a marked decrease in the sensitivity of the callus. (author)

  1. Interferon induction by adenoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beladi, I; Bakay, M; Pusztai, R; Mucsi, I; Tarodi, B [University Medical School, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Microbiology

    1979-02-01

    All human, simian, bovine and avian adenovirus types tested so far and the canine hepatitis virus induce interferon production in chick cells. This finding indicated this property to be characteristic for viruses belonging to the adenovirus group. Trypsin treatment, which had no effect upon the infectivity, diminished or eliminated the interferon-inducing abilities of crude adenoviruses, and thus the need for a trypsin-sensitive protein in interferon induction was suggested. T antigen and interferon were formed simultaneously in chick embryo fibroblast cells infected with human adenovirus type 12, and there-fore the adenovirus-specific T antigen was resitant to the action of endogenous interferon synthetized by the same cells. In chicks inoculated with human types, the appearance of interferon was biphasic: an 'early' and a 'late' interferon could be demonstrated with maximum titre 4 and 10 hr, respectively, after virus infection. In chicks infected with adenoviruses, first interferon production and then a decreased primary immune response to sheep red blood cells was observed. It was assumed that in adenovirus-infected chicks the interferon produced by viral stimulus resulted in a transient immunosuppression.

  2. Species sensitivity distribution approach to primary risk analysis of the metal pyrithione photodegradation product, 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide in the Inland Sea and induction of notochord undulation in fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Amano, Haruna; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ito, Mana; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ichihashi, Hideki; Kakuno, Akira; Harino, Hiroya; Fujii, Kazunori

    2012-08-15

    To carry out a primary risk assessment in the Inland Sea of Japan for 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide [(PS)(2)], a metal pyrithione photodegradation product, we used a methodology based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) estimated with a Bayesian statistical model. We first conducted growth inhibition tests with three marine phytoplankton species, Tetraselmis tetrathele, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Dunaliella tertiolecta. We also performed acute and early life stage toxicity (ELS) tests with a teleost fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). The algal growth inhibition tests revealed that the 72-h EC(50) ranged from 62 to 1100 μg/L. Acute toxicity tests with larval mummichogs revealed that the 96-h LC(50) was approximately 500 μg/L based on the actual toxicant concentrations. ELS testing of (PS)(2) under continuous flow-through conditions for 50 days revealed that growth was the most sensitive endpoint, and both total length and body weight were significantly lower in the groups exposed to 27 μg/L (PS)(2) compared to the solvent control group. We determined a lowest observed effect concentration of 17 μg/L and a NOEC of 5.9 μg/L based on the actual toxicant concentrations. By using the ecotoxicity data (LC(50) and EC(50)) from this study and previous work, we calculated a hazardous concentration that should protect 95% and 99% of species (HC(5) and HC(1)) based on the SSD derived with a Bayesian statistical model. The medians with 90% confidence intervals (parentheses) of the HC(5) and HC(1) were 31.0 (3.2, 101.8) μg/L and 10.1 (0.5, 44.2) μg/L, respectively. In the ELS test, about 80% of hatched larvae exposed to 243-μg/L (PS)(2) displayed a notochord undulation. To elucidate the cause of the notochord undulation, we carried out embryo toxicity tests by exposing embryos at various developmental stages to (PS)(2). Exposure to (PS)(2) through the entire gastrulae stage was important to induction of the morphological abnormality. Lysyl oxidase activity

  3. Radio-sensitivity of callus and cell cultures, and RAPD characterization of variants in banana [Musa spp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Karmarkar, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.; Bapat, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Although bananas and plantains are one of the most important fruit crops, gearing up the breeding programmes for these has always remained the most difficult task due to several inherent problems such as parthenocarpy, barriers in obtaining viable seeds and long life cycle etc. In this regard, incorporation of in vitro techniques such as shoot-tip / cell cultures along with conventional as well as non-conventional methods of genetic improvement is of utmost importance, especially in those vegetatively propagated species with long crop cycle and low in vivo proliferation rate. In order to understand the radio-sensitivity, the callus and cell cultures of banana were exposed to differential doses of gamma-rays. Growth of the callus cultures reduced with increasing dose of gamma-rays. Similar trend was noticed in irradiation of cell suspensions also where a dose of 40 Gy and more was completely lethal. The experience gained from previous and present experiments has yielded optimization of the procedures for gamma-irradiation and subsequent handling of banana in vitro cultures. The RAPD analysis of the selected variants was unable to detect adequate polymorphism, and further experimentation in these regards is being done. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the phenotype variability and early selection to rust of the sugar cane (Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Syd in plants generated from irradiated callus from the variaty of sugar cane ´SP 70-1284´.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio Valdez Balero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the variability fenotípic in early phases of selection from plants regenerated of the mutagenic treatment with dose of 30 Gy of radiations Gamma (source 60Co applicated to calluses in growth of the donating ´SP 70-1284´ tolerant to the rust disease of the sugarcane Puccinia melanocephala. The main changes the plants obtained in vitro, consinted in the height, the color, habit of growth, length and width of the leaf, as well as in the affectation for the rust disease. 14.28% of the changes all fenotipic was observed in plantín, and in the shoot the plants presented 10.99% of changes all fenotipic. In the vegetative multiplication one (MV1 three possible mutants were selected with smaller affectation in front rust disease of the sugarcan, resistance character to the rust disease efficiency of the tissue culture and the mutations induction with the dose of 30 Gy were of a mutant for each 1 525 plants evaluated in early phase of selection. Key words: variation fenotipic, selection early, mutagenesis

  5. Urofollitropin and ovulation induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Yding Andersen, Claus; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Anovulation is a common cause of female infertility. Treatment for women with anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is indicated in women with WHO type II anovulation in whom treatment with clomifene citrate (clomifene) has

  6. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  7. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  8. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  9. Perioperative complications of radical cystectomy after induction chemoradiotherapy in bladder-sparing protocol against muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A single institutional retrospective comparative study with primary radical cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Aki; Koga, Fumitaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Masuda, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazutaka; Numao, Noboru; Sakura, Mizuaki; Kawakami, Satoru; Kihara, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rates of early morbidity after radical cystectomy in patients treated with or without induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using a standardized reporting methodology. All 193 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 1989 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Induction chemoradiotherapy consists of radiation at 40 Gy to the small pelvis and two cycles of concurrent cisplatin at 20 mg/day for 5 days. Deaths within 90 days after radical cystectomy and complications arising within 30 days were recorded and graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Grades 1-2 were considered minor; Grades 3-5 were considered major. Eighty-seven patients underwent radical cystectomy following chemoradiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy group) while the remaining 106 primarily underwent radical cystectomy (no chemoradiotherapy group). No Grade 4-5 complication was observed. Overall, 118 patients (61%) experienced 36 major and 122 minor complications. There was no significant difference in the incidence of overall complications between the chemoradiotherapy and no chemoradiotherapy groups (67 vs. 57%). Overall urinary anastomosis-related complications and major gastrointestinal complications, most of which were Grade 3 ileus, were more frequent in the chemoradiotherapy group than the no chemoradiotherapy group (11 vs. 2%, P=0.007; and 14 vs. 4%, P=0.02; respectively). Multivariate analysis identified induction chemoradiotherapy as an independent risk factor for overall urinary anastomosis-related complications (relative risk 6.0, P=0.01) but not for major gastrointestinal complications. Induction chemoradiotherapy at 40 Gy in bladder-sparing protocols against MIBC is unlikely to increase the rate of severe complications of radical cystectomy. (author)

  10. Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of labour in women with intra-uterine foetal death. ... It is a tertiary institution serving predominantly black indigenous population. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the induction to delivery time, and secondary outcome measures were ...

  11. Effect of gamma rays in embryogenic callus of agave tequilana weber var. blue and in vitro selection for resistance to pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubluo, A.; Brunner, I.; Rodriguez-Garay, B.; Rodriguez-Dominguez, J.M.; Santacruz-Ruvalcava, F.; De la Cruz, E.; Gonzalez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Agave tequilana from which tequila is done, suffers genetic erosion leaving the plant susceptible to pathogens. Recently, a pest invades the tequilana fields. To face this problem we designed experiments to induce mutations for disease resistance. Our aims were: to analyse the in vitro responses of embryogenic callus exposed to gamma rays, to determine the LD50 and challenge surviving embryos to crude bacterial extracts (CBE). Axillary buds were cultured in vitro. Leaves from the former plant lets were used as explants to induce embryogenic callus. Samples of 1g embryogenic callus were irradiated from 5 to 40 Gy of CO 60 gamma rays. Effects were recorded at 15, 30 and 45 days after irradiation. The CBE was obtained from isolated bacteria collected from sick field plants. Embryogenic calli were irradiated at 0, 15, 25 and 40 Gy and challenged with the CBE at 0, 10 and 20 % v/v. Embryo expression (globular, white and green cucumber shaped) were affected as a function of the dose. However at low doses (5-15 Gy) globular forms increased its production. On the contrary , green cucumber shaped embryos were severely affected. However, even at high doses (30, 35 and 40 Gy) healthy green forms were recorded. When the embryogenic callus was challenged to the CBE, high mortality was recorded, although, some green forms survived at high radiation doses and high CBE concentrations. Because of the unicellular origin of the somatic embryos, solid mutants can be expected

  12. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  14. C4 photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of 14 CO 2 fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C 4 metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO 2 to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO 2 into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. 14 CO 2 pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C 4 acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ [PEP] = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C 4 photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C 4 dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and β-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C 4 acids that are not involved in the CO 2 shuttle mechanism characteristic of C 4 photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables

  15. Review of induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1981-10-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  16. Review of induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of several kiloamps of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  17. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  18. Salinity-Induced Callus Browning and Re-Differentiation, Root Formation by Plantlets and Anatomical Structures of Plantlet Leaves in Two Malus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zheng, P.; Zheng, P.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Akram, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica L.) is widely grown in northern China. However, soil salinization has become one of the most severe factors limiting apple productivity in some regions including the Loess Plateau. In our study, the regeneration system of both rootstock Rehd (Malus robusta Rehd) and scion Fuji (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) was established In vitro. The two Malus species were cultured on the MS medium containing 0 or 150 mM NaCl to examine salt-induced effects on callus browning and re-differentiation, root formation of plantlets and anatomical structures of plantlet leaves at 15 days old callus and plantlet stages. Salt stress caused a marked increase in callus browning rate, while a decrease in re-differentiation rate, rooting rate, root number and length in both species. Additionally, anatomical structures of plantlet leave showed salt-induced damage such as reduced palisade tissue and intracellular chloroplast, incomplete development of xylem and severe damage of the phloem tissue. Salt stress also caused a few adaptive structural features in leaves including increased thickness of upper and lower epidermis, elevated proportion of spongy tissue and formation of lignified vessels. The responses of the two Malus species did not differ significantly at the differentiation stage. However, they were more sensitive to salinity at the callus stage than those at the plantlet stage in each species. Therefore, callus stage has been found to be more suitable for evaluating responses of the two apple species to salt stress. The Fuji and Rehd could be treated as a good scion/rootstock combination of apple to adapt to soil salinity based on their similar degree of salt stress-tolerance. (author)

  19. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cadavid Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.

  20. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  1. Linear induction accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  2. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V: follow-up of three generations over ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Moira S.; Azouz, E.M.; Glorieux, Francis H. [Shriners Hospital for Children and McGill University, Genetics Unit, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rauch, Frank [Shriners Hospital for Children and McGill University, Genetics Unit, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Shriners Hospital for Children, Genetics Unit, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation is a prominent feature of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V; however, little is known about its long-term outcome. In this case report we describe the occurrence, appearance and course of a femoral HPC in a patient with OI type V during 10 years of follow-up. Radiographs of HPC in this child were compared and contrasted with HPC formation in the femur of his father and paternal grandfather, who also were affected with OI type V. This case report makes it clear that HPC can lead to significant morbidity, not only in the acute phase but also long term as a result of residual alteration in bone architecture. (orig.)

  3. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V: follow-up of three generations over ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Moira S.; Azouz, E.M.; Glorieux, Francis H.; Rauch, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation is a prominent feature of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V; however, little is known about its long-term outcome. In this case report we describe the occurrence, appearance and course of a femoral HPC in a patient with OI type V during 10 years of follow-up. Radiographs of HPC in this child were compared and contrasted with HPC formation in the femur of his father and paternal grandfather, who also were affected with OI type V. This case report makes it clear that HPC can lead to significant morbidity, not only in the acute phase but also long term as a result of residual alteration in bone architecture. (orig.)

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on nucellar callus production of the Valencia sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis Osb.) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nucelli extracted from developing fruits with twelve weeks after pollination were cultured in vitro, on MS medium supplemented (in mg/l) by: thiamine H Cl 0.2; piroxidine H Cl 1.0; nicotinic acid 1.0; meso inositol 100; malt extract; sucrose 50.000; and agar 8.000 with ph = 5.7. The irradiation at 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 8.0; and 12.0 kR doses was applied on, only medium, only nucellus, and medium and nucellus together. Irradiation of only nucellus and both nucellus and medium, at the same time, showed similar effects. Low doses of irradiation (until 2 kR) decrease the number of differential embryoids. The irradiation of culture medium, mainly at high doses, increases callus proliferation. (author)

  5. Selection of valine-resistance in callus culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. derived from leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata D. Gaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of valine-resistant mutants was carried out in leaf explant cultures of three Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. ecotypes: C-24, RLD and Columbia. The valine concentration used for in vitro selection, lethal for seed-growing plants, has not affected callus formation and growth. However, strong inhibition of shoot regeneration ability of calli growing under selection pressure was noticed. In total, 1043 explants were cultured on valine medium and 18 shoots were regenerated with an average frequency of 1.7 shoots per 100 calli. Most R1 shoots were sterile and seeds were collected from 3 plants. The transmission of valine-resistance to the sexual progeny of these plants was scored and the increased level of valine-resistance was found in progeny of one line - 61 C. This line originated from the culture of Columbia leaf explant and displayed tetraploid chromosome number.

  6. Indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro Papaya callus and somatic embryo induction and development

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pires de Almeida; Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Jorge Luis Loyola Dantas

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo para a indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1). Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes (hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares, hipocótilo, folhas cotiledonares e epicótilo) e duas condições de cultivo (escuro e 16 horas de luz). A indução e o desenvolvimento de calos foram avaliados nos meios de cultura ½MS2, ½MS10 e HMH e a indução e o desenvolvimento de embriões somático...

  7. In vitro callus-induction in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) as a system for the production of caffeoylquinic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menin, B.; Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Hakkert, J.C.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) provides a rich dietary source of bio-active compounds derived from phenylpropanoid metabolism, notably caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavonoids. Micropropagation techniques have been established for this species, but in vitro cultures have not

  8. Callus formation in vitro and internodal stem apices in savory = Calogênese in vitro de segmentos apicais caulinares e internodais em segurelha (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate with this work different growth regulators on callus formation in shoot apical and internodal stem segments of Satureja hortensis. The explants were isolated from in vitro seedlings and cultured on MS nutrient medium supplemented with NAA (0 and 1 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μM. The presence of auxin NAA gave higher marks to the calluses at 30 days of evaluation, these notes also increased with the addition of BAP. There were significant interactions between factors in evaluating NAA and BAP for 60 days, both in apical stem segments as in internodal stem segments. To stemapices percentage of friable callus tends to decrease with increasing concentration of BAP. As for compact calluses increased BAP leads to an increase in the percentage of this type of callus. The presence of NAA increased callus formation in both friable and compact calluses on. This trend was also observed in internodal stem segments. The callus formation was highly rhizogenic observed in the presence of NAA, hardly occurs in the absence of auxin. The use of BAP is recommended in case of regeneration of plants through micropropagation, if the goal is the production of metabolites, the use of BAP can be harmful by reducing the production of friable callus.= Buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar diferentes reguladores de crescimento sobre a calogênese em segmentos caulinares apicais e internodais de Satureja hortensis L.. Os explantes foram isolados de plântulas germinadas in vitro e cultivados em meio nutritivo MS acrescido de ANA (0 e 1 μM e de BAP (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20 μM. A presença da auxina ANA proporcionou notas mais altas para os calos aos 30 dias de avaliação, estas notas também aumentaram com o acréscimo da citocinina BAP. Houve interações significativas entre os fatores ANA e BAP na avaliação aos 60 dias, nos dois tipos de segmentos caulinares(apicais e internodais. Nos segmentos apicais caulinares a porcentagem de calos fri

  9. Mechanical stimulation enhanced estrogen receptor expression and callus formation in diaphyseal long bone fracture healing in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, S K H; Leung, K S; Qin, J; Guo, A; Sun, M; Qin, L; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture was reported to exhibit delayed expression. Mechanical stimulation enhanced ER-α expression in osteoporotic fracture callus at the tissue level. ER was also found to be required for the effectiveness of vibrational mechanical stimulation treatment in osteoporotic fracture healing. Estrogen receptor(ER) is involved in mechanical signal transduction in bone metabolism. Its expression was reported to be delayed in osteoporotic fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles played by ER during osteoporotic fracture healing enhanced with mechanical stimulation. Ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic SD rats that received closed femoral fractures were divided into five groups, (i) SHAM, (ii) SHAM-VT, (iii) OVX, (iv) OVX-VT, and (v) OVX-VT-ICI, where VT stands for whole-body vibration treatment and ICI for ER antagonization by ICI 182,780. Callus formation and gene expression were assessed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postfracture. In vitro osteoblastic differentiation, mineralization, and ER-α expression were assessed. The delayed ER expression was found to be enhanced by vibration treatment. Callus formation enhancement was shown by callus morphometry and micro-CT analysis. Enhancement effects by vibration were partially abolished when ER was modulated by ICI 182,780, in terms of callus formation capacity at 2-4 weeks and ER gene and protein expression at all time points. In vitro, ER expression in osteoblasts was not enhanced by VT treatment, but osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were enhanced under estrogen-deprived condition. When osteoblastic cells were modulated by ICI 182,780, enhancement effects of VT were eliminated. Vibration was able to enhance ER expression in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing. ER was essential in mechanical signal transduction and enhancement in callus formation effects during osteoporotic fracture healing enhanced by vibration

  10. Physiological and biochemical effects of morphactin IT 3233 on callus and tumour tissues of Nicotiana tabacum L. cultured in vitro III. Transamination processes catalysed by aminotransferase L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An active alanine transaminase was found both in callus and tumour tissues of tobacco. The enzyme is more active in the latter tissue, and the reaction balance is strongly shifted towards alanine production, while in callus tissue towards glutamic acid formation. Morphactin applied to the tissue cultures stimulates markedly the enzyme activity only in callus. A negative correlation was observed between the intensity of transamination processes and enhanced synthesis of proteins in the tissues studied. Morphactin disturbs nitrogen metabolism in the callus tissue. Tumour tissue is more resistant to the action of this substance. The different hormonal activities in these tissues may be the cause of the different effects of morphactin.

  11. BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marek M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Backward induction (BI was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

  12. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  13. Investigations on some metabolites of Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue. Part III. Chromatographical search for iridoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids and sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dohnal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissus cultures of Tecoma stans Juss. cultivated on modified Murashige-Skoog medium (RT-k were phytochemically analysed by means of chromatographical methods (PC, TLC. The following products were found as metabolites: phenolic acids - chlorogenics, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, o-coumaric and sinapic; steroids - β-sitosterol; triterpenes - ursolic and oleanolic acids, α-amyrine; sugars - glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose. Meso-inositol was isolated in 0.8% yield. In intact plant leaves, some differences concerning the content and/or number of individual compounds were observed, namely: lack of sinapic acid and occurrence of p-coumaric acid, lower content of β-sitosterol, lack of oleanolic acid, occurrence of β-amyrine and of one unidentified triterpenoid, lack of xylose, occurrence of maltose, raffinose, and stachiose. The level of mesoinositol inn leaves was distincly lower than in the callus tissues. Neither in callus tissues nor in leaves iridoid glycosides were found.

  14. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  15. The Influence of Coconut Water and Activated Charcoal in MS Medium on In Vitro Callus Regeneration of Dendrobium sp. Cultivar Bertha Chong Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Novita Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium is one of the most commercial orchids. In Vitro technique is one of solution to fulfill the market demand of Dendrobium. Organic matters, such as coconut water, and activated charcoal are often given to in vitro medium to regenerate orchids callus. The addition of activated charcoal is not only adsorbing toxic substances but also organic matters. The aimof this researchistofindthe best combination for callus regeneration medium. The research was conducted at the Biological Cell and Molecular Laboratory, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty of Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh since March to November 2013. The method used is experimental with Completely Randomized Factorial Design with two factor; treatments of coconut water and activated charcoal. The result showed that the combinationof 150mL/Lcoconut waterand2,0g/Lactivated charcoal is the best resultbecauseit is the onlytreatment that have capability in producingplantletswithin60days.

  16. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  17. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0 ± 0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9 ± 0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 μM IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 μM IAA, 5.0 μM BA and 200 mg l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata.

  18. Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycosides are natural non-caloric sweeteners which are extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Present study deals the effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia plant for steviol glycoside (SGs) production. Yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of NaCl (0.05-0.20%) and Na2CO3 (0.0125-0.10%) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension biomass cultured on salts showed less growth as well as browning of medium when compared with control. Quantification of SGs content in callus culture (collected on 15th day) and suspension cultures (collected at 10th and 15th days) treated with and without salts were analyzed by HPLC. It was found that abiotic stress induced by the salts increased the concentration of SGs significantly. In callus, the quantity of SGs got increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.43 and 1.57% with 0.10% NaCl, and 0.025% Na2CO3, respectively. However, in case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 enhanced the SGs content from 1.36 (control) to 2.61 and 5.14%, respectively, on the 10th day.

  19. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  20. Somaclonal variation on in vitro callus culture potato cultivars Variação somaclonal in vitro em cultura de calos de cultivares de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. Bordallo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic seeds can be an alternative for those species in which botanical seeds are not viable. One of the major problems of in vitro plant cultivation is the high level of somaclonal variation. The most common factors affecting somaclonal variation are genotype, explant source, in vitro period and cultivation conditions in which the culture is established. In this work, calli were induced using leaf and stem explants of the commercial potato cultivars Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje, and Contenda in MS culture media supplemented with 1.65 mM of picloram and 11.5 mM of 2,4-D. Seventy and 90 days after induction, DNA samples of 40 calli were compared concerning the effects of the two explant (leaf and stem and two growth regulator sources on five potatoes cultivars. A total of 20 arbitrary sequence primers were evaluated. The RAPD pattern generated by these primers suggested a high percentage of polymorphic fragments among the five genotypes, indicating a high level of genetic variation among cultivars. Cultivar Baronesa showed the highest number of polymorphic fragments for all treatments. The cultivar Contenda showed the smallest somaclonal variation, for most of the treatments, except for the treatment which consisted of stem explants, picloram (1.65 mM application, and a 70-day period of callus formation. 'Contenda' is, therefore, the most suitable cultivar for synthetic seed production.A produção de sementes sintéticas pode ser uma altenativa para culturas, cuja produção de sementes botânicas não é viável. Um dos principais problemas do cultivo de planta in vitro é o alto nível de variação somaclonal resultante. Os fatores mais comuns que afetam a variação somaclonal são genótipo, fonte de explante e duração e condições de cultivo. Neste trabalho, calos foram induzidos utilizando explantes de folha e caule das cultivares comerciais de batata Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje e Contenda em meio de cultura MS, suplementado

  1. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  2. Delayed fracture healing and increased callus adiposity in a C57BL/6J murine model of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brown

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Impaired healing and non-union of skeletal fractures is a major public health problem, with morbidity exacerbated in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM is prevalent worldwide and affects approximately 25.8 million US adults, with >90% having obesity-related type 2 DM (T2DM. While fracture healing in type 1 DM (T1DM has been studied using animal models, an investigation into delayed healing in an animal model of T2DM has not yet been performed. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice at 5 weeks of age were placed on either a control lean diet or an experimental high-fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks. A mid-diaphyseal open tibia fracture was induced at 17 weeks of age and a spinal needle was used for intra-medullary fixation. Mice were sacrificed at days 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, and 35 for micro-computed tomography (μCT, histology-based histomorphometry and molecular analyses, and biomechanical testing. RESULTS: HFD-fed mice displayed increased body weight and impaired glucose tolerance, both characteristic of T2DM. Compared to control mice, HFD-fed mice with tibia fractures showed significantly (p<0.001 decreased woven bone at day 28 by histomorphometry and significantly (p<0.01 decreased callus bone volume at day 21 by μCT. Interestingly, fracture calluses contained markedly increased adiposity in HFD-fed mice at days 21, 28, and 35. HFD-fed mice also showed increased PPARγ immunohistochemical staining at day 14. Finally, calluses from HFD-fed mice at day 35 showed significantly (p<0.01 reduced torsional rigidity compared to controls. DISCUSSION: Our murine model of T2DM demonstrated delayed fracture healing and weakened biomechanical properties, and was distinctly characterized by increased callus adiposity. This suggests altered mesenchymal stem cell fate determination with a shift to the adipocyte lineage at the expense of the osteoblast lineage. The up-regulation of PPARγ in fracture calluses of HFD-fed mice is likely involved in the proposed

  3. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on plant regeneration from callus of sea dallisgrass (paspalum vaginatum Sw.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqing; She Jianming; Wang Songfeng; Zhang Xu; Liang Liufang; Dong Mingqiang; Wu Yingying

    2010-01-01

    The pellet embryonic calli of Paspalum vagiantum Sw. cv. Adalay were used for 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. In the callus subculture medium with 2, 4-D 2.0 mg /L and BAP 0.05 mg /L, calli were irradiated at the dose rate 1 Gy /min of 60 Co γ-rays. Results showed that the rate of shoot regeneration was from 94% to 85% when calli irradiated with 20 ∼ 50 Gy; the rate of shoot regeneration was from 76% to 30%, and the rate of plant regeneration was from 44.5% to 8.7% between 60 ∼ 80 Gy. By 60 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, the rate of shoot regeneration was about 76% in the differentiation medium with BAP 2.0 mg /L, and the relative rate of plant regeneration was 44.5% in the rooting medium with NAA 0.5 mg /L. The result of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers analysis showed that the specific SRAP markers were associated with the somatic mutants. The mutation technique of 60 Co γ-rays has been established in the somatic cell of Paspalum vaginatum Sw. (authors)

  4. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  5. Glass manufacturing through induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, R.; Paya, B.; Roscini, M.; Fautrelle, Y.; Tuaz, F.; Delage, D.

    1991-01-01

    Oxides and glasses are electrical and thermal insulators, but show the characteristic of being weakly conductors of electricity when they are melt. It is then possible to heat them through HF induction. This interesting property allows the development of a melting process in cold crucible induction furnace. The process is being studied and developed by a consortium made up of CFEI, CEA Marcoule, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE and MADYLAM laboratory. The studies include 2 parts: a) One experimental part to develop the technology and research for satisfying configurations, through a small size platform (10 to 30 kg/h). The long run continuous pouring melting tests made on different kinds of glass allow to go-on with industrial range units. b) One theoretical part to understand the magneto-thermo-hydraulic phenomenon hardly in relation with the heavy dependence of the physical characteristics (electrical and heat conductivities, viscosity) according to temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs [fr

  6. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  7. Pulse induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A S; Kachanov, B Y; Kogan, B V

    1993-12-31

    Induction heating and three types of pulse processes were studied. It was found that in pulse processes the frequency and pulse duration of heat treatments do not remain constant. High frequency pulse heat treatments can be used on sprayed coatings; such treatments will result in stronger surfaces with no cracks. For induction hardening, the rate of specific power was 1 to 1.5 kW/sq.cm, for forging it was 0.2 to 0.3 kW/sq.cm and for melting it was 0.05 to 0.1 kW/sq.cm. The application of pulse heating will result in higher rates of specific power.

  8. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  9. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction......, and weak normalization for Gödel’s T follows indirectly; both have been formalized in a prototypical extension of Twelf....

  10. The anti-fibrotic effects of CCN1/CYR61 in primary portal myofibroblasts are mediated through induction of reactive oxygen species resulting in cellular senescence, apoptosis and attenuated TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Schaffrath, Christian; Van de Leur, Eddy; Haas, Ute; Tihaa, Lidia; Meurer, Steffen K; Nevzorova, Yulia A; Liedtke, Christian; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/CYR61) is a CCN (CYR61, CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), and NOV (Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene)) family matricellular protein comprising six secreted CCN proteins in mammals. CCN1/CYR61 expression is associated with inflammation and injury repair. Recent studies show that CCN1/CYR61 limits fibrosis in models of cutaneous wound healing by inducing cellular senescence in myofibroblasts of the granulation tissue which thereby transforms into an extracellular matrix-degrading phenotype. We here investigate CCN1/CYR61 expression in primary profibrogenic liver cells (i.e., hepatic stellate cells and periportal myofibroblasts) and found an increase of CCN1/CYR61 expression during early activation of hepatic stellate cells that declines in fully transdifferentiated myofibroblasts. By contrast, CCN1/CYR61 levels found in primary parenchymal liver cells (i.e., hepatocytes) were relatively low compared to the levels exhibited in hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. In models of ongoing liver fibrogenesis, elevated levels of CCN1/CYR61 were particularly noticed during early periods of insult, while expression declined during prolonged phases of fibrogenesis. We generated an adenovirus type 5 encoding CCN1/CYR61 (i.e., Ad5-CMV-CCN1/CYR61) and overexpressed CCN1/CYR61 in primary portal myofibroblasts. Interestingly, overexpressed CCN1/CYR61 significantly inhibited production of collagen type I at both mRNA and protein levels as evidenced by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. CCN1/CYR61 further induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to dose-dependent cellular senescence and apoptosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that CCN1/CYR61 attenuates TGF-β signaling by scavenging TGF-β thereby mitigating in vivo liver fibrogenesis in a bile duct ligation model. In line with dermal fibrosis and scar formation, CCN1/CYR61 is involved in liver injury repair and

  11. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  12. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Induction of Endothelial Phenotype From Wharton's Jelly-Derived MSCs and Comparison of Their Vasoprotective and Neuroprotective Potential With Primary WJ-MSCs in CA1 Hippocampal Region Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obtulowicz, Patrycja; Lech, Wioletta; Strojek, Lukasz; Sarnowska, Anna; Domanska-Janik, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke results in violent impairment of tissue homeostasis leading to severe perturbation within the neurovascular unit (NVU) during the recovery period. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) originating from Wharton's jelly (WJ) to differentiate into functionally competent cells of endothelial lineage (WJ-EPCs). The protective effect(s) of either primary WJ-MSCs or induced WJ-EPCs was investigated and compared after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of hippocampal organotypic slices (OHC) in the indirect coculture model. WJ-MSCs, primed in EGM-2 (Lonza commercial medium) under 5% O2, acquired cobblestone endothelial-like morphology, formed capillary-like structures and actively took up DiI-Ac-LDL. Both cell types (WJ-MSCs and WJ-EPCs) were positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, VEGFR-2, and VEGF, but only endothelial-like culture expressed vWF and PECAM-1 markers at significant levels. In the presence of either WJ-MSCs or WJ-EPCs in the compartment below OGD-injured slices, cell death and vascular atrophy in the hypoxia-sensitive CA1 region were substantially decreased. This suggests that a paracrine mechanism may mediate WJ-MSC- and WJ-EPC-dependent protection. Thus, finally, we estimated secretion of the neuro/angio/immunomodulatory molecules IL-6, TGF-β1, and VEGF by these cell cultures. We have found that release of TGF-β1 and IL-6 was TLR ligand [LPS and Poly(I:C)] concentration dependent and stronger in WJ-EPC than WJ-MSC cultures. Simultaneously, the uneven pattern of TLR receptors and modulatory cytokine gene expression was confirmed also on qRT-PCR level, but no significant differences were noticed between WJ-EPC and primary WJ-MSC cultures.

  14. Assessment of hairy roots induction in Solenostemon scutellarioides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... family (Garcia and O'Neil, 2000). Cell suspension and transformed callus cultures of this plant are known to produce rosmarinic acid ... Hairy root is a pathological syndrome of dicotyledonous plants following wounding and ...

  15. Inductive reasoning 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge to make predictions about novel cases. The first part of this review summarizes key inductive phenomena and critically evaluates theories of induction. We highlight recent theoretical advances, with a special emphasis on the structured statistical approach, the importance of sampling assumptions in Bayesian models, and connectionist modeling. A number of new research directions in this field are identified including comparisons of inductive and deductive reasoning, the identification of common core processes in induction and memory tasks and induction involving category uncertainty. The implications of induction research for areas as diverse as complex decision-making and fear generalization are discussed. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making Psychology > Learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  17. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  18. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  19. Antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is an established treatment option for end-stage liver failure. To date, no consensus has been reached on the use of immunosuppressive T-cell specific antibody induction compared with corticosteroid induction of immunosuppression after liver transplantation....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for prevention of acute rejection in liver transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register...... to identify additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised clinical trials assessing immunosuppression with T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction in liver transplant recipients. Our inclusion criteria stated that participants within each included trial should...

  20. Analysis of callus pattern of tibia lengthening in achondroplasia and a novel method of regeneration assessment using pixel values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suryaudai; Song, Hae-Ryong; Venkatesh, K.P.; Modi, Hitesh N.; Jang, Ki-Mo; Kim, Seung J. [Korea University Guro Hospital, Rare Diseases Institute, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Park, Man Sik [Korea University, Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    To relate morphology of new bone formation to outcome after tibial lengthening performed in patients with achondroplasia. A retrospective analysis of 60 tibial segments in 30 achondroplasia patients was performed. There were 22 female patients and eight male patients, with a mean age of 9.8 years. New bone formation was classified by shape, homogeneity and density. Pixel values in relation to original bone were measured using a picture-archiving communication system (PACS). Clinical outcome was described by the external fixator and maturation indices. Mean lengthening was 9.2 cm (range 3-12.7 cm). The mean external fixator index was 23.4 (range 15.1-50). The mean maturation index was 12.3 days/cm (range 6-40 days/cm). Homogeneous pathways were associated with the best clinical results (fixator index 20.4, maturation index 10.8), followed by heterogeneous pathway (external fixator index 26.5, maturation index 16.8) and radiolucent pathway (fixator index 31.2, maturation index 21.4). Both cylindrical (external fixator index 25.2, maturation index 14.5) and concave (external fixator index 26.6, maturation index 16.3) callus shapes were favourable. Mineralization of new bone became equal to that of normal bone within 16 weeks (mean) for homogeneous pathway, 12 weeks for heterogeneous pathway and 32 weeks for lucent pathway. The type of new bone formation seen on radiographs is related to clinical outcome, with homogeneous pathways being the most favourable ones. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of callus pattern of tibia lengthening in achondroplasia and a novel method of regeneration assessment using pixel values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Suryaudai; Song, Hae-Ryong; Venkatesh, K.P.; Modi, Hitesh N.; Jang, Ki-Mo; Kim, Seung J.; Park, Man Sik

    2010-01-01

    To relate morphology of new bone formation to outcome after tibial lengthening performed in patients with achondroplasia. A retrospective analysis of 60 tibial segments in 30 achondroplasia patients was performed. There were 22 female patients and eight male patients, with a mean age of 9.8 years. New bone formation was classified by shape, homogeneity and density. Pixel values in relation to original bone were measured using a picture-archiving communication system (PACS). Clinical outcome was described by the external fixator and maturation indices. Mean lengthening was 9.2 cm (range 3-12.7 cm). The mean external fixator index was 23.4 (range 15.1-50). The mean maturation index was 12.3 days/cm (range 6-40 days/cm). Homogeneous pathways were associated with the best clinical results (fixator index 20.4, maturation index 10.8), followed by heterogeneous pathway (external fixator index 26.5, maturation index 16.8) and radiolucent pathway (fixator index 31.2, maturation index 21.4). Both cylindrical (external fixator index 25.2, maturation index 14.5) and concave (external fixator index 26.6, maturation index 16.3) callus shapes were favourable. Mineralization of new bone became equal to that of normal bone within 16 weeks (mean) for homogeneous pathway, 12 weeks for heterogeneous pathway and 32 weeks for lucent pathway. The type of new bone formation seen on radiographs is related to clinical outcome, with homogeneous pathways being the most favourable ones. (orig.)

  2. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  3. Prediction of the time course of callus stiffness as a function of mechanical parameters in experimental rat fracture healing studies--a numerical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wehner

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental fracture healing studies are performed on rats, in which different experimental, mechanical parameters are applied, thereby prohibiting direct comparison between each other. Numerical fracture healing simulation models are able to predict courses of fracture healing and offer support for pre-planning animal experiments and for post-hoc comparison between outcomes of different in vivo studies. The aims of this study are to adapt a pre-existing fracture healing simulation algorithm for sheep and humans to the rat, to corroborate it using the data of numerous different rat experiments, and to provide healing predictions for future rat experiments. First, material properties of different tissue types involved were adjusted by comparing experimentally measured callus stiffness to respective simulated values obtained in three finite element (FE models. This yielded values for Young's moduli of cortical bone, woven bone, cartilage, and connective tissue of 15,750 MPa, 1,000 MPa, 5 MPa, and 1 MPa, respectively. Next, thresholds in the underlying mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation rules were calibrated by modifying model parameters so that predicted fracture callus stiffness matched experimental data from a study that used rigid and flexible fixators. This resulted in strain thresholds at higher magnitudes than in models for sheep and humans. The resulting numerical model was then used to simulate numerous fracture healing scenarios from literature, showing a considerable mismatch in only 6 of 21 cases. Based on this corroborated model, a fit curve function was derived which predicts the increase of callus stiffness dependent on bodyweight, fixation stiffness, and fracture gap size. By mathematically predicting the time course of the healing process prior to the animal studies, the data presented in this work provides support for planning new fracture healing experiments in rats. Furthermore, it allows one to transfer and

  4. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration enhances gene expression related to callus formation, mineralization and remodeling during osteoporotic fracture healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shu-Lu; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2014-12-01

    Low magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been shown to improve anabolic and osteogenic responses in osteoporotic intact bones and during osteoporotic fracture healing; however, the molecular response of LMHFV during osteoporotic fracture healing has not been investigated. It was hypothesized that LMHFV could enhance osteoporotic fracture healing by regulating the expression of genes related to chondrogenesis (Col-2), osteogenesis (Col-1) and remodeling (receptor activator for nuclear factor- κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoproteger (OPG)). In this study, the effects of LMHFV on both osteoporotic and normal bone fracture healing were assessed by endpoint gene expressions, weekly radiographs, and histomorphometry at weeks 2, 4 and 8 post-treatment. LMHFV enhanced osteoporotic fracture healing by up-regulating the expression of chondrogenesis-, osteogenesis- and remodeling-related genes (Col-2 at week 4 (p=0.008), Col-1 at week 2 and 8 (p<0.001 and p=0.008) and RANKL/OPG at week 8 (p=0.045)). Osteoporotic bone had a higher response to LMHFV than normal bone and showed significantly better results as reflected by increased expression of Col-2 and Col-1 at week 2 (p<0.001 for all), larger callus width at week 2 (p=0.001), callus area at week 1 and 5(p<0.05 for all) and greater relative area of osseous tissue (p=0.002) at week 8. This study helps to understand how LMHFV regulates gene expression of callus formation, mineralization and remodeling during osteoporotic fracture healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Use of stem sliced from in vitro plants of papaya (hybrid IBP 42-99 by obtained callus with embryogenic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Inside in vitro propagation via, the somatic embriogenesis offers possibilities of obtaining top volumes of production in a minor period of time and a lower cost, which are a method potentially more efficient than the regeneration via organogenesis. In papaya the somatic embryogenesis could have developed from zigotic embryos and axis hipocotilos, nevertheless in case of the hybrids these methods cannot be used and it becomes necessary to develop it from a somatic fabric, without link with the sexual reproduction. This work chased as main objective Evaluated the use of in vitro plants stem sections of the Carica papaya IBP 42-99 hybrid for the formation of callus with embryogenic structures. As plant material were use in vitro plants of the papaya hybrid IBP 42-99. For it there took sections of different parts of the stem from the meristem up to the base of the in vitro plants, was use the culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP and 1.5 mg.l-1 of AIA. It was achieved to obtain callus from the stem sections with the culture medium used, nevertheless, in the treatments where used cylinders inside 1.0 cm from the apex down, the best results were achieved. The use of in vitro plants stem sections as explant for the formation of callus in this vegetable species it opens new possibilities for his in vitro propagation, specially in case of resultant hybrids of genetic improvement programs. Key words: apexes, Carica papaya, callogenesis, somatic embryogenesis

  6. Correlation of different spectral lights with biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of medicinally important Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Akbar, Fazal; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key elicitors that directly fluctuates plant developmental processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of Prunella vulgaris were investigated. Among different spectral lights, green light induced the maximum callogenic response (95%). Enhanced fresh biomass accumulation was observed in log phases on day-35, when callus cultures were exposed to yellow and violet lights. Yellow light induced maximum biomass accumulation (3.67g/100ml) from leaf explants as compared to control (1.27g/100ml). In contrast, violet lights enhanced biomass accumulation (3.49g/100ml) from petiole explant. Maximum total phenolics content (TPC; 23.9mg/g-DW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 1.65mg/g-DW) were observed when cultures were grown under blue lights. In contrast, green and yellow lights enhanced total phenolics production (TPP; 112.52g/100ml) and total flavonoids production (TFP; 9.64g/100ml) as compared to control. The calli grown under green, red and blue lights enhanced DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DFRSA; 91.3%, 93.1% and 93%) than control (56.44%) respectively. The DFRSA was correlated either with TPC and TFC or TPP and TFP. Furthermore, yellow lights enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and protease activities, however, the content of total protein (CTP) was higher in control cultures (186μg BSAE/mg FW) as compared to spectral lights. These results suggest that the exposure of callus cultures to various spectral lights have shown a key role in biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvero-Bascos, E.M.; Ungson, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 20 microM) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin, 20 microM) were exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to investigate its potential as an abiotic elicitor of flavonoid production. Prior to irradiation, the levels of the flavonoids, apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin in the leaf and callus extracts were determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitexin and isovitexin were the dominant flavonoids in the leaves while only apigenin was detected in the calli, suggesting a correlation between the degree of differentiation and biosynthesis of flavonoids in plant tissues. Irradiation of callus cultures for 7 d using two UV-B doses (12.6 and 25.3 kJ/sq m) induced synthesis of all three flavonoids (up to 780 micro g/g dw increase) to levels similar to or higher than those found in whole leaves. The combined levels of the three flavonoids in the cultures treated with the higher UV-B dose were 20-fold higher than the control and were comparable to concentrations found in leaves while a 10-fold increase in combined flavonoid levels was observed in calli irradiated with the lower UV-B dose. Furthermore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of DNA extracts from the leaves and calli revealed that UV-B irradiation enhanced flavonoid synthesis without altering DNA sequence. These results further support the supposed involvement of UV-B in the transcriptional regulation of the expression of flavonoid biosysnthetic genes. Overall, the findings showed that elicitation through UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to induce flavonoid production in dedifferentiated J. curcas cultures that have lost their capacity to produce the flavonoids normally synthesized in intact organs. (author)

  8. The induction of differentially expressed proteins of Xylella fastidiosa with citrus extract Indução de proteínas de Xylella fastidiosa expressas diferencialmente com extrato de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de M. Bellato

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro system was developed to induce and identify Xylella fastidiosa proteins that were differentially expressed in the presence of callus-derived extracts from its host, the citrus cultivar Pêra. To optimize the induction, we first developed a single culture medium for the growth of both, host and bacteria. This medium, CPXPm7, which mimics the citrus xylem sap, showed that X. fastidiosa at 72 h post-incubation had 10(8 colony forming units mL-1, while Pêra cells had the highest fresh weight content (0.79 g. After testing various methods of co-cultivation of the bacteria and host callus grown in this single medium, the best induction procedure was to grow X. fastidiosa in a solid medium amended with an extract of Pêra callus grown in CPXPm7. Analysis, by two-dimensional electrophoresis, of the X. fastidiosa proteins (120 µg of total proteins grown in the presence of Pêra callus extract revealed 414 differentially expressed protein spots when compared to the protein profile obtained in the absence of the extract. The system developed in this study improves the induction and analysis of differentially expressed proteins of X. fastidiosa, which may be involved in pathogenicity.Estudos in vitro foram desenvolvidos para obter proteínas de Xylella fastidiosa expressas diferencialmente na presença de calos do hospedeiro, citros cultivar Pêra. Para otimizar a indução, desenvolveu-se um meio de cultura comum, o qual foi baseado na seiva do xilema de citros, para cultivar a bacteria e os calos de Pêra. Dados mostraram, após 72 h de cultivo neste meio, 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônias de X. fastidiosa por mL, e 0,79 g de peso seco de células de Pêra. Após testar diferentes métodos de co-cultivo da bactéria com calos de Pêra neste meio, observou-se que a melhor taxa de indução ocorreu quando X. fastidiosa foi cultivada em meio sólido enriquecido com um extrato derivado dos calos de Pêra. Análise em gel bidimensional (2DE

  9. Indução de embriogênese somática em genótipos de batata-doce Induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina S Magalhães

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A diferenciação e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos foram observados em 15 genótipos de batata-doce a partir de explantes de ápices caulinares com um ou dois primórdios foliares. A embriogênese foi induzida utilizando o meio composto de sais minerais MS e vitaminas, 3% de sacarose, 0,2% de phytagel, suplementado com 2,4-D (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg/L. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro à temperatura de 27ºC. A adição de 2,4-D foi necessária para a indução de calo embriogênico nos genótipos '92', '94', '184', '188', '319', '370', '374', '442', '449', '5491, '594', '645', 'PI3138463', 'White Star' e 'Jewel'. Os clones '169', '202', '605', '633' e '643' não responderam à indução de calo embriogênico. Os calos embriogênicos apresentaram a coloração amarelo claro, textura compacta e granular, enquanto que os calos não embriogênicos apresentaram coloração hialina e consistência friável. Os calos formaram-se na região periférica dos explantes. Nas condições estabelecidas, melhor produção de calo embriogênico foi obtida com 2,0 mg/L de 2,4-D. A transferência desses calos para meio sem 2,4-D favoreceu o desenvolvimento dos embriões para os estádios cordiforme, torpedo e cotiledonar.The differentiation and development of somatic embryos were observed in 15 genotypes of sweet potato using shoot tip explants with one or two leaf primordia. Somatic embryogenesis was induced using MS media and vitamins, 3% sucrose, 0,2% phytagel, supplemented with 2,4-D (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 mg/L. The cultures were maintained in the dark at 27ºC. The addition of 2,4-D was necessary for embryogenic callus induction in the genotypes '92', '94', '184', '188', '319', '370', '374', '442', '449', '549', '594', '645', 'PI3138463', 'White Star' and 'Jewel'. Clones '169', '202', '605', '633' and '643' did not respond to embryogenic callus induction. Embryogenic callus showed a yellow and opaque color, compact and granular texture

  10. Development of technology for plantlet propagation by tissue culture. (3). Strawberry callus growth and changes in pH in liquid medium; Soshiki baiyo ni yoru shubyo tairyo zoshoku gijutsu no kaihatsu. (3). Ekitai baiyo ni okeru ichigo callus no zoshoku to baichi no pH henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, T; Hanyo, H [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    Development of strawberry cultivation plants is described as a part of night-time power utilization activities for power load levelling. Strawberry calluses (undifferent tissue mass) cultured in a liquid medium reach the fastest growth period in one week and the steady state in four weeks. The callus growth shows the maximum value at this time, which was 20 times as much of the seedling. The medium pH changed in a range from 4 to 7. If the initial pH is 4.0 or higher, no difference is created in the callus propagation in the steady state period, but at 3.0, no propagation whatsoever. The pH after the fastest growth period converged to a range from 6.0 to 7.0, with the exception of initial pH at 3.0. The medium pH decreased as a result of pre-culture heating sterilization, formation of iron phosphate due to light irradiation, and organic acid release during the initial growth phase. The pH increased because of difference in the speed of absorbing ammonium and nitric acid during the later growth phase. The growth efficiency of 20 times is about the same as other plants. Since the pH change is maintained within the range from 4 to 7, which causes no difference in in growth, there is no need of adjusting the pH within this range. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz) Culture by Addition of Cu2+

    OpenAIRE

    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI; SOLICHATUN; ENDANG ANGGARWULAN

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz). This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes w...

  12. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  13. Inductance-dependent characteristics of HTS dc-SQUID amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, E.E.; Tilbrook, D.L.; Foley, C.P.; MacFarlane, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have experimentally determined the transfer function V Φ and noise S Φ of several high temperature superconducting (HTS) dc SQUIDs of increasing loop size, while they were operated (without input flux transformer) in a small-signal-amplifier (open-loop) mode. A primary aim of our investigation was to provide reliable inductance data to aid our design of subsequent magnetometer devices. Flux was induced by means of current injection via a well-defined stripline directly into the SQUID loop. The loop size was systematically incremented in a range of otherwise similar SQUIDs. For each SQUID, the ratio between the induced flux and the injection current (which we define as the coupling inductance of the device, L c ) was measured as a function of the injection path length and the SQUID loop dimensions. Both L c and the derived SQUID self-inductance, L sq , were then compared with theoretical values, and contributions due to kinetic inductance and junction inductance were estimated. Correlations between the inductance data and our measured values of transfer function V Φ and noise S Φ were compared with previous results. Guidelines for optimisation of gradiometer SQUIDs were established, and in particular, the importance of achieving a large value transfer function together with a relatively small inductance was demonstrated. The strong influence of an enhanced transfer function was further emphasised when an order-of-magnitude reduction in noise was achieved by subjecting one of our SQUIDs to an in-house 'ion-beam trimming' process

  14. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  15. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  16. Induction heating using induction coils in series-parallel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Marc Rollo; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James; Negley, Mark Alan; Dykstra, William Chet

    2017-11-14

    A part is inductively heated by multiple, self-regulating induction coil circuits having susceptors, coupled together in parallel and in series with an AC power supply. Each of the circuits includes a tuning capacitor that tunes the circuit to resonate at the frequency of AC power supply.

  17. Probabilistic inductive inference: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris

    2001-01-01

    Inductive inference is a recursion-theoretic theory of learning, first developed by E. M. Gold (1967). This paper surveys developments in probabilistic inductive inference. We mainly focus on finite inference of recursive functions, since this simple paradigm has produced the most interesting (and most complex) results.

  18. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  19. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  20. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  1. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  2. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of somaclonal variation and mutations in sugarcane calli for selecting mutants with resistance to red-rot and tolerance to water-logged conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Begum, S.; Samad, M.A.; Shmsuzzaman, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Immature leaves of cv. 'Isd-16' of sugarcane were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D for callus induction. The calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l KIN for shoot regeneration. The shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/1NAA and 70 g/l sucrose. The regenerated plants were screened against red-rot disease and water-logged condition in a field. Of the 368 plants inoculated with red-rot pathogen, only one was moderately resistant and two were moderately susceptible. In another set of 500 R 1 plants, six clones were tolerant to water-logged condition. Four week-old callus cultures were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 Gy gamma-rays. Survival of calli decreased with increase in radiation dose and ranged from 58 to 91%. Regenerated shoots were obtained from all irradiated calli except those treated with 8 and 10 Gy. Shoot regeneration from the irradiated calli ranged from 8 to 50%, and gave 768 R 1 plants. The highest regeneration of plants was obtained from calli treated with 3 Gy. These plants are being grown in a field for screening against red-rot and water-logged conditions. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Induction of somaclonal variation and mutations in sugarcane calli for selecting mutants with resistance to red-rot and tolerance to water-logged conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M A.Q.; Begum, S; Samad, M A; Shmsuzzaman, K M [Bangladesh Inst. of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1997-07-01

    Immature leaves of cv. `Isd-16` of sugarcane were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D for callus induction. The calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l KIN for shoot regeneration. The shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/1NAA and 70 g/l sucrose. The regenerated plants were screened against red-rot disease and water-logged condition in a field. Of the 368 plants inoculated with red-rot pathogen, only one was moderately resistant and two were moderately susceptible. In another set of 500 R{sub 1} plants, six clones were tolerant to water-logged condition. Four week-old callus cultures were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 Gy gamma-rays. Survival of calli decreased with increase in radiation dose and ranged from 58 to 91%. Regenerated shoots were obtained from all irradiated calli except those treated with 8 and 10 Gy. Shoot regeneration from the irradiated calli ranged from 8 to 50%, and gave 768 R{sub 1} plants. The highest regeneration of plants was obtained from calli treated with 3 Gy. These plants are being grown in a field for screening against red-rot and water-logged conditions. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs.

  5. Optimization of callus and cell suspension cultures of Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae family for lycopene production Otimização de culturas de suspensões de calos e células de Barringtonia racemosa (família Lecythidaceae para produção de licopeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is present in a range of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in the leaves of Barringtonia racemosa. The traditional lycopene extraction from the plant is being employed instead of an easy propagation technique like cell culture process from the leaf explants. We intend to assess how lycopene could be extracted via tissue culture under light (illuminance: 8,200 lux under white fluorescent lamps, photoperiod 16 h per day at 25ºC and dark. Leaf explants of Barringtonia racemosa were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS, Woody Plant Medium (WPM and B5 media, supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Optimal conditions for callus induction and maintenance under both dark and light were investigated, and growth and lycopene accumulation were evaluated. Among media with different concentrations of 2,4-D, fast growing, friable callus initiated within three weeks after culturing on WPM basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 (weight per volume of 2,4-D, whereas callus induction in explants cultured on all other media started only after five weeks. Calli were subcultured once every fortnight. Pale yellow and green calli developed under conditions of dark and light respectively were then selected for evaluation of their lycopene contents. An improved reversed phase of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used for a selective chemical determination of the lycopene content. Light induced lycopene production; and likewise maximum lycopene level incubated in light was higher than those incubated in darkness. The best growth rates of callus and cell suspension were achieved in WPM and B5 media respectively. The production of lycopene was growth-dependent through analysis of growth and lycopene content of both callus and cell suspension cultures.O licopeno está presente numa série de frutas frescas e hortaliças principalmente na folhas de Barringtonia racemosa. A extra

  6. Distribution of linker histone variants during plant cell differentiation in the developmental zones of the maize root, dedifferentiation in callus culture after auxin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASTASIOS ALATZAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several linker histone variants have been studied in both animal and plant organisms, little is known about their distribution during processes that involve alterations in chromatin function, such as differentiation, dedifferentiation and hormone treatment. In this study, we identified linker histone variants by using specific anti-histone Hl antibodies. Each variant's ratio to total Hl in the three developmental zones of maize (Zea mays L. root and in callus cultures derived from them was estimated in order to define possible alterations either during plant cell differentiation or during their dedifferentiation. We also evaluated linker histone variants' ratios in the developmental zones of maize roots treated with auxin in order to examine the effects of exogenous applied auxin to linker histone variant distribution. Finally, immunohistochemical detection was used to identify the root tissues containing each variant and correlate them with the physiological status of the plant cells. According to the results presented in this study, linker histone variants' ratios are altered in the developmental zones of maize root, while they are similar to the meristematic zone in samples from callus cultures and to the differentiation zone in samples from roots treated with auxin. We propose that the alterations in linker histone variants' ratios are correlated with plant cell differentiation and dedifferentiation.

  7. Hyperhydricity Phenomena Problem in Embryonic Callus of Date Palm, Solving by Glutamine and NH4+: No3- Ratio in Basal Nutrient Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawayaty, M.M.; Zayed, Z.E.; Abdel-Gelil, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a serious problem faced in vitro date palm propagation which directly effects on the commercial production. So we try to solve this problem by studying, the effect of glutamine as the organic source of nitrogen and NH 4 + :NO 3- ratio as the inorganic source of nitrogen to decrease hyperhydricity phenomena and to produce normal somatic embryos of date palm cv. Gondila.Vitrified embryonic callus were inoculated on MS basal nutrient medium modified with glutamine levels and NH 4 + : NO 3 - ratio. Five concentration ratios of NH 4 : NO 3 (10:15, 15:10, 0:20, 20:0, 0:0 ml/l) were used with 0.1 mg/l NAA for 8 weeks throughout 2 recultures. There were gradually increasing in the percentage of vitrified embryonic callus differentiation to normal somatic embryos by increasing glutamine levels from 0.0 to 400 mg/l. Glutamine at the lowest level (50 mg/l) increased significantly the number of vitrified somatic embryos. Ammonium as the sole source of N resulted in depression in somatic embryos differentiation and escalated the frequency of hyperhydricity whereas,if nitrate was used as the sole N source, somatic embryos good quality were produced and hyperhydricity was eliminated

  8. Mechanisms of neuroimmune gene induction in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    Alcoholism is a primary, chronic relapsing disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry. It is characterized by an individual's continued drinking despite negative consequences related to alcohol use, which is exemplified by alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the expression of innate immune signaling molecules (ISMs) in the brain that alter cognitive processes and promote alcohol drinking. Unraveling the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroimmune gene induction is complicated by positive loops of multiple cytokines and other signaling molecules that converge on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and activator protein-1 leading to induction of additional neuroimmune signaling molecules that amplify and expand the expression of ISMs. Studies from our laboratory employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess mRNA, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to assess protein expression, and others suggest that ethanol increases brain neuroimmune gene and protein expression through two distinct mechanisms involving (1) systemic induction of innate immune molecules that are transported from blood to the brain and (2) the direct release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in the brain. Released HMGB1 signals through multiple receptors, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, that potentiate cytokine receptor responses leading to a hyperexcitable state that disrupts neuronal networks and increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Innate immune gene activation in brain is persistent, consistent with the chronic relapsing disease that is alcoholism. Expression of HMGB1, TLRs, and other ISMs is increased several-fold in the human orbital frontal cortex, and expression of these molecules is highly correlated with each other as well as lifetime alcohol consumption and age of drinking onset. The persistent and

  9. Postirradiation sarcoma in retinoblastoma. Induction or predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, M.B.; Burgess, L.P.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    An alarmingly high rate of postirradiation sarcomas following treatment for retinoblastoma has been described in the literature. We present four new cases and report 57 others from the English literature. Osteogenic sarcoma was the predominant histologic type (58%), followed by fibrosarcoma (21%) and various other sarcomas (21%). The average latency period between irradiation and development of the second primary (sarcoma) was 12.4 years. Irrespective of irradiation, a genetic linkage between retinoblastoma and osteogenic sarcoma on the 13q14 chromosome is recognized. Through a pleiotropic effect of this same chromosome, a predisposition for other sarcomas may exist as well. Finally, a strong role for radiation induction is proposed for all of these postirradiation sarcomas. This is based on the increased number of sarcomas arising in the field of prior irradiation (sites uncharacteristic of spontaneously occurring primary sarcomas) and the prolonged latency periods.13 references

  10. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  11. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  12. Corns and Calluses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RAC) Information OIG Opioid and Chronic Pain Management OSHA Off-Label Use Physician Payment Sunshine Act (Open ... causing significant pain. Surgery may be necessary in cases that do not respond to conservative treatment. Prevention ...

  13. Antibody induction versus placebo, no induction, or another type of antibody induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    . All 19 trials were with high risk of bias. Of the 19 trials, 16 trials were two-arm trials, and three trials were three-arm trials. Hence, we found 25 trial comparisons with antibody induction agents: interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (IL-2 RA) versus no induction (10 trials with 1454 participants....... Furthermore, serum creatinine was statistically significantly higher when T-cell specific antibody induction was compared with no induction (MD 3.77 μmol/L, 95% CI 0.33 to 7.21; low-quality evidence), as well as when polyclonal T-cell specific antibody induction was compared with no induction, but this small...... T-cell specific antibody induction, drug-related adverse events were less common among participants treated with interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63; low-quality evidence), but this was caused by the results from one trial, and trial sequential analysis could not exclude...

  14. Tofacitinib as Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandborn, William J; Su, Chinyu; Sands, Bruce E; D'Haens, Geert R; Vermeire, Séverine; Schreiber, Stefan; Danese, Silvio; Feagan, Brian G; Reinisch, Walter; Niezychowski, Wojciech; Friedman, Gary; Lawendy, Nervin; Yu, Dahong; Woodworth, Deborah; Mukherjee, Arnab; Zhang, Haiying; Healey, Paul; Panés, Julian

    2017-05-04

    Tofacitinib, an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, was shown to have potential efficacy as induction therapy for ulcerative colitis in a phase 2 trial. We further evaluated the efficacy of tofacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy. We conducted three phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of tofacitinib therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis. In the OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 trials, 598 and 541 patients, respectively, who had moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis despite previous conventional therapy or therapy with a tumor necrosis factor antagonist were randomly assigned to receive induction therapy with tofacitinib (10 mg twice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary end point was remission at 8 weeks. In the OCTAVE Sustain trial, 593 patients who had a clinical response to induction therapy were randomly assigned to receive maintenance therapy with tofacitinib (either 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily) or placebo for 52 weeks. The primary end point was remission at 52 weeks. In the OCTAVE Induction 1 trial, remission at 8 weeks occurred in 18.5% of the patients in the tofacitinib group versus 8.2% in the placebo group (P=0.007); in the OCTAVE Induction 2 trial, remission occurred in 16.6% versus 3.6% (Ptofacitinib group and 40.6% in the 10-mg tofacitinib group versus 11.1% in the placebo group (Ptofacitinib than with placebo. In the OCTAVE Sustain trial, the rate of serious infection was similar across the three treatment groups, and the rates of overall infection and herpes zoster infection were higher with tofacitinib than with placebo. Across all three trials, adjudicated nonmelanoma skin cancer occurred in five patients who received tofacitinib and in one who received placebo, and adjudicated cardiovascular events occurred in five who received tofacitinib and in none who received placebo; as compared with placebo, tofacitinib was associated with increased lipid levels. In patients with moderately to severely

  15. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  16. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34) therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Kohei; Mietus, Zachary; Beck, Christopher A; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi; Awad, Hani A; Ehrhart, Nicole; Schwarz, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34) effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20) received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1) Placebo (n = 5; daily saline), 2) Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op), or 3) Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op). Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT) was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05). These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR) on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05). Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05). Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01). In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  17. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34 therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nishitani

    Full Text Available Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34 effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20 received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1 Placebo (n = 5; daily saline, 2 Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op, or 3 Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op. Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05. These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05. Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05. Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01. In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  18. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  19. Micropropagation of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume and regeneration induction via adventitious buds and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume cv. "Corazon de oro" and cv. "Norma" are successfully micropropagated when culture are initiated with explants taken from newly sprouted shoots. The establishment and multiplication steps are possible when 1 mg/L BA or 1 mg/L IAA and 3 mg/L 2iP are added to MS medium, according to the cultivar respectively selected.Adventive organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are induced from leaf explants taken from in vitro buds of croton. On leaf-sectioned of "Corazon de oro" cultured in vitro, 1 mg/L BA stimulates continuous somatic embryos development and induces some shoots too. Replacing BA with 1 mg/L TDZ induces up to 100% bud regeneration in the same explants. On the other hand, leaf-sectioned of C. variegatum cv. Norma does not start somatic embryo differentiation if 1 mg/L TDZ is not added to the MS basal medium. Incipient callus is observed after 30 days of culture, and then, subculture to MS with 1 mg/L BA allows the same process to show on the "Corazon de oro" cultivar. Somatic embryos show growth arrest that is partially overcome by transfer to hormone-free basal medium with activated charcoal. Root induction is possible on basal medium plus 1 mg/L IBA. Plantlets in the greenhouse have variegated leaves true-to-type.

  20. Postdates induction with an unfavorable cervix and risk of cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jennifer; Downes, Katheryne L; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Levine, Lisa D

    2018-03-21

    To determine the risk of cesarean delivery associated with postdates induction (≥41 weeks) compared to term induction (37-40w6d) among women with an unfavorable cervix, and to examine the risk factors associated with cesarean among women undergoing postdates induction. A planned secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort study on induction (n = 854) was performed. Women with a singleton gestation, intact membranes, and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score of ≤6 and dilation ≤2 cm) who were undergoing a term (≥37 weeks) induction for any indication were included. Women with a prior cesarean were excluded. The primary outcome was cesarean delivery. Relative risk of cesarean was estimated using a modified Poisson's regression model. There was a significantly increased risk of cesarean for women undergoing postdates induction (n = 154) compared to women 37-40w6d (n = 700), (46.8 versus 26.0%, p cesarean remained after adjustment for race, parity, and pregnancy-related hypertension (aRR 1.70 [1.39-2.09], p cesarean among women ≥41 weeks included nulliparity (aRR 3.38 95%CI (2.42-4.74)), BMI ≥30 (aRR 1.72 95%CI (1.34-2.21)), and starting cervical dilation cesarean compared to women 37-40w6d, with nulliparity, obesity, and cervical dilation <1 cm being independent risk factors. These data can be used to augment patient counseling and support the ongoing discussion regarding the risk of post dates induction.

  1. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  2. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  3. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  4. Oral misoprostol versus dinoprostone vaginal tablets for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ibrahim Abu El aish

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induction of labour is common in obstetric practice. We conducted this study to find the appropriate and safe drug for labour induction and to compare the safety and efficacy of oral misoprostol and vaginal dinoprostone for labour induction. Methods: In a provisional, prospective and cross-sectional study, one hundred and fifty five singleton cephalic presentation full term pregnancies with medical or obstetric indication for labour induction were allocated in two groups. First group received oral 50 micrograms for nulliparas and low parity group (1-4, and 25micrograms for grand multiparas (≥ 5 misoprostol orally every 6 hours to a maximum of four doses daily. In the second group vaginal tablets of dinoprostone 3mg then 1.5mg for nulliparas and 1.5mg for low parity and grand multiparas groups were inserted in the posterior fornix, every 8 hours. Primary outcome measures were: induction success, induction-delivery interval and number of used doses. Secondary outcome measures included: maternal side effects, caesarean section rate, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Data was collected from patient case notes and analyzed using software SPSS (version 13.0 and p-value < 0.05 was used as statistical significance of differences. Results: In our study there were no significant differences in baseline parameters in the two groups nor in the indications for labor induction except misoprostol was used in premature rupture of membrane. Induction of labor succeeded in 123 (79.35% women without other interventions from other methods (80.26%misoprostol group versus 78.5% dinoprostone p=0.492. It was observed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in final outcomes nor in obstetrical complications. There was no significance in differences between misoprostol and dinoprostone groups in induction-delivery interval (15.2 ± 14.5 hours versus 16.4 ± 11.3 hours p=0.6 resp.. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that oral

  5. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  6. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  7. Timing of induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  9. Inductive acquisition of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which (1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the environment (classification systems). Both the explanation of computer-based reasoning and the bottleneck (Feigenbaum, 1979) of knowledge acquisition are major issues in expert-systems research. The author contributed to these areas of research in two ways: 1. He implemented an expert-system shell, the Mugol environment, which facilitates knowledge acquisition by inductive inference and provides automatic explanation of run-time reasoning on demand. RuleMaster, a commercial version of this environment, was used to advantage industrially in the construction and testing of two large classification systems. 2. He investigated a new techniques called 'sequence induction' that can be used in construction of control systems. Sequence induction is based on theoretical work in grammatical learning. He improved existing grammatical learning algorithms as well as suggesting and theoretically characterizing new ones. These algorithms were successfully applied to acquisition of knowledge for a diverse set of control systems, including inductive construction of robot plans and chess end-gam strategies.

  10. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  11. Inductive logic on conceptual spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the question of how conceptual frameworks influence inductive reasoning. A conceptual framework is a collection of concepts used for a particular purpose; we can think of it as a semantic environment in which observations, or evidence, are recorded, and beliefs are formed

  12. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  13. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  14. Assessment of extensive surgery for locally advanced lung cancer. Safety and efficacy of induction therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hiroshi; Nakamae, Katsumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Kani, Hisanori; Maemoto, Katsutoshi; Mizuno, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Locally advanced lung cancer has a poor prognosis, despite extensive surgery conducted in an effort to improve survival. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of induction therapy prior to extensive surgery for locally advanced lung cancer. Primary resection for lung cancer was done in 549 consecutive patients divided into three groups; 446 undergoing standard pulmonary resection (no extensive surgery), 87 undergoing extensive surgery without induction therapy, and 16 undergoing surgery after induction therapy. Morbidity was 23.5%, 28.6%, and 43.8%, respectively. The rate was significantly higher in the induction group compared with the no extensive surgery group (P<0.05). Surgical mortality was 0.67%, 3.4%, and 6.3%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant between the no extensive surgery and extensive surgery groups (P<0.02), and between the no extensive surgery and induction groups (P<0.02). Hospital mortality was 2.2%, 9.2%, and 6.3%, respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the extensive surgery (P<0.01) and induction (P<0.05) groups compared to the no extensive surgery group. Five-year survival was 50.3% for the patients who received induction therapy, and 14.7% for the patients who did not receive induction therapy. Survival differences between the induction and non induction groups were not significant, but some patients with T3 or T4 disease may benefit from induction therapy. The high morbidity of induction treatment should be recognized, and strict candidate selection and careful postoperative care used to help prevent increased mortality. (author)

  15. Yessotoxin as a Tool to Study Induction of Multiple Cell Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Suárez Korsnes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes to use the marine algal toxin yessotoxin (YTX to establish reference model experiments to explore medically valuable effects from induction of multiple cell death pathways. YTX is one of few toxins reported to make such induction. It is a small molecule compound which at low concentrations can induce apoptosis in primary cultures, many types of cells and cell lines. It can also induce a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines. The present contribution reviews arguments that this type of induction may have principal interest outside this particular example. One principal effect of medical interest may be that cancer cells will not so easily adapt to the synergistic effects from induction of more than one death pathway as compared to induction of only apoptosis.

  16. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R. [CPDEE - UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  17. Titrated Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone for Labor Induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study designed to compare titrated misoprostol regarding its safety and efficacy with dinoprostone for induction of labor. ... Statistical analysis done using Student's t-test for quantitative data and ..... induction: A pilot study. Rev Bras ...

  18. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow

  19. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllüce, M; Sökmen, M; Daferera, D; Ağar, G; Ozkan, H; Kartal, N; Polissiou, M; Sökmen, A; Sahin, F

    2003-07-02

    The present study was designated to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil, obtained by using a Clevenger distillation apparatus, water soluble (polar) and water insoluble (nonpolar) subfractions of the methanol extracts from aerial parts of Satureja hortensis L. plants, and methanol extract from calli established from the seeds using Gamborg's B5 basal media supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (1.0 ppm), 6-benzylaminopurine (N(6)-benzyladenine) (1.0 ppm), and sucrose (2.5%). The antimicrobial test results showed that the essential oil of S. hortensis had great potential antimicrobial activities against all 23 bacteria and 15 fungi and yeast species tested. In contrast, the methanol extract from callus cultures and water soluble subfraction of the methanol extract did not show antimicrobial activities, but the nonpolar subfraction had antibacterial activity against only five out of 23 bacterial species, which were Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus fecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Antioxidant studies suggested that the polar subfractions of the methanol extract of intact plant and methanol extract of callus cultures were able to reduce the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to the yellow-colored diphenylpicrylhydrazine. In this assay, the strongest effect was observed for the tissue culture extract, with an IC(50) value of 23.76 +/- 0.80 microgram/mL, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidant agent butylated hydroxytoluene. On the other hand, linoleic acid oxidation was 95% inhibited in the presence of the essential oil while the inhibition was 90% with the chloroform subfraction of the intact plant. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of S. hortensis was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and a GC-mass spectrometry system. A total 22 constituents representing 99.9% of the essential oil were

  20. Development of induction cells at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Zhang Kaizhi; Cheng Nian'an; Zhang Wenwei; Lai Qinggui; Wen Long; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2002-01-01

    The effects to develop induction cells for induction linac and radiography at CAEP are introduced and reviewed in this paper. During the past two decades, several kinds of cells have been designed and tested, and some of them have been used for construction of induction linac, such as Dragon-1 and 12 MeV, and a Synthetic Test Stand (STS) for comprehensive linac technology study. The structure, test results and performance in the induction linac of these cells are given

  1. The induction on a continuous variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong.

    1989-06-01

    Mathematical induction is a useful tool. But it could be used to prove only the proposition with form P(n) for the natural number n. Could the natural number n be replaced by a continuous variable x? Yes, and then we have the continuous induction. The continuous induction is very easy to grasp by the students who have learned mathematical induction. And it can be used to prove many basic propositions in the elementary calculus. (author)

  2. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  3. Review of induction linac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, Denis

    1984-01-01

    The major emphasis of the U.S. program in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is on developing and understanding induction-linac systems that employ multiple beams of high-current heavy ions. The culmination of the plan lies in building the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) which will involve an ion induction linac to deliver multiple high current beams, that can be focussed and overlapped on a two-millimeter diameter spot. A sequence of three major experimental activities are as follows. In the Single-Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE), the stability or otherwise transport of a high-current Cs +1 beam over a long distance is tested. In the Multiple-Beam Experiment (MBE), the experiment is designed to simulate on a small scale as many as possible of the features to be encountered in the HTE. (Mori, K.)

  4. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy Jean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  5. Structured Statistical Models of Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Everyday inductive inferences are often guided by rich background knowledge. Formal models of induction should aim to incorporate this knowledge and should explain how different kinds of knowledge lead to the distinctive patterns of reasoning found in different inductive contexts. This article presents a Bayesian framework that attempts to meet…

  6. Sensorless control of induction machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Bahadır; Kilic, Bahadir

    2004-01-01

    AC drives based on fully digital control have reached the status of a maturing technology in a broad range of applications ranging from the low cost to high performance systems. Continuing research has concentrated on the removal of the sensors measuring the mechanical coordinates (e.g. tachogenerators, encoders) while maintaining the cost and performance of the control system. Speed estimation is an issue of particular interest with induction motor electrical drives as the rotor speed is gen...

  7. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  8. The law of electromagnetic induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the electromagnetic induction law which do not take into account Faraday’s restrictions are not in full accordance with the physical phenomenon and so they are not laws. Their incomplete correspondence with real devices results in such "paradoxes" as unlimited magnetic field of unipolar generators, infinite sizes of inductors for DC and AC machines modeled, and so on.

  9. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  10. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  11. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  12. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  13. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neoplasia Type 1 Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for ... qualified health care provider nearby. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown ...

  14. Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack is higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia vera include headaches and a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left ...

  15. Diallel analysis of anther culture response in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes differing in their ability to produce embryogenic callus from anther culture were reciprocally crossed and inheritance of anther culture response [callus induction frequency (CIF, %), embryogenic callus induction frequency (ECIF, %), regeneration capacity of callus (RCC, %) ...

  16. Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serment G, J.; Brena V, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the incidence on biological systems, the ionizing radiation can affect so much its structural components as the genetic material since in a direct form or by the free radicals produced mainly the water radiolysis via (indirect effect). The alpha particles produce a great quantity of leisures in sites very near of them, by consequence results in a major RDB frequency. For establish the influence that would be the leisures concentration (specifically RDB) it was decided to research what occur when is irradiated with high LET corpuscular radiation and major power of ionization using for this alpha particles of an Americium 241 source and Escherichia coli stubs with different defects in reparation genes, recombination and protection to the radiation damage. (Author)

  17. The mechanical heterogeneity of the hard callus influences local tissue strains during bone healing: a finite element study based on sheep experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A; Liu, Y; Witt, F; Manjubala, I; Sander, O; Epari, D R; Fratzl, P; Duda, G N; Weinkamer, R

    2011-02-03

    During secondary fracture healing, various tissue types including new bone are formed. The local mechanical strains play an important role in tissue proliferation and differentiation. To further our mechanobiological understanding of fracture healing, a precise assessment of local strains is mandatory. Until now, static analyses using Finite Elements (FE) have assumed homogenous material properties. With the recent quantification of both the spatial tissue patterns (Vetter et al., 2010) and the development of elastic modulus of newly formed bone during healing (Manjubala et al., 2009), it is now possible to incorporate this heterogeneity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this heterogeneity on the strain patterns at six successive healing stages. The input data of the present work stemmed from a comprehensive cross-sectional study of sheep with a tibial osteotomy (Epari et al., 2006). In our FE model, each element containing bone was described by a bulk elastic modulus, which depended on both the local area fraction and the local elastic modulus of the bone material. The obtained strains were compared with the results of hypothetical FE models assuming homogeneous material properties. The differences in the spatial distributions of the strains between the heterogeneous and homogeneous FE models were interpreted using a current mechanobiological theory (Isakson et al., 2006). This interpretation showed that considering the heterogeneity of the hard callus is most important at the intermediate stages of healing, when cartilage transforms to bone via endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Fengler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes, this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

  19. Identification of a progenitor cell population destined to form fracture fibrocartilage callus in Dickkopf-related protein 3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yu; Adams, Douglas; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ryu; Kamimura, Masayuki; Itoi, Eiji; Rowe, David W

    2016-11-01

    Fracture healing is a complex biological process involving the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and chondrogenic, osteogenic, and angiogenic differentiation. The mechanisms underlying the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) expression in periosteal cells using Dkk3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice. We found that proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells began in the periosteum, involving Dkk3-positive cell proliferation near the fracture site. In addition, Dkk3 was expressed in fibrocartilage cells together with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 in the early phase of fracture healing as a cell marker of fibrocartilage cells. Dkk3 was not expressed in mature chondrogenic cells or osteogenic cells. Transient expression of Dkk3 disappeared in the late phase of fracture healing, except in the superficial periosteal area of fracture callus. The Dkk3 expression pattern differed in newly formed type IV collagen positive blood vessels and the related avascular tissue. This is the first report that shows Dkk3 expression in the periosteum at a resting state and in fibrocartilage cells during the fracture healing process, which was associated with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells. These fluorescent mesenchymal lineage cells may be useful for future studies to better understand fracture healing.

  20. Design Aspects and Test of an Inductive Fault Current Limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsénio Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic shielding inductive fault current limiters with high temperature superconducting tapes are considered as emerging devices that provide technology for the advent of modern power grids. The development of such limiters requires magnetic iron cores and leads to several design challenges regarding the constitutive parts of the limiter, namely the primary and secondary windings. Preliminary tests in a laboratory scale prototype have been carried out considering an assembly designed for simplicity in which the optimization of the magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary was not the main focus. This work addresses the design configuration of an inductive current limiter prototype regarding the assembly of the primary and secondary windings in the core. The prototype is based on a closed magnetic core wound by a primary, built from a normal electric conductor, and a short-circuited secondary, built from first generation superconducting tape. Four different design configurations are considered. Through experimental tests, the performance of such prototype is discussed and compared, in terms of normal and fault operation regimes. The results show that all the configurations assure effective magnetic shielding at normal operation regime, however, at fault operation regime, there are differences among configurations.