WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary bladder tumors

  1. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a primary bladder tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinos-Castro Sonia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary lymphoma of the bladder represents 0.2% of all bladder malignancies. Secondary involvement of the bladder by malignant lymphoma occurs in 10% to 50% of cases. Most lymphomas of the bladder are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the B-cell type, with preponderance among women. The impact of positron emission tomography (PET on tumor staging has recently become very important due to its use in the study of diagnosis extension and individual therapy design. Case presentation We report the case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man with intermittent haematuria as the presenting symptom of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bladder. He was first diagnosed with primary lymphoma of the bladder using the current staging method, but a positron emission tomography study subsequently revealed that he instead had a secondary involvement of the bladder. Conclusion The staging of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, which is useful in order to plan accurate therapy, has been changing since the introduction of positron emission tomography scanning. Primary lymphomas of the bladder, although very rare, may be even more uncommon when this imaging technique is used to assess the extension of the disease. Although the interpretation of this technique has some limitations that should be taken into account, the extensive use of positron emission tomography should nonetheless help improve the diagnosis of this disease.

  2. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the primary tumor in muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Patients with muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder were examined with contrast-enhanced CT of the primary tumor. A specially designed technique was developed to increase the diagnostic potential of CT. The most important points about the technique were controlled filling of the bladder, the use of thin slices, series of scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium, and long scanning times in the precontrast series. The absorbed dose to the patient resulting from the new technique was found to be within the range of the dose from urography or barium enema. This dose was considered to be acceptable given the diagnostic gain of the procedure. Features of irradiated bladder tumors were analysed to find which parameter correlated with persistent malignancy. High contrast enhancement of a tumor relative to the bladder wall was found to be the best indicator of a malignant tumour after irradiation. 127 refs

  3. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Afina S.; Roos, Daphne; Deutekom, Marije; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Kurth, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We systematically reviewed the available evidence, and obtained and compared summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of cytology and the urine based markers bladder tumor antigen, BTA stat (Polymedco, Redmond, Washington), BTA TRAK (Polymedco), NMP22 (Matritech, Cambridge,

  4. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  5. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  6. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  7. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  8. Calcitonin-producing well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Gaetano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of calcitonin-secreting primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Case presentation The case of a 68-year-old male with carcinoid tumor arising in the urinary bladder is presented. Transurethral resection of a polypoid small tumor 0.4 cm in diameter was performed. Immunohistochemical study using neuroendocrine markers allowed a straightforward diagnosis of a low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated calcitonin immunoreactivity in the most of the tumor cells. Conclusion This tumor shows specific clinical, macroscopical and histological features and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bladder neoplasms.

  9. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Hamid Nasrollahi; Majdaddin Rajaei; Maral Mokhtari; Seyed Hasan Hamedi; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei; Niloofar Ahmadloo

    2017-01-01

    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymp...

  10. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  11. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  12. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  13. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  14. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  15. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  16. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  17. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  18. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... textbooks of pathology.'" We have been able to find only. 11 cases documented in the world literature; and only 4 of these in the English literature..·• They have appeared as isolated case reports or are mentioned in reviews deal- ing with primary sarcomas of the gall bladder. To the best of our knowledge ...

  19. Computerized tomography and staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, A.; Luongo, A.; Nogueira, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been employed in 13 patients with bladder tumors; 8 of them subsequently underwent surgery. Concordance between CT and pathological staging ranged in 90% of accurate results. Our data are discussed and compared to those of other authors in the literature. Staging was carried out according to the International Union Against Cancer. CT proved to be very accurate in the assessment of local and regional spread of tumor, limphatic progression and early detection of ureteral obstruction, as well as diagnosis of distant metastasis in selected patients. In poor candidates for surgery CT provided invaluable data to be used for localizing fields of radiation therapy. CT is a very well tolerated procedure, it is therefore suitable in subsequent treatment control. (Author) [pt

  20. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy

  1. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy.

  2. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  3. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (Pcancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. RARE CASE OF DESMOID TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalapathy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor which belongs to a family of myofibroblastic fibromatoses. Occasionally, desmoid tumors have an unusual site of occurrence . We describe a case of incisional hernia in postmenopausal women with an intra operative incidental finding of a desmoid tumor from anterior wall of urinary bladder for which a wide excision was performed

  5. Antibacterial activity of probiotics in bladder tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molchanov R.N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chronic urinary tract infection (UTI is a risk factor that worsens a natural course of bladder tumors. Using of probiotics, possessing antagonistic influence on pathogenic microflora and immunocorrection effect, for preventive maintenance and treat¬ment of a chronic UTI in bladder tumor patients is an actual and perspective direction. The goal of the research was studying antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect of a single bladder instillation of either lactobacilli or aerococci in bladder tumor patients. In the preoperative period a single bladder instillation with either lactobacterin or a-bacterin preparation to 35 bladder tumor patients was done. Bacteriuria, leucocyturia, lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine were measured before and in 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours after instillation. Decrease in bacteriuria level in both groups of patients was revealed. Lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine gradually decreased up to complete elimination in 24 hours (in 1 patient who received lactobacterin (12,5 % and in 9 patients who received a-bacterin. (40,9 %. Leucocyturia study did not show statistically confidence dynamics throughout the observation period in both groups. Thus, bladder instillation with lactobacterin or a-bacterin leads to suppression of uropathogenic microflora in bladder tumor patients; in the majority of patients spontaneous elimination of lactobacilli and aerococci occurs within 24 hours.

  6. Cobalt teletherapy of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamprad, F.; Pfeiffer, J.; Oelssner, W.

    1978-01-01

    Based on results obtained from patients with urinary bladder carcinomas who were subjected to cobalt teletherapy at the Radiological Clinic of the Karl Marx University from 1969 to 1971, the influence of total dumor dose, of single tumor dose, and of nominal standard dose (NSD) on the frequency of radiation-induced vesicorectal changes as well as on the frequency of local recurrences was investigated in a catamnestic study. Under the conditions of a small volume pendulum irradiation there is a considerable increase in the rate of late effects above a total dose of 6,000 rad, with single doses of more than 180 rad per day and with a NSD of more than 1,750 ret. These dose limits should not be exceeded because a further dose increase does not essentially decrease the number of local recurrences. Higher tumor doese, for instance in stationary therapy, result in radiation-induced late effects even after low dosage. Therefore, the limiting values have to be lowered for this type of irradiation. (author)

  7. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  8. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, Heidi T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duppen, Joop C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to {approx}0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall.

  9. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na; Oh, Soon Nam; Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Young Joon; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Chan Kwon; Choi, Yeong Jin [Catholic University of Korea St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare condition of unknown origin. Pathologically, the lesion is composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. We report two cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder which showed different imaging features and was falsely diagnosed as malignant tumors. We discuss the imaging findings along with a literature review

  10. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lorenzi Marques

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder are uncommon and usually occur by contiguity with or hematogenic dissemination of other adenocarcinomas such as colorectal, prostate and gynecological tract carcinomas. Mucinous and signet-ring cell histological patterns are even rarer and it is often difficult to morphologically distinguish them from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. CASE REPORT: We present and discuss a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells in a 57-year-old male patient. Other primary sites for the tumor had been excluded and, in the absence of digestive tract tumor and for confirmation that it was a primary bladder tumor, an immunohistochemistry study was performed.

  11. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.

  12. Can immediate second resection be an alternative to standardized second transurethral resection of bladder tumors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Doğantekin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of an immediate second transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT protocol on residual tumor status at the initial TURBT session and the recurrence rate in the primary resection area. We prospectively evaluated and randomized 47 consecutive patients who underwent TURBT sessions for bladder cancer. In accordance with the inclusion criteria, of the 47 consecutive patients, 19 (Group I underwent immediate second resection of the tumor bed after complete TUR and 28 (Group II did not. After standard TURBT, Group I underwent a second cystoscopy and resection of the bed of the tumor or an ignored tumor, which was performed by a different urologist. After 4–6 weeks, delayed second TURB was performed, and all pathological results were evaluated. Tumors were detected in two patients during the immediate second resection. Of these, one was a misdiagnosed tumor, whereas the other was diagnosed at the bed of the tumor by pathological examination. Tumors were detected in nine patients at the delayed second TURB, of which only one was part of Group I, while the others were part of Group II (p = 0.04. The results of this study demonstrated that residual tumors may remain after initial TURB, either in the tumor bed or in a different location within the bladder. Although this was a pilot study enrolling only a small number of patients, our initial results supported the assertion that immediate second resection can be an alternative to standard second TURBT.

  13. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  14. Primary Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem Boukettaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. In general, this tumor occurs in the middle age, and clinical presentation does not differ from transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is often poor, given the advanced stage at diagnosis. To our knowledge, <100 cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder have been reported. We report 2 cases with bladder linitis plastica primitive, and we draw attention to its pathologic, anatomoclinical, and evolution specificity to optimize its therapeutic management.

  15. [A Case of Primary Schwannoma of the Urinary Bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Waku, Natsui; Kawai, Koji; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Ishitsuka, Ryutaro; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Sakashita, Mai; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a bladder tumor. She was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally detected with radiological imaging performed during treatment of cervical cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a solitary submucosal tumor located in the anterior wall of the urinary bladder, with homogeneous contrast enhancement. Cystoscopy showed a submucosal tumor covered by normal mucosa. A paraganglioma was considered in the differential diagnosis, but symptoms suggesting hypercatecholaminemia were not apparent. Moreover, she did not have a family history or symptoms associated with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). She underwent partial cystectomy with a preliminary diagnosis of submucosal bladder tumor. Histopathological diagnosis confirmed a schwannoma arising from the bladder wall. She was followed up without intravesical recurrence or metastases for 6 months. In the literature, only 12 cases of bladder schwannoma have been reported. There was no reported family history or symptoms associated with NF-1 in any of the cases. Although the number of cases is limited, literature review showed a favorable prognosis for bladder schwannoma with local tumor resection in patients without NF-1.

  16. Epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (malignant schwannoma) of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoum, I A; Moore, R J; Cook, W; Crowe, D R; Rodgers, W H; Siegal, G P

    1999-10-01

    Sarcoma represents less than 2% of all neoplasms diagnosed or recognized in effusions. Epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare tumor that is difficult to differentiate from other epithelioid tumors without the use of ancillary studies. A 39-year-old paraplegic man presented with hematuria and a bladder mass that extended to involve the pelvic peritoneum. Light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains as well as transmission electron microscopy showed features of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdoid features and an accompanying eosinophilic infiltrate. Cytologic smears confirmed the similarities between the primary tumor in the bladder and the cells in the pelvic fluid and excluded the possibility of reactive changes related to postsurgical radiation. Ancillary studies were critical in narrowing the differential diagnoses and reaching the final conclusion.

  17. Primary Signet-Ring Carcinoma in the Bladder Presenting as a Hypervascular Luminal Polypoid Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Sun; Choi, Seung A; Jung, Yoon Young; Cho, Young Kwon; Lee, Won Mi; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-01-01

    Primary signet-ring carcinoma is a very aggressive and rare variant of a primary urinary bladder cancer, accounting for less than 1% of cases. We reported on a 76-year-old patient with primary signet-ring carcinoma who occurred metastatic lymphadenopathy with extranodal invasion causing intraluminal tumor thrombi in the adjacent vein, and pulmonary metastasis over the course of three months. We demonstrated the computed tomography findings of primary signet-ring carcinoma of the bladder and correlated the imaging findings with the pathologic features. We reviewed the distinguishing imaging findings of the primary signet-ring carcinoma compared with urothelial cell carcinoma, the most common subtype of the bladder cancer.

  18. Cases of a Borderline Pathology That Can Mimic Bladder Cancer: Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selçuk İşoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by accumulation of a fibrillar protein called amyloid in the extracellular space. The kidneys, ureters and the bladder can be affected in the urinary tract. However, primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare entity. Macroscopic hematuria could be the first and only symptom of primary amyloidosis of the bladder; therefore, it has similar findings with urinary tract malignancies. Histopathological evaluation is mandatory for the diagnosis. Follow-up should always include cystoscopic evaluation as recurrence is expected in the natural course.

  19. Serum and Urinary Cytokeratin 19 and Bladder Tumor Antigen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Urinary CYFRA 21-1 and BTA stat are valuable non-invasive urinary markers for the detection of bladder cancer with a high sensitivity compared to urine cytology. Key Words cytokeratin, complement H, BTA, CYFRA 21-1, BTA stat. Résumé Cytokeratin 19 Sérique et Urinaire et Antigen Tumoral Vésical dans le ...

  20. Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Narain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

  1. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  2. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and the overall survival of these patients. We also compare the clinical outcomes between patients of bladder small cell carcinoma (SCC and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC. Materials and methods: We reviewed the charts of patients with bladder tumors from January 1995 to December 2012 in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 2421 malignant bladder tumor patients were reviewed and there were 18 patients who were diagnosed with primary bladder SCC. The patients' characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, presented symptoms, tumor size, locations, clinical stages, treatment modalities, pathology appearance, recurrence conditions, and survival conditions were all recorded. We also compared the clinical outcomes and the overall survival rates between patients with bladder SCC and those with UC. Results: Bladder SCC accounted for about 0.74% of all bladder malignancies in our institution. The mean age at diagnosis was 70.67 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1. Thirteen patients had a history of cigarette smoking. All patients presented with symptoms of gross hematuria, and three of them had bladder tamponade requiring blood clot evacuation by cystoscopy. Only one patient had T1 disease, ten patients had stage III disease, and seven patients had lymph node or distant metastasis (stage IV disease. The mean tumor size was 4.29 cm in diameter. For the majority (61.11% of patients, SCC coexisted with UC components. The average survival time

  3. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder in a child: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Filho, Jose de Arimateia Batista, E-mail: ariaraujocg@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Instituto do Coracao (InCor) - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martines, Joao Augusto dos Santos; Martines, Brenda Margatho Ramos [Imaging Unit of Hospital Universitario - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HU-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalcanti, Marcella Santos [Pathology, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Department of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors rarely affect the urinary tract or children, and frequently mimic malignancy on imaging studies. According to the recent literature, only 35 cases of such bladder tumors in children have been reported. The authors present the case of a child with a bladder myofibroblastic tumor with favorable progression following complete surgical resection. (author)

  4. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Javier del; Prat, Esther; Ponsa, Immaculada; Lloreta, Josep; Gelabert, Antoni; Algaba, Ferran; Camps, Jordi; Miró, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  5. Expression of RFC/SLC19A1 is associated with tumor type in bladder cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer (UBC ranks ninth in worldwide cancer. In Egypt, the pattern of bladder cancer is unique in that both the transitional and squamous cell types prevail. Despite much research on the topic, it is still difficult to predict tumor progression, optimal therapy and clinical outcome. The reduced folate carrier (RFC/SLC19A1 is the major transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. RFC is also the primary means of cellular uptake for antifolate cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, however, membrane transport of antifolates by RFC is considered as limiting to antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression level of RFC/SLC19A1 in urothelial and non-urothelial variants of bladder carcinomas. Quantification of RFC mRNA in the mucosa of 41 untreated bladder cancer patients was performed using RT-qPCR. RFC mRNA steady-state levels were ∼9-fold higher (N = 39; P<0.0001 in bladder tumor specimens relative to normal bladder mRNA. RFC upregulation was strongly correlated with tumor type (urothelial vs. non-urothelial; p<0.05 where median RFC mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the urothelial (∼14-fold compared to the non-urothelial (∼4-fold variant. This may account for the variation in response to antifolate-containing regimens used in the treatment of either type. RFC mRNA levels were not associated with tumor grade (I, II and III or stage (muscle-invasive vs. non-muscle invasive implying that RFC cannot be used for prognostic purposes in bladder carcinomas and its increased expression is an early event in human bladder tumors pathogenesis. Further, RFC can be considered as a potential marker for predicting response to antifolate chemotherapy in urothelial carcinomas.

  6. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  7. Comparison of the efficacy and feasibility of laser enucleation of bladder tumor versus transurethral resection of bladder tumor: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Ning; Han, Shanfu; Male, Musa; Zhao, Chenming; Yao, Daqiang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    The transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) remains the most widely used method in the surgical treatment of the non-muscle invasive bladder tumor (NMIBT). Despite its popularity, the laser technique has been widely used in urology as an alternative, via the application of transurethral laser enucleation of bladder tumor. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and feasibility between transurethral laser enucleation and transurethral resection of bladder tumor. A systematic search of the following databases was conducted: PubMed, Wed of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google scholar, and Medline. The search included studies up to the 1st of January 2017. The outcomes of interest that were used in order to assess the two techniques included operation time, catheterization time, hospitalization time, obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irritation, 24-month-recurrence rate, and the postoperative adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy. A total of 13 trials with 2012 participants were included, of which 975 and 1037 underwent transurethral laser enucleation and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, respectively. No significant difference was noted in the operation time between the two groups, although significant differences were reported for the variables catheterization time, hospitalization time, obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irritation, and 24-month-recurrence rate. In the mitomycin and epirubicin subgroups, no significant differences were observed in the laser enucleation and TURBT methods with regard to the 24-month-recurrence rate. The laser enucleation was superior to TURBT with regard to the parameters obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, catheterization time, hospitalization time, and 24-month-recurrence rate. Moreover, laser enucleation can offer a more accurate result of the tumor's pathological stage and grade.

  8. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  9. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  10. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... phomas thus constitute about 10% of all primary sarcomas of the gall ... Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town. J B. C. BOTHA, M.B. CH.B. L. B. KAHN ... mon hepatic duct at its junction with the cystic duct. The.

  11. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  12. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Dong; Koo, Bong Sik; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Park, Byung Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ki Nam; Lee, Young Il; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Elawdy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Inflammatory pseudotumor” (IPT has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3–8 cm; computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2–10 years, no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries.

  14. Primary Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Successfully Managed with Radical Cystectomy in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Allameh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of bladder is a rare neoplasm, usually seen in middle age adults. We report the case of an 18-year-old man who presented with intermittent gross hematuria. Computed tomography imaging showed multifilling defects in the bladder. The patient underwent a transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Histological findings were consistent with poorly differentiated mixed mucinous and signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. We ruled out other possible origins of tumor by gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy. The patient was treated with radical cystectomy with prostate and seminal vesicle sparing technique and orthotopic diversion using “W” ileum pouch with pelvic lymphadenectomy to the bifurcation of the aorta was done. Six-month follow-up of patient showed normal conditions without metastatic spread or any recurrence.

  15. Primary Bladder Neurofibroma: A Rare Case with Clinical Implications and Diagnostic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Srikanth; Naik, Ramadas; Bukelo, Maryann Margaret; Rai, Sharada; Prabhu, Laxman

    2015-09-01

    Neurofibroma of the genito-urinary tract is rare. Urinary bladder is the commonest organ involved in cases of urinary tract involvement. Patients present early in life and there is male preponderance. We discuss here a case of primary neurofibroma of the urinary bladder in a 52-year-male presenting with haematuria, irritative bladder symptoms and pelvic mass. Cystoscopy showed a swelling in the left lateral wall. A transurethral biopsy revealed neurofibroma of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis.

  16. Folate receptor expression in bladder cancer and its correlation with tumor behaviors and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In addition to tumor grade and stage, the expression of FR in bladder cancer is related to cellular differentiation. However, no correlation with patient survival was seen in this limited study.

  17. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER ANTIGEN FOR DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER TUMOR;A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH URINARY CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radkhah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystoscopy and urinary cytology are currently the basis for diagnosis and ‎follow-up of bladder tumors. Research to find a sensitive and specific tumor ‎marker for diagnosis of bladder tumor is actively underway, however, due to low sensitivity ‎and high cost of cytology. This cross-sectional study was performed in 65 patients to evaluate whether urinary bladder ‎cancer (UBC antigen level can predict the presence of active bladder tumor. In patients with ‎inactive tumor, UBC antigen level was determined in addition to standard cystoscopy ‎and cytology for follow-up. Patients with active tumor were ‎subjected to standard treatment and UBC antigen level determination. UBC antigen ‎ levels were measured by ELISA, using monoclonal antibodies ‎specific for UBC antigen. As a control group, UBC antigen level ‎was also determined in 65 persons who had been referred for urinalysis for other reasons. ‎UBC antigen level more than 1 μg/L which was regarded as ‎positive was found in 49.4% of the patients. In control group, 96.9% had UBC antigen < 1μg/L‎. Mean UBC antigen level in patients was ‎3.77 μg/L while it was 0.508 μg/L in controls (P < 0.0001. Sensitivity of ‎UBC antigen was 53.3% and its specificity was 40%. Sensitivity and specificity of urinary cytology was 17.3% and 88.2%, respectively. This difference was statistically ‎significant (P < 0.001. UBC antigen is more sensitive than urinary cytology, although cytology still ‎retains its priority in specificity. It is not yet recommended to replace UBC antigen for ‎cytology due to its low specificity and not favorable sensitivity.

  18. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  19. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  20. Vinorelbine rescue therapy for dogs with primary urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, M E; Thamm, D H; Weishaar, K; Lawrence, J A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumour activity and toxicoses of vinorelbine as a palliative rescue therapy for dogs with primary urinary bladder carcinoma. Thirteen dogs refractory to prior chemotherapeutics and one dog naïve to chemotherapeutic treatment were enrolled. Vinorelbine (15 mg m(-2) IV) was administered intravenously along with concurrent oral anti-inflammatory drugs, if tolerated. A median of six doses of vinorelbine (range: 1-16) was administered. Two dogs (14%) had partial responses, and eight (57%) experienced stable disease. Subjective improvement in clinical signs was noted in 11 dogs (78%). Adverse events were mild and primarily haematological in nature. Median time to progression was 93 days (range: 20-239 days). Median survival time for all dogs was 187 days; median survival for 13 pre-treated dogs was 207 days. Vinorelbine may have utility in the management of canine primary urinary bladder carcinoma and should be evaluated in a prospective study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Polypoid cystitis mimicking bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pil Yeob; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Jong Kuk

    2002-01-01

    Polypoid cystitis without a history of catheterization is rare. We report a case in which the condition occurred in a 16-year-old girl complaining of dysuria, urgency, frequency, and a residual urine sensation. Cystography revealed a large intravesical filling defect with bladder distension, while sonography and CT demonstrated a large, inhomogeneously enhancing solid mass in the urinary bladder

  2. Primary congenital bladder diverticula: Where does the ureter drain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary congenital bladder diverticulum (PCBD is related to a deficient detrusor layer allowing out-pouching of the bladder mucosa through the inadequate muscularis wall. We aimed to review our experience with symptomatic PCBD in order to correlate clinical findings with anatomical aspects and to present late outcome. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all patients operated in our institution since 2004. We evaluated the charts for complaints, radiological exams, method of treatment, complications and length of follow-up. Results: We treated 10 cases (11 renal units - [RU], predominantly males (9/10, mean age at surgery of 5.3 years. All patients had significant urological complaints presenting either with antenatal hydronephrosis (4 or febrile urinary tract infection (5 and urinary retention in one. The ureter was found implanted inside the diverticulum in 8/11 RU. An extravesical psoas-hitch ureteroneocystostomy and diverticulum resection was performed in 10/11 cases, whereas 1 case was treated intravesically based on surgeon′s preference without performing cystoscopy. Mean follow-up was 34.1 months (1-120 without complications. Conclusions: PCBD is an uncommon diagnosis and has a high probability of drainage inside the diverticulum (72.7%. We recommend the extravesical approach associated with diverticulectomy and ureteroneocystostomy as the preferred technique to treat this abnormality.

  3. Incidence of urinary bladder tumors in the control Beagle dog population at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The report reviews the incidence and types of urinary bladder tumors in 94 dogs that have died in a population of 250 control dogs (median life span 14.0 years). Six bladder tumors, two papillomas and four transitional cell carcinomas, were found. The cumulative incidence for bladder tumors was 10.5 percent at 16 to 19 years of age; this was a 20 percent age-specific incidence

  4. Sixteen-slice multidetector computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy in the evaluation of a patient with suspected bladder tumor and history of bladder carcinoma operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Muzaffer; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tanriverdi, Orhan; Cay, Esra; Aydin, Mustafa; Miroglu, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation. Thirty-six patients (29 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 24-88 years) with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation were included in this prospective study. Virtual cystoscopy was performed by 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. The bladder was filled with diluted contrast material solution through a Foley catheter. Then, all patients underwent conventional cystoscopy examination. Two reviewers found 18 lesions detected by virtual cystoscopy by consensus, whereas 19 lesions were depicted by conventional cystoscopy. At virtual and conventional cystoscopies, the conditions of 3 patients, 2 with chronic inflammations and 1 with foreign body reaction, were wrongly diagnosed as tumors. At conventional cystoscopy, one patient's result was wrongly interpreted as normal. In pathologic evaluation, all tumors were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor can be noninvasively diagnosed using virtual cystoscopy. Use of virtual cystoscopy should be considered inpatients who present with hematuria or have histories of bladder carcinoma operation and are for follow-up because of its lesser complication risk and its being a less invasive, easily applied procedure without need of anesthesia. In the future, owing to the development of the CT technology and image processing technique, virtual cystoscopy may have a part in the detection of bladder cancer.

  5. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  6. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  7. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben F; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Brünner, Nils; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  8. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  9. Inflammatory pseudo tumor (pseudo sarcoma) of the urinary bladder: clinical aspects and computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Bueno, A.; Trigo, J.E.; Torres, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudo tumor (pseudosarcoma) of the urinary bladder is an uncommon lesion with benign histopathological features. It consists of large cell proliferation, spindle-cell morphology (myofibroblasts) deriving from the bladder sub mucosa. It can present in patients of either sex and of any age; on occasion, it has been related to a history of surgery or previous bladder injury. Both the clinical and radiological features are nonspecific in that they do not differentiate this lesion from malignant disease; its diagnosis can only be definitively established by histopathological study. We present a case of inflammatory bladder pseudo tumor in a young girl, describing the clinical and radiological features of this lesion, which only rarely has been dealt with in the literature, particularly that concerning radiology. (Author) 13 refs

  10. Targeting EGFR with photodynamic therapy in combination with Erbitux enhances in vivo bladder tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Khee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising cancer treatment modality that involves the interaction of the photosensitizer, molecular oxygen and light of specific wavelength to destroy tumor cells. Treatment induced hypoxia is one of the main side effects of PDT and efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of PDT plus Erbitux, an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, on human bladder cancer model. Tumor-bearing nude mice were assigned to four groups that included control, PDT, Erbitux and PDT plus Erbitux and tumor volume was charted over 90-day period. Results Our results demonstrate that combination of Erbitux with PDT strongly inhibits tumor growth in the bladder tumor xenograft model when compared to the other groups. Downregulation of EGFR was detected using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. Increased apoptosis was associated with tumor inhibition in the combination therapy group. In addition, we identified the dephosphorylation of ErbB4 at tyrosine 1284 site to play a major role in tumor inhibition. Also, at the RNA level downregulation of EGFR target genes cyclin D1 and c-myc was observed in tumors treated with PDT plus Erbitux. Conclusion The combination therapy of PDT and Erbitux effectively inhibits tumor growth and is a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of bladder tumors.

  11. Lewis antigen mediated adhesion of freshly removed human bladder tumors to E-selectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorsteensgaard, Karna; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Langkilde, Niels

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Twenty fresh surgical specimens of human bladder tumors were tested for their ability to adhere to recombinant P and E-selectin. The adhesion was correlated to immunological detection of carbohydrate structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A static titertray assay with immobilized selectins.......003), whereas no correlation was found to secretor and Lewis genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: These data on clinical specimens indicate that Lewis antigen mediated E-selectin adhesion may play a role in the human bladder cancer disease....

  12. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Frederikke N S Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    bladder cancer. RESULTS: The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...... than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...

  13. Intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of recurring bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Kan, Masaharu; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of the recurrence of bladder tumors was attempted in 45 patients by intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation (20 Gy). 30 ml saline solution containing ADM 30mg was instilled into the bladder and then irradiation was performed every day for 10 days. Patients' ages ranged from 36 to 84 years with a mean of 66.5 years; the sex ratio was 3(M) : 1(F). The recurrence rate following therapy was 8.1% after 1 year, 29.4% after 2 years and 29.4% after 3 years. The recurrence rate was low in patients with low grade tumors, those with single tumors and those who received this combination therapy after surgery. Only one patient was obliged to interrupt the therapy due to a bladder irritation. (author)

  14. Trace metals and over-expression of metallothioneins in bladder tumoral lesions: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cymbron Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have provided some evidence of a possible association between cancer and metallothioneins. Whether this relates to an exposure to carcinogenic metals remains unclear. Methods In order to examine the association between the expression of metallothioneins and bladder tumors, and to compare the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in animals with bladder tumors and animals without bladder tumors, 37 cases of bovine bladder tumors and 17 controls were collected. The detection and quantification of metallothioneins in bladder tissue of both cases and controls was performed by immunohistochemistry. And the quantification of metals in tissue and hair was assessed by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. Results Increased expression of metallothioneins was associated with bladder tumors when compared with non-tumoral bladder tissue (OR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.0 – 480. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair of cases were significantly higher than those of controls. However, as for the concentration of metals in bladder tissue, the differences were not significant. Conclusion Though the sample size was small, the present study shows an association between bladder tumors and metallothioneins. Moreover, it shows that concentrations of metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair may be used as a biomarker of exposure.

  15. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  16. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  17. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of the efficacy and feasibility of en bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumor versus conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Ting-Ting; Chen, Shao-Hao; Xu, Ning; Wei, Yong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Sun, Xiong-Lin; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Xue, Xue-Yi; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the feasibility of en bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumor (ETURBT) versus conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor (CTURBT). Relevant trials were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using appropriate search terms. All comparative studies reporting participant demographics, tumor characteristics, study characteristics, and outcome data were included. Seven trials with 886 participants were included, 438 underwent ETURBT and 448 underwent CTURBT. There was no significant difference in operation time between 2 groups (P = 0.38). The hospitalization time (HT) and catheterization time (CT) were shorter in ETURBT group (mean difference[MD] -1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.63 to -0.80, P analysis, and 24-month RR in CTURBT is higher than that in ETURBT in mitomycin intravesical irrigation group (P = 0.02). The first meta-analysis indicates that ETURBT might prove to be preferable alternative to CTURBT management of nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma. ETURBT is associated with shorter HT and CT, less complication rate, and lower recurrence-free rate. Moreover, it can provide high-qualified specimen for the pathologic diagnosis. Well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to make results comparable.

  19. Prospective phase II study of image-guided local boost using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system with fiducial markers has the advantage that it can be used to verify the localization of the markers during radiation delivery in real-time. We conducted a prospective Phase II study of image-guided local-boost radiotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for positioning, and here we report the results regarding the safety and efficacy of the technique. Twenty patients with a T2-T4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were clinically inoperable or refused surgery were enrolled. Transurethral tumor resection and 40 Gy irradiation to the whole bladder was followed by the transurethral endoscopic implantation of gold markers in the bladder wall around the primary tumor. A boost of 25 Gy in 10 fractions was made to the primary tumor while maintaining the displacement from the planned position at less than ±2 mm during radiation delivery using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The toxicity, local control and survival were evaluated. Among the 20 patients, 14 were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 55.5 months. Urethral and bowel late toxicity (Grade 3) were each observed in one patient. The local-control rate, overall survival and cause-specific survival with the native bladder after 5 years were 64, 61 and 65%. Image-guided local-boost radiotherapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system can be safely accomplished, and the clinical outcome is encouraging. A larger prospective multi-institutional study is warranted for more precise evaluations of the technological efficacy and patients' quality of life. (author)

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Parada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids have been tested on prevention and treatment of several cancer types, but the efficacy on “in vivo” bladder cancer has not been analyzed yet. This study aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA mixture in an animal model of bladder cancer. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups during a 20-week protocol: control; carcinogen—N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN; ω-3 (DHA + EPA; and ω-3 + BBN. BBN and ω-3 were given during the initial 8 weeks. At week 20 blood and bladder were collected and checked for the presence of urothelium lesions and tumors, markers of inflammation, proliferation, and redox status. Incidence of bladder carcinoma was, control (0%, ω-3 (0%, BBN (65%, and ω-3 + BBN (62.5%. The ω-3 + BBN group had no infiltrative tumors or carcinoma in situ, and tumor volume was significantly reduced compared to the BBN (0.9 ± 0.1 mm3 versus 112.5 ± 6.4 mm3. Also, it showed a reduced MDA/TAS ratio and BBN-induced serum CRP, TGF-β1, and CD31 were prevented. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in a rat model of bladder cancer, which might be due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties.

  1. Preliminary Porcine in vivo Evaluation of a Telerobotic System for Transurethral Bladder Tumor Resection & Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Nima; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; De, Smita; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Simaan, Nabil

    2018-03-27

    Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT) can be a challenging procedure, primarily due to limitations in tool-tip dexterity, visualization and lack of tissue depth information. A transurethral robotic system was developed to revolutionize TURBT by addressing some of these limitations. The results of three pilot in-vivo porcine studies using the novel robotic system are presented and potential improvements are proposed based on experimental observations. A transvesical endoscope with a mounted optically-tracked camera was placed through the bladder of the swine under general anesthesia. Simulated bladder lesions were created by injecting HistoGel processing gel mixed with blue dye trans-abdominally into various locations in the bladder wall under endoscopic visualization. A seven-degree-of-freedom (DoF) robot was then used for transurethral resection/ablation of these simulated tumors. An independent two-DoF distal laser arm (DLA) was deployed through the robot for laser ablation and was assisted by a manually controlled gripper for en-bloc resection attempts. Lesions were successfully created and ablated using our novel endoscopic robot in the swine bladder. Full accessibility of the bladder, including the bladder neck and dome, was demonstrated without requiring bladder deflation or pubic compression. Simulated lesions were successfully ablated using the Holmium laser. En-bloc resection was demonstrated using the DLA and a manual grasper. Feasibility of robot-assisted en-bloc resection was demonstrated. Main challenges were lack of depth perception and visual occlusion induced by the transvesical endoscope presented challenges. Recommendations are given to enhance robot-assisted TURBT. Lessons learned through these pilot swine studies verify the feasibility of robot-assisted TURBT while informing designers about critical aspects needed for future successful clinical deployment.

  2. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma: Case report with long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Uhlig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary Bladder Adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy that has been observed in a heterogeneous patient population.This case report presents a 51 year old female with muscle-invasive primary bladder adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 2008. After transurethral resection and cystectomy with ileum neobladder adjuvant radiochemotherapy was administered. Two years later, a symptomatic fistula between neobladder and ileoileal anastomosis was excised, resulting in urinary incontinency. In 2016, the patient shows no signs of disease relapse but suffers from reduction of bladder capacity.This case report presents classical symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the bladder and a possible treatment regimen with associated side effects. Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, Urinary bladder, Urinary diversion, Urinary fistula, Oncology

  3. Evaluation of transurethral ultrasonography and computed tomography in the staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kensuke; Hoshina, Akira; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1987-01-01

    A definitive pathologic diagnosis was made in 47 patients with bladder tumors from cystectomy specimens or by surgical exploration. The tumor was staged in 35 cases by transurethral ultrasonography and in 39 cases by computed tomography. We obtained the following results : the accuracy was 83 % using transurethral sonography, 77 % using computed tomography. Although transurethral ultrasonography is more advantageous than computed tomography in the low stage in regard to accuracy, computed tomography is excellent method to obtain information about the tumor invasion and/or metastases. Of 25 cases combind with computed tomography and transurethral sonography. tumors were correctly staged by both methods in 18 cases (72 %). Histopathological stage was consistent with neither ultrasonographic stage nor computed tomographic stage in 2 cases, and any of these tumors was correctly staged by either of these methods. Although transurethral ultrasonography and computed tomography improve the clinical stage of the bladder tumors separately, some limitations and problems was recognized on using together with these methods for staging the bladder tumors. (author)

  4. Prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: difference between primary and progressive tumours and implications for therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Hollander, M.P.; Rhijn, B.W. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in prognosis between progressive and primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 2000, 74 patients with progressive muscle-invasive bladder cancer were identified. Eighty-nine patients with primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Kerner, B.

    1975-01-01

    Critical-point-drying of tumor tissue fixed in a glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a 3-dimensional view of tumor cells and their matrices. This report describes the SEM appearance of three primary bone tumors: a canine osteosarcoma of the distal radius, a feline chondrosarcoma of the proximal tibia and a canine fibrosarcoma of the proximal humerus. The ultrastructural morphology is compared with the histologic appearance of each tumor

  6. Hemodynamic analysis of bladder tumors using T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Sato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hemodynamics of bladder tumors, we developed a method to calculate change in R 1 value (ΔR 1 ) from T 1 -dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI). Materials and methods: On a 1.5-T MR system, T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI was performed. This study was applied to 12 patients with urinary bladder tumor, i.e. urothelial carcinoma. We compared ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time between a peak in the ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time curve occurred during the first pass within 60 s. Next, we assessed the slope of increase for 180 s after CA injection (Slope 0–180 ). Results: The mean slope of the first pass was significantly higher for bladder tumors on both the ΔR 1 –time and the ΔSI–time curve compared with normal bladder walls. Moreover, a significant difference was apparent between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls on the mean Slope 0–180 in the ΔR 1 -time curve. However, no significant difference in the mean Slope 0–180 was observed on the ΔSI-time curve between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls. Conclusion: T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI offers three advantages: quantitative analysis; high-quality (i.e., artifact-free) images; and high temporal resolution even for SE images. Use of ΔR 1 analysis with T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI allows more detailed information on the hemodynamics of bladder tumors to be obtained and assists in differentiation between bladder tumors and the normal bladder wall.

  7. Relook TURBT in superficial bladder cancer: its importance and its correlation with the tumor ploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Udai S; Kumar, Abhay; Das, Suren K; Trivedi, Sameer; Kumar, Mohan; Sunder, Shyam; Singh, Pratap B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate various prognostic factor predictors of residual growth in Relook transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in superficial bladder cancer. Also, to evaluate the role of Relook TURBT along with the ploidy for prediction of recurrence and stage progression in these patients. Fifty patients with superficial bladder cancer underwent TURBT after complete evaluation. Ploidy of the tumor specimen was evaluated by flow cytometry. After 4 to 6 weeks of initial TURBT, these patients underwent Relook TURBT. Final treatment was given after the results of the histological evaluation of these specimens. Patients who underwent bladder sparing treatment were followed-up. Of the patients, 28.5% had residual tumor in Relook TURBT. Growth was found to be at the same site in 66.7% and at a different site 33.3%; 75% had single while 25% had multiple residual growth. Residual malignant tissue had a statistically significant correlation with size of the tumor (>3 cm), appearance (solid tumor), number (>3), grade (high), and multiple previous resections. Overall, the up-migration of stage and grade leads to change in treatment in 41.6%; 5 underwent radical cystectomy and 1 opted for radiotherapy; in 2 patients, intravesical BCG was given. In follow-up of mean 11.5 months, 16.6% had recurrence. Presence of residual growth in Relook TURBT along with number, size, morphology, and multiple previous resections were found to have significant correlation with the recurrence in these patients. Ploidy and grade of the tumor were not found to have correlation. Multiple, more than 3 cm, solid high grade tumor with > 3 previous resections were predictors of presence of residual tumor in Relook TURBT. Presence of residual growth is a significant risk factor for recurrence. Ploidy was not found to be significantly correlated with recurrence.

  8. Renin-Angiotensin Inhibitors Decrease Recurrence after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Rushmer, Timothy J; Shi, Fangfang; Fuller, Benjamin J; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Downs, Tracy M

    2015-11-01

    Prior reports suggest that renin-angiotensin system inhibition may decrease nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence. We evaluated whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker treatment at initial surgery was associated with decreased recurrence or progression in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Using an institutional bladder cancer database we identified 340 patients with data available on initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Progression was defined as an increase to stage T2. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. Median patient age was 69.6 years. During a median followup of 3 years (IQR 1.3-6.1) 200 patients (59%) had recurrence and 14 (4.1%) had stage progression. Of those patients 143 were receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers at the time of the first transurethral resection. On univariate analysis factors associated with improved recurrence-free survival included carcinoma in situ (p = 0.040), bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (p = 0.003) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, p = 0.002) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.005) were less likely to experience tumor recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 45.6% for patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers and 28.1% in those not treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.009). Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer pathology (Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ) in 85 patients on bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy alone and in

  9. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Scheepbouwer

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics.

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder: clinical, morphological, and molecular analysis of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Yasemin Y; Erdogan, Seyda; Sayar, Hamide; Ergen, Ali; Ertoy Baydar, Dilek

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical and morphological features of primary malignant melanomas of the urinary bladder. We obtained information on five such cases from three different institutions. These were three men and two women between 52 and 76 years of age. Three tumors presented with hematuria, one with dysuria, and one was discovered incidentally on imaging studies. All were invasive to muscularis propria on transuretral resections performed for diagnosis. Neoplastic cells showed variable patterns (large cell epithelioid, small cell diffuse, storiform, or mixed) in different tumors. Pigmentation was prominent in all except one case. Each case was labeled diffusely for S-100, HMB-45, and Melan-A. Pan-cytokeratin showed a perinuclear dot-like reaction in two tumors. Three cases showed the BRAF mutation in molecular studies. Two patients were already metastatic at the time of diagnosis. Two patients died, one is alive with disease after 15 months, and two patients are disease free at 1 and 5 years of surveillance.

  11. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Favaro, Francine P; Camargo, João Lauro V; Oliveira, Maria Luiza CS; Goldberg, José; Rainho, Cláudia A; Salvadori, Daisy MF

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  12. Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Arikan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2 and 40 healthy control group (Group 1 were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021. Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.

  13. Microsatellite instability as prognostic marker in bladder tumors: a clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal RD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of urinary bladder is one of the leading causes of death in India. Successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on the early detection & specific diagnostic approaches. In the present study, microsatellite instability (MSI has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in patients with superficial urinary bladder cancer in lower urinary tract for determining risk of recurrence. Methods A total of 44 patients with bladder tumors diagnosed with Transitional Cell Carcinomas [TCC] from lower urinary tract were selected for the study. Tumors were staged and graded according to AJCC-UICC (1997 classification and patients were followed with cystoscopy as per the protocol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was done to amplify microsatellite sequences at mononucleotide BAT – 26, BAT – 40, TGFβ RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, BAX and dinucleotide D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci in blood (control and tumor DNA. PCR products were separated on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by autoradiography. Results MSI was observed in 72.7% of tumors at BAT – 26, BAT – 40, D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci. Good association of MSI was seen with tumor stage and grade. MSI – High (instability at > 30% of loci was frequently observed in high stage (40.6% and high grade (59.4% tumors. Of 24 tumors of Ta-T1 stage with different grades, 11 (9/18 high grade and 2/6 low grade tumors recurred in the mean duration of 36 months. MSI positivity was significantly high in patients who had one or more recurrences (p = 0.02 for high grade and 0.04 for low grade tumors. Conclusions MSI may be an independent prognostic marker for assessing risk of recurrence in superficial tumors irrespective of the grade. Further studies on progression would help in stratifying the patients of T1G3 for early cystectomy vs bladder preservation protocol.

  14. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  15. Automatic T1 bladder tumor detection by using wavelet analysis in cystoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Nuno R.; Vieira, Pedro M.; Lima, Estevão; Lima, Carlos S.

    2018-02-01

    Correct classification of cystoscopy images depends on the interpreter’s experience. Bladder cancer is a common lesion that can only be confirmed by biopsying the tissue, therefore, the automatic identification of tumors plays a significant role in early stage diagnosis and its accuracy. To our best knowledge, the use of white light cystoscopy images for bladder tumor diagnosis has not been reported so far. In this paper, a texture analysis based approach is proposed for bladder tumor diagnosis presuming that tumors change in tissue texture. As is well accepted by the scientific community, texture information is more present in the medium to high frequency range which can be selected by using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Tumor enhancement can be improved by using automatic segmentation, since a mixing with normal tissue is avoided under ideal conditions. The segmentation module proposed in this paper takes advantage of the wavelet decomposition tree to discard poor texture information in such a way that both steps of the proposed algorithm segmentation and classification share the same focus on texture. Multilayer perceptron and a support vector machine with a stratified ten-fold cross-validation procedure were used for classification purposes by using the hue-saturation-value (HSV), red-green-blue, and CIELab color spaces. Performances of 91% in sensitivity and 92.9% in specificity were obtained regarding HSV color by using both preprocessing and classification steps based on the DWT. The proposed method can achieve good performance on identifying bladder tumor frames. These promising results open the path towards a deeper study regarding the applicability of this algorithm in computer aided diagnosis.

  16. Multimodal in vivo MRI and NIRF imaging of bladder tumor using peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Exact detection and complete removal of cancer is a key point to minimize cancer recurrence. However, it is currently very difficult to detect small tumors inside human body and continuously monitor tumors using a non-invasive imaging modality. Presently, positron emission tomography (PET) can provide the most sensitive cancer images in the human body. However, PET imaging has very limited imaging time because they typically use isotopes with short halflives. PET imaging cannot also visualize anatomical information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide highresolution images inside the body but it has a low sensitivity, so MRI contrast agents are necessary to enhance the contrast of tumor. Near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has a good sensitivity to visualize tumor using optical probes, but it has a very limited tissue penetration depth. Therefore, we developed multi-modality nanoparticles for MRI based diagnosis and NIRF imaging based surgery of cancer. We utilized glycol chitosan of 350 nm as a vehicle for MRI contrast agents and NIRF probes. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles were conjugated with NIRF dye, Cy5.5 and bladder cancer targeting peptides to increase the internalization of cancer. For MR contrast effects, iron oxide based 22 nm nanocubes were physically loaded into the glycol chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in bladder tumor bearing mice. Our study suggests the potential of our nanoparticles by both MRI and NIRF imaging for tumor diagnosis and real-time NIRF image-guided tumor surgery.

  17. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  18. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  19. Delayed primary closure of bladder exstrophy: immediate postoperative management leading to successful outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Nima; Stec, Andrew A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Gearhart, John P; Mathews, Ranjiv I

    2012-02-01

    To present the critical features of our postoperative plan for children undergoing delayed primary bladder closure because appropriate postoperative management is crucial to successful exstrophy repair. Using an institutionally approved database, patients with bladder exstrophy whose primary bladder closure was performed at least 1 month after birth were identified. All aspects of the postoperative management were reviewed. A total of 20 patients (18 boys) were identified: 19 with classic bladder extrosphy and 1 with an exstrophy variant. The patients underwent closure at a mean age of 9.9 months. All patients underwent pelvic osteotomy and immobilization for an average of 34.8 days. Analgesia was administered by way of a tunneled epidural catheter in 90% of patients for an average of 18.8 days, and 12 patients (60%) required adjunct intravenous analgesia. Bilateral ureteral catheters and suprapubic tubes were used in all patients. Total parenteral nutrition was administered to 10 (83%) of 12 patients who underwent closure after 2000. All patients received preoperative antibiotics and 2 weeks of postoperative intravenous antibiotics that was followed by oral prophylaxis. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 weeks. With an average follow-up of 7.4 years, delayed closure was 100% successful. Successful delayed primary closure of bladder exstrophy requires a multidisciplinary approach. The keys to success include osteotomy, pelvic immobilization, analgesia, nutritional support, maximal bladder drainage, and infection prophylaxis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  1. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS. We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia.

  2. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  3. Prevention of bladder tumor implantion after fluorescence-guided TUR with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrahmoune, Saoussen; Bezdetnaya, Lina; de Witte, Peter; Leroux, Agnès; Dumas, Dominique; Guillemin, François; D'Hallewin, Marie Ange

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of bladder cancer is very high, due to its high recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer (30 to 85%), which is the staging of approximately 80% of the patients at first diagnosis. Risk of recurrence and progression is associated with grade, stage, presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ, size and number of lesions, as well as time to first recurrence. Recurrences can be partly attributed to new occurrences but also to residual tumors after resection. Incomplete tumor removal has been observed in 30 to 50% of TUR's, especially when dealing with T1 or poorly visible malignant or pre-malignant disease1. Fluorescence guided resection with 5 amino levulinic acid (ALA) or its hexyl ester derivative (Hexvix, has now unequivocally been demonstrated to increase detection rate and a growing number of studies indicate this has a positive impact on recurrence and progression ratesImplantation of viable tumor cells, dispersed during resection, is a third factor influencing bladder cancer recurrence. The aim of early intravesical therapy is to interfere with cell viability and thus reduce implantation risks.

  4. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  5. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  6. Intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy to treat T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor: results of a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhang,1,* Linguo Xie,1,* Tao Chen,1,* Wanqin Xie,2 Zhouliang Wu,1 Hao Xu,1 Chen Xing,1 Nan Sha,1 Zhonghua Shen,1 Yunkai Qie,1 Xiaoteng Liu,1 Hailong Hu,1 Changli Wu1 1Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin, 2Key Laboratory of Genetics and Birth Health of Hunan Province, The Family Planning Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The management of stage 1 and grade 3 (T1G3 bladder cancer continues to be controversial. Although the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT followed by intravesical chemotherapy is a conservative strategy for treatment of T1G3 bladder cancer, a relatively high risk of tumor recurrence and progression remains regarding the therapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder cancer after TURBT surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 457 patients who were newly diagnosed with T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma between January 2009 and March 2014. After TURBT, 281 patients received intravesical chemotherapy alone, whereas 176 patients underwent intravesical chemotherapy in combination with intravenous chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence and progression were monitored periodically by urine cytology and cystoscopy in follow-up. Recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival of the two chemotherapy strategies following TURBT were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox hazards analyses were performed to predict the prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and progression. Results: The tumor recurrence rate was 36.7% for patients who received intravesical chemotherapy alone after TURBT, compared with 19.9% for patients who received intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy after

  7. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  8. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor - incidental finding during a follow-up CT for primary ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are primary, usually we 11-differentiated pancreatic tumors. Their origin is not fully understood, but they are thought to develop from the pluripotent cells in the exocrine part of the pancreas. PNET are a heterogeneous group with different malignant potential. In some of the patients with sporadical forms of PNET there is association with other malignancies such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, bladder and prostate cancers. We present a case of 50-year-old woman, with incidentally found pancreatic neoplasm, during a follow-up CT for ovarian cancer. Laparotomy and pancreatic biopsy are performed. Histological diagnosis confirms a well- differentiated endocrine tumor of the pancreas. (authors)

  9. WHO/ISUP classification of the urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Ovčak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors present the current classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The classification of urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of 1973 was despite some imperfection relatively successfuly used for more than thirty years. The three grade classification of papillary urothelial tumors without invasion has been based on evaluation of variations in architecture of covering epithelium and tumor cell anaplasia. As reccomended by the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP, the World Health Organisation (WHO accepted the new WHO/ ISUP classification in 1998 that was revised in 2002 and finally published in 2004. With intention to avoid unnecessary diagnosis of cancer in patients having papillary urothelial tumors with rare invasive or metastastatic growth, this classification introduced a new entity, the papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential (PUNLMP. The additional change in classification was the division of invasive urothelial neoplasms only to low and high grade urothelial carcinomas.Conclusions: The authors’ opinion is that although the old classification is not recommended for use anymore the new one is not solving the elementary reproaches to previous classification such as terminological unsuitability and insufficient scientific reasoning. Our proposed solution in classification of papillary urothelial neoplasms would be the application of criteria analogous to that used in diagnostics of papillary noninvasive tumors of the head and neck or alimentary tract.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of urinary bladder carcinoma: tumor staging and gadolinium contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringer, E.; Joos, H.; Forstner, R.; Schmoller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with urinary bladder carcinomas underwent pre-operative examinations using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The results of the MR examinations were correlated with the clinical-pathological findings following transurethral resection (TUR) and bimanual palpation (n = 47) or radical cystectomy (n = 2). The results of pre-contrast MR tumor staging (T1, T2), viewing stages Tis-T2 collectively, and subsequent to separate assessments of stages T3b-T4b, were correct 76.6% of the time. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) contrast-enhanced examinations (pre-contrast T1 and after Gd-DTPA) showed a staging accuracy rate of 85.7%. T2-weighted images did not indicate any advantage when compared to T1-weighted images following Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity ratios of tumor/fat and tumor/muscle tissue were measured on T1-weighted pre-contrast images and following Gd-DTPA and then evaluated statistically, whereby the increased tumor signal intensity was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.01). Due to the relatively short examination time needed for T1-weighted images and the specific tumor enhancement, the administration of Gd-DTPA proves valuable in the diagnosis of bladder carcinomas. T2-weighted images are not necessary. (orig.)

  11. Risk interrelationship among multiple primary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Mohammed; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Lifen; Zhang, Xinwei; Song, Jicheng; Ameen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Along with advanced management in oncology, great progress has been recently achieved in the studies of multiple primary tumors. Several reports have studied the coexistence between lymphoma and either renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or Warthin tumor. However, the level of coexistence between these cases remains unclear due to the absence of a distinct link between them. Patient concerns: We present a unique case of multiple primary tumors (lymphoma, RCC, and Warthin tumor) in an 80-year-old man and a review of the literature on the coexistence of RCC with lymphoma and lymphoma with Warthin tumor. Diagnosis: With a history of RCC, the patient had a freely movable lump under his left ear, and the pathological report indicated Hodgkin lymphoma and Warthin tumor. Intervention: RCC and Warthin tumor of the patient were surgically treated, followed by 2 cycles (14 days per cycle) of Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Bleomycin 8 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1. The chemotherapy protocol was then changed to Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1 for 7 cycles. Outcomes: After the last day of chemotherapy, the patient showed a complete response. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report a case of multiple primary tumors with a complete response. For their early detection, favorable prognosis, and correlation identification, we suggest a transitive relation between these coexisting tumors. Therefore, similar studies should be conducted. PMID:29642151

  12. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  13. Risk prediction scores for recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer : An international validation in primary tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Vedder (Moniek); M. Márquez (Mirari); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); M.L. Calle (Malu); L. Dyrskjot (Lars); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); U. Segersten (Ulrika); P.-U. Malmström (Per-Uno); F. Algaba (Ferran); W. Beukers (Willemien); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); F.X. Real (Francisco); N. Malats (Núria); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to determine the validity of two risk scores for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in different European settings, in patients with primary tumours. Methods: We included 1,892 patients with primary stage Ta or T1 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who

  14. Gamma-Klotho exhibits multiple roles in tumor growth of human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Sayuri; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-04-13

    Alpha-Klotho (KLα) and beta-Klotho (KLβ) have recently been reported to correlate with cancer prognosis in some malignancies and we previously reported the association between KLα, KLβ, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), indicating that KLβ acts as a tumor promoter. However, the association between gamma-Klotho (KLγ) and cancer prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association between KLγ and UCB. To evaluate the effect of KLγ on human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro assays were performed. Exogenous KLγ increased the ability of human bladder cancer cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, form colonies, and provide anchorage-independent growth potential. In in vivo assays, eighteen mice bearing xenografts inoculated using UM-UC-3, were randomly divided into three groups and treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) by intratumoral administration once a week for four weeks. Knockdown of KLγ with siRNA led to a dramatic change in tumor growth and suggested that KLγ had effects on tumor growth, including promotion of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To confirm the study, human tissue samples were used and patients were divided into two groups according to KLγ expression level. High expression of KLγ was significantly associated with higher stage and grade cancer and the presence of lymphovascular invasion compared to patients with lower expression of KLγ. Our results suggest that KLγ plays an important role in tumor invasion and progression and these results may lead to the development of new therapies and diagnostic methods for UCB.

  15. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.A.; El-Kabany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  16. Computerized tomographic evaluation of primary brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Soon; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Mediacal center, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Deok [Inje Medical College, Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    In a study of primary brain tumors 104 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to April 1985. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of primary brain tumor was 54 : 46. 2. The 2nd decade group (26%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 5th decade (16.3%), 1st decade (14.4%) , 3rd decade (12.5%), 4th decade (11.5%), 6th decade (10.6%), 7th decade (8.7%) in that order. 3. The incidence of primary brain tumors was found to be: glioma 64 cases (61.6%) among the GM, the most frequent 17 cases (16.3%), followed by meningioma 12 cases (11.5%), pituitary adenoma 10 cases (9.6%), craniopharyngioma 6 cases (5.8%), pinealoma and germinoma 3 cases (2.9%) respectively, and dermoid cyst 2 cases (1.9%) in that order. 4. The location of the primary brain tumors were as follows: cb. hemisphere (49%) of these 24.5% in parietal region, 11.9% in temporal region, 9.7% in frontal region, 3.0% in occipital region: juxtasella area (16.3%), cerebellar hemisphere (8.7%), parapineal and intraventricle (7.7%) respectively, cerebello-pontine angle area (5.8%), vermis and 4th ventricular region (4.8%). 5. There were no remarkable differences in the findings of pre- and post-contrast CT scanning of primary brain tumors computed with others.

  17. Malignant degree of tumor and degree of trauma after HOLBT and TURBT treatment of superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qin Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the malignant degree of tumor and degree of trauma after holmium laser resection of bladder tumor (HOLBT and transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Methods: A total of 76 cases of patients with superficial bladder cancer were included for study and divided into observation group 38 cases and control group 38 cases according to different surgical methods. Control group received TURBT, observation group received HOLBT, and then differences in the values of postoperative serum illness-related indicators, bladder cancer-related mRNA expression, bladder cancer tissue-related protein expression, surgical trauma-related indicators, etc. were compared between two groups. Results: Postoperative serum CIP2A, HGF, SE-cad, TSGF, DKK-1, YKL-40 and sFas values of observation group were lower than those of control group; postoperative focus HSG, p16 and MRP-1/CD9 mRNA expression levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while Med-19 mRNA expression level was lower than that of control group; postoperative focus ZEB1, Cripto-1, Sox2, Survivin, Livin and zeste protein expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while E-cadherin expression level was higher than that of control group; early postoperative FBG and HOMA-IR values of observation group were lower than those of control group while PTA and FIB values were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: HOLBT can effectively remove superficial bladder cancer foci and reduce the malignant degree of tumor, causes less surgical trauma and is an ideal surgical treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  18. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  19. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  20. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder: 2 Rare Cases Managed with Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Santos Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT of the bladder are reported here. Both patients were male and presented with macroscopic hematuria; in the first case terminal hematuria was associated with irritative voiding symptoms. The second case was a smoker with hematuria unresponsive to medical treatment and anemia. Clinical presentation, pathological features, treatment, and prognosis are discussed. Due to rarity of this pathological condition, there are no guidelines concerning treatment and follow-up. We present our follow-up scheme and highlight the use of laparoscopic partial cystectomy as a successful treatment approach.

  1. Orthotopic ureterocele masquerading as a bladder tumor in a woman with pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Thiel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Single system orthotopic ureteroceles often present in adulthood are associated with characteristic radiographic findings. We present the case of a 54 year old woman with 8 months of urgency/frequency and pelvic pain that has the cystoscopic appearance of a bladder tumor. Cystoscopic images, radiographs and intraoperative photos demonstrate the work-up, evaluation, and treatment of this unique single system orthotopic ureterocele containing a calculus. This patient demonstrates the need for cystoscopy accompanied by upper tract imaging in patients with new onset pelvic pain, urgency/frequency, and frequent urinary tract infections.

  2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder: a single-site experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Hongzhou; Xu, Ting; Xu, Zicheng; Zou, Qing; Gu, Min

    2015-01-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignancy. Radical surgery is suggested as the best available treatment for early-stage disease, but there is currently no consensus on standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced stage. We assessed the feasibility and effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) plus S-1 for patients with locally advanced primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder. Six patients with locally advanced urachal or non-urachal (n = 3, each) primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder were treated from October 2010 to October 2013 at a single center. All the patients were treated with 3 cycles (21d, each) of GC plus S-1 (gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8; cisplatin, 70 mg/m2, day 2; and S-1, 50 mg bid, day 1-14). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with urachal cancer were treated with en bloc radical cystectomy and umbilectomy; the remaining 3 patients were treated with cystectomy. All patients successfully completed the neoadjuvant chemotherapy without serious side effects. Two patients were assessed as complete response, 2 as partial response, 1 as stable disease and 1 as progressive disease. Despite the limitations of a small study population, the GC plus S-1 regimen for locally advanced primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder was effective, and facilitated the success of surgery to a certain extent. Short follow-up time was also a limitation of our study. More studies are needed to evaluate the results.

  3. Use of transvaginal ultrasound in females with primary bladder neck obstruction. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikiela Galica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: The video-urodynamics study is the principal exam to establish a possible primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO condition. While trans-rectal ultrasonography plays an important role in the evaluation of the low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and the severity of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in men, the use of the transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS in women with symptoms suggesting BOO remains unclear. We tried to check the utility of the TVUS in women with PBNO condition. Material and methods: We selected female patients which presented BOO without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. According to the data of the video-urodynamic exam we selected the patients with the suspicion of PBNO. A TVUS in basal and during micturition was performed before and after surgery. Results: TVUS showed a closed bladder neck bladder in basal condition and during micturition similarly to the fluoroscopic image during video-urodynamics. The mean distance from bladder neck to the vaginal mucosa resulted 1.3 cm in this patients. Conclusions: TVUS results worthy in the evaluation of patients with PBNO before and after surgery.

  4. Detection and recurrence rate of transurethral resection of bladder tumors by narrow-band imaging: Prospective, randomized comparison with white light cystoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bin Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of narrow-band imaging (NBI as a diagnostic tool for detecting bladder tumors during cystoscopy compared with white light cystoscopy (WLC. Materials and Methods: From December 2013 to June 2017, a randomized prospective study was conducted on 198 patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor by a single surgeon. The patients were divided into two groups according to diagnostic method. In Group I, WLC only was performed. In Group II, NBI was additionally performed after WLC. We analyzed the rate of detection of bladder tumors as a primary endpoint. In addition, we evaluated rates of recurrence in each group. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in characteristics except hypertension. In the analysis of rates of detection, the probability of diagnosing cancer was 80.9% (114/141 in the WLC group, and the probability of diagnosing cancer using WLC in the NBI group was 85.5% (159/186. After switching from WLC to NBI for second-look cystoscopy in the NBI group, NBI was shown to detect additional tumors with a detection rate of 35.1% (13/37 from the perspective of the patients and 42.2% (27/64 from the perspective of the tumors. The 1-year recurrence-free rate was 72.2% in the WLC group and 85.2% in the NBI group (p=0.3. Conclusions: NBI had benefits for detecting tumors overlooked by WLC. Although the difference in the 1-year recurrence-free rate was not statistically significant, our results showed a trend for higher recurrence in the NBI group.

  5. The effect of chemotherapy with or without radiation on the accuracy of MR imaging for evaluating tumor infiltration into the bladder wall in cases of advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazushige; Satou, Yuji; Nannri, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Staging of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall is one of the critical points in decision-making for optimal treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We studied the correlation of MR findings with pathological diagnosis in cases of invasive bladder cancer which had been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation. Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with invasive bladder tumors who underwent either partial cystectomy or radical cystectomy were entered into the study. Eight cases had received chemotherapy after staging biopsy (Group A), 6 cases had undergone chemo-radiation therapy following staging biopsy (Group B), and 7 cases had received no adjuvant therapy except for staging biopsy preoperatively (Group C). All cases had MR imaging study before surgical treatment. The pathological stage was assessed by examining the whole layer of the resected bladder wall. Pathological diagnosis was pT0 in 4 cases, pT1 in 2 cases, pT2b in 5 cases, pT3a in 2 cases and pT3b in 8 cases. Staging with MR imaging was consistent with pathological findings in 14 of the 21 cases (66.7%), while MR imaging produced over-staging in 6 cases and under-staging in 1 case. Of the 6 cases with over-staging, 2 cases had received chemo-radiation therapy, 2 cases had received chemotherapy, and 2 cases had received staging biopsy alone preoperatively. The one case with under-staging had received chemo-radiation therapy preoperatively. The accuracy in staging with MR imaging was 75.0% (6/8), 50.0% (3/6), and 71.4% (5/7) in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Imaging study with MR is useful for the staging of invasive bladder cancer. However, care should be taken in the staging of invasive bladder tumors which have been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, because inflammatory infiltration and/or fibrous change caused by the chemo-radiation make accurate staging with MR imaging difficult. (author)

  6. A Case Report of Primary B–Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Less than 100 cases have been reported. The best treatment approach for this disease remained unknown.In this article we reported a 41-year-old-female who was admitted to Sina hospital with the chief complaint of macrohematuria that was followed by dysuria , frequency , noturia and urgency. Other examinations were normal and there was no organomegaly and lymphadenopathy.In ultrasonography the thickening of trigone zone of the urinary bladder was reported. The patient underwent a transurethral biopsy of the bladder that revealed malignant lymphoma , intermediate grade , diffuse mixed small and large cell type ( B-cell lymphoma. The reports of computed tomography scan of the thorax , abdomen and pelvis and bonemarrow biopsy were normal and results of metastatic work up were negative.Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder was diagnosed and a combination of systemic chemotherapy and relatively low dose irradiation were done for the patient. The patient is in complete remission with this kind of treatment now.

  7. Gait analysis of young male patients diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Camerota, Tommaso Ciro; Pisu, Stefano; Ciprandi, Daniela; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) represents an inappropriate or inadequate relaxation of the bladder neck during micturition. Based on the observation of an increased rate of postural imbalances in male patients with PBNO, we hypothesized a possible role of an unbalanced biomechanics of the pelvis on urethral sphincters activity. Our aim was to identify kinematic imbalances, usually disregarded in PBNO patients, and which could eventually be involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Seven male adult patients (39.6±7.1years) were recruited; in all patients, PBNO was suspected at bladder diary and uroflowmetry, and was endoscopically confirmed with urethroscopy. Participants gait was recorded with a motion capture system (BTS Spa, Italy) to obtain three-dimensional joint angles and gait parameters. Multivariate statistics based on a Principal Component model allowed to assess the similarity of patients' gait patterns with respect to control subjects. The main finding is that patients with PBNO showed significant discordance in the observations at the ankle and pelvis level. Additionally, 6/7 patients demonstrated altered trunk positions compared to normal curves. We suggest that the identified postural imbalances could represent the cause for an anomalous activation of pelvic floor muscles (hypertonia). The consequent urinary sphincters hypercontraction may be responsible for the development of voiding dysfunction in male patients with no significant morphological alterations. Results reinforced the hypothesis of an etiopathogenetic role of postural imbalances on primary bladder neck obstruction in male patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder are histogenetically analogous to colorectal carcinomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of 109 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S. Eissa

    2010-04-01

    In conclusion, primary non-urachal enteric-type adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is morphologically and immunophenotypically similar – if not identical – to colonic adenocarcinoma. The frequent association of enteric carcinomas of the urinary bladder with intestinal metaplasia and/or colonic-type adenomas with dysplasia suggests possible carcinogenetic pathways similar to that observed in colorectal carcinomas.

  9. The expression patterns of p53 and p16 and an analysis of a possible role of HPV in primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley E Alexander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare. The molecular and cellular events leading to its pathogenesis are not well delineated. The goal of this study was to investigate p53 and p16 expression, as well as HPV status, in a relatively large series of primary bladder adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six cases of urinary bladder adenocarcinoma were chosen from participating institutions. The diagnosis and available clinical history were reviewed in each case. Immunostains for p53, p16 and HPV and high-risk and low-risk HPV-ISH were performed on all tumors. RESULTS: Patients had an average age of 61 years with a male predominance (1.5 ∶ 1 male ∶ female ratio. The average tumor size in cystectomy specimens was 4.3 cm. Of the cases managed by transurethral resection, 40% were pT2 at the time of diagnosis. In cystectomy specimens, 77% were either pT3 or pT4. Strong nuclear p16 expression was seen in 67% of all cases and p53 expression was present in 58% of the cases. Expression of both markers was seen in 33% of cases. Expression of p16 or p53 alone was present in 12 (33% and 9 (25% cases, respectively. Neither marker was expressed in only 3 (8% of the tumors. No significant correlation between clinical variables and any of the markers we studied was identified. No HPV infection was detected in any case. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p53 and/or p16 is very common in urinary bladder adenocarcinoma. These findings implicate a high likelihood that alterations in these cell cycle proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors. Despite frequent immunohistochemical labeling for p16, no evidence of HPV infection was found.

  10. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Walker, M.C.; Masters, J.R.; Hill, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  11. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  12. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  13. Hypoxic exosomes facilitate bladder tumor growth and development through transferring long non-coding RNA-UCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Chen, Wei; Xiang, An; Wang, Ruiqi; Chen, He; Pan, Jingjing; Pang, Huan; An, Hongli; Wang, Xiang; Hou, Huilian; Li, Xu

    2017-08-25

    To overcome the hostile hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, tumor cells secrete a large number of non-coding RNA-containing exosomes that facilitate tumor development and metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms of tumor cell-derived exosomes during hypoxia are unknown. Here, we aim to clarify whether hypoxia affects tumor growth and progression by transferring long non-coding RNA-urothelial cancer-associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) enriched exosomes secreted from bladder cancer cells. We used bladder cancer 5637 cells with high expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as exosome-generating cells and bladder cancer UMUC2 cells with low expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as recipient cells. Exosomes derived from 5637 cells cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions were isolated and identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting analysis. These exosomes were co-cultured with UMUC2 cells to evaluate cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We further investigated the roles of exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 derived from hypoxic 5637 cells by xenograft models. The availability of lncRNA-UCA1 in serum-derived exosomes as a biomarker for bladder cancer was also assessed. We found that hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and hypoxic exosomal RNAs could be internalized by three bladder cancer cell lines. Importantly, lncRNA-UCA1 was secreted in hypoxic 5637 cell-derived exosomes. Compared with normoxic exosomes, hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells showed the higher expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1. Moreover, Hypoxic exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 could promote tumor growth and progression though epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1 in the human serum-derived exosomes of bladder cancer patients were higher than that in the healthy controls. Together, our results demonstrate that hypoxic bladder cancer cells remodel tumor

  14. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  15. Bronchoplasty for Primary Broncho-Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL RAHMAN, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Parenchyma-sparing procedures are widely used in patients with low-grade malignancies of the airway when anatomically suited lesions exist. This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term and the long-term results of bronchoplastic procedures for patients with centrally located primary bronchopulmonary tumors. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry. Pre operative diagnosis was achieved by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer. Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: We had 15 males and 21 female, the mean age was 37 years and the mean hospital stay was 7.2 days. Operative procedures performed were:Sleeve lobectomy in 30 patients (13 right, 17 left), partial sleeve right pneumonectomy in 3 and bronchial resection with re-anastomosis in 3 (2 left, 1 right). Twelve patients (33.3%) suffered post-operative problems. There was one operative related mortality. Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcifioma and one with hamartoma. Pathological TNM staging revealed: 17 patients with stage 1A, 11 with IB, 5 with IIA and 2 with stage IIIA. Follow-up data were available for all patients except two. Two patients died with disseminated disease 1.5 year and 2 years after surgery. The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done. One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patient's were alive and disease free. The overall 5 years survival was 83.3%. Conclusion: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in

  16. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  17. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  18. Primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Miyamoto, Seiji; Kyoi, Kikuo; Utsumi, Shozaburo; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Masuda, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage were studied in terms of the radiological and histological findings. The cases having hemorrhage in the tumor, as established through CT or histologically, were excluded if their onsets were not sudden due to intracranial hemorrhages. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) From an anatomical point of view, cerebral subcortical hemorrhages account for 80%; hemorrhages in the cerebellopontine angle, 10%, and hemorrhages in the basal ganglia, 10%. 2) Plain CT findings showed perifocal low-density areas within 24 hours after onset in all 10 cases. 3) Enhanced CT findings showed enhanced areas in 4 or 6 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 5) From a histological point of view, glioblastomas account for 30%; malignant astrocytomas, 20%; astrocytomas, 20%; malignant ependymomas, 10%; hemangioblastoma, 10%, and transitional meningiomas, 10%. In conclusion, a perifocal low-density area on CT within 24 hours after onset is the most meaningful indication of intracranial hemorrhage originating from a brain tumor. A histological 'perinuclear halo' in an astrocytoma as an artifact due to hemorrhage may often be misleading in diagnosing mixed oligo-astrocytomas. (author)

  19. Bladder cancers respond to intravesical instillation of HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Gustafsson, Lotta; Månsson, Wiking; Ljunggren, Eva; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-09-15

    We studied if bladder cancers respond to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) to establish if intravesical HAMLET application might be used to selectively remove cancer cells in vivo. Patients with nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinomas were included. Nine patients received 5 daily intravesical instillations of HAMLET (25 mg/ml) during the week before scheduled surgery. HAMLET stimulated a rapid increase in the shedding of tumor cells into the urine, daily, during the 5 days of instillation. The effect was specific for HAMLET, as intravesical instillation of NaCl, PBS or native alpha-lactalbumin did not increase cell shedding. Most of the shed cells were dead and an apoptotic response was detected in 6 of 9 patients, using the TUNEL assay. At surgery, morphological changes in the exophytic tumors were documented by endoscopic photography and a reduction in tumor size or change in tumor character was detected in 8 of 9 patients. TUNEL staining was positive in biopsies from the remaining tumor in 4 patients but adjacent healthy tissue showed no evidence of apoptosis and no toxic response. The results suggest that HAMLET exerts a direct and selective effect on bladder cancer tissue in vivo and that local HAMLET administration might be of value in the future treatment of bladder cancers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The role of robotic partial cystectomy in a patient with metastatic primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine James

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of urachal adenocarcinoma (UA of the urinary bladder has typically been with radical cystectomy (RC but more conservative approaches are gaining popularity. Here we present the case of a female patient with metastatic primary bladder UA who was treated with robotic partial cystectomy (RPC and adjuvant chemotherapy; she is alive with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at 5 years. This case provides some of the longest follow-up after RPC to date thereby demonstrating that RPC is a safe and oncologically viable treatment for selected patients even several years after definitive treatment. Patients undergoing RPC benefit from the reduced morbidity associated with this less radical treatment whilst enjoying similarly successful oncological outcomes to RC.   

  1. Bladder cancer in patients after previous irradiation for treatment of tumors of the organs of the lesser pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Strel’tsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article presents clinical cases of bladder cancer (BC developed after previous irradiation and diagnosed in flat suspicious area by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT based on analysis of characteristics of scattered light, and with histological material confirmed by nonlinear microscopy.Objective: to present clinical cases and features of BC diagnosis in presence of radiation-induced changes.Materials and methods. Intra-vitam examination of the bladder mucosa was performed using the OKT 1300-U system (Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhniy Novgorod. Areas that appeared malignant per CP-OCT data were biopsied. Apart from traditional examination of histological samples with hematoxylin and eosin staining, tissue samples were analyzed using nonlinear microscopy in the mode of second harmonic generation (collagen state analysis and emission of two-photon fluorescence excitation (elastin state analysis.Results are presented through 2 cases of BC in patients with side effects of radiation therapy of varying severity. CP-OCT allowed in-life differentiation of areas of post-radiation inflammatory changes and malignant tumors developed as a result. Nonlinear microscopy provided information on the state of connective tissue matrix of the bladder in the context of radiation changes and transition to tumor.Conclusion. Radiation changes of the bladder mucosa, especially severe ones, can conceal development of malignant tumors. Use of optical methods helps in differential diagnosis of cancer and post-radiation changes of the bladder. CP-OCT is an optimal noninvasive method of examination of the bladder mucosa during cystoscopy. Demonstration of clinical material is aimed at practicing urologists to increase their vigilance in relation to possible BC in patients who underwent radiation therapy of the organs of the lesser pelvis.

  2. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D{sub 99%} for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V{sub 95%} for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD{sub 99%} (D{sub 99%,} {sub option} {sub n} - D{sub 99%,} {sub treatment} {sub plan}) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD{sub 99%} of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD{sub 99%} for PTV{sub bladder} was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V{sub 95%} for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective

  3. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D 99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V 95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD 99% (D 99%, option n - D 99%, treatment plan ) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD 99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD 99% for PTV bladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V 95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on tumor for the boost separately gives on average the best

  4. LncRNA-SNHG16 predicts poor prognosis and promotes tumor proliferation through epigenetically silencing p21 in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianxiang; Xu, Jing; Yue, Dong

    2018-02-01

    More and more evidences have ensured the crucial functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in multiple tumors. It has been discovered that lncRNA-SNHG16 is involved in many tumors. Even so, it is still necessary to study SNHG16 comprehensively in bladder cancer. In terms of our study, the level of SNHG16 both in the tumor tissues and cell lines was measured and the relationship among SNHG16, clinicopathological traits and prognosis was explored. Interference assays were applied to determine the biological functions of SNHG16. It was discovered that the level of SNHG16 was evidently enhanced both in tissues and cell lines of bladder cancer. Patients with highly expressed SNHG16 suffered from poor overall survival. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis implied that highly expressed SNHG16 could be used as an independent prognostic marker. It could be known from functional assays that silenced SNHG16 impaired cell proliferation, owing to the effects of SNHG16 on cell cycle and apoptosis. Finally, mechanism experiments revealed that SNHG16 could epigenetically silence the expression of p21. The facts above pointed out that lncRNA-SNHG16 might be quite vital for the diagnosis and development of bladder cancer, and could even become an important therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  5. Rare primary malignant tumors of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, H.; Zoppardo, P.; Chagnon, S.; Vilgrain, V.; Blery, M.

    1991-01-01

    Angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangio-endothelioma (EHE) and fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) are far less frequent malignant primary tumors of the liver than liver-cell carcinoma, and usually do not occur in a chronic liver disease. Their diagnosis is histological but a few radiological criteria are suggestive: in younger subjects, a solitary, hypervascularized mass containing calcifications and/or a central fibrous scar suggests an FLC; nodular lesions merging into patches, scattered about the periphery, containing calcified clusters and showing a low and late contrast enhancement after injections suggest an EHE; lastly, in case of occupational exposure, an heterogeneous, hypervascularized mass with a centripetal blush but containing central areas that are opacified early should suggest angiosarcoma. (4 figs) [fr

  6. FGFR3 expression in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guancial, Elizabeth A; Werner, Lillian; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Bamias, Aristotle; Choueiri, Toni K; Ross, Robert; Schutz, Fabio A; Park, Rachel S; O'Brien, Robert J; Hirsch, Michelle S; Barletta, Justine A; Berman, David M; Lis, Rosina; Loda, Massimo; Stack, Edward C; Garraway, Levi A; Riester, Markus; Michor, Franziska; Kantoff, Philip W; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    While fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently mutated or overexpressed in nonmuscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC), the prevalence of FGFR3 protein expression and mutation remains unknown in muscle-invasive disease. FGFR3 protein and mRNA expression, mutational status, and copy number variation were retrospectively analyzed in 231 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary UCs, 33 metastases, and 14 paired primary and metastatic tumors using the following methods: immunohistochemistry, NanoString nCounterTM, OncoMap or Affymetrix OncoScanTM array, and Gain and Loss of Analysis of DNA and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer software. FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining was present in 29% of primary UCs and 49% of metastases and did not impact overall survival (P = 0.89, primary tumors; P = 0.78, metastases). FGFR3 mutations were observed in 2% of primary tumors and 9% of metastases. Mutant tumors expressed higher levels of FGFR3 mRNA than wild-type tumors (P < 0.001). FGFR3 copy number gain and loss were rare events in primary and metastatic tumors (0.8% each; 3.0% and 12.3%, respectively). FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining is present in one third of primary muscle-invasive UCs and half of metastases, while FGFR3 mutations and copy number changes are relatively uncommon

  7. The value of computed tomography in the management of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karrer, P.; Zingg, E.; Vock, P.; Fischedick, A.; Haertel, M.; Fuchs, W.A.; Bern Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 77 patients suffering from bladder cancer histopathological staging and CT-staging are compared. The invasion of bladder and lymph nodes by the tumor is confirmed by histological examination. The CT-results correspond with the pathological findings in 78% for the primary tumor and in 89% for the glands. CT is valuable help to establish the extent and staging of bladder tumors. (orig.) [de

  8. Primary cysts and tumors of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bastos

    2007-09-01

    .0 years. Complementary treatment with chemo and/or radiotherapy was provided in 75 patients. Six patients had to be reoperated on for local recurrence (3 or metastasis (3 of the primary lesion. Fifteen patients died of their disease during the follow-up period. Actuarial survival at five years was 97.6% for benign lesions and 76.4% for malignant tumours. Conclusion: Results support surgical resection for benign lesions and an aggressive multimodal approach for malignant tumours. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliação dos resultados em doentes com cistos e tumores primários do mediastino submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Material e métodos: Efectuado um estudo retrospectivo mono-institucional em doentes com cistos e tumores primários do mediastino submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico entre Janeiro de 1992 e Dezembro de 2004. Analisaram-se os dados demográficos, a apresentação clínica, a via de abordagem, a intervenção cirúrgica efectuada, a localização da lesão e o diagnóstico histológico. Avaliaram-se, ainda, os factores preditivos de malignidade, a morbilidade e mortalidade pós--operatórias e os resultados a médio prazo. Resultados: Ao longo de um período de 13 anos foram operados 171 doentes, 73 (43% do sexo feminino e 98 (57% do sexo masculino. A idade média foi de 40,3±19,7 anos (20 dias-78 anos. Em 15(9% dos doentes existia uma lesão cística primária. Os tumores primários incluíam neoplasias tímicas (31%, linfomas (22%, tumores neurogénicos (16%, tumores de células germinativas (9% e um grupo miscelâneo (13%. Em 78 doentes (46% as lesões eram malignas. O mediastino ântero-superior foi o compartimento mais frequentemente envolvido por um cisto ou tumor primário (58%, seguido do mediastino posterior (24% e do mediastino médio (18%. Em 68% dos doentes existiam sintomas na altura do diagnóstico: dor torácica (20%, febre e arrepios (13%, miastenia grave (11%, tosse (10%, dispneia (10% e síndroma da veia cava superior (7%. A an

  9. Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors: Next-generation Virtual Reality Training for Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Mayer, Julian; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Amend, Bastian; Rausch, Steffen; Deininger, Susanne; Harland, Niklas; da Costa, Inês Anselmo; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Stenzl, Arnulf; Kruck, Stephan; Bedke, Jens

    2018-05-22

    The number of virtual reality (VR) simulators is increasing. The aim of this prospective trial was to determine the benefit of VR cystoscopy (UC) and transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT) training in students. Medical students without endoscopic experience (n=51, median age=25 yr, median 4th academic year) were prospectively randomized into groups A and B. After an initial VR-UC and VR-TURBT task, group A (n=25) underwent a video-based tutorial by a skilled expert. Group B (n=26) was trained using a VR training program (Uro-Trainer). Following the training, every participant performed a final VR-UC and VR-TURBT task. Performance indicators were recorded via the simulator. Data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. VR cystoscopy and TURBT. No baseline and post-training differences were found for VR-UC between groups. During baseline, VR-TURBT group A showed higher inspected bladder surface than group B (56% vs 73%, p=0.03). Subgroup analysis detected differences related to sex before training (male: 31.2% decreased procedure time; 38.1% decreased resectoscope movement; p=0.02). After training, significant differences in procedure time (3.9min vs 2.7min, p=0.007), resectoscope movement (857mm vs 529mm, p=0.005), and accidental bladder injury (n=3.0 vs n=0.88, p=0.003) were found. Male participants showed reduced blood loss (males: 3.92ml vs females: 10.12ml; p=0.03) after training. Measuring endoscopic skills within a virtual environment can be done easily. Short training improved efficacy and safety of VR-TURBT. Nevertheless, transfer of improved VR performance into real world surgery needs further clarification. We investigated how students without endoscopic experience profit from simulation-based training. The safe environment and repeated simulations can improve the surgical training. It may be possible to enhance patient's safety and the training of surgeons in long term. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Second primary tumor and radiation induced neoplasma in the uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Narimatsu, Naoto; Kanemoto, Toshitaka

    1984-01-01

    This report is concerned with multiple primary cancers developing in invasive uterine cancer. Second primary tumors were recorded 27 women with a total of 30 non-uterine cancer (exception of radiation-induced cancer). 17 patients of radiation-induced neoplasm were observed (Rectal cancer 4, soft part sarcoma 4, cancer of urinary bladder 3, bone tumor 3, uterin cancer 2 and cancer of Vulva 1). One case is 4 legions (corpus, sigma, thymoma and stomach), 2 cases are 3 lesions (uterine cervix, stomach and maxillay siuis: uterine cervix, thyroidal gland and radiation-induced soft part sarcoma). Only 5 of these 17 patients were known irradiated dose (50 Gy--55 Gy), however others unknown. The mean latent periods of 17 cases of radiation induced neoplasms are 19.4 years. 16 patients of late second cancers of the cervix appearing from 11 to 36 years (average 19.5 years) after initial radiotherapy were recorded. (author)

  11. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Maarten CCM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. Methods For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1, correction on bony anatomy (option 2, on tumor only (option 3 and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4. For each method we analyzed the D99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. Results CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD99% (D99%, option n - D99%, treatment plan for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD99% for PTVbladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Conclusions Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on

  12. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  13. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  14. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  15. Bladder cancer: The combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    1996-01-01

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery irradiation, and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Many recent publications have now documented the efficacy of combined modality treatment protocols employing all three of these modalities together. All employ a selective approach in which the patients only receive full-dose radiation if they have had a complete response to induction CMT. Overall survival data for T2-T3a patients are certainly as good as any reported cystectomy series of similarly clinically staged and similar aged patients. Radiation adds very significantly to the transurethral resection and systemic chemotherapy to maintain the bladder free of tumor. Substantially higher rates of pathologic confirmation of complete response are found following transurethral surgery and chemoradiation when compared with transurethral surgery and chemotherapy omitting the radiation. Overall survival is as good as cystectomy based approaches at 48-54% and over 80% of these long-term survivors keep their bladders. Following such therapies, 20-30% will subsequently develop superficial tumors. These patients may still be well treated by standard methods using transurethral resection and intravesical drugs. The concern of urologists that the conserved irradiated bladder functions poorly has also been answered by recent reports using modern radiation techniques. The instance of cystectomy for bladder shrinkage is repeatedly below 2%. Furthermore, sexual function is commonly preserved. The systemic morbidity of the chemotherapy is relatively high, but new approached using anti-emetics and GCSF now allow this to be reduced. In many

  16. Metastatic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old female with underlying triple primary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Hung

    2016-06-01

    A 67-year-old Taiwanese female presented to our institution in November 1997 with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma, pT2N0M0, status post subtotal gastrectomy. In February 2003 she was diagnosed with left breast invasive lobular carcinoma status post modified radical mastectomy, pT2N2M0. Further examination in January 2005 revealed proximal transverse colon cancer, Dukes' C2, with status post right hemicolectomy. She achieved disease-free status from all three malignancies after surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and colon cancers sequentially. In November 2011, she complained about sudden onset of gross hematuria for several days. Diagnostic cystoscopy showed a mass lesion over her urinary bladder. Cystoscope-assisted biopsy showed metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring appearance. Herein we have discussed the pathologic role in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor involving a patient with multiple primary cancers. We also explored the epidemiologic risk and potential causal mechanism of patients with multiple primary cancers.

  17. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  18. The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesur, M.; Erdem, Ali F.; Alici, Haci A.; Yuksek, Mustafa S.; Yapanoglu, T.; Aksoy, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibition. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 57 patients, while the remaining 32 patients underwent general anesthesia via mask; and succinylcholine was administered prior to resection. Of the 57 patients received epidural anesthesia, 18 were diagnosed as inferolateral bladder tumors during endoscopy and had to undergo general anesthesia. Obturator nerve block was attempted preoperatively in 39 patients. However, a nerve identification failure, hematoma and 4 obturator nerve reflex events, despite the block, were observed and these patients were subjected to general anesthesia with succinylcholine. Fifty-six patients (32 patients initially had general anesthesia and 24 converted from epidural to general anesthesia) were all given succinylcholine prior to resection. Due to its mechanisms of action, succinylcholine is completely effective and represents a simple alternative to obturator nerve block. No contraction was observed in any patient given succinylcholine. (author)

  19. Clinical usefulness of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 as tumor markers for urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Hirai, Masaru; Matsuzaki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 levels for the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 were measured in 85 patients with bladder cancer. The absolute level of each marker and the positive rate were compared with the clinical stage and histological grade of the tumor. Changes of the markers were assessed in patients with or without disease progression, and the correlations between survival and positivity/negativity of these markers were also evaluated. A higher serum level of CYFRA 21-1 was significantly correlated with higher tumor stage (p CEA and CA19-9 levels did not differ significantly among each stage and grade. The CYFRA 21-1 level increased significantly along with disease progression (from 7.33 ± 13.3 to 55.9 ± 127 ng/ml, p marker of advanced- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. It is useful for monitoring this disease and for predicting the prognosis. In contrast, the clinical usefulness of CEA and CA19-9 as tumor markers was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A radiologic evaluation of bladder tumors on barium air double contrast cystography and triple-fractionated cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, W. J.; Jang, H. Y.; Sol, C. H.; Kim, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically bladder tumors can be easily diagnosed on cystoscopic examination and biopsy in the patients with silent hematuria, terminal dribbling and dysuria. But for the evaluation of the extent of tumor invasion, the authors performed both barium-air double contrast and triple-fractionated cystography on 16 patients suspected to be bladder tumor on cystoscopic examination in the radiologic department of B.N.U.H. from September 1982 to August 1983. The obtained results were summarized as follows. 1. On barium-air double contrast cystography and triple-fractionated cystography, 13 cases were concluded as bladder tumor, and 3 cases were consistent with the findings of chronic inflammation out of the total 16 cases. 2. After operation of 15 cases, 12 cases were confirmed pathologically as transitional cell carcinoma, 1 case as prostatic hypertrophy, and 2 cases as chronic inflammation. Remaining one was biopsied on cystoscopic examination, and confirmed as chronic inflammation. 3. Among 9 cases of transitional cell carcinoma having the evidence of muscle invasion on triple- fractionated cystography, 8 cases were confirmed as more than stage B 1 on pathologic study, and the other as chronic inflammation. 4. In detecting multiplicity, presence of ulceration, and evaluation of nature of tumor surface, barium- air double contrast cystogrpahy was more excellent than cystoscopic results. 5. Cases presenting both ulceration and cauliflower appearance on barium- air double contrast cystography was more than grade III on microscopic evaluation. 6. In conclusion, the authors considers the barium-air double contrast and triple-fractionated cystography are easy to perform, reasonable in price and have relatively high accuracy in tumor detection, staging and grading.

  1. [Descriptive study of bladder tumors in the district of Levante-Alto Almanzora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita Rosino, E; Jiménez Verdejo, A; Mellado Mesa, P; López Hidalgo, J; Sánchez Fornieles, E; Grau Civit, J

    2001-06-01

    We present our series of operater bladder cancers in this District and the annual incidence in the period 1996 at 1998, as web as they are distributed by sex, age and smoking in the population; neoplasic stage and relapse were also studied. 61 patients were treated and un found global half incidence of 19.8 for 10(5) inhabitant-year (h-a), while for sexes it was of 4.22 for 10(5) h-y for women and of 15.58 for 10(5) h-y males. 78.69% was male with a masculinity rate of 3.69. The most frequent age group was starting from the seventh decade with 50.81% of our series. There was 36% of intervened patients that they were smoking, while 29.5% had relationship with other factors of risk like hydrocarbons and pesticidas. The superficial tumors were the most frequent with 86.88% of the cases, on the other hand the undifferentiated neoplastics was not very frequent with 13.21%, increasing these neoplastics with the age. In the follow up there were relapses in 36% of the people, being bigger in the T1 of our series. The occupational factors in this district can explain the high frequency in the female sex, although analytic studies are needed to check it.

  2. Multi-course PDT of malignant tumors: the influence on primary tumor, metastatic spreading and homeostasis of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Sukhin, Garry M.; Nemtsova, E. R.; Belous, T. A.; Zharkova, Natalia N.

    1996-12-01

    The first clinical trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer with two photosensitizers, PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS, were started in P.A. Hertzen Research Oncological Institute (Moscow, Russia) in 1992 and 1994. Up to now, 208 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic malignant tumors (469) of skin (34 patients/185 tumors), breast cancer (24/101), head and neck (30/31), trachea and bronchus (31/42), esophagus (35/35), stomach (31/32), rectum (4/4), vagina and uterine cervix (7/8) and bladder (12/31) have been treated by PDT. One-hundred-thirty patients were injected with PHOTOHEME, 64 patients were injected with PHOTOSENS, 14 patients were injected with PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS. Totally, 302 courses of treatment were performed: 155 patients had one course and 53 patients were subjected to two to nine PDT sources with intervals from 1 to 18 months. A therapeutic effect of a one-course and multi- course PDT of malignant tumors (respiratory, digestive and urogenital systems) was evaluated clinically, histologically, roentgenologically, sonographically and endoscopically. The biochemical, hematological and immunological investigations were performed for all the patients in dynamics. Results of our study showed that a multi-course PDT method seems to be perspective in treatment of malignant tumors of basic localizations.

  3. Primary tumors of the patella. A review of 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Moser, R.P. Jr. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Vinh, T.N. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery); Aoki, J. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology); Callaghan, J.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    This study reports 42 cases of histologically proven and radiographically correlated primary patellar tumors. Despite diverse histologic diagnoses, the radiographic appearanaces of benign as opposed to malignant patellar neoplasms are essentially indistinguishable. Although the literature suggests that giant cell tumor is the most frequent benign tumor of the patella, the most common benign neoplasm in this series is chondroblastoma (16 cases). Only four primary malignant lesions were encountered, three cases of lymphoma and one case of hemangioendothelioma. Since 38 (90%) of the 42 cases were benign, a benign etiology should be strongly favored, notwithstanding the radiographic appearance, whenever a primary patellar tumor is encountered. (orig.).

  4. Systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma initially presenting as a bladder mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder lymphomas are rare lesions which may be primary bladder lymphomas or part of systemic lymphoma with bladder involvement. We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL in a 73-year-old female who presented with bladder tumor which on evaluation revealed NHL with extensive systemic involvement. The management of such an advanced case is discussed here with literature review.

  5. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Breast: Imaging Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eun Deok; Kim, Min Kyun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Whang, In Yong

    2013-01-01

    Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in diverse histological types of breast tumors. However, the term, neuroendocrine breast tumor, indicates the diffuse expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population. The imaging features of neuroendocrine breast tumor have not been accurately described due to extreme rarity of this tumor type. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed, primary neuroendocrine breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman, with imaging findings difficult to be differentiated from that of invasive ductal carcinoma

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  7. Prospective evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on the bladder tumor-associated (BTA) urine test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Clark, Maureen M.; Bissonette, Eric A.; Theodorescu, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the results of the bladder tumor-associated antigen (BTA) test. By examining this question, we sought to determine its potential use as a monitoring test for the detection of recurrent transitional carcinoma of the bladder in patients who have received prior radiotherapy for bladder preservation. Materials and Methods: Between February 1996 and April 1997, 18 patients with nonbladder pelvic malignancies and no history of bladder cancer, received irradiation to the bladder. These patients were prospectively evaluated using the BTA test at the end of the external-beam radiation (EBRT) and at 3-month follow-up intervals. Urine cytology was analyzed in 16 of the 18 patients at the end of EBRT. A median of 3 separate measurements were made (range 1-6) on each patient. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4 Gy (range 30-68Gy). Seven patients underwent brachytherapy as part of their treatment course. BTA results and time intervals were recorded and analyzed using univariate and Kaplan-Meyer methodologies. Results: A total of 10 (56%) of the 18 patients had a positive BTA test at some time following completion of EBRT. Of the 10 positive tests, 9 returned to negative in a median of 42 weeks from completion of EBRT. Treatment with chemotherapy, brachytherapy, calculated bladder dose, and total external beam dose did not significantly influence either the number of positive tests or the time to resolution of the positive test in this small group of patients. All screened urine samples were negative for malignant cells and 11 (69%) of 16 showed changes consistent with ionizing radiation. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that ionizing radiation can cause transient positive results in the BTA test, but that these normalize with time. Although it requires further testing, it seems that the BTA test may be useful in the detection of recurrence in patients with bladder cancer who have been treated with

  8. Levels of some molecular and biochemical tumor markers in Egyptian patients with different grades and stages of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-elgoad, E.I.; Elkashef, H.S.; Hanfy, A.; El-maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    This study enrolled 64 patients with bladder cancer disease, 54 of them treated by surgery and 10 by radiotherapy. The patients were classified according to their clinical data that include infection with bilharziasis, grade, stage and type of tumor. The present study included determination of telomerase activity in tissue and urine using molecular methods and the levels of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and fibronectin in urine. The applied tumor markers showed significant differences in malignant patients compared to control. The same picture was noticed in case of patients received radiotherapy but less pronounced. The results revealed that there is significant correlation between the three tumor markers and the grade of tumor, while NMP22 and fibronectin correlated with stage. Moreover, fibronectin only have significant correlation with the infection with the bilharziasis. The results indicated that determination of telomerase, fibronectin and NMP22 can give clear idea about the development of malignancy and may help in the prediction of cancer recurrence

  9. Primary Tumor Thickness is a Prognostic Factor in Stage IV Melanoma: A Retrospective Study of Primary Tumor Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luen, Stephen; Wong, Siew Wei; Mar, Victoria; Kelly, John W; McLean, Catriona; McArthur, Grant A; Haydon, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Stage IV melanoma exhibits a diverse range of tumor biology from indolent to aggressive disease. Many important prognostic factors have already been identified. Despite this, the behavior of metastatic melanoma remains difficult to predict. We sought to determine if any primary tumor characteristics affect survival following the diagnosis of stage IV melanoma. All patients diagnosed with stage IV melanoma between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from the Victorian Melanoma Service database. Retrospective chart review was performed to collect data on primary tumor characteristics (thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, melanoma subtype, or occult primary). Known and suspected prognostic factors were additionally collected (time to diagnosis of stage IV disease, age, sex, stage, receipt of chemotherapy, and era of recurrence). The effect of primary tumor characteristics on overall survival from the date of diagnosis of stage IV disease was assessed. A total of 227 patients with a median follow-up of 5 years from diagnosis of stage IV disease were identified. Median overall survival of the cohort was 250 days.Of the primary tumor characteristics assessed, only tumor thickness affected survival from diagnosis of stage IV disease, hazard ratio=1.09 (1.02 to 1.16), P=0.008. This remained significant in multivariate analysis, P=0.007. Other primary tumor characteristics did not significantly influence survival. Primary tumor thickness is a significant prognostic factor in stage IV melanoma. Our data suggest that the biology of the primary melanoma may persist to influence the behavior of metastatic disease.

  10. Evaluation of primary neck tumors by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiko

    1983-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to neck tumors has received little attention. 40 CT scans of primary neck tumors were reviewed, and CT was proved to be extremely useful in the diagnosis and definition of extension of primary neck tumors. In the carotid triangle and sternocleidomastoid region 2nd branchial cysts, cystic hygromas and tuberculous lymphadenitis are included in the differential diagnosis of cystic tumors. In the carotid triangle markedly enhanced solid tumors must be paragangliomas, i.e. carotid body tumors, if they are located posteromedial to the carotid artery. And moderately enhanced tumors are neurilemmomas arising from sympathetic or vagus nerve. It is easy to define enlarged deep jugular lymph nodes because they are located lateral to the carotid artery. In the supraclavicular fossa enlarged lymph nodes can be differentiated from neurilemmomas of branchial plexus because enlarged lymph nodes are located anterior to subclavian vessels or anterior scalene muscle and branchial neurilemmomas are located superoposterior to them. (author)

  11. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gundogdu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0,2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature.

  12. Primary cardiac and pericardial tumors, imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M D [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Radiology, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The incidence of cardiac tumor and its classification was discussed. Imaging study i.e. conventional radiology, echocardiagoaphy (echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and computed tomography (CT) used also discussed briefly. (8 refs.).

  13. Primary cardiac and pericardial tumors, imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac tumor and its classification was discussed. Imaging study i.e. conventional radiology, echocardiagoaphy (echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and computed tomography (CT) used also discussed briefly. (8 refs.)

  14. Design of peptide-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) in vivo imaging of bladder tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects for tumor treatment have been utilized as a representative strategy to accumulate untargeted nanoparticles in the blood vessels around tumors. However, the EPR effect itself was not sufficient for the nanoparticles to penetrate into cancer cells. For the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of cancer using nanoparticles, many more nanoparticles need to specifically enter cancer cells. Otherwise, can leave the tumor area and not contribute to treatment. In order to enhance the internalization process, specific ligands on nanoparticles can help their specific internalization in cancer cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. We previously developed glycol chitosan based nanoparticles that suggested a promising possibility for in vivo tumor imaging using the EPR effect. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles showed a long circulation time beyond 1 day and they were accumulated predominantly in tumor. In this study, we evaluated two peptides for specific targeting and better internalization into urinary bladder cancer cells. We conjugated the peptides on to the glycol chitosan nanoparticles; the peptide-conjugated nanoparticles were also labeling with near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, to visualize them by optical imaging in vivo. Importantly real-time NIRF imaging can also be used for fluorescence (NIRF)-guided surgery of tumors beyond normal optical penetration depths. The peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, stability and zeta-potential and compared with previous nanoparticles without ligands in terms of their internalization into bladder cancer cells. This study demonstrated the possibility of our nanoparticles for tumor imaging and emphasized the importance of specific targeting peptides.

  15. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  16. A Case Report of Primary Cardiac Tumor in A Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Rejaei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare in infants and children . Most primary cardiac tumors in pediatric age group are benign, and less than 10% of such tumors are malignant. Many of these tumors are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The clinical manifestations are very different and includes direct cardiac effect, systemic effect , and embolic phenomena. Every infant or child with an unusual cardiac murmur, unexplained congestive heart failure, or arrhythmia should be evaluated for cardiac tumors. Echocardiography has contributed significantly to the evaluation of these patients. Surgery is the only treatment for primary cardiac tumors that require intervention with a relatively good prognosis. Case Report: The patient was a 20 days old neonate presented with severe congestive heart failure. Evaluation of the patient showed primary cardiac tumor in the left atrium and ventricle. We recommended surgical removal of the tumor but her parents denied surgical intervention at all. Conclusion: After about one year follow up, congestive heart failure symptoms were controlled and the tumor size was decreased.

  17. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in an Arab woman with history of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Meshaan, Mohd Khaled; Nayef, Marwan; Kwaider, Talal; Otto, Wolfgang; Katchy, Ken C

    2009-04-29

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the urinary bladder are rare and tend to occur in an older age group than do their counterparts in bones and soft tissue. We report a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old woman of Arab origin. She had undergone transurethral resection followed by chemotherapy because of pulmonary metastasized muscle-invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in 2005. One year later, she first presented with a history of repeated hematuria in our institution. Performing cystoscopy any tumor could be detected. Control cystoscopy two months later showed a tumor mass of 3 cm in diameter at another location than described for the first tumor. After perforating by transurethral resection partial bladder resection had to be done. Tissue specimen after pathological analysis revealed a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with tumor cells reactive to cluster of differentiation 99, neuron-specific enolase and S100 protein and stained negative for other markers such as cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin and leucocyte common antigen. Staging computerized tomography was especially free from any hint on organ metastasis, but the patient died due to a cardiac problem only a few months later. To the best of our knowledge, we report the eighth case of bladder peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in literature and the first concerning an Arab patient. It is also the first presentation of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. As in other cases, expression of single-chain-type 1 glycoprotein and neural markers was positive and the disease was at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in the prognostic evaluation of primary flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F

    1991-01-01

    Primary, flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder is rare and its behaviour is unpredictable. The aim of this retrospective study was to obtain base-line data and investigate the prognostic value of unbiased, stereological estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, in ...

  19. Multiple primary tumor (TPM) in Uruguay - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musetti, C; Garau, M; Alonso, R; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence of TPM in Uruguay through the RNC data. Materials and Methods: Of the incident cases registered in 2008, they were selected those presented in the database prior cancer registry. The are excluded in situ of the cervix and non-melanoma skin carcinomas. Results: At the present time are entered to the the base of the RNC 11859 new cases of cancer incidents in 2008. Of these 566 (4.7%) had a prior record of criteria selection where 308 were women and 258 men. Of these, 450 met the IACR / IARC criteria (*). (Two topographies and / or different histologies). The median age of first tumor presentation was 65 years (22-89). The second 71 years (27-94). The median of the difference was about 4 years Analyzed by gender: Breast cancer (CM) was the most frequent tumor in women, cancer as first (142) and as second (85). The most common associations (excluding Bilateral) CM, CM with gynecological tumors were (TG: ovarian and corpus uteri) 11% CM and colo-rectum (CCR) (9.4%), TG and CCR (5%). 26% of female cases occurred in two hormone-dependent tumors (CM and CM bilateral or TG). In men prostate cancer (PC) is the most common tumor as first cancer (76) but the CCR is the most frequent and second (56). The association comprises CP-CCR 15% of cases and CP association and transitional tumors (TT) 10%. The association of two or more snuff-dependent tumors was observed in 8% of cases. When discriminated by sex in men is 13%, amounting to 19% if taking into account the multiple TT, while in women corresponds to 2%. Conclusions: The profile presentation of TPM in the RNC of Uruguay is similar to that reported other records in both frequency (depending on the criteria that defined) and associated type of tumors. The most frequent associations also They are similar to those observed by other authors: CCR, CM and TG women and CCR, and CP TT in men. The association of tumors are also observed with risk common factors: in women hormonal factors linked to

  20. Medicinal Leech Therapy for Glans Penis Congestion After Primary Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Repair in an Infant: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenheim, Gavin N; Au, Jason; Gargollo, Patricio C

    2016-01-01

    Many postoperative complications have been reported after repair of classic bladder exstrophy. We present a case of medicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion following exstrophy repair in an infant. A 2-week-old male with classic bladder exstrophy underwent complete primary repair. On postoperative day 1, he developed rapidly worsening glans penis venous congestion. Medicinal leech therapy was instituted with antibiotics and blood transfusions to maintain a hematocrit >30%. After 24 hours, venous congestion improved and therapy was discontinued. The patient's remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are an effective therapy to relieve glans penis venous congestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epilepsy in primary intracranial tumors in a neurosurgical hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seizures may be manifestation of intracranial tumor (IT) and demand thorough neurological evaluation. This paper examines epidemiology, lesion characteristics and outcome of seizures associated with primary IT. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records, computed tomography and magnetic ...

  2. Primary intraspinal extradural primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Shrikant V; Tadghare, Jitendra; Patil, Harshad; Narayan, Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive childhood malignancies and are difficult to treat. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare. These patients have poor prognosis with short survival time even after surgery and chemoradiation. As there are no standard guidelines exist for the management of these tumors, a multidisciplinary approach has been employed with varying success. According to the review of literature, only few cases of primary intraspinal extradural PNETs have been reported. Herein, author has described a case of intraspinal, extradural PNET.

  3. Preoperative tumor localization of primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yutaka; Shinohara, Masahiro; Ito, Kazuo; Imamura, Fumimoto; Kasai, Yoichi; Ishizuka, Reiki.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic rate of each methods were discussed in thirty six cases and following conclusions were made. 1. The diagnostic rate of US, RI, AG and VS was 64.7%, 50%, 57.9%, 60.7% respectively. 2. Ultrasonography and subtruction-scintigraphy were useful screening examination for localization of parathyroid tumor. 3. The reasonable diagnostic procedures were as follows. 1) In the cases of palpable, reno-uretrolithiasic type, and biochemical type: US → RI → VS 2) In the cases of nonpalpable osteolytic type, and previous neck surgery: US → RI → AG → VS These results indicate that the systemic diagnosis are useful to predict localization of parathyroid tumors. (author)

  4. Radiation therapy for primary spinal cord tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, B.; Grujicic, D.; Jovanovic, D.; Djuric, L.; Mijatovic, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of radiation therapy in management of primary spinal cord tumors in adults. Records of 21 patients with primary spinal cord tumors treated with radiation therapy after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Histologic examination showed two diffuse and 10 localized ependymomas, six low-grade gliomas, and three malignant gliomas. Surgery consisted of gross tumor resection in six patients, subtotal resection in three patients, and biopsy in 12 patients. Three patients also received chemotherapy. Radiation dose range from 45 to 55 Cy

  5. Three-dimensional CT virtual endoscopy in the detection of simulated tumors in a novel phantom bladder and ureter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shane T; Kawashima, Akira; Vrtiska, Terri J; LeRoy, Andrew J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; Hartman, Robert P; Slezak, Jeffrey M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Chow, George K; King, Bernard F

    2005-03-01

    Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy have limitations in the evaluation for urothelial tumors, and both are invasive. We studied the utility of three-dimensional (3D) CT virtual endoscopy in phantom models. A phantom pelvis was constructed of Plexiglas, porcine pelvic bones, and processed animal fat and scanned at various table speeds in a four detector-row CT machine for ability to detect "tumors" of Solidwater plastic polymer. Images were reconstructed at slice thicknesses of 2.5 to 5.0 mm and reconstructed in 3D for evaluation by two radiologists with no knowledge of the scanning parameters or tumor location. Similar studies were performed with a ureter model. With 5-mm slices, the sensitivity for bladder tumors ranged from 67% for 2-mm tumors to 100% for 4-mm tumors, with 12 false-positive findings. The overall sensitivity was 86% with 3.75-mm slices with one false positive, and with 2.5-mm slices, the sensitivity was 93%, again with one false positive. For the ureteral tumors, the overall sensitivities and numbers of false positives were 88.9% and eight with 5.0-mm collimation, 88.9% and four with 3.75-mm collimation, and 100% and three with 2.5-mm collimation. The effective radiation dose for all studies was equivalent to that of a standard abdomen/pelvis scan. Although virtual endoscopy traditionally has had difficulty detecting tumors <5 mm, the multidetector-row CT protocols used in this study could detect most lesions smaller than this. The scan also depicts the other tissues of the pelvis, which is valuable for staging. The 3D images were produced using data from the CT urogram parameters standard at our institution.

  6. Bladder tumors in Benin city: a 15 year histopathological study | Olu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant neoplasms (40 cases) accounted for 88.9% of the bladder tumours and 1.85% of all malignant neoplasms seen during the study period. Contrary to most reports, the malignant neoplasms were predominantly transitional cell carcinoma constituting 27(67.2%) cases, with peak in the 7th and 8th decades, mean age ...

  7. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of Urinary Bladder Occurring as a Second Primary Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manint Usawachintachit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of bladder alveolar soft part sarcoma in an 18-year-old Thai male patient who had been treated with testicular radiation and systemic chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with testicular relapse. He presented with recurrent dysuria and gross hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a 2-centimeter irregular sessile mass at the bladder base adjacent to left ureteral orifice. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was alveolar soft part sarcoma. Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed no evidence of metastasis. He was treated with partial cystectomy and left ureteral reimplantation with negative surgical margin. No evidence of recurrence was found during a 28-month follow-up period with surveillance cystoscopy and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen.

  8. Transarterial chemoembolization for primary and metastatic liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov M.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents the methodology of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE — widely used method of treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. The TACE role as a neoadjuvant therapy and the role in the management of unresectable primary and secondary liver tumors are shown. The morphofunctional basis of TACE, benefits of superselective intra-arterial administration of cytostatic agents especially in combination with ischemic impact on a tumor are described. The subject of the choice of the chemotherapeutic agent is also touched; modern drug-loaded microspheres which allow the use of higher doses of the chemotherapeutic drug without increasing systemic effect and prolong its effect on tumor are described. Lack of correlation of presence and severity of a post-embolization syndrome with success of the procedure is noted.

  9. EGFR-expression in primary urinary bladder cancer and corresponding metastases and the relation to HER2-expression. On the possibility to target these receptors with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jörgen; Wester, Kenneth; De La Torre, Manuel; Malmström, Per-Uno; Gårdmark, Truls

    2015-01-01

    There is limited effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or “naked” antibodies binding EGFR or HER2 for therapy of metastasized urinary bladder cancer and these methods are therefore not routinely used. Targeting radio-nuclides to the extracellular domain of the receptors is potentially a better possibility. EGFR- and HER2-expression was analyzed for primary tumors and corresponding metastases from 72 patients using immunohistochemistry and the internationally recommended HercepTest. Intracellular mutations were not analyzed since only the receptors were considered as targets and intracellular abnormalities should have minor effect on radiation dose. EGFR was positive in 71% of the primary tumors and 69% of corresponding metastases. Local and distant metastases were EGFR-positive in 75% and 66% of the cases, respectively. The expression frequency of HER2 in related lesions was slightly higher (data from previous study). The EGFR-positive tumors expressed EGFR in metastases in 86% of the cases. The co-expression of EGFR and HER2 was 57% for tumors and 53% for metastases. Only 3% and 10% of the lesions were negative for both receptors in tumors and metastases, respectively. Thus, targeting these receptors with radionuclides might be applied for most patients. At least one of the EGFR- or HER2-receptors was present in most cases and co-expressed in more than half the cases. It is therefore interesting to deliver radionuclides for whole-body receptor-analysis, dosimetry and therapy. This can hopefully compensate for resistance to other therapies and more patients can hopefully be treated with curative instead of palliative intention

  10. Metastasis in the subcarinal lymph node with unknown primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J.; Olsen, K. E.; Petersen, H.

    2011-01-01

    -differentiated squamous cell carcinoma but no primary tumor was visible on PET-computed tomography. Because of his previous lymphoma the patient was scheduled for mediastinoscopy where the diagnosis was confirmed. Subsequent gastroscopy was normal and a right-sided thoracotomy showed no evidence of cancer elsewhere, only...... an inoperable metastasis in a subcarinal lymph node which infiltrated the trachea, esophagus and aorta. Such isolated squamous cell carcinoma in a subcarinal lymph node without a primary tumor despite invasive work-up has not been reported before....

  11. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (Kae, a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.

  12. Satisfactory spinal anesthesia with a total of 1.5 mg of bupivacaine for transurethral resection of bladder tumor in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Yoshimichi; Yamakage, Michiaki; Tanaka, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia is popular for endoscopic urological surgery. Many patients undergoing urological surgery are elderly. It is important to limit the dose to reduce any resultant hemodynamic effect. We present a case in which incremental administration of 0.1 % bupivacaine up to 1.5 mg was sufficient to produce satisfactory spinal anesthesia for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

  13. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  14. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Edgar, Mark A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyers, Paul A. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Carol D. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  15. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin; Edgar, Mark A.; Meyers, Paul A.; Morris, Carol D.; Panicek, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  16. Fetal antigen 2 in primary and secondary brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H Boje; Teisner, B; Schrøder, H D

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistochemical deposition and distribution of fetal antigen 2 (FA2) was examined in normal brain tissue and in primary and metastatic tumors of the brain. In normal brain tissue FA2 was exclusively found linearly around the vessels, along pia and in arachnoidea. A similar localization was seen...

  17. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  18. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  19. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  20. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  1. The Prognostic Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Ferro, Matteo; Del Giudice, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Chung, Benjamin I; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Borghesi, Marco; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess the efficacy and reliability of 2 different CTC isolation methods. Globally, 155 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC were included (pT1G3 with or without carcinoma in situ) and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. A total of 101 patients (Group A) had their samples analyzed with the CellSearch automated system, and 54 (Group B) had their samples analyzed with the CELLection Dynabeads manual system. Patients were followed for 28 months, and during this interval, there were a total of 65 (41.9%) recurrences, 27 (17.4%) disease progressions, and 9 (5.8%) lymph node and/or bone metastasis. In our CTC analysis, there were 20 (19.8%) positive patients in Group A and 24 in Group B (44.4%). In our analysis, we found a strong correlation between CTC presence and time to first recurrence; in Group A, we observed an incidence of recurrence in 75% of CTC-positive patients and in Group B of 83% of CTC-positive patients. The time to progression was also strongly correlated with CTCs: 65% and 29%, respectively, of those patients who progressed in those with CTCs in Group A and B. The study demonstrates the potential role of CTCs as a prognostic marker for risk stratification in patients with NMIBC, to predict both recurrence and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle invasive bladder cancer in Upper Egypt: the shift in risk factors and tumor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzour, Ali H; Selim, Mohie; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Hameed, Diaa A; AbdelAziz, Mohammad A

    2008-01-01

    In Egypt, where bilharziasis is endemic, bladder cancer is the commonest cancer in males and the 2 nd in females; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest type found, with a peculiar mode of presentation. The aim of this study is to identify and rank the risk factors of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Upper Egypt and describe its specific criteria of presentation and histopathology. This is an analytical, hospital based, case controlled study conducted in south Egypt cancer institute through comparing MIBC cases (n = 130) with age, sex and residence matched controls (n = 260) for the presence of risk factors of MIBC. Data was collected by personal interview using a well designed questionnaire. Patients' records were reviewed for histopathology and Radiologic findings. The risk factors of MIBC were positive family history [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.7], exposure to pesticides [AOR = 6.2], bladder stones [AOR = 5], consanguinity [AOR = 3.9], recurrent cystitis [AOR = 3.1], bilharziasis [odds ratio (OR) = 5.8] and smoking [OR = 5.3]. SCC represented 67.6% of cases with burning micturition being the presenting symptom in 73.8%. MIBC in Upper Egypt is usually of the SCC type (although its percentage is decreasing), occurs at a younger age and presents with burning micturition rather than hematuria. Unlike the common belief, positive family history, parents' consanguinity, exposure to pesticides and chronic cystitis seem to play now more important roles than bilharziasis and smoking in the development of this disease in this area

  3. Multiple primary tumors in patients with uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikova, N.; Parvanova, V.; Dimitrova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The aging population and improved medical care lead to increased likelihood for patients experienced a tumor to develop at least one more in the course of his life. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical and biological characteristics and survival of patients with primary tumor multiplicity in which a tumor is cancer of the uterine body. Materials and Methods: For the period 1997-2007, in the department of radiotherapy were treated 191 women with carcinoma of the uterine body (in a group of moderate and high risk) with invasion of the myometrium more than one third. Patients ranged in age from 36 to 77 (average age 59.9) and were followed until 31.03.2013 with an average follow-up period 126 months. Postoperatively, all were carried intravaginal brachytherapy with high dose rate 3x5 Gy once a week, followed by percutaneous radiotherapy 22x2 Gy daily to the area of the pelvic lymph nodes. Data to diagnose combined tumors were obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Survival analysis was made by the method of Kaplan - Meier with Lograng test. Results: In 26 (13.6 %) of the analyzed patients a tumor multiplicity is find in 22 (84,6%) tumors are two in 3 (11.5 %)- three , and in 1 (3.8%) - four . A detailed analysis of 14 (53.8%) patients whose cancer of the uterine body is the first tumor and is followed by another. The distribution of the tumor according to the second location is: breast cancer 5 (35.7%) skin malignant melanoma without 4 (28.5%) of the column 3 (21.4 %) of stomach 1 (7.1%) , MALT lymphoma, 1 (7.1% ) . Evaluate and compare the 5 - and 10-year overall survival of patients whose cancer of the uterine body only, and those who are diagnosed with a malignant tumor following - in those without a second tumor is 85.3% and 81.4 %, and in the presence of such a - 78, 6% and 69.3% respectively. Conclusion: The matched tumors are the most common among the so-called hormone dependent cancers such as breast cancer, uterine

  4. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  5. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  6. A case of multiple brown tumors with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroko; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Shimaziri, Shohei; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of large multiple brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. A 52-year-old woman suffered from pain in the ribs and developed left facial swelling and deformity. CT showed a large destructive osteolytic lesion in the left maxillary sinus. Biopsy showed a lesion with newly formed bone tissue, diffuse giant cells and deposits of hemosiderin. In addition, similar lesions were also observed in the ribs, iliac bones and pelvis. The laboratory data showed hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism. Cervical echo and (201)Tl-(99m)TcO(4-) scintigraphy demonstrated a right lower swollen parathyroid adenoma. The diagnosis was multiple brown tumors with primary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroidectomy was performed. Follow-up CT showed marked decreases in the size of osteolytic lesions with calcification in the brown tumors compared to pre-treatment findings. These changes were associated with marked improvement in pain and facial deformity. We described a rare case of multiple brown tumors appeared in the maxilla associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. [Colorectal cancer the importance of primary tumor location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, M; Bauer, J

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective evaluations of the relevance of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) location consistently indicate that right-sided tumors, arising in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic bend, transverse colon and splenic flexure, are clinically, biologically and genetically different from left-sided tumors - those located in the descending colon, sigmoid colon or rectum. Location in the right-sided colon represents a negative prognostic indicator, particularly for stage III and IV carcinomas. Irrespective of treatment, the rightward location is associated with a significantly increased risk of death when compared to the left side.Key words: colorectal cancer - location - therapy - prognosis.

  8. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  9. Primary Testicular Carcinoid Tumor presenting as Carcinoid Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath L Chikkaraddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are very rare, and they seldom present with carcinoid syndrome. We report a hereto unreported instance, where a patient with a long-standing testicular mass presented with carcinoid heart disease, an uncommon form of carcinoid syndrome. He presented with symptoms of right heart failure, episodic facial flushing and was found to have severe right-sided valvular heart disease. His urinary 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid level was elevated. He underwent orchidectomy and the histopathology confirmed a testicular carcinoid tumor.

  10. Extensive screening for primary tumor is redundant in melanoma of unknown primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Klyver, Helle; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2011-01-01

    For decades, patients in our institution with metastastic melanoma of unknown primary have been subjected to extensive examinations in search of the primary tumor. This retrospective study questions the results, and thus the feasibility of these examinations. Of 103 patients diagnosed with unknow......, for patients referred with metastastic melanoma of unknown primary, we recommend that a detailed history is obtained, and a standard physical examination performed, in addition to a histopathological review and CT/PET for staging....

  11. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Bae, Yoon Sung

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  12. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  13. Deterministic Evolutionary Trajectories Influence Primary Tumor Growth: TRACERx Renal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turajlic, Samra; Xu, Hang; Litchfield, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The evolutionary features of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been systematically studied to date. We analyzed 1,206 primary tumor regions from 101 patients recruited into the multi-center prospective study, TRACERx Renal. We observe up to 30 driver events per tumor and show...... that subclonal diversification is associated with known prognostic parameters. By resolving the patterns of driver event ordering, co-occurrence, and mutual exclusivity at clone level, we show the deterministic nature of clonal evolution. ccRCC can be grouped into seven evolutionary subtypes, ranging from tumors...... outcome. Our insights reconcile the variable clinical behavior of ccRCC and suggest evolutionary potential as a biomarker for both intervention and surveillance....

  14. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: maiavanel@yahoo.fr [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  15. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all

  16. Visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazife Sefi-Yurdakul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors.METHODS:The medical charts of the patients with intracranial tumors who initially admitted to the Neuro-ophthalmology and Strabismus Department with ocular complaints between August 1999 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The detailed clinical history and the findings of neuro-ophthalmologic examination were recorded. Ocular symptoms and signs, the types and locations of intracranial tumors, and the duration of symptoms before the diagnosis were evaluated.RESULTS:The mean age of 11 women (61.1% and 7 men (38.9% was 42.2±11.0 (range 20-66y at the time of intracranial tumor diagnosis. Initial symptoms were transient visual obscurations, visual loss or visual field defect in 16 cases (88.9%, and diplopia in 2 cases (11.1%. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed normal optic discs in both eyes of 6 patients (33.3%, paleness, atrophy or edema of optic disc in 12 patients (66.7%, and sixth cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients (11.1%. Visual acuity ranged between normal vision and loss of light perception. Cranial imaging demonstrated craniopharyngioma (n=1, plasmacytoma (n=1, meningioma (n=6; olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae, pontocerebellar angle, anterior cranial fossa, frontal vertex, suprasellar region, and pituitary macroadenoma (n=10. The mean duration between the onset of visual disturbances and the diagnosis of intracranial tumor was 9.8±18mo (range 3d-6y.CONCLUSION:The ophthalmologist is frequently the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of intracranial tumors that may cause neurological and ocular complications. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings should be carefully evaluated to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors.

  17. Visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazife; Sefi-Yurdakul

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To evaluate the visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors.·METHODS: The medical charts of the patients with intracranial tumors who initially admitted to the Neuro-ophthalmology and Strabismus Department with ocular complaints between August 1999 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The detailed clinical history and the findings of neuro-ophthalmologic examination were recorded. Ocular symptoms and signs,the types and locations of intracranial tumors, and the duration of symptoms before the diagnosis were evaluated.·RESULTS: The mean age of 11 women(61.1%) and 7men(38.9%) was 42.2±11.0(range 20-66y) at the time of intracranial tumor diagnosis. Initial symptoms were transient visual obscurations, visual loss or visual field defect in 16 cases(88.9%), and diplopia in 2 cases(11.1%). Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed normal optic discs in both eyes of 6 patients(33.3%),paleness, atrophy or edema of optic disc in 12 patients(66.7%), and sixth cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients(11.1%). Visual acuity ranged between normal vision and loss of light perception. Cranial imaging demonstrated craniopharyngioma(n =1), plasmacytoma(n =1),meningioma(n =6; olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae, pontocerebellar angle, anterior cranial fossa,frontal vertex, suprasellar region), and pituitary macroadenoma(n =10). The mean duration between the onset of visual disturbances and the diagnosis of intracranial tumor was 9.8±18mo(range 3d-6y).·CONCLUSION: The ophthalmologist is frequently the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of intracranial tumors that may cause neurological and ocular complications. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings should be carefully evaluated to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors.

  18. Arctigenin anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer T24 cell line through induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shucai; Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jianbing; Lv, Xiaohong; Li, Xinlei; Yang, Huike; Liu, Ying; Feng, Sijia; Zhang, Yafang

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti-tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32-7.01% and 3.07-7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Blood flow in transplantable bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selman, S.H.; Kreimer-Birnbaum, M.; Klaunig, J.E.; Goldblatt, P.J.; Keck, R.W.; Britton, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Following hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photochemotherapy, blood flow to transplantable N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thia-zolyl] formamide-induced urothelial tumors was determined by a radioactive microsphere technique using either 103 Ru or 141 Ce. Two tumors were implanted s.c. on the abdominal wall of Fischer 344 weanling rats. HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered 24 hr prior to phototherapy (red light, greater than 590 nm; 360 J/sq cm). One of the two tumors was shielded from light exposure and served as an internal control. Blood flows were determined in control animals that received no treatment (Group 1), HPD only (Group 2), or light only (Group 3). In Groups 4 and 5, animals received the combination of HPD and light but differed in the time interval between treatment and blood flow determinations (10 min and 24 hr, respectively). Only blood flow to tumors treated with HPD and light showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) when compared with their internal controls both at 10 min (Group 4) and 24 hr (Group 5) after completion of phototherapy. These studies suggest that disruption of tumor blood flow may be an important mechanism of action of this method of cancer therapy

  20. Invasive bladder cancer: treatment strategies using transurethral surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy with selection for bladder conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Kaufman, Donald S.; Althausen, Alex F.; Heney, Niall M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Combined modality therapy has become the standard oncologic approach to achieve organ preservation in many malignancies. Methods and Materials: Although radical cystectomy has been considered as standard treatment for invasive bladder carcinoma in the United States, good results have been recently reported from several centers using multimodality treatment, particularly in patients with clinical T2 and T3a disease who do not have a ureter obstructed by tumor. Results: The components of the combined treatment are usually transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Following an induction course of therapy a histologic response is evaluated by cystoscopy and rebiopsy. Clinical 'complete responders' (tumor site rebiopsy negative and urine cytology with no tumor cells present) continue with a consolidation course of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. Those patients not achieving a clinical complete response are recommended to have an immediate cystectomy. Individually the local monotherapies of radiation, TURBT, or multidrug chemotherapy each achieve a local control rate of the primary tumor of from 20 to 40%. When these are combined, clinical complete response rates of from 65 to 80% can be achieved. Seventy-five to 85% of the clinical complete responders will remain with bladders free of recurrence of an invasive tumor. Conclusions: Bladder conservation trials using combined modality treatment approaches with selection for organ conservation by response of the tumor to initial treatment report overall 5-year survival rates of approximately 50%, and a 40-45% 5-year survival rate with the bladder intact. These modern multimodality bladder conservation approaches offer survival rates similar to radical cystectomy for patients of similar clinical stage and age. Bladder-conserving therapy should be offered to patients with invasive bladder carcinoma as a realistic alternative to radical

  1. Long-term follow-up of advanced bladder adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Korkes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate patients treated with primary bladder adenocarcinoma at our institution. Methods: A review of 30 patients diagnosed with bladder adenocarcinoma at a single institution from 1994 of 2005 was undertaken. Cases of primary bladder adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. Rresults: Out of 490 patients with bladder carcinoma, 30 had bladder adenocarcinoma: 22 metastatic tumors, eight (1.6% primary adenocarcinoma. Of these, three (0.6% were primary non-urachal and five (1.0% were urachal adenocarcinoma. All patients were men with mean age of 55.8 years (range 37-83. Dysuria and hematuria were the main symptoms reported. Of the total, four patients had cancer-related mortality. Cconclusion: Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm, observed in 1.6% patients with bladder malignancies. Late diagnosis limits therapeutic possibilities. Partial cystectomy seems to have unsatisfactory results and radical cystectomy, although remains as the gold standard, have no proven efficacy. New methods of adjuvant treatment must be studied to improve treatment outcomes, as high mortality is observed despite treatment.

  2. Management of primary malignant germ cell tumor of the mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Asamura, Hisao; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Tsuchiya, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Primary mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and have a worse prognosis than their gonadal counterparts. Although multimodality treatment is a standard therapeutic strategy in mediastinal GCTs, the clinical implications of surgical intervention remain unclear. Forty-eight patients with primary mediastinal malignant GCT who were treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, from 1962 to 2002 were studied retrospectively with regard to their histology and clinical profile. Mediastinal GCT occurred predominantly in young males, with a mean age of 28.8 years at the time of diagnosis. There were 46 males (96%) and two females (4%). Histologically, seven patients (15%) were diagnosed as having pure seminoma and 41 (85%) had nonseminomatous GCT. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in nine patients, surgery followed by chemotherapy in two, and chemotherapy followed by surgery in 20. The other 17 patients received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy without surgery. Of these latter 17 patients, 14 developed progressive disease and three were followed up with a sustained partial response. Among the 31 patients who underwent surgery, complete resection was performed in 27 (87%) and incomplete resection was performed in four (13%). Twelve (41%) patients had elevated serum tumor marker levels preoperatively. Among the 20 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy, viable cells were found in the resected specimen in six (30%). With regard to tumor recurrence in patients with surgical intervention, the preoperative serum tumor marker levels and the presence of viable cells in the resected specimen were significantly associated with recurrence. There was no significant association between surgical curability and recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate in all 48 patients was 45.5%. Surgical intervention for mediastinal GCT may be needed to remove a chemotherapy-refractory tumor or to assess the pathological response to chemotherapy to determine

  3. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  4. The feasibility of the concomitant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of the bladder infiltrating tumors; La faisabilite de la chimioradiotherapie concomitante dans le traitement des tumeurs infiltrantes de la vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amireche, A.; Djemaa, A.; Sahli, B. [Centre Anticancereux, Constantine (Algeria)

    2007-11-15

    The study of the results showed the profit of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of infiltrating tumors of the bladder by allowing a preservative treatment and by assuring in parallel the local control. (N.C.)

  5. Modulated Raman spectroscopy for enhanced identification of bladder tumor cells in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Mazilu, Michael; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Carruthers, Antonia E; Dholakia, Kishan; Neilson, Sam; Sargeant, Harry; Briscoe, Tina; Herrington, C Simon; Riches, Andrew C

    2011-03-01

    Standard Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a noninvasive technique that is used in the biomedical field to discriminate between normal and cancer cells. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background detracts from the use of SRS in real-time clinical applications. Recently, we have reported a novel modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) technique to extract the Raman spectra from the background. In this paper, we present the first application of MRS to the identification of human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder cancer cells (MGH) in urine samples. These results are compared to those obtained by SRS. Classification using the principal component analysis clearly shows that MRS allows discrimination between Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (95%). MRS is also used to distinguish between SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells after exposure to urine for up to 6 h. We observe a marked change in the MRS of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with time in urine, indicating that the conditions of sample collection will be important for the application of this methodology to clinical urine samples.

  6. Primary hyperparathyroidism, adrenal tumors and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas - clinical diagnosis and imaging requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auernhammer, C.J.; Engelhardt, D.; Goeke, B.

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of the parathyroids, the adrenals and of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas are primarily diagnosed by clinical and endocrinological evaluation.The requirements concerning various imaging techniques and their relative importance in localization strategies of the different tumors are complex. Current literature search, using PubMed. Evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism requires bone densitometry by DXA and search for nephrolithiasis by ultrasound or native CT examination.While ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroids seems useful before any parathyroid surgery,more extensive preoperative localization strategies (sestamibi scintigraphy, MRI) should be restricted to minimal invasive parathyroid surgery or re-operations.For adrenal tumors CT and MRI are of similar diagnostic value. Imaging of pheochromocytomas should be completed by MIBG scintigraphy. Each adrenal incidentaloma requires an endocrinological work-up.A fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy of an adrenal tumor is rarely indicated.Before adrenal biopsy a pheochromocytoma has to be excluded.Successful localization strategies for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, endoscopic ultrasound and MRI.Discussion Specific localization strategies have been established for the aforementioned tumors.The continuous progress of different imaging techniques requires a regular reevaluation of these localization strategies. (orig.) [de

  7. [Echocardiography in diagnosis of primary cardiac tumors in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmenger Orellana, Julio; Vázquez, Clara; Ortega Maldonado, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    We report the experience in the diagnosis of primary cardiac tumor during the period from 1999 to 2004, 8500 studies were revised echocardiographic carried out. We found 21 patients, 11 of female sex (55%). In 15/21 (71%), the age of presentation was less than 1 year. In 9/21 the tumor was multiple (42.8%), lodged in the ventricle right in 2/21 (9.5%), in the ventricle left 3 (14.2%), 8 in the septum interventricular (38%) and 4 compromised the auriculas. They were classified like rabdomiomas 14 (66%), 5 associates with sclerosis tuberosa, 4 mixomas (19%), 2 fibromas (9.5%) and 1 rabdomiosarcoma (4.7%). In five patients the diagnosis was prenatal. The global mortality went of 9.5%. The echocardiograpy is a good diagnosis method in our series the rabdomioma occupied the first place in frequency.

  8. Experience with surgical treatment for primary malignant adrenal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal tumors occur in 3–10 % of the population and are mostly benign adrenal cortical tumors. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare tumor and has an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per million people. The U.S. National Cancer Data Base registered 4275 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in 1985 to 2007. It is extremely difficult to assess Russia’s epidemiological data, as reports on adrenocortical carcinoma are not presented separately.Materials and methods. A total of 133 patients (49 men and 84 women (1:1.7 with adrenal tumors were operated on at the clinics of the Siberian State Medical University in the period December 1998 to March 2015. The patients’ mean age was 51.3 (16–80 years (median age 51.0 years. The right and left adrenal glands were affected in 49 (36.9 % and 77 (57.9 % patients, respectively; both adrenal glands were involved in 7 (5.3 %. A group of 21 (15.8 % people with primary malignant adrenal tumors was identified among all the patients. The clinical manifestations of the disease were evaluated from the presence of hormonal activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain syndrome, and hypertension. All the patients were operated on under endotracheal anesthesia. The data were statistically processed using the program package Statistica 6.0. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. The Gehan–Wilcoxon test was used to compare the groups.Results. The investigation analyzed treatment results in 21 (15.8 % patients with primary malignant adrenal lesions (Group 1. The most common morphological form was adrenocortical carcinoma in 15 (11.3 % patients (5 men and 10 women (1:2; their mean age was 48.1 years. The right, left, and both adrenal glands were affected in 4, 9, and 2 cases, respectively. In Group 2, other malignant adrenal involvements were identified from 1 case of rare malignant adrenal tumors: malignant pheochromocytoma, sarcoma, melanoma, squamous cell

  9. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Corteggio, Annunziata; Tatè, Rosarita; Cermola, Michele; Paciello, Orlando; Roperto, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  10. Immunological tumor status may predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and outcome after radical cystectomy in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahartiala, Minna; Taimen, Pekka; Mirtti, Tuomas; Koskinen, Ilmari; Ecke, Thorsten; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Boström, Peter J

    2017-10-04

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide. Radical cystectomy (RC) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is recommended for muscle-invasive BC. The challenge of the neoadjuvant approach relates to challenges in selection of patients to chemotherapy that are likely to respond to the treatment. To date, there are no validated molecular markers or baseline clinical characteristics to identify these patients. Different inflammatory markers, including tumor associated macrophages with their plastic pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, have extensively been under interests as potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers in different cancer types. In this immunohistochemical study we evaluated the predictive roles of three immunological markers, CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1, in response to NAC and outcome of BC. 41% of the patients had a complete response (pT0N0) to NAC. Basic clinicopathological variables did not predict response to NAC. In contrast, MAC387 + cells and CLEVER-1 + macrophages associated with poor NAC response, while CLEVER-1 + vessels associated with more favourable response to NAC. Higher counts of CLEVER-1 + macrophages associated with poorer overall survival and CD68 + macrophages seem to have an independent prognostic value in BC patients treated with NAC. Our findings point out that CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1 may be useful prognostic and predictive markers in BC.

  11. Comparison between the distribution of the calculated dose and the media with thermoluminescent dosemeters 7 LiF in bladder tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de.

    1974-01-01

    For the central plane of an assumed malignant tumor of the bladder, Cobalt - 60 treatment plans were calculated from published isodose curves. The calculation was done for the three field technique, unbalanced and balanced, and for 120 degree rotational therapy with wedge filter. A Rando-Alderson phantom and calibrated encapsulated 7 LiF dosimeters with a standard deviation better than 3% of each were used to verify the treatment plans. Furthermore the dose distribution to an assumed extension of the tumor and to the rectum were measured. (author)

  12. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  13. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  14. Evaluation of the relationship between compliance with the follow-up and treatment protocol and health literacy in bladder tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Demirci, Hakan; Coban, Soner; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Toprak, Erdem; Aydos, Mustafa Murat; Ture, Deniz Azkan; Ustundag, Yasemin

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the relationship between the compliance of bladder cancer patients with cystoscopic follow-up and the treatment protocol, and their health literacy. Patients who underwent transurethral resection surgery for bladder tumor were found to have non-muscular invasive bladder carcinoma on pathology examination and then underwent cystoscopic follow-up for 1 year or more were included in the study. Cystoscopic follow-up was recommended to the low- and high-risk groups in terms of progression and recurrence. The patients were evaluated with the Health Literacy Survey-European Union scale. The mean age of the patients was 67.13 ± 10.77 years. The treatment continuity rate was 80.50% (n = 33) in the adequate health literacy group (n = 41) and significantly higher than the 56.50% (n = 48) rate in the inadequate health literacy group (n = 85) (p = .008). The health literacy results revealed that the health promotion and general index score was higher in the group of patients under the age of 65. Adequate health literacy in bladder cancer patients is associated with better compliance with the treatment protocol. Young patients show better compliance with the follow-up protocol recommended by the physician. Increasing the follow-up protocol compliance of elderly patients with inadequate health literacy is necessary.

  15. Evaluation of silk biomaterials in combination with extracellular matrix coatings for bladder tissue engineering with primary and pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Debra; Gil, Eun Seok; Adam, Rosalyn M; Kaplan, David L; Chung, Yeun Goo; Estrada, Carlos R; Mauney, Joshua R

    2013-01-01

    Silk-based biomaterials in combination with extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings were assessed as templates for cell-seeded bladder tissue engineering approaches. Two structurally diverse groups of silk scaffolds were produced by a gel spinning process and consisted of either smooth, compact multi-laminates (Group 1) or rough, porous lamellar-like sheets (Group 2). Scaffolds alone or coated with collagen types I or IV or fibronectin were assessed independently for their ability to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as pluripotent cell populations, such as murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. AlamarBlue evaluations revealed that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds promoted the highest degree of primary SMC and urothelial cell attachment in comparison to uncoated Group 2 controls and all Group 1 scaffold variants. Real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses demonstrated that both fibronectin-coated silk groups were permissive for SMC contractile differentiation as determined by significant upregulation of α-actin and SM22α mRNA and protein expression levels following TGFβ1 stimulation. Prominent expression of epithelial differentiation markers, cytokeratins, was observed in urothelial cells cultured on both control and fibronectin-coated groups following IHC analysis. Evaluation of silk matrices for ESC and iPS cell attachment by alamarBlue showed that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds promoted the highest levels in comparison to all other scaffold formulations. In addition, real time RT-PCR and IHC analyses showed that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds facilitated ESC and iPS cell differentiation toward both urothelial and smooth muscle lineages in response to all trans retinoic acid as assessed by induction of uroplakin and contractile gene and protein expression. These results

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of primary intracranial tumors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The experience in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of primary intracranial neoplasia at University of California, San Francisco is reviewed. Seventy patients have been evaluated by MR and computerized tomography (CT). MR scans were performed using a multi-slice spin echo technique with a long pulse repetition time (TR = 2000 msec), and long echo sampling delay (TE = 56 msec). This method was most sensitive in differentiating normal gray and white matter and in detecting both cerebral edema and abnormal tissue with prolonged T 2 characteristics. More sensitive to slight alterations in normal tissue, MR may detect a focal lesion in cases in which CT shows only mass effect. Moreover, MR may demonstrate more thoroughly the extent of tumor infiltration and broaden the characterization of abnormal tissue. Posterior fossa and brainstem anatomy are invariably better depicted by MR. The major limitations of MR include its inability to detect foci of tumor calcification, demonstrate the severity of bone destruction, or reliably distinguish tumor nidus from surrounding edema

  17. Mutational analysis of circulating tumor cells from colorectal cancer patients and correlation with primary tumor tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lyberopoulou

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs provide a non-invasive accessible source of tumor material from patients with cancer. The cellular heterogeneity within CTC populations is of great clinical importance regarding the increasing number of adjuvant treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas, in order to eliminate residual disease. Moreover, the molecular profiling of these rare cells might lead to insight on disease progression and therapeutic strategies than simple CTCs counting. In the present study we investigated the feasibility to detect KRAS, BRAF, CD133 and Plastin3 (PLS3 mutations in an enriched CTCs cell suspension from patients with colorectal cancer, with the hypothesis that these genes` mutations are of great importance regarding the generation of CTCs subpopulations. Subsequently, we compared CTCs mutational status with that of the corresponding primary tumor, in order to access the possibility of tumor cells characterization without biopsy. CTCs were detected and isolated from blood drawn from 52 colorectal cancer (CRC patients using a quantum-dot-labelled magnetic immunoassay method. Mutations were detected by PCR-RFLP or allele-specific PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. In 52 patients, discordance between primary tumor and CTCs was 5.77% for KRAS, 3.85% for BRAF, 11.54% for CD133 rs3130, 7.69% for CD133 rs2286455 and 11.54% for PLS3 rs6643869 mutations. Our results support that DNA mutational analysis of CTCs may enable non-invasive, specific biomarker diagnostics and expand the scope of personalized medicine for cancer patients.

  18. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelven Weijing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6 cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different.

  19. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kelven Weijing; Wu, Fiona Mei Wen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6 cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different. PMID:25737794

  20. CUP Syndrome-Metastatic Malignancy with Unknown Primary Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaun, Gregor; Schuler, Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2018-03-09

    2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation. CUP most commonly manifests itself as metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or bones. With the aid of imaging studies, including functional hybrid imaging and further medical examination, a primary tumor can be discovered in up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with CUP. Immunohistochemistry guided by histomorphology often enables precise characterization of the lesion and can be supplemented, in selected cases, by molecular-genetic diagnostic evaluation. The most commonly detected types of primary tumor are cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, and biliary system. For patients with local metastases, surgical resection or radiotherapy with curative intent is usually indicated, sometimes in the framework of a multimodal treatment concept. The median 2-year survival of patients with disseminated CUP is only 20%. For such patients, specific types of systemic therapy are recommended on the basis of the diagnostic characterization of the disease. Immune-modulatory antibodies can be effective, particularly in the treatment of CUP that has been characterized with biomarkers, but should still be considered experimental at present. A combination of conventional and innovative diagnostic methods enables the provision of highly refined therapeutic strategies to patients with CUP who are undergoing treatment in interdisciplinary cancer centers.

  1. Comparative Analysis of 3D Bladder Tumor Spheroids Obtained by Forced Floating and Hanging Drop Methods for Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson L. F. Amaral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell-based assays using three-dimensional (3D cell cultures may reflect the antitumor activity of compounds more accurately, since these models reproduce the tumor microenvironment better.Methods: Here, we report a comparative analysis of cell behavior in the two most widely employed methods for 3D spheroid culture, forced floating (Ultra-low Attachment, ULA, plates, and hanging drop (HD methods, using the RT4 human bladder cancer cell line as a model. The morphology parameters and growth/metabolism of the spheroids generated were first characterized, using four different cell-seeding concentrations (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL, and then, subjected to drug resistance evaluation.Results: Both methods generated spheroids with a smooth surface and round shape in a spheroidization time of about 48 h, regardless of the cell-seeding concentration used. Reduced cell growth and metabolism was observed in 3D cultures compared to two-dimensional (2D cultures. The optimal range of spheroid diameter (300–500 μm was obtained using cultures initiated with 0.5 and 1.25 × 104 cells/mL for the ULA method and 2.5 and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL for the HD method. RT4 cells cultured under 3D conditions also exhibited a higher resistance to doxorubicin (IC50 of 1.00 and 0.83 μg/mL for the ULA and HD methods, respectively compared to 2D cultures (IC50 ranging from 0.39 to 0.43.Conclusions: Comparing the results, we concluded that the forced floating method using ULA plates was considered more suitable and straightforward to generate RT4 spheroids for drug screening/cytotoxicity assays. The results presented here also contribute to the improvement in the standardization of the 3D cultures required for widespread application.

  2. Comparative Analysis of 3D Bladder Tumor Spheroids Obtained by Forced Floating and Hanging Drop Methods for Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Robson L F; Miranda, Mariza; Marcato, Priscyla D; Swiech, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cell-based assays using three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures may reflect the antitumor activity of compounds more accurately, since these models reproduce the tumor microenvironment better. Methods: Here, we report a comparative analysis of cell behavior in the two most widely employed methods for 3D spheroid culture, forced floating (Ultra-low Attachment, ULA, plates), and hanging drop (HD) methods, using the RT4 human bladder cancer cell line as a model. The morphology parameters and growth/metabolism of the spheroids generated were first characterized, using four different cell-seeding concentrations (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 × 10 4 cells/mL), and then, subjected to drug resistance evaluation. Results: Both methods generated spheroids with a smooth surface and round shape in a spheroidization time of about 48 h, regardless of the cell-seeding concentration used. Reduced cell growth and metabolism was observed in 3D cultures compared to two-dimensional (2D) cultures. The optimal range of spheroid diameter (300-500 μm) was obtained using cultures initiated with 0.5 and 1.25 × 10 4 cells/mL for the ULA method and 2.5 and 3.75 × 10 4 cells/mL for the HD method. RT4 cells cultured under 3D conditions also exhibited a higher resistance to doxorubicin (IC 50 of 1.00 and 0.83 μg/mL for the ULA and HD methods, respectively) compared to 2D cultures (IC 50 ranging from 0.39 to 0.43). Conclusions: Comparing the results, we concluded that the forced floating method using ULA plates was considered more suitable and straightforward to generate RT4 spheroids for drug screening/cytotoxicity assays. The results presented here also contribute to the improvement in the standardization of the 3D cultures required for widespread application.

  3. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  4. Tumores primarios de la pared torácica Primary tumors of the thorax wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbaro Agustín Armas Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se revisan aspectos teóricos en los tumores primarios de la pared torácica, sobre todo en la clasificación y en aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos, con el propósito de conocer los resultados del tratamiento en el centro. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo para analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico en 22 pacientes (muestra con tumores primarios de la pared torácica, en un período de 15 años (enero de 1993 a diciembre de 2008, en los servicios de cirugía general y ortopedia del Hospital "Amalia Simoni" de Camagüey. Resultados: hubo ligero predominio del sexo femenino y del grupo de edad entre 17 a 44 años (media 39,4, la comorbilidad que predominó fue la hipertensión arterial, el hemitórax derecho fue el más afectado, y las costillas de la 1 a la 4 las más lesionadas, y predominaron las afecciones benignas, entre ellas, el osteocondroma. El tratamiento más utilizado fue la resección quirúrgica, y la complicación posoperatoria que predominó fue la bronconeumonía. El índice de recidiva tumoral fue alto, no siempre por cáncer. Hubo 4 fallecidos por enfermedad maligna avanzada, y no se presentaron muertes perioperatorias. Conclusiones: fueron comparados los resultados con los de otros reportes y se hallaron puntos de coincidencia en diversos aspectos, pero también discrepantes, se trata de unificar criterios para mejorar el diagnóstico y los resultados del tratamiento en estos enfermos. La mayoría de los pacientes no presentaron complicaciones, y la recidiva tumoral estuvo por encima de lo esperado. La resección tumoral siempre debe ser amplia. El resultado global fue satisfactorio.Introduction: the theoretical features in the primary tumors of the thorax wall, especially in the classification and clinical, diagnostic y therapeutical features were reviewed to know the results of treatment in our institution. Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was

  5. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  6. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  7. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  8. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  9. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor after 4 years tumor-free follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrescu, Ioana Maria; Martin, Sorina; Cima, Luminita; Herlea, Vlad; Badiu, Corin; Fica, Simona

    2015-06-01

    A primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumour (PHNET) is a very rare disease. The liver represents the preferential site for neuroendocrine tumors' metastases. A 45-year old Caucasian female who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, accompanied by diffuse abdominal pain was found to have on contrast-enhanced computer tomography an encapsulated, partially cystic liver mass. The patient underwent an uneventful left atypical hepatic resection. Histopatological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a slowly growing (G1) hepatic neuroendocrine tumour. Post surgery, the specific neuroendocrine markers (serum Chromogranin A and 24h urinary 5 hydroxy-indolacetic acid) were within normal range. Further functional imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. The patient is presently after 4 years of follow-up with no local recurrence or distant metastases. The diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge that requires a thorough long term follow-up in order to exclude an occult primary neuroendocrine tumour.

  10. An updated review on primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lendorf, Maria Elisabeth; Dohn, Line Hammer; Á Dunga, Bara

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to emphasize the critical importance of the clinician's awareness of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare and aggressive disease entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the current literature was conducted and a classic case...... of advanced SRCC of the urinary bladder is reported, clearly demonstrating the severity of this disease and the imperative need for standardized recommendations for the diagnostic work-up and management of urinary bladder SRCC. RESULTS: The prognosis for patients with SRCC of the urinary bladder is poor...

  11. Trans arterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Eiers, M.; Lopez-Benitez, R.; Noeldge, G.; Hallscheidt, P.; Grenacher, L.; Libicher, M.; Zeifang, F.; Meeder, P.J.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous transcatheter al embolization s of primary and secondary bone tumors are important minimal invasive angiographic interventions of the skeletal system. In most of the cases embolization is performed for preoperative devascularization or as a palliative measure to treat tumor-associated pain or other tumor bulk symptoms. The transarterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system has been developed to a safe and very effective method. Indications, techniques, results and complications of this minimal invasive interventional therapy for treatment of primary and secondary bone tumors are described and discussed and compared with the newer literature and our own results

  12. Modeling tissue contamination to improve molecular identification of the primary tumor site of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Perell, Katharina; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2014-01-01

    with any predictor model. The usability of the model is illustrated on primary tumor site identification of liver biopsies, specifically, on a human dataset consisting of microRNA expression measurements of primary tumor samples, benign liver samples and liver metastases. For a predictor trained on primary...... tumor and benign liver samples, the contamination model decreased the test error on biopsies from liver metastases from 77 to 45%. A further reduction to 34% was obtained by including biopsies in the training data....

  13. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  14. Neuroblastoma: treatment outcome after incomplete resection of primary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Bae; Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun; Youn, Woong-Jae

    2009-09-01

    For International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages III or IV neuroblastoma (intermediate or high risk), complete excision of the primary tumor is not always feasible. Most current studies on the treatment outcome of these patients have reported on the complete excision status. The aim of this study is to review the treatment outcome after the incomplete resection. The medical records of 37 patients that underwent incomplete resection between January 1986 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Incomplete resection was assessed by review of the operative notes and postoperative computerized tomography. Age, gender, tumor location, INSS stage, N-myc gene copy number, pre- and postoperative therapy, and treatment outcome were reviewed. The treatment outcome was evaluated according to the postoperative treatment protocol in the high-risk group. Intermediate-risk patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy, isotretinoin (ITT) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). High-risk patients were treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), ITT, and IL-2 (N = 11). Before the introduction of PBSCT, the high-risk patients were also treated with the conventional chemotherapy (N = 19). Intermediate-risk patients (N = 5) currently have no evidence of disease (NED). For the high-risk patients (N = 32), 19 patients were treated with chemotherapy alone; 15 patients died of their disease while four patients currently have an NED status. Eight of 11 patients that underwent PBSCT are currently alive. For intermediate risk, conventional chemotherapy appears to be acceptable treatment. However, for high-risk patients, every effort should be made to control residual disease including the use of myeloablative chemotherapy, differentiating agents and immune-modulating agents.

  15. Capsaicin Inhibits Multiple Bladder Cancer Cell Phenotypes by Inhibiting Tumor-Associated NADH Oxidase (tNOX and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among males, and its poor survival rate reflects problems with aggressiveness and chemo-resistance. Recent interest has focused on the use of chemopreventatives (nontoxic natural agents that may suppress cancer progression to induce targeted apoptosis for cancer therapy. Capsaicin, which has anti-cancer properties, is one such agent. It is known to preferentially inhibit a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX that is preferentially expressed in cancer/transformed cells. Here, we set out to elucidate the correlation between tNOX expression and the inhibitory effects of capsaicin in human bladder cancer cells. We showed that capsaicin downregulates tNOX expression and decreases bladder cancer cell growth by enhancing apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin was found to reduce the expression levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle progression, in association with increases in the cell doubling time and enhanced cell cycle arrest. Capsaicin was also shown to inhibit the activation of ERK, thereby reducing the phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK, which leads to decreased cell migration. Finally, our results indicate that RNA interference-mediated tNOX depletion enhances spontaneous apoptosis, prolongs cell cycle progression, and reduces cell migration and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also observed a downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 in these tNOX-knockdown cells, a deacetylase that is important in multiple cellular functions. Taken together, our results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells by inhibiting tNOX and SIRT1 and thereby reducing proliferation, attenuating migration, and prolonging cell cycle progression.

  16. Primary Carcinosarcoma of Ovary an Unusual Tumor Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiotherapy and chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone.[2]. These tumors are .... stage of disease.[6]. The adverse prognostic factors as enumerated by various ... The effect of epithelial and stromal tumor components on. FIGO stages III and IV ...

  17. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  18. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  19. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh

    1983-01-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  20. Bladder cancer: the combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    1995-01-01

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery (transurethral resection and partial cystectomy), irradiation, and cis-platinum based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Initial response and local control rates are improved when a multimodality approach is used. Up to 85% of patients selected for bladder sparing therapy on the basis of their initial response to chemo-radiation may keep their bladders. This figure could increase further when other powerful prognostic factors, such as the presence of hydronephrosis or carcinoma in situ, are taken into account in initial patient selection. Deferring the patient from immediate cystectomy does not appear to compromise survival. The most appropriate sequencing of radiation and chemotherapy is yet to be established. Concomitant cis-platinum and irradiation improves local control and bladder preservation when compared with irradiation alone but does not decrease the metastatic rate. It is hoped that the well recognized activity of cis-platinum based combination chemotherapy in advanced disease will translate into effective eradication of micrometastatic disease (known to be present in up to 40% of patients at diagnosis). This has yet to be clearly demonstrated in a randomized trial. The addition of combination chemotherapy to radiation does not increase bladder morbidity but carries a considerable systemic risk. Thus, despite promising phase II studies, until a survival benefit is proven in a randomized trial, neoadjuvant or adjuvant combination chemotherapy in conjunction with irradiation should continue to be regarded as experimental

  1. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS – PHOTOPROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Benedičič - Pilih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the world as well as in our country. Decades of research have increased the understanding of the ethiopathogenetic influences and risk factors for development of malignant skin tumors and stimulated efforts to promote their prevention. There are successes of prevention programs in some places in the world expressing with the reduction of mortality because of the cutaneous malignant melanoma. A primary prevention of a skin cancer attempts to change population knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about sunlight, leading to reduce of sunlight exposure.Conclusions. In this article we are discussing guidelines for photoprevention. The best approach to it is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight. The natural protection with the use of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens are assumed as an important component of adjuvant photoprotection based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion. While it has been argued that all tanning is a manifestation of skin injury, avoiding of artificial tanning devices is proposed also.

  2. Cistos e tumores primários do mediastino Primary cysts and tumors of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bastos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectivo: Avaliação dos resultados em doentes com cistos e tumores primários do mediastino submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Material e métodos: Efectuado um estudo retrospectivo mono-institucional em doentes com cistos e tumores primários do mediastino submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico entre Janeiro de 1992 e Dezembro de 2004. Analisaram-se os dados demográficos, a apresentação clínica, a via de abordagem, a intervenção cirúrgica efectuada, a localização da lesão e o diagnóstico histológico. Avaliaram-se, ainda, os factores preditivos de malignidade, a morbilidade e mortalidade pós-operatórias e os resultados a médio prazo. Resultados: Ao longo de um período de 13 anos foram operados 171 doentes, 73 (43% do sexo feminino e 98 (57% do sexo masculino. A idade média foi de 40,3±19,7 anos (20 dias-78 anos. Em 15(9% dos doentes existia uma lesão cística primária. Os tumores primários incluíam neoplasias tímicas (31%, linfomas (22%, tumores neurogénicos (16%, tumores de células germinativas (9% e um grupo miscelâneo (13%. Em 78 doentes (46% as lesões eram malignas. O mediastino ântero-superior foi o compartimento mais frequentemente envolvido por um cisto ou tumor primário (58%, seguido do mediastino posterior (24% e do mediastino médio (18%. Em 68% dos doentes existiam sintomas na altura do diagnóstico: dor torácica (20%, febre e arrepios (13%, miastenia grave (11%, tosse (10%, dispneia (10% e síndroma da veia cava superior (7%. A análise unifactorial identificou a existência de sintomas como factor preditivo de malignidade (pObjective: To assess results in patients with primary cysts and tumours of the mediastinum who underwent surgery. Methods: A retrospective single-centre study was undertaken into patients with primary cysts and tumours of the mediastinum who underwent surgery between January 1992 and December 2004. We analysed demographic data, clinical presentation, type of surgery carried out and

  3. Investigating mechanisms of alkalinization for reducing primary breast tumor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Ian F; Nesbit, Lance A

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  4. [Regression and therapy-resistance of primary liver tumors and liver metastases after regional chemotherapy and local tumor ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H-P

    2005-05-01

    High dosage regional chemotherapy, chemoembolization and other methods of regional treatment are commonly used to treat unresectable primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. In liver malignancies of childhood neoadjuvant chemotherapy is successfully combined with surgical treatment. Chemotherapy and local tumor ablation lead to characteristic histomorphologic changes: Complete destruction of the tumor tissue and its vascular bed is followed by encapsulated necroses. After selective eradication of the tumor cells under preservation of the fibrovasular bed the tumor is replaced by hypocellular edematous and fibrotic tissue. If completely damaged tumor tissue is absorbed quickly, the tumor area is replaced by regenerating liver tissue. Obliterating fibrohyalinosis of tumor vessels, and perivascular edema or necrosis indicate tissue damage along the vascular bed. Degenerative pleomorphism of tumor cells, steatosis, hydropic swelling and Malloryhyalin in HCC can represent cytologic findings of cytotoxic cellular damage. Macroscopic type of HCC influences significantly the response to treatment. Multinodular HCC often contain viable tumor nodules close to destroyed nodules after treatment. Encapsulated uninodular tumors undergo complete necrosis much easier. Large size and a tumor capsule limitate the effect of percutaneous injection of ethanol into HCC. In carcinomas with an infiltrating border, especially in metastases of adenocarcinomas and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma cytostatic treatment damages the tumor tissue mainly in the periphery. Nevertheless the infiltrating rim, portal veins, lymphatic spaces and bile ducts as well as the angle between liver capsule, tumor nodule and bordering parenchyma are the main refugees of viable tumor tissue even after high dosage regional chemotherapy. This local resistance is caused by special local conditions of vascularization and perfusion. These residues are the source of local tumor progression and distant metastases

  5. Persistence and concomitant medication in patients with overactive bladder treated with antimuscarinic agents in primary care. An observational baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Navarro-Artieda, R; Ruiz-Torrejón, A; Sáez-Zafra, M; Coll-de Tuero, G

    2016-03-01

    To assess therapeutic persistence and its relationship with concomitant medication in patients treated with fesoterodine versus tolterodine and solifenacin for overactive bladder (OAB) in standard clinical practice conditions. An observational, multicentre retrospective study was performed based on medical registries of patients followed-up in primary care (PC). Three study groups were analysed. Persistence was defined as the time (in months) without withdrawing from the initial therapy or without changing to another medication for at least 30 days after the initial prescription. The concomitant medications were antidepressants, anxiolytic/hypnotic agents, antibiotics, antiseptic agents, laxatives and skin products. We employed the SPSSWIN program version 17 (statistical significance, P<.05). We selected 3094 patients for the study. The median age was 54.0 years and 62.2% were women. The patients treated with fesoterodine shown greater treatment persistence (12 months) when compared with those who took solifenacin and tolterodine (40.2% vs. 34.7% and 33.6%, respectively; P=.008). They also showed a lower use of concomitant medication (1.1 vs. 1.2 and 1.2 drugs, respectively; percentages: 61.6% vs. 67.1% and 70.1%, respectively; P<.03). The patients undergoing OAB treatment with fesoterodine, when compared with those taking solifenacin and tolterodine, were associated with greater treatment persistence and a reduced use of concomitant medication. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor heterogeneity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in invasive bladder cancer: implications for perioperative anti-FGFR3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, D; Neuzillet, Y; Mertens, L S; van der Heijden, M S; de Jong, J; Sanders, J; Peters, D; Leroy, K; Manceau, A; Maille, P; Soyeux, P; Moktefi, A; Semprez, F; Vordos, D; de la Taille, A; Hurst, C D; Tomlinson, D C; Harnden, P; Bostrom, P J; Mirtti, T; Horenblas, S; Loriot, Y; Houédé, N; Chevreau, C; Beuzeboc, P; Shariat, S F; Sagalowsky, A I; Ashfaq, R; Burger, M; Jewett, M A S; Zlotta, A R; Broeks, A; Bapat, B; Knowles, M A; Lotan, Y; van der Kwast, T H; Culine, S; Allory, Y; van Rhijn, B W G

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an actionable target in bladder cancer. Preclinical studies show that anti-FGFR3 treatment slows down tumor growth, suggesting that this tyrosine kinase receptor is a candidate for personalized bladder cancer treatment, particularly in patients with mutated FGFR3. We addressed tumor heterogeneity in a large multicenter, multi-laboratory study, as this may have significant impact on therapeutic response. We evaluated possible FGFR3 heterogeneity by the PCR-SNaPshot method in the superficial and deep compartments of tumors obtained by transurethral resection (TUR, n = 61) and in radical cystectomy (RC, n = 614) specimens and corresponding cancer-positive lymph nodes (LN+, n = 201). We found FGFR3 mutations in 13/34 (38%) T1 and 8/27 (30%) ≥T2-TUR samples, with 100% concordance between superficial and deeper parts in T1-TUR samples. Of eight FGFR3 mutant ≥T2-TUR samples, only 4 (50%) displayed the mutation in the deeper part. We found 67/614 (11%) FGFR3 mutations in RC specimens. FGFR3 mutation was associated with pN0 (P < 0.001) at RC. In 10/201 (5%) LN+, an FGFR3 mutation was found, all concordant with the corresponding RC specimen. In the remaining 191 cases, RC and LN+ were both wild type. FGFR3 mutation status seems promising to guide decision-making on adjuvant anti-FGFR3 therapy as it appeared homogeneous in RC and LN+. Based on the results of TUR, the deep part of the tumor needs to be assessed if neoadjuvant anti-FGFR3 treatment is considered. We conclude that studies on the heterogeneity of actionable molecular targets should precede clinical trials with these drugs in the perioperative setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.E.; Field, L.A.; Kane, J.L.; Love, B.; Hooke, J.A.; Shriver, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n=41) and positive (n=35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser micro dissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Ellsworth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (=41 and positive (=35 lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (1.5 revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis.

  11. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...

  12. Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Ying-Kun; Li, Yuan; Min, Peng-Qiu; Yu, Jian-Qun; Ma, En-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis from primary tumors in the adrenal gland on contrast-enhanced CT. Non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT features in 108 patients with adrenal tuberculosis (n=34) and primary tumor (n=74) were retrospectively assessed for the location, size, calcification and enhancement patterns. The primary tumors included 41 adenomas, 11 pheochromocytomas, 4 carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 6 myelolipomas, 6 ganglioneuromas, 2 neurilemmomas and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma. Biochemical investigation was performed for all patients. Of the tuberculosis cases, 31 (91%) invaded with bilateral involvement, while 7 (9%) of the primary tumors invaded with bilateral involvement (P<0.001). Tuberculosis often showed calcification (20 of 34; 59%), whereas primary tumors infrequently showed calcification (6 of 74; 8%; P<0.001). Low attenuation in the center with peripheral rim enhancement was more commonly seen in tuberculosis (16 of 34; 47%) than in primary tumors (7 of 74; 9%; P<0.001). In the determination of tuberculosis, the highest sensitivity (91%) and accuracy (91%) were obtained with bilateral involvement, and the highest specificity (99%) was obtained with the contour preserved. In the determination of primary tumors using a combination of having unilateral involvement and being mass-like, the outcome was a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 92%. CT findings can differentiate tuberculosis from a primary tumor of the adrenal glands with high sensitivity and an acceptable specificity when combined with the endocrinological examination. (orig.)

  13. Urachal-sigmoid fistula managed by laparoscopic assisted high anterior resection, primary anastomosis and en bloc resection of the urachal cyst and involved bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Grundy, Joshua; Naidu, Sanjeev; Gillespie, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Sigmoid-urachal fistula is exceedingly rare in adults and only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with symptomatic sigmoid-urachal fistula managed successfully with a laparoscopic assisted high anterior resection, primary anastomosis and an en bloc resection of the urachal cyst and the involved cuff of bladder. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  15. Bone-metastasizing primary renal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, C.M.B.; Zerbini, M.C.N.

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of childhood renal tumor with extensive bone involvement are reported. These neoplasms had been classified originally as wills tumors with atypical clinical and pathologic features. Subsequent to a retrospective histologic analysis, the lesions were reclassified as follows: three cases as bone-metastasizing renal tumors of childhood, one as rhabdomyosarcoma, two as indifferentiated Sarcomas and one case as indifferentiated malignant neoplasm. (Author) [pt

  16. Primary cardiac tumors associated with genetic syndromes. A comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, University Hospital Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, University Hospital Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. Tumor biology can be different in syndromic forms, and on imaging children sometimes demonstrate additional manifestations of the underlying syndrome. We discuss the imaging appearance of cardiac tumors occurring in the framework of a genetic syndrome, the findings that suggest an underlying syndrome, and the impact on management. (orig.)

  17. Primary cardiac tumors associated with genetic syndromes. A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Prachi P.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2018-01-01

    Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. Tumor biology can be different in syndromic forms, and on imaging children sometimes demonstrate additional manifestations of the underlying syndrome. We discuss the imaging appearance of cardiac tumors occurring in the framework of a genetic syndrome, the findings that suggest an underlying syndrome, and the impact on management. (orig.)

  18. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  19. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  20. Mucinous Bladder Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mello R. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare type of bladder cancer, with aggressive behavior and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The symptoms are similar to those of other bladder tumors. Surgery is the main treatment and remains the only curative option. There may be a progression from mucinous metaplasia to mucinous adenoma and then mucinous adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent lower urinary tract infections, submitted to imaging tests, which showed a bladder tumor. After transurethral resection, pathology showed intestinal mucinous carcinoma. Metastatic work-up was negative. New surgical procedure showed metaplasia but no recurrence of the carcinoma. The patient is now using antibiotic prophylaxis and will undergo a cystoscopy every 3 months and computed tomography in one year.

  1. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy.

  2. Primary Germ Cell Tumors of the Mediastinum: 10 Years of Experience in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Yang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors occur mostly in the gonad. Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare, and most occur in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are often found in the anterior portion of the mediastinum and include teratomas and non-teratomatous tumors. Non-teratomatous tumors include seminomas and malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCTs. MNSGCTs include yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and mixed type germ cell tumors. Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, and seminomas are the most common non-teratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Cases of primary mediastinal MNSGCT reported in the literature are rare. In this report, we review all primary mediastinal germ cell tumors from a 10-year period at the Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung Medical University. A total of 14 cases were reviewed, including 11 patients with mature teratomas, two with yolk sac tumors, and one with seminoma. We discuss the differences in clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis.

  3. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  4. Intra-Arterial Treatment of Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, M.A.M.; Vossen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were, first, to investigate the toxicities associated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver tumors and to evaluate the use of MR imaging in characterizing tumor response after this locoregional therapy, second, to further develop intra-arterial therapy of

  5. Epilepsy in primary intracranial tumors in a neurosurgical hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... with epilepsy have a brain tumor,[2,3] as many as 30–50% of patients with ... and another 10–30% develop seizures in the further course of .... Percentage. 46.3 .... tumors,[32] the prophylactic use of AEDs are still common. We.

  6. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  7. A Primary Pulmonary Glomus Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ariizumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a glomus tumor originating from the lung is reported. A 43-year-old female had undergone resection of a right lung tumor following a clinical diagnosis of carcinoid, sclerosing hemangioma, or other sarcoma. Histologically, the tumor comprised uniform small round to oval cells with centrally located nucleus, a clear cytoplasm, and apparent cell borders. The tumor also showed a focally hemangiopericytomatous pattern with irregularly branching or dilated vessels. Electron microscopy revealed smooth muscle differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunostaining further revealed that the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, muscle specific actin (HHF-35, but not cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, or chromogranin A. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary glomus tumor was established. Glomus tumors of the lung are very rare and only 21 cases have been reported to date. The histological features of the present tumor and the relevant literature are discussed.

  8. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index and nomogram predicting recurrence-free survival in patients with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer without carcinoma in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jianfeng Cui,1,* Shouzhen Chen,1,* Qiyu Bo,2 Shiyu Wang,1 Ning Zhang,1 Meng Yu,1 Wenfu Wang,1 Jie Han,3 Yaofeng Zhu,1 Benkang Shi1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of First Operating Room, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objectives: Among the cancers of the urogenital system, bladder cancer is ranked second both in incidence and mortality, and hence, a more accurate estimate of the prognosis for individual patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is urgently needed. Prognostic nutritional index (PNI which is based on serum albumin levels and peripheral lymphocyte count has been confirmed to have prognostic value in various cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of PNI in patients with NMIBC.Methods: Data of 329 patients with NMIBC were evaluated retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the equivalences of survival curves were tested by log-rank tests. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Discrimination of the nomogram was measured by the concordance index. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: In univariate analysis, age, tumor focality, tumor size, tumor grade, pathological T stage and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with RFS. Multivariate analysis identified PNI as an independent predictor of RFS in patients with NMIBC. According to these independent predictors, a nomogram for the prediction of recurrence was developed.Conclusion: PNI can be regarded as an independent prognostic factor for predicting RFS in NMIBC. The nomogram could be useful to improve personalized therapy for patients with NMIBC. Keywords: non

  9. Urinary bladder cancer T-staging from T2-weighted MR images using an optimal biomarker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Chen, Jerry; Venigalla, Sriram; Odhner, Dewey; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Christodouleas, John; Torigian, Drew A.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used in clinical practice to stage patients with bladder cancer to help plan treatment. However, qualitative assessment of MR images is prone to inaccuracies, adversely affecting patient outcomes. In this paper, T2-weighted MR image-based quantitative features were extracted from the bladder wall in 65 patients with bladder cancer to classify them into two primary tumor (T) stage groups: group 1 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally confined to the bladder, and group 2 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally extending beyond the bladder. The bladder was divided into 8 sectors in the axial plane, where each sector has a corresponding reference standard T stage that is based on expert radiology qualitative MR image review and histopathologic results. The performance of the classification for correct assignment of T stage grouping was then evaluated at both the patient level and the sector level. Each bladder sector was divided into 3 shells (inner, middle, and outer), and 15,834 features including intensity features and texture features from local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix were extracted from the 3 shells of each sector. An optimal feature set was selected from all features using an optimal biomarker approach. Nine optimal biomarker features were derived based on texture properties from the middle shell, with an area under the ROC curve of AUC value at the sector and patient level of 0.813 and 0.806, respectively.

  10. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D. Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg; and a fast T2W* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2W* signal intensity under carbogen (T+ was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2W* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  11. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Ibraheim, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset. Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers. It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary. Tumor markers did not show their diagnostic value even in combined panel, they only showed their prognostic value. (author)

  13. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  14. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  15. Primary Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Treated with Partial Cystectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Jayarajah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma is a variant of adenocarcinoma which is extremely rare, associated with poor prognosis and generally found to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report a case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the bladder which was successfully treated with partial cystectomy. A 71-year-old female with a history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and ischaemic heart disease presented with painless haematuria for 2 months’ duration. The abdominal ultrasonography showed a localised polypoidal vesical growth arising from the bladder dome. Cystoscopy revealed an exophytic solid tumour in the anterior fundal wall. A deep transurethral resection of bladder tumour was done and histology revealed an adenocarcinoma composed of mucinous and signet-ring cell components. Later, considering the patient’s age and the poor general condition, a partial cystectomy was done. Follow-up cystoscopy and ultrasonography were done at 12 months and there was no evidence of tumour recurrence and the patient is currently symptom-free. Partial cystectomy may be considered in patients with localised tumour without evidence of metastasis and poor general condition. Regular cystoscopies and ultrasound imaging are necessary for follow-up and early identification of recurrences.

  16. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  17. A retrospective analysis of early experience with modified complete primary repair of exstrophy bladder (CPRE in neonates and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Kurbet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the problems faced during the surgery and follow-up of modified complete primary repair of exstrophy (CPRE technique. Initial experience with CPRE and its short- and long-term outcomes with respect to continence status and psychosocial impact are reported. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital case records from March 2008 to September 2012 was performed. Data of patients with bladder exstrophy managed by a single paediatric surgeon using modified CPRE technique were analysed. Quality of life and psychosocial impact of the surgery were assessed using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0 and compared with those of typical peers. Results: Eight children (age 4 days-12 years underwent CPRE using modified Mitchell′s technique. Two patients (25% experienced early postoperative complications, with infection and fistula developing in one each. All the patients were doing well on follow-up, with variable continence rates and good cosmesis. Mean duration of follow-up was 18.5 months (range 6 months-4 years. Five out of seven (71% children were continent or partially continent. One case was lost to follow-up. PedsQL scores were comparable with those of age-matched peers in all domains except the social functioning domain in 8-12 years age group (83.53 ± 9.70 vs. 77.86 ± 10.22, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our preliminary results with modified CPRE in neonates and children have been encouraging. No major complications were observed. Continence rate was satisfactory and cosmetic results were good. Though the technique is being practiced at several Indian centres, there is a paucity of comprehensive Indian data on CPRE.

  18. Prognostic significance of maximum primary tumor diameter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Rui-Liang; Zhao, Hai; Chen, Hai-Yang; Li, Shao-En; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD. Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172). Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging

  19. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  20. Incidentally diagnosed simultaneous second primary tumor of the sphenoid sinus in a patient with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yigit, Ozgur; Taskin, Umit; Demir, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Synchronous tumors are described as multiple primary malignancies presenting within 6 months of diagnosis of index tumors. Synchronous tumors of the lung and the head and neck region is frequently seen. However, isolated sphenoid sinus and lung cancers are not reported yet. Here, we reported...... an incidentally diagnosed simultaneous second primary sphenoid sinus tumor in a patient with lung cancer. Radiological evaluation results demonstrated a significant contrast-enhanced mass in the sphenoid sinus extending through the nasopharynx because of the destruction of the sphenoid sinus. The decision...

  1. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15, 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  2. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nitu; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Agrawal, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER), gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15), 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  3. Shared liver-like transcriptional characteristics in liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Song, Xuekun; Ao, Lu; Chen, Rou; Chi, Meirong; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Hongdong; Zhao, Wenyuan; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims : Primary tumors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with liver metastasis might gain some liver-specific characteristics to adapt the liver micro-environment. This study aims to reveal potential liver-like transcriptional characteristics associated with the liver metastasis in primary colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Among the genes up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified "liver-specific" genes whose expression levels ranked among the bottom 10% ("unexpressed") of all measured genes in both normal colorectal tissues and primary colorectal tumors without metastasis. These liver-specific genes were investigated for their expressions in both the primary tumors and the corresponding liver metastases of seven primary CRC patients with liver metastasis using microdissected samples. Results: Among the 3958 genes detected to be up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified 12 liver-specific genes and found two of them, ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 , were unexpressed in microdissected primary colorectal tumors without metastasis but expressed in both microdissected liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors (Fisher's exact test, P colorectal tumors may express some liver-specific genes which may help the tumor cells adapt the liver micro-environment.

  4. Pitfalls in the MR diagnosis of primary malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    MRI has gained an undisputed place in the evaluation of malignant bone tumors, not only for verifying results of conventional radiography and clarifying differential diagnoses; it has also become increasingly important for the assessment of the malignant/benign nature of the tumor, its growth rate, definition of adequate sites for biopsy, local preoperative staging, and evaluation of the response to chemotherapy. However, several pitfalls have to be observed regarding choice of technical parameters (coils, sequences, imaging planes), tissue differentiation, and tumor staging. When staging malignant tumors, critical aspects which have to be observed are tumor extension, integrity of the cortical bone, soft tissue components, infiltration of a joint or neurovascular bundle. The use of contrast agents provides important additional information but can also give rise to misinterpretations. Thus, all features of a tumor have to be observed in order to establish a final diagnosis. Particular difficulties can occur with the interpretation of MR images of osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma, stress and insufficiency fractures, bone infarcts, myositis ossificans, hemangiomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. (orig.) [de

  5. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)...

  6. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  7. PRIMARY CARCINOMA OF THE GALL BLADDER: REVIEW AND STUDY OF EIGHTY CASES IN EMAM-KHOMEINI MEDICAL CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.RASHED-MOHASSEL

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available In a r etrospective s t udy on the c ancer o f the gal l bladder, done in Iran, it s e ems tha t it compr ises 0 . 36% o f a ll the malignant tumors . 1 .7 5% of the patients were fema les and the maximum incidenc e wa s in t he s i x th decade of l i f e. It was interesting t o note that the age ratio bet ween t he males and f ema le s reverses with t he advance o f a ge, s o at the 7th and 8t h decade of life , the inciden ce o f the disease 1n males wa s muc h highe r than f emales."nAt the 8th dec ade , the nun~er of male patients was twice as f emales . The presenting symptoms in most c a ses were; pain,j aun- d ice, l o s s o f we i gh t , and in a f ew c ases t here was a hist or y of long l asting s~np tom s , re fe r able t o the bili a ry s ystem. After admission and surgical opening of the abdomen , 60% o f patie nts we re c ons i dere d ino perable. Al l the pat ients suf fe ring f rom anaplast ic carcinoma , which comprised 5% of all case s , were female and had a long l ast i ng history of gall b ladder infe c tions. The prevalence o f stone f ormation in g a l l blad der malignancie s i s a known f act but whether t he c au s e of thi s coincidenc e i s due t o some factors, suc h as irritation dysp:asia,or only CO~~ Ibi na tion o f t hese , is not def i n i t ly known.

  8. Combined effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ionizing radiation on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baierlein, S.A.; Distel, L.; Sieber, R.; Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Sauer, R.; Roedel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Apoptosis can be induced by distinct but overlapping pathways. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis by an ''intrinsic'', mitochondria-dependent pathway. Ligation of tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, FAS (CD95) or TRAIL receptors are typical representatives of an extrinsic, death-receptor-mediated pathway. In this study the effect of irradiation, treatment with the cytokine TNF-α, or a combination of both on the induction of apoptosis and clonogenic survival of bladder carcinoma cells was investigated. Material and Methods: 5637 bladder carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant TNF-α (0-10 ng/ml), irradiated with single doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 Gy, or a combination of both modalities. Apoptotic cells were quantified by the TUNEL assay up to 96 h following treatment, clonogenic cell survival by a clonogenic assay. Synergistic effects of both modalities were evaluated using isobolographic analysis. Results: Irradiation of 5637 carcinoma cells resulted in a discontinuous dose dependence of the apoptotic fraction with a pronounced increase in the range of 0-2 Gy and a slighter increase at 2-10 Gy. The percentage of apoptotic carcinoma cells also increased continuously after treatment with lower concentrations of TNF-α reaching a plateau at concentrations of 5.0-10.0 ng/ml. Isobolographic analysis revealed a supraadditive interrelationship between irradiation and TNF-α in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/ml, and an additive effect for TNF-α concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml. The additive effects were confirmed in clonogenic survival assays with reduced survival fractions following combined TNF-α administration and irradiation. Conclusion: The combination of two apoptosis-inducing modalities resulted in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells. Although a radiosensitizing effect still has to be proven in animal models, combined-modality treatment may increase the

  9. NMP22 BladderChek Test: point-of-care technology with life- and money-saving potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomera, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    A new, relatively obscure tumor marker assay, the NMP22 BladderChek Test (Matritech, Inc.), represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of urinary bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma). Specifically, BladderChek should be employed every time a cystoscopy is performed, with corresponding changes in the diagnostic protocol and the guidelines of the American Urological Association for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Currently, cystoscopy is the reference standard and NMP22 BladderChek Test in combination with cystoscopy improves the performance of cystoscopy. At every stage of disease, BladderChek provides a higher sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer than cytology, which now represents the adjunctive standard of care. Moreover, BladderChek is four-times more sensitive than cytology and is available at half the cost. Early detection of bladder cancer improves prognosis, quality of life and survival. BladderChek may be analogous to the prostate-specific antigen test and eventually expand beyond the urologic setting into the primary care setting for the testing of high-risk patients characterized by smoking history, occupational exposures or age.

  10. Fascin and EMMPRIN expression in primary mucinous tumors of ovary: a tissue microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Omer; Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Baris, Sancar; Karagoz, Filiz; Kandemir, Bedri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of fascin and EMMPRIN in primary malignant, borderline and benign mucinous ovarian tumors, and to investigate the relationship of these markers with tumor progression and their applicability to differential diagnosis. An immunohistochemical study was performed for fascin and EMMPRIN using the tissue microarray technique. Eighty-one cases were included in the study; there were 37 benign, 25 borderline and 19 malignant primary mucinous ovarian tumors. For each case, a total staining score was determined, consisting of scores for extent of staining and intensity of staining. The cases were allocated to negative, weakly positive and strongly positive staining categories, according to the total staining score. Both of the markers were significantly negative in benign tumors as compared with borderline and malignant tumors. There was no significant difference between borderline and malignant groups for both markers. Sixty-eight percent of malignant tumors were stained positive by fascin, while this rate was 40% for borderline mucinous tumors. All malignant tumors were strongly stained positive for EMMPRIN, while this rate was 92% for borderline mucinous tumors. The rest of the cases stained weakly positive. No significant difference in staining score was found between fascin and EMMPRIN expression. In ovarian primary mucinous tumors, fascin and EMMPRIN may play an important role in tumor progression from benign tumor to carcinoma. In that context, EMMPRIN and fascin expression may have potential application in the differential diagnosis of some diagnostically problematic mucinous ovarian tumors. However, the differential diagnostic applicability of EMMPRIN appears to be more limited than that of fascin due to its wide spectrum of staining in mucinous ovarian tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of non muscle invasive bladder tumor related to the problem of bacillus Calmette-Guerin availability. Consensus of a Spanish expert's panel. Spanish Association of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, J M; Carballido-Rodríguez, J; Cozar-Olmo, J M; Palou-Redorta, J; Solsona-Narbón, E; Unda-Urzaiz, J M

    2013-01-01

    Since June 2012, the has been a worldwide lack of available of the Connaught strain. In December 2012, a group of experts met in the Spanish Association of Urology to analyze this situation and propose alternatives. To present the work performed by said committee and the resulting recommendations. An update has been made of the principal existing evidence in the treatment of middle and high risk tumors. Special mention has been made regarding the those related with the use of BCG and their possible alternative due to the different availability of BCG. In tumors with high risk of progression, immediate cystectomy should be considered when BCG is not available, with dose reduction or alternating with chemotherapy as methods to economize on the use of BCG when availability is reduced. In tumors having middle risk of progression, chemotherapy can be used, although when it is associated to a high risk of relapse, BCG would be indicated if available with the mentioned savings guidelines. BCG requires maintenance to maintain its effectiveness, it being necessary to optimize the application of endovesical chemotherapy and to use systems that increase its penetration into the bladder wall (EMDA) if they are available. Due to the scarcity of BCG, it has been necessary to agree on a series of recommendations that have been published on the web page of the Spanish Association of Urology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Preoperative measurement of canine primary bone tumors, using radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Berg, J.; Bengston, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Specimens of 20 canine primary bone tumors (18 osteosarcoma, 2 fibrosarcoma) were examined to compare the maximal axial length of gross tumor with the length of the lesion seen on preoperative radiographs and 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphic images. Radiographs defined the length of the tumor to within +/- 10% of the gross measurement for 6 (30%), underestimated it for 12 (60%), and overestimated it for 2 (10%) specimens. Bone scintigraphy defined tumor length within +/- 10% for 8 (40%), underestimated it for 1 (5%), and overestimated it for the remaining 11 (55%) specimens. Use of radiographic evaluation alone could result in underestimation of the diaphyseal extent of a primary bone tumor, with risk of incomplete resection. Bone scan images tend to overestimate tumor length and, therefore, may provide safer resection guidelines

  13. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  14. Stromal Gene Expression and Function in Primary Breast Tumors that Metastasize to Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    surrounding bone microenvironment were investigated by purifying endothelial cells from tumor-burdened and non-tumor burdened spines . 4T1...of Balb/c mice. Fresh resected tissue (normal fat pad, primary tumor tissue or the metastatic sites spine , femur and lung) was obtained and cell... Hedgehog signalling pathway: Lasp1, CREBBP/EP300 inhibitory protein 1 and FoxP1. Of interest as well are a number of differentially regulated ESTs

  15. Brown tumor of the patella caused by primary hyperparathyroidism: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Tomoko; Mawatari, Taro; Ikemura, Satoshi; Matsui, Gen; Iguchi, Takahiro; Mitsuyasu, Hiroaki [Orthopaedic Surgery, Hamanomachi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    It has been reported that the common sites of brown tumors are the jaw, pelvis, ribs, femurs and clavicles. We report our experience in a case of brown tumor of the patella caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. An initial radiograph and CT showed an osteolytic lesion and MR images showed a mixed solid and multiloculated cystic tumor in the right patella. One month after the parathyroidectomy, rapid bone formation was observed on both radiographs and CT images.1.

  16. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endoscopic Management of a Primary Duodenal Carcinoid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.

  18. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  19. Primary benign brachial plexus tumors: an experience of 115 operated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ketan I

    2012-01-01

    Primary benign brachial plexus tumors are rare. They pose a great challenge to the neurosurgeon, because the majority of patients present with minimal or no neurological deficits. Radical to complete excision of the tumor with preservation of neurological function of the involved nerve is an ideal surgical treatment option with benign primary brachial plexus tumor surgery. We present a review article of our 10-year experience with primary benign brachial plexus tumors surgically treated at King Edward Memorial Hospital and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital from 2000 to 2009. The clinical presentations, radiological features, surgical strategies, and the eventual outcome following surgery are analyzed, discussed, and compared with available series in the world literature. Various difficulties and problems faced in the management of primary benign brachial plexus tumors are analyzed. Irrespective of the tumor size, the indications for surgical intervention are also discussed. The goal of our study was to optimize the treatment of patients with benign brachial plexus tumors with minimal neurological deficits. It is of paramount importance that brachial plexus tumors be managed by a peripheral nerve surgeon with expertise and experience in this field to minimize the neurological insult following surgery.

  20. Radiographically determined growth kinetics of primary lung tumors in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.E.; Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Tumor growth rate patterns especially tumor doubling time (TDT), have been extensively evaluated in man. Studies involving the determination of TDT in humans are limited, however, by the number of cases, time consistent radiographic tumor measurements, and inability to perform experimental procedures. In animals similar constraints do not exist. Lifespan animal models lend themselves well to tumor growth pattern analysis. Experimental studies have been designed to evaluate both the biological effects and growth patterns of induced and spontaneous tumors. The purpose of this study was to calculate the tumor volume doubling times (TCDT) for radiation-induced and spontaneous primary pulmonary neoplasms in dogs to see if differences existed due to etiology, sex or histologic cell type, and to determine if the time of tumor onset could be extrapolated from the TVDT. 3 refs

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular-genetic aberrations in malignant primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubek, A.; Kovar, H.; Gadner, H.

    1998-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and tumors of the Ewing group are the most frequently observed primary malignant bone tumors. In an Internet homepage recently constructed for the Orthopedic Hospital Rizzoli Bologna, Italy, these tumors have represented the majority of 4423 malignant bone tumors in the archives of this institution since 1920 (http://www.tizeta.it/rizzoli). Malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, malignant hemangiopericytoma and giant-cell tumors are diagnosed less frequently. Since the introduction of modern molecular and cytogenic techniques, knowledge of genetic aberrations in malginant bone tumors has steadily increased. However, so far only for the group of Ewing tumors has a recurrent chromosomal marker, the translocation t(11; 22)(q24; q12), been identified. (orig.) [de

  2. Temporalis Myofascial Flap for Primary Cranial Base Reconstruction after Tumor Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Eldaly, Ahmed; Magdy, Emad A.; Nour, Yasser A.; Gaafar, Alaa H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the temporalis myofascial flap in primary cranial base reconstruction following surgical tumor ablation and to explain technical issues, potential complications, and donor site consequences along with their management. Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Participants: Forty-one consecutive patients receiving primary temporalis myofascial flap reconstructions following cranial base tumor resections in a 4-year period. Main Out...

  3. MicroRNA signature characterizes primary tumors that metastasize in an esophageal adenocarcinoma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Zaidi

    Full Text Available To establish a miRNA signature for metastasis in an animal model of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC.The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has dramatically increased and esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Mortality rates remain high among patients with advanced stage disease and esophagectomy is associated with high complication rates. Hence, early identification of potentially metastatic disease would better guide treatment strategies.The modified Levrat's surgery was performed to induce EAC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Primary EAC and distant metastatic sites were confirmed via histology and immunofluorescence. miRNA profiling was performed on primary tumors with or without metastasis. A unique subset of miRNAs expressed in primary tumors and metastases was identified with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA along with upstream and downstream targets. miRNA-linked gene expression analysis was performed on a secondary cohort of metastasis positive (n=5 and metastasis negative (n=28 primary tumors.The epithelial origin of distant metastasis was established by IF using villin (VIL1 and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC antibodies. miRNome analysis identified four down-regulated miRNAs in metastasis positive primary tumors compared to metastasis negative tumors: miR-92a-3p (p=0.0001, miR-141-3p (p=0.0022, miR-451-1a (p=0.0181 and miR133a-3p (p=0.0304. Six target genes identified in the top scoring networks by IPA were validated as significantly, differentially expressed in metastasis positive primary tumors: Ago2, Akt1, Kras, Bcl2L11, CDKN1B and Zeb2.In vivo metastasis was confirmed in the modified Levrat's model. Analysis of the primary tumor identified a distinctive miRNA signature for primary tumors that metastasized.

  4. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh (Kobe Municipal Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported. The first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe. Total removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule. Histological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma. Primary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma. In this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy.

  5. CT urography in women with primary or recurrent pelvic tumors. Background and initial experiences; CT-Urographie bei Frauen mit primaeren oder rezidivierenden Beckentumoren. Hintergrund und erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, S.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Degenhart, C.; Mourched, F.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Jundt, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, Muenchen (Germany); Stief, C.G.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Malignant tumors of the female pelvis account for 12-13% of newly diagnosed solid neoplasms among women in the USA and Germany. German guidelines advocate diagnostic imaging for local recurrence and metastasis while there are no recommendations for primary tumors. As excretory urography has been replaced by the excretory phase of computed tomography urography (CTU) in many institutions, two independent observers retrospectively evaluated CTUs of primary or recurrent female pelvic tumors to rule out associations between CTU findings and subsequent urologic measures. Among 31 CTUs of 27 women (age 29-84 years, mean 57 years) with 15 primary and 13 recurrent tumors, 83-100% of unremarkable proximal, middle and distal ureter segments were completely delineated in the excretory phase (delay 6-29 min, mean 16 min). The most common pathological findings included distal ureter obstruction (n=19, 61%), bladder compression (n=13, 42%) and bladder invasion (n=8, 26%). Out of 20 pathologically altered urinary tracts 8 were subsequently subjected to urologic measures (2-tailed Fisher exact test, p=0.0215) but none of the 10 unremarkable urinary tracts were treated. It appears that CTU is a sensible pre-therapeutic test for the urinary tract for primary and recurrent female pelvic tumors. (orig.) [German] Maligne Beckentumoren stellen 12-13% aller neu diagnostizierten soliden Neoplasien bei Frauen in den USA und in Deutschland dar. Deutsche Leitlinien befuerworten bildgebende Untersuchungen bei Lokalrezidiven und Metastasen; fuer Primaertumoren gibt es keine einschlaegigen Empfehlungen. Da das Ausscheidungsurogramm durch die Ausscheidungsaufnahme der CT-Urographie (CTU) weitgehend abgeloest ist, wurde bei weiblichen Beckentumoren oder deren Rezidive der Zusammenhang zwischen CTU-Befunden und nachfolgenden operativen urologischen Massnahmen retrospektiv von 2 unabhaengigen Auswertern geprueft. Bei 31 CTUs von 27 Frauen (Alter 29-84, Median 57 Jahre) mit 15 Primaertumoren und 13

  6. RNA-Sequencing of Primary Retinoblastoma Tumors Provides New Insights and Challenges Into Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja V. Elchuri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is rare tumor of the retina caused by the homozygous loss of the Retinoblastoma 1 tumor suppressor gene (RB1. Loss of the RB1 protein, pRB, results in de-regulated activity of the E2F transcription factors, chromatin changes and developmental defects leading to tumor development. Extensive microarray profiles of these tumors have enabled the identification of genes sensitive to pRB disruption, however, this technology has a number of limitations in the RNA profiles that they generate. The advent of RNA-sequencing has enabled the global profiling of all of the RNA within the cell including both coding and non-coding features and the detection of aberrant RNA processing events. In this perspective, we focus on discussing how RNA-sequencing of rare Retinoblastoma tumors will build on existing data and open up new area’s to improve our understanding of the biology of these tumors. In particular, we discuss how the RB-research field may be to use this data to determine how RB1 loss results in the expression of; non-coding RNAs, causes aberrant RNA processing events and how a deeper analysis of metabolic RNA changes can be utilized to model tumor specific shifts in metabolism. Each section discusses new opportunities and challenges associated with these types of analyses and aims to provide an honest assessment of how understanding these different processes may contribute to the treatment of Retinoblastoma.

  7. Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Halin Bergström

    Full Text Available Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1. To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate cancer tissue samples from primary tumors and bone metastases. In rat prostate tumor samples, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the main site of HO-1 synthesis was HO-1+ macrophages that accumulated in the tumor-bearing organ, and at the tumor-invasive front. Small metastatic tumors were considerably more effective in attracting HO-1+ macrophages than larger non-metastatic ones. In clinical samples, accumulation of HO-1+ macrophages was seen at the tumor invasive front, almost exclusively in high-grade tumors, and it correlated with the presence of bone metastases. HO-1+ macrophages, located at the tumor invasive front, were more abundant in bone metastases than in primary tumors. HO-1 expression in bone metastases was variable, and positively correlated with the expression of macrophage markers but negatively correlated with androgen receptor expression, suggesting that elevated HO-1 could be a marker for a subgroup of bone metastases. Together with another recent observation showing that selective knockout of HO-1 in macrophages reduced prostate tumor growth and metastatic capacity in animals, the results of this study suggest that extratumoral HO-1+ macrophages may have an important role in prostate cancer.

  8. Comparative Tissue Proteomics of Microdissected Specimens Reveals Novel Candidate Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Chung, Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Yu, Jau-Song; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chang, Yu-Sun; Liang, Ying; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    More than 380,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide, accounting for ∼150,200 deaths each year. To discover potential biomarkers of bladder cancer, we employed a strategy combining laser microdissection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis to profile proteomic changes in fresh-frozen bladder tumor specimens. Cellular proteins from four pairs of surgically resected primary bladder cancer tumor and adjacent nontumorous tissue were extracted for use in two batches of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments, which identified a total of 3220 proteins. A DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery) analysis of dysregulated proteins revealed that the three top-ranking biological processes were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and oxidation-reduction. Biological processes including response to organic substances, response to metal ions, and response to inorganic substances were highlighted by up-expressed proteins in bladder cancer. Seven differentially expressed proteins were selected as potential bladder cancer biomarkers for further verification. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly elevated levels of three proteins—SLC3A2, STMN1, and TAGLN2—in tumor cells compared with noncancerous bladder epithelial cells, and suggested that TAGLN2 could be a useful tumor tissue marker for diagnosis (AUC = 0.999) and evaluating lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients. ELISA results revealed significantly increased urinary levels of both STMN1 and TAGLN2 in bladder cancer subgroups compared with control groups. In comparisons with age-matched hernia urine specimens, urinary TAGLN2 in bladder cancer samples showed the largest fold change (7.13-fold), with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.70 (p < 0.001, n = 205). Overall, TAGLN2 showed the most significant

  9. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence.

  10. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  11. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  12. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  13. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  14. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na

    2015-01-01

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV max of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV maxs of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV max of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer

  15. Gamma-knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Bine; Satoh, Ken; Saijo, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    Forty patients with metastatic brain tumors from primary lung cancer underwent radiosurgery (γ-knife). We retrospectively compared their prior treatment history, number of metastatic foci, and performance status, to evaluate the effects of, and indications for, γ-knife therapy. After both the primary and the metastatic tumors were controlled, performance status could be used as an index in the choice of γ-knife therapy. Our results demonstrate that repeated γ-knife radiosurgeries prolonged survival time. Gamma-knife radiosurgery improves quality of life and prognosis of patients with metastatic brain tumors. (author)

  16. Classification of primary lung tumors in dogs: 210 cases (1975-1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, G.K.; Haschek, W.M.; Withrow, S.J.; Richardson, R.C.; Harvey, H.J.; Henderson, R.A.; Fowler, J.D.; Norris, A.M.; Tomlinson, J.; McCaw, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred ten dogs that had primary lung tumors diagnosed between 1975 and 1985 were evaluated. The majority of the tumors were classified as adenocarcinoma (74.8%) and alveolar carcinoma (20%). The most common clinical signs of disease were cough (52%), dyspnea (23.8%), lethargy (18.1%), weight loss (12.4%), and tachypnea (4.8%). The clinical methods that were most successful in directly or indirectly leading to a diagnosis of primary lung tumor were thoracic radiography (77.1%) and cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirate specimens (24.8%)

  17. Brown tumor mimicking maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldfred, Liviu-Adelin; Daugaard, Søren; von Buchwald, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first case of brown tumor mimicking a maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of the patient's primary hyperparathyroidism. A 34-year old woman presented with a 14 days history of elevation of the right orbit, retrobulbar pain and cheek anesthesia. The CT and MR evalua...... either giant cell granuloma or brown tumor. The finding of hyperparathyroidism confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic brown tumor mimicking a mucocele of the maxillary sinus....

  18. Surgical Control of a Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Yokoigawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor occurring in a 47-year-old man. The patient consulted our hospital complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver. FDG-PET revealed 18F-FDG uptake by the right hepatic lobe. The tumor was a solid mass with cystic components, approximately 15 cm in diameter. We conducted an extended right lobectomy of the liver. The resected specimen was a solid tumor with cystic components and hemorrhagic lesion. Microscopic findings showed that the tumor cells had round nuclei and formed trabecular patterns. Immunohistologically, tumor cells were stained positive for chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase, CD56, and S-100. Careful examinations before and after the operation revealed no other possible origin of the tumor. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a primary hepatic carcinoid. This is a report of a rare case of a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with a discussion of several other relevant reports.

  19. Copy number variation analysis of matched ovarian primary tumors and peritoneal metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A Malek

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer. The high rate of mortality is due to the large tumor burden with extensive metastatic lesion of the abdominal cavity. Despite initial chemosensitivity and improved surgical procedures, abdominal recurrence remains an issue and results in patients' poor prognosis. Transcriptomic and genetic studies have revealed significant genome pathologies in the primary tumors and yielded important information regarding carcinogenesis. There are, however, few studies on genetic alterations and their consequences in peritoneal metastatic tumors when compared to their matched ovarian primary tumors. We used high-density SNP arrays to investigate copy number variations in matched primary and metastatic ovarian cancer from 9 patients. Here we show that copy number variations acquired by ovarian tumors are significantly different between matched primary and metastatic tumors and these are likely due to different functional requirements. We show that these copy number variations clearly differentially affect specific pathways including the JAK/STAT and cytokine signaling pathways. While many have shown complex involvement of cytokines in the ovarian cancer environment we provide evidence that ovarian tumors have specific copy number variation differences in many of these genes.

  20. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, C.; Garreau, F.; Bougueleret, L.; Cariani, E.; Thiers, V.; Croissant, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C.; Grzeschik, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration

  1. Infratentorial brain tumors in children and adolescents - the significance of MRI in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Kahn, T.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    MRI is the current method of choice for the diagnosis of infratentorial tumors in children and adolescents. The present article discusses the individual tumor entities on the basis of their magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in the patient pool of 1991/1992. New magnetic resonance imaging procedures are considered for infratentorial vascular anomalies. In addition to its use in the primary diagnosis, the significance of MRI for the detection of recurrences is discussed. Problems arising after prior surgery and irradiation as well as metastasization through CSF pathways are also mentioned. (orig.) [de

  2. Tumor pardo maxilar: Elemento diagnóstico de hiperparatiroidismo primario Maxillary brown tumor: A diagnostic tool for primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallana Álvarez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo primario es un transtorno generalizado del metabolismo óseo producido por un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea (PTH. La etiología de este transtorno es múltiple; en la forma primaria la causa de la hipersecreción de la hormona es la propia glándula, y el motivo más frecuente el adenoma paratiroideo. Los tumores pardos son lesiones óseas focales secundarias a hiperparatiroidismo. El tratamiento de elección de los tumores pardos es la extirpación del adenoma de paratiroides, ya que la normalización de la función paratiroidea debería provocar una reducción del tamaño o desaparición del tumor. Presentamos un caso de tumor pardo mandibular en un paciente con hiperparatiroidismo primario, en el cual el tumor recidivó después de la extirpación del adenoma paratiroideo. La finalidad de la presentación de este caso es recordar el interés que para el cirujano oral y maxilofacial representan las manifestaciones orales de la patología sistémica.The primary hyperparathyroidism is a generalized disorder of the osseous metabolism, caused by hypersecretion of PTH. Hyperparathyroidism has a multiple etiology. In its primary form, the hypersecretion of the hormone is caused by the gland itself, the commonest reason being parathyroid adenoma. The treatment of first choice for brown tumor is the parathyroidectomy because the normalization of parathyroid function should lead to a reduction in size or disappearance of the tumor. We present a case of the brown tumor in the mandible and primary hyperparathyroidism in whom the tumor enlarged after removal of parathyroid adenoma. Upon presentation of this report, our aim is to bring forward the significance oral manifestations of systemic pathology has for oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

  3. What factors are associated with unplanned return following transurethral resection of bladder tumor? An analysis of a large single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Fady; Moses, Rachel A; Raffin, Eric; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to evaluate factors associated with unplanned hospital return (UR) following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), the largest source of readmission among ambulatory urological procedures. A retrospective review of TURBTs at a single academic institution between April 2011 and August 2014 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, length of stay, tumor size and multiple other factors were recorded. UR was recorded within 30 days of surgery. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors associated with UR. Among 708 patients undergoing TURBT, 23.9% were female with a mean age of 70 years. The rate of UR was 10.9%. The most common cause of UR was gross hematuria, accounting for 70%. On bivariate analysis, Foley catheter placement in the operating room, non-aspirin anticoagulation and index length of stay longer than 24 h were associated with hematuria-related UR (p hematuria-related UR (p  0.05). On multivariable analysis, only Foley placement in the operating room remained associated with higher rates of hematuria-related UR, while preoperative antibiotics, female gender and aspirin therapy remained associated with a lower likelihood of this event. UR following TURBT is common and typically results from gross hematuria. Patients with postoperative Foley catheterization in the operating room may require additional counseling or supervision before discharge, and should be considered for discharge with a Foley rather than having a prompt voiding trial.

  4. The role of imaging for the surgeon in primary malignant bone tumors of the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, M., E-mail: michele.rocca@ior.it [General and Thoracic Surgery, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Salone, M. [General and Thoracic Surgery, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Galletti, S. [Ultrasound Unit, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Balladelli, A. [Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D. [Research in Imaging Musculo Skeletal Tumors, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Briccoli, A. [General and Thoracic Surgery, The Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Primary malignant chest wall tumors are rare. The most frequent primary malignant tumor of the chest wall is chondrosarcoma, less common are primary bone tumors belonging to the Ewing Family Bone Tumors (EFBT), or even rarer are osteosarcomas. They represent a challenging clinical entities for surgeons as the treatment of choice for these neoplasms is surgical resection, excluding EFBT which are normally treated by a multidisciplinary approach. Positive margins after surgical procedure are the principal risk factor of local recurrence, therefore to perform adequate surgery a correct preoperative staging is mandatory. Imaging techniques are used for diagnosis, to determine anatomic site and extension, to perform a guided biopsy, for local and general staging, to evaluate chemotherapy response, to detect the presence of a recurrence. This article will focus on the role of imaging in guiding this often difficult surgery and the different technical possibilities adopted in our department to restore the mechanics of the thoracic cage after wide resections.

  5. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  6. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. The Curie–Da Vinci Connection: 5-Years' Experience With Laparoscopic (Robot-Assisted) Implantation for High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy of Solitary T2 Bladder Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der, E-mail: E.vanderSteen-Banasik@radiotherapiegroep.nl [Radiotherapiegroep, Arnhem (Netherlands); Smits, Geert A.H.J. [Department of Urology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem (Netherlands); Oosterveld, Bernard J.; Janssen, Theo; Visser, Andries G. [Radiotherapiegroep, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To report experience and early results of laparoscopic implantation for interstitial brachytherapy (BT) of solitary bladder tumors and the feasibility of a high-dose-rate (HDR) schedule. Methods and Materials: From December 2009 to April 2015, 57 patients with a T2 solitary bladder tumor were treated in Arnhem with transurethral bladder resection followed by external beam irradiation, applied to the bladder and regional iliac lymph nodes, 40 Gy in 20 fractions, 5 fractions per week, and within 1 week interstitial HDR BT, in selected cases combined with partial cystectomy and lymph node dissection. The BT catheters were placed via a transabdominal approach with robotic assistance from a Da Vinci robot after a successful initial experience with a nonrobotic laparoscopic approach. The fraction schedule for HDR was 10 fractions of 2.5 Gy, 3 fractions per day. This was calculated to be equivalent to a reference low-dose-rate schedule of 30 Gy in 60 hours. Data for oncologic outcomes and toxicity (Common Toxicity Criteria version 4) were prospectively collected. Results: These modifications resulted in an average postoperative hospitalization of 6 days, minimal blood loss, and no wound healing problems. Two patients had severe acute toxicity: 1 pulmonary embolism grade 4 and 1 cardiac death. Late toxicity was mild (n=2 urogenital grade 3 toxicity). The median follow-up was 2 years. Using cumulative incidence competing risk analysis, the 2-year overall, disease-free, and disease-specific survival and local control rates were 59%, 71%, 87%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusions: The benefits of minimally invasive surgery for implantation of BT catheters and the feasibility of HDR BT in bladder cancer are documented. The patient outcome and adverse events are comparable to the best results published for a bladder-sparing approach.

  8. Building tools for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, X.

    2012-01-01

    From this thesis, we can conclude that the injection of lipiodol markers into the bladder wall is a feasible method to track bladder tumors for IGRT of partial bladder. We succeeded in developing a biomechanical bladder model and bladder segmentation methods for online CBCT, which are useful tools

  9. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  10. [Clinical analysis of 138 multiple primary cancers diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor initially].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, J M; Xiong, H C; Wu, B; Zhou, X Q; Hu, J

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, strategy of treatment and prognosis of multiple primary cancers(MPC) diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly. Methods: From January, 2000 to December, 2015, the clinical, follow-up and prognostic data of 138 MPC patients diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 138 cases were found in 10 580 cases with malignant tumors, and the incidence was 1.30%. There were 129 cases of duplex primary cancers, 8 cases of triple primary cancers and 1 case of quintuple primary cancers. The repetitive primary cancer was occurred in digestive system (61cases, 44.2%) most frequently, with the next in respiratory system (46 cases, 33.3%). 52.2% (72 cases) suffered second primary cancer in 2 years after first primary cancer diagnosed, and 75.4% (104 cases) in 5 years. The median overall survival in patients with all cancer lesions radically treated was 168 months, better than any other treatment (68 months, P digestive system malignant tumor most frequently occurred in the digestive system and respiratory system. More concern should be attracted in follow-up, especially in the first 5 years. The key to improve patient' prognosis was radical treatment to every primary cancer.

  11. Accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woranisarakul, Varat; Ramart, Patkawat; Phinthusophon, Kittipong; Chotikawanich, Ekkarin; Prapasrivorakul, Siriluck; Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer. Records of patients with colorectal cancer and a suspicion of bladder invasion, who underwent tumor resection with partial or total cystectomy between 2002 and 2013 at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, were reviewed. Correlations between preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, cystoscopic finding, CT imaging and final pathological reports were analyzed. This study included 90 eligible cases (71% male). The most common site of primary colorectal cancer was the sigmoid colon (44%), followed by the rectum (33%). Final pathological reports showed definite bladder invasion in 53 cases (59%). Significant features for predicting definite tumor invasion were gross hematuria (OR 13.6, sensitivity 39%, specificity 73%), and visible tumor during cystoscopy (OR 5.33, sensitivity 50%, specificity 84%). Predictive signs in CT imaging were gross tumor invasion (OR 7.07, sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%), abnormal enhancing mass at bladder wall (OR 4.09, sensitivity 68%, specificity 66%), irregular bladder mucosa (OR 3.53, sensitivity 70%, specificity 60% ), and loss of perivesical fat plane (OR 3.17, sensitivity 81%, specificity 43%). However, urinary analysis and other urinary tract symptoms were poor predictors of bladder involvement. The present study demonstrated that the most relevant preoperative predictors of definite bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer are gross hematuria, a visible tumor during cystoscopy, and abnormal CT findings.

  12. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  13. Impact of primary metastatic bone disease in germ cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oing, C; Oechsle, K; Necchi, A

    2017-01-01

    (multivariate Cox regression; HR, 0.32; P=0.011) with respective 2-year PFS and OS rates of 68% and 75% compared with 24% and 36% for non-seminoma patients. Conclusions: Outcome of GCT patients with primary metastatic bone disease is particularly poor in non-seminoma patients, even worse than the expected...

  14. Complications Following Primary and Revision Transsphenoidal Surgeries for Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, James G.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Wineland, Andre; Nepple, Kenneth G.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Getz, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the incidence of major complications following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Major complications included endocrinopathic, skull base, orbital, hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications, respiratory failure, and death. Secondarily, this study aimed to examine factors associated with the occurrence of complications. Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis of California and Florida all-payer databases from 2005-2008. Methods The major complication rate following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship of patient characteristics with complication occurrence, and a multivariate model was constructed to determine risk factors associated with these complications. Results 5,277 primary cases and 192 revision cases met inclusion criteria. There was a non-significant absolute difference of 3.09% (95% CI −11.00 to 16.14) between the rate of complications following primary (n=443; 8.39%) and revision (n=22; 11.46%) surgeries. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with Medicare (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.61), Medicaid (OR=2.13; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.86), or a malignant neoplasm (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.62 to 5.93) were more likely to have complications. Conclusions The rate of major complications following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is lower than earlier retrospective reports. The overall complication rate following revision surgery was not significantly different from primary surgery. Insurance status and a diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm were associated with a higher rate of complications. PMID:25263939

  15. Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Dhramveer; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology. Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy. Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen; Haberer, Thomas; Jaekel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications

  19. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], e-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications.

  20. Primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: original report and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kropp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive followup is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  1. Primary Intraosseous Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Original Report and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Lauren; Siegal, Gene P; Frampton, Garrett M; Rodriguez, Michael G; McKee, Svetlana; Conry, Robert M

    2016-11-17

    We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive follow-up is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  2. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI; IRM et leiomyome vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A. [Hopital Avicenne, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-08-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  3. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of Vulva: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh kamian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancer is a rare malignancy representing less than 1% of the cancers, which is diagnosed in women with a high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis and carries a poor prognosis. We presented a 51-year-old woman with a lesion in the vulva appeared for three months. The lesion was large, ulcerative, hemorrhagic, tender, and mobile with no lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy demonstrated a high-grade malignant neoplasm with lymphovascular invasion. Based on the immunohistochemistry test, the patient was diagnosed with neuroendocrine carcinoma with poorly differentiated tumor. In the diagnostic workup, there were two small lymph nodes on the left inguinal area. The patient was subjected to radical vulvectomy and bilateral illioinguinal lymphadenectomy. In addition, she was prescribed to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy for three cycles. Subsequently, she was given hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the pelvis and bilateral inguinals  concurrently with chemotherapy. In the last follow-up visit in 32 months later, the patient was disease-free in the physical examination, and the laboratory tests and imaging findings were normal.

  4. Primary oral and nasal transmissible venereal tumor in a mix-breed dog

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Mahdieh; Azizi, Shahrzad; Shahheidaripour, Shima; Rostami, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a coitally transmitted tumor of dogs with widespread distribution. The present study describes the occurrence of the primary oral and nasal TVT in a 10-year-old, female, mix-breed dog. The case was presented with a history of anorexia, inability to swallow and dyspnea. Clinical examinations revealed the emaciation, muzzle deformity due to the presence of a friable, fleshy, cauliflower-like mass in the oral cavity and submandibular lymphadenopathy. TVT was...

  5. Radiological contribution in the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, K.; Hoffmann, G.; Loeffler, T.; Hausamen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors has been improved recently by more aggressive operative, chemotherapeutic and embolization treatment. In a personal series of 40 patients with liver metastases colorectal cancer, regional intraarterial chemotherapy was superior to systematic intravenous treatment, with a tumor remission rate in 66% in comparison to 48% of the cases. But the benefit of intraarterial chemotherapy is still questionable considering the higher complication rate and the absence of prognostic data of the procedure. (orig.) [de

  6. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Left Hepatic Duct: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay H. Bhandarwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Biliary Tract Neuroendocrine tumors (NET are extremely rare tumors with only 77 cases been reported in the literature till now. We describe a case of a left hepatic duct NET and review the literature for this rare malignancy. To the best of our knowledge the present case is the first reported case of a left hepatic duct NET in the literature. In spite of availability of advanced diagnostic tools like Computerized Tomography (CT Scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreaticography (ERCP a definitive diagnosis of these tumors is possible only after an accurate histopathologic diagnosis of operative specimens with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Though surgical excision remains the gold standard treatment for such tumors, patients with unresectable tumors have good survival with newer biologic agents like Octreotride.

  7. Primary dorsal spine primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult patient: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyashiva Munjal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (psPNET is a rare entity with few cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female who presented to us with paraplegia and was diagnosed with extradural dorsal spine psPNET. The diagnosis was not suspected at presentation or on radiology but was established on histopathological examination. It is important to distinguish it from central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors and from other spinal tumors since it follows a different clinical course and therapeutic outcome.

  8. The clinical pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small intestine primary malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Mao, Zhiyuan; Su, Dan; Jiang, Zhaocai; Bai, Li

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the clinicopathological features and diagnosis of Chinese patients with small intestine primary malignant tumors and to explore the best therapy to small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). More than 26,000 patients with digestive tract malignant tumors received treatment in PLA hospital from 2000 to 2011, and among them, there were 887 patients who had small intestine primary malignant tumors, and 666 of 887 patients had the completed basic clinical documents. We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between clinical and pathological features of the 666 patients and analyzed the survival and prognosis of 173 SBA patients with follow-up data. Both the number of patients with primary malignant tumors of the small intestine and the number of patients who received chemotherapy showed an increasing trend. The ratio of male to female was 1.58:1. The male patients significantly exceed the female patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and duodenal ampulla; and most of the patients are over 60 years of age. For patients burdened with either of the pathological types of tumors, the males exceeded the females, but there was no significant difference. Abdominal pain was the main clinical manifestation for patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the most common clinical manifestations were jaundice and abdominal pain for patients with ampullary duodenal tumors, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and sarcoma. In addition, patients with stromal tumors were prone to gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was the most common examinational procedure. Patients under 60 years of age were prone to surgery and chemotherapy after surgery, and patients over 60 years of age were prone to supportive treatment and chemotherapy without surgery. The medium overall survival of patients who received surgery without chemotherapy, chemotherapy after surgery, chemotherapy without surgery

  9. A case of primary neuroendcrine tumor of liver with FDG accumulation by PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yoshihiro; Kishi, Ryotaro; Uka, Mayu; Tsuchihashi, Kazuyo; Hyodo, Takeshi; Takakura, Norihisa; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    We report an 80's male with primary hepatic neuroendcrine tumor without clinical symptom. dynamic contrast CT showed a hypervascular tumor at S5 of the liver. EOB-MRI showed high intensity on T2WI, low intensity on T1WI, the hepatic phase and the diffusion weighted image. It showed high FDG accumulation. Pathological examination confirmed neuroendcrine tumor of liver, G2 stage, and owing to the CD56 positive, 12.6% at MIB-1 index, with a little necrosis, no capsule and hemorrhage. (author)

  10. Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsson, Viktor A; Tahirova, Narmin; Tallapragada, Naren; Yao, Xiaosai; Campion, Liam; Angelini, Alessandro; Douce, Thomas B; Huang, Cindy; Bowman, Brittany; Williamson, Christina A; Kwon, Douglas S; Wittrup, K Dane; Love, J Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Cancer is an inflammatory disease of tissue that is largely influenced by the interactions between multiple cell types, secreted factors, and signal transduction pathways. While single-cell sequencing continues to refine our understanding of the clonotypic heterogeneity within tumors, the complex interplay between genetic variations and non-genetic factors ultimately affects therapeutic outcome. Much has been learned through bulk studies of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment, but the secretory behavior of single cells has been largely uncharacterized. Here we directly profiled the secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines from thousands of single colorectal tumor and stromal cells, using an array of subnanoliter wells and a technique called microengraving to characterize both the rates of secretion of several factors at once and the numbers of cells secreting each chemokine. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are highly redundant, pro-angiogenic cytokines that signal via the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, influencing tumor growth and progression. We find that human primary colorectal tumor and stromal cells exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in the combinations and magnitudes of secretions for these chemokines. In cell lines, we observe similar variance: phenotypes observed in bulk can be largely absent among the majority of single cells, and discordances exist between secretory states measured and gene expression for these chemokines among single cells. Together, these measures suggest secretory states among tumor cells are complex and can evolve dynamically. Most importantly, this study reveals new insight into the intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity of human primary tumors.

  11. Molecular evolution of multiple recurrent cancers of the bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. van Tilborg (Angela); A. de Vries (Annie); M. de Bont (Maarten); L.E. Groenfeld (Lilian); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe the reconstruction of bladder tumor development in individual patients spanning periods of up to 17 years. Genomic alterations detected in the tumors were used for hierarchical cluster analysis of tumor subclones. The cluster analysis

  12. Contemporary Role of Radiotherapy in the Management of Primary Penile Tumors and Metastatic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Juanita

    2016-11-01

    Squamous cell cancer of the penis is a radiocurable malignancy all too often managed solely by partial or total penectomy. Effective management of the primary tumor while preserving penile morphology and function is a priority. External radiotherapy and brachytherapy have a role to play in the definitive management of the primary tumor. Surgical nodal staging remains a cornerstone of management because it is the strongest predictor of survival, and inguinal status determines pelvic management. Postoperative radiotherapy of the regional nodes for high-risk pathology is indicated. Chemoradiotherapy should be considered as neoadjuvant treatment for unresectable nodes or as definitive management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  14. Gender-specific differences in cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in pathologic tumor stage T4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias; Bastian, Patrick J; Brookman-May, Sabine; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Tilki, Derya; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Gilfrich, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Herrmann, Edwin; Moritz, Rudolf; Tiemann, Arne; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian G; Wieland, Wolf F; Höfner, Thomas; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haferkamp, Axel; Roigas, Jan; Zacharias, Mario; Nuhn, Philipp; Burger, Maximilian

    2013-10-01

    Bladder cancer (UCB) staged pT4a show heterogeneous outcome after radical cystectomy (RC). No risk model has been established to date. Despite gender-specific differences, no comparative studies exist for this tumor stage. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 245 UCB patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy staged pT4a, pN0-2, M0 after RC were analyzed in a retrospective multi-center study. Seventeen patients were excluded from further analysis due to carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra and/or positive surgical margins. Average follow-up period was 30 months (IQR: 14-45). The influence of different clinical and histopathologic variables on CSS was determined through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Two risk groups were generated using factors with independent effect in multivariate models. Internal validity of the prediction model was evaluated by bootstrapping. Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 192) were male; 72% (n = 165) showed lymphovascular invasion (LVI). The 5-year CSS rate was 31%, and significantly different between male and female (35% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression modeling, female gender (HR = 1.83, P = 0.008), LVI (HR = 1.92, P = 0.005), and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, P = 0.020) significantly worsened CSS. Two risk groups were generated using these 3 criteria, which differed significantly between each other in CSS (5-year-CSS: 46% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). The c-index value of the risk model was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68, P < 0.001). Prognosis in UCB staged pT4a is heterogeneous. Female gender and LVI are adverse factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve outcome. The present analysis establishes the first risk model for this demanding tumor stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MiRNA-21 Expression Decreases from Primary Tumors to Liver Metastases in Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Feiersinger

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients. Expression of certain miRNAs in the primary tumors has been shown to be associated with progression of colorectal cancer and the initiation of metastasis. In this study, we compared miRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases in order to get an idea of the oncogenic importance of the miRNAs in established metastases.We analyzed the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 in corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples of primary colorectal cancer, liver metastasis and healthy tissues of 29 patients by quantitative real-time PCR.All three miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the primary tumor tissues as compared to healthy colon mucosa of the respective patients (p < 0.01. MiRNA-21 and miRNA-31 were also higher expressed in liver metastases as compared to healthy liver tissues (p < 0.01. No significant difference of expression of miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 was observed between primary tumors and metastases. Of note, miRNA-21 expression was significantly reduced in liver metastases as compared to the primary colorectal tumors (p < 0.01.In the context of previous studies demonstrating increased miRNA-21 expression in metastatic primary tumors, our findings raise the question whether miRNA-21 might be involved in the initiation but not in the perpetuation and growth of metastases.

  16. [Prevalence and characterization of overactive bladder detected in a population in Madrid with self-administered OAB-V3 questionnaire in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Calderín, María P; Fernández, Yolanda; González, Miriam; Gómez, Esther; Herreros, Maria B; Peñasco, Purificación; Zapatero, Manuela; Dorado, Juan F

    2018-02-01

    Determining the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Spanish population and evaluate the impact of these symptoms on well-being and labour productivity in this population. Transversal study. Primary health care, Madrid, Spain. Males and females >30 years. Classification by primary care physicians with the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool abbreviated version (OAB-V3). Subjects with score ≥3 and a similarly balanced control population with score <3 were clinically investigated. History, physical examination, urinalysis, sonography, general well-being scale and the questionnaires PPBC, OAB-q y WPAI-SHP. A total 923 subjects were screened, of which 209 (22.6%), 35% males and 65% females, had probable OAB. Age distribution increased from 11.1% in 4th decade to 44.4% in 9th decade. Kappa coefficient between suspected OAB and definite diagnosis was .83. The area under ROC curve for diagnosis based on OAB-V3 questionnaire and the presence of perceived bother and coping strategies was 92%. Subjects classified by score ≥3 had worse well-being, higher PPBC score and worse parameters on total OAB-q and transformed scores for each OAB-q subscale (P<.0001). In these subjects labour productivity was not affected (P=.14) but the capacity to perform regular activities was (P<.0001). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire to screen OAB with good predictive accuracy in a primary care setting and reveals important implications on health related quality of life issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Relapse: Local Recurrence Versus New Primary Tumor and the Effect of Whole-Breast Radiotherapy on the Rate of New Primaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujral, Dorothy M.; Sumo, Georges; Owen, John R.; Ashton, Anita; Bliss, Judith M.; Haviland, Joanne; Yarnold, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The justification for partial breast radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery assumes that ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) outside the index quadrant are mostly new primary (NP) tumors that develop despite radiotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) is ineffective in preventing NP by comparing development rates in irradiated and contralateral breasts after tumor excision and WBRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 1,410 women with breast cancer who were entered into a prospective randomized trial of radiotherapy fractionation and monitored annually for ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) and contralateral breast cancer (CLBC). Cases of IBTR were classified into local recurrence (LR) or NP tumors based on location and histology and were subdivided as definite or likely depending on clinical data. Rates of ipsilateral NP and CLBC were compared over a 15-year period of follow-up. Results: At a median follow-up of 10.1 years, there were 150 documented cases of IBTR: 118 (79%) cases were definite or likely LR; 27 (18%) cases were definite or likely NP; and 5 (3%) cases could not be classified. There were 71 cases of CLBC. The crude proportion of definite-plus-likely NP was 1.9% (27/1,410) patients compared with 5% (71/1,410) CLBC patients. Cumulative incidence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 0.8%, 2.0%, and 3.5%, respectively, for definite-plus-likely NP and 2.4%, 5.8%, and 7.9%, respectively for CLBC, suggesting a difference in the rates of NP and CLBC. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that WBRT reduces the rate of ipsilateral NP tumors. The late presentation of NP has implications for the reporting of trials that are testing partial breast radiotherapy.

  18. Primary Hyperparathyroidism Misdiagnosed as Giant Cell Bone Tumor of Maxillary Sinus: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sharifian, Hashem; Rasuli, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder recognized by hyperfunction of parathyroid gland, which can result in persistent bone absorption and brown tumor. Facial involvement of brown tumor is rare and usually involves the mandible. Giant cell tumor (GCT) is an expansile osteolytic bone tumor which is very similar in clinical, radiological and histological features to brown tumor. Herein, we present a 35-year-old woman with an 11-month history of gradually swelling of the right maxilla and buccal spaces began during pregnancy two years ago. No other clinical or laboratory problems were detected. Postpartum CT scan demonstrated a lytic expansile multi-septated mass lesion containing enhancing areas, which initially described as GCT of the right maxillary sinus following surgery. Four months later, gradual progressive swelling of the bed of tumor was recurred and revised pathological slices were compatible with GCT. Regarding patient recent paresthesia, repeated laboratory tests were performed. Finally, according to laboratory results (elevation of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone), ultrasonographic findings and radioisotope scan (Sestamibi), probable parathyroid mass and brown tumor of maxilla was diagnosed. Pathology confirmed hyperplasia of right inferior parathyroid gland. Our case was thought-provoking due to its interesting clinical presentation and unusual presentation of brown tumor in parathyroid hyperplasia

  19. Age dependency of primary tumor sites and metastases in patients with Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Jennifer; Ranft, Andreas; DuBois, Steven G; Paulussen, Michael; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2018-06-01

    The median age of patients with Ewing sarcoma (EwS) at diagnosis is around 14-15 years. Older age is associated with a worse outcome. The correlation of age at diagnosis on sites of disease has not been fully described. The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in sites of primary tumor and metastatic tumor involvement according to age groups. EwS data from the Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatology (GPOH) database of the Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81/86 and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study EICESS 92 and the EUROpean Ewing tumor Working Initiative of National Groups-99-Protocol (EURO-E.W.I.N.G.-99) study were analyzed. Patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated statistically using chi square tests. The study population included 2,635 patients with bone EwS. Sites of primary and metastatic tumors differed according to the age groups of young children (0-9 years), early adolescence (10-14 years), late adolescence (15-19 years), young adults (20-24 years), and adults (more than 24 years). Young children demonstrated the most striking differences in site of disease with a lower proportion of pelvic primary and axial tumors. They presented less often with metastatic disease at diagnosis. Site of primary and metastatic tumor involvement in EwS differs according to patient age. The biological and developmental etiology for these differences requires further investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  1. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  2. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  3. Therapeutically targeting cyclin D1 in primary tumors arising from loss of Ini1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa E.; Cimica, Velasco; Chinni, Srinivasa; Jana, Suman; Koba, Wade; Yang, Zhixia; Fine, Eugene; Zagzag, David; Montagna, Cristina; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are rare, highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis and with no standard or effective treatment strategies. RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivation of the INI1 tumor suppressor gene. INI1 directly represses CCND1 and activates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p16Ink4a and p21CIP. RTs are exquisitely dependent on cyclin D1 for genesis and survival. To facilitate translation of unique therapeutic strategies, we have used genetically engineered, Ini1+/− mice for therapeutic testing. We found that PET can be used to noninvasively and accurately detect primary tumors in Ini1+/− mice. In a PET-guided longitudinal study, we found that treating Ini1+/− mice bearing primary tumors with the pan-cdk inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in complete and stable regression of some tumors. Other tumors showed resistance to flavopiridol, and one of the resistant tumors overexpressed cyclin D1, more than flavopiridol-sensitive cells. The concentration of flavopiridol used was not sufficient to down-modulate the high level of cyclin D1 and failed to induce cell death in the resistant cells. Furthermore, FISH and PCR analyses indicated that there is aneuploidy and increased CCND1 copy number in resistant cells. These studies indicate that resistance to flavopiridol may be correlated to elevated cyclin D1 levels. Our studies also indicate that Ini1+/− mice are valuable tools for testing unique therapeutic strategies and for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in tumors that arise owing to loss of Ini1, which is essential for developing effective treatment strategies against these aggressive tumors. PMID:21173237

  4. Local melanoma recurrences in the scar after limited surgery for primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drzewiecki, K T; Andersson, A P

    1995-01-01

    The clinical and histologic records of 46 consecutive patients were reviewed who during the period 1980-1993 had recurrence from melanoma in the scar after limited surgery for a skin tumor. They constituted about 50% of all patients admitted with local recurrence from melanoma during this period....... At reexamination of the primary tumors, 16 were found to be malignant melanomas and 9 were nevi (four atypical and five benign). Twenty-one were missing, 11 of which had never been set for histologic examination. The median thickness of nine measurable melanomas was 0.66 mm. The recurrences in scar consisted of 34...... recurrences in the form of a new primary in a scar following limited surgery supports the theory of limited field change around a primary melanoma. Furthermore, limited procedures for primary melanoma, if followed by a recurrence in the scar, worsen the prognosis....

  5. Searching urinary tumor-associated proteins for bladder transitional cell carcinoma in southwestern Taiwan using gel-based proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Su

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: In this paper, 11 de-regulated proteins were observed in the urinary specimens of BTTC patients from the southwestern coast of Taiwan where Blackfoot disease is endemic and the unusually high incidence of BTTC in this area might attribute to high arsenic content in the drinking water. It is possible that long-term arsenic-induced alteration of these de-regulated proteins, most of which were extracellularmatrix – (ECM related proteins which may play roles in regulating the immune response, signal transduction and tumor invasions, might be involved in BTTC development in southwestern Taiwan.

  6. Diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fengpo; Wu Yiwei; Li Qingru; Fa Yihua

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer, 12 tumor markers including AFP, CEA, NSE, CA125, CA15-3, CA242, CA19-9, PSA, f-PSA, FER, β-HCG and HGH were measured by the protein biochip in the serum of 45 primary pulmonary cancer patients. Positive rate of tumor markers was FER (42.2%), CEA (35.6%), CA125 (24.4%), CA15-3 (17.8%), CA242 (13.3%), CA19-9 (11.1%), β-HCG(8.9%), HGH(6.7%), NSE(4.4%), AFP (0), f-PSA (0) and PSA (0), respectively. The rate of patients with one abnorma indicator was 57.8% except FER. The positive rate using multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection was significantly higher than that of single tumor marker detective method, and this detection can be used for the diagnosis of patients with primary pulmonary cancer. (authors)

  7. The Findings of 99mTc-MDP Bone Scan in Primary malignant Bone Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, In Young; Lee, Kung Han; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Han Koo

    1995-01-01

    Tc-99m-MDP bone scan was performed in 31 patients with primary malignant bone tumors, 22 patients with osteogenic sarcoma, 5 patients with chondrosarcoma and 4 patients with Ewing's sarcoma. The findings were classified by isotope intensity of accumulation in tumor as grade 1 to 3, overall pattern of isotope distribution in tumor as grade 1 to 3, and distortion of bony outline as grade 1 to 3. Histologic classifications were correlated with scan findings in 22 patients with osteogenic sarcoma. The results were as follows. 1) In 22 patients with osteogenic sarcoma, markedly increased isotope intensity higher than sacroiliac joint with patchy areas of decreased intensity and severe bony distortion were found in 16 patients. The correlations between histologic classification and scan findings were not discovered. 2) In 5 patients with chondrosarcoma, mildly increased isotope intensity with patchy areas of increased intensity and mild bony distortion were found in 4 patients. 3) In 4 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, markedly increased homogenous intensity with moderate bony distortion were found in 3 patients. Conclusively there were common findings in each 3 primary malignant bone tumors and Tc-99m-MDP bone scan was complemented with radiologic studies in differentiating primary malignant bone tumors.

  8. En bloc urinary bladder resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer: a 17-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jimmy C M; Chong, Charing C N; Ng, Simon S M; Yiu, Raymond Y C; Lee, Janet F Y; Leung, Ka Lau

    2011-09-01

    En bloc bladder resection is often required for treating colorectal cancer with suspected urinary bladder invasion. Our aim was to review our institutional experience in en bloc resection of locally advanced colorectal cancer involving the urinary bladder over a period of 17 years. The hospital records of 72 patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer who underwent en bloc urinary bladder resection at our institution between July 1987 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and oncologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up was 64.3 months. Genuine tumor invasion into the urinary bladder was confirmed in 34 patients (47%) by histopathology. Forty patients (56%) underwent primary closure of the urinary bladder, while 32 patients (44%) required various kinds of urologic reconstructive procedures. Operative mortality occurred in four patients (6%). The overall postoperative morbidity rate was significantly higher in patients undergoing urologic reconstruction (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.002) when compared to that in patients undergoing primary closure. This was mostly attributable to significantly higher rates of urinary anastomotic leak (21.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) and urinary tract infection (50% vs. 18%, p = 0.003) in the urologic reconstruction group. For the 57 patients (79%) who underwent curative resection, the 5-year overall survival rate was 59%, and the local recurrence at 5 years was 15%. Both parameters were not significantly affected by the presence of pathologic bladder invasion or the extent of surgical procedures. En bloc bladder resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer involving the urinary bladder can produce reasonable long-term local control and patient survival.

  9. Gene expression analysis of matched ovarian primary tumors and peritoneal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Joel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer due to late diagnosis at advanced stage with major peritoneal involvement. To date most research has focused on primary tumor. However the prognosis is directly related to residual disease at the end of the treatment. Therefore it is mandatory to focus and study the biology of meatastatic disease that is most frequently localized to the peritoneal caivty in ovarian cancer. Methods We used high-density gene expression arrays to investigate gene expression changes between matched primary and metastatic (peritoneal lesions. Results Here we show that gene expression profiles in peritoneal metastasis are significantly different than their matched primary tumor and these changes are affected by underlying copy number variation differences among other causes. We show that differentially expressed genes are enriched in specific pathways including JAK/STAT pathway, cytokine signaling and other immune related pathways. We show that underlying copy number variations significantly affect gene expression. Indeed patients with important differences in copy number variation displayed greater gene expression differences between their primary and matched metastatic lesions. Conclusions Our analysis shows a very specific targeting at both the genomic and transcriptomic level to upregulate certain pathways in the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, while primary tumors use certain pathways we identify distinct differences with metastatic lesions. The variation between primary and metastatic lesions should be considered in personalized treatment of ovarian cancer.

  10. Five Simultaneous Primary Tumors in a Single Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey W. Williamson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple primary malignancies (MPMs are present when a patient is diagnosed with more than one primary malignancy and when each tumor is histologically unrelated to the others. MPMs are considered synchronous when they present within 6 months of one another. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for melanoma in 1988, who presented in 2014 with 5 distinct tumors within 4 months: malignant melanoma of the right popliteal fossa, invasive lobular breast carcinoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath/pigmented villonodular synovitis. We discuss her treatment and also present a brief review of the literature. The incidence of MPMs appears to be on the rise, which demands an interdisciplinary, multimodal, and personalized approach to care.

  11. Top 50 most cited articles on primary tumors of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Nima; Cohen, Jonathan; Ozpinar, Alp; Agarwal, Nitin; Kanter, Adam S; Okonkwo, David O; Hamilton, D Kojo

    2017-08-01

    Citation analysis was performed in order to identify the top 50 most cited articles pertaining to the field of primary spinal tumors. This collection of articles highlights important trends in the neurosurgical literature. We searched the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in order to identify articles pertaining to primary tumors of the spine. Impertinent articles were removed. The top 50 most cited articles were identified. Thereafter, article characteristics were determined including article type, article topic, level of evidence, and citation rate. The selected articles were published between 1951 and 2008. The most productive year was 1997 with 6 publications. The top 50 articles were published in twenty-two different journals, most commonly in Neurosurgery (12), Journal of Neurosurgery (8), and Spine (6). The most frequently cited article was by Tomita et al. written in 1997 which described total en bloc spondylectomy as a novel surgical technique in management of primary tumors of the vertebral column. We identified the 50 most-cited articles in the field of primary spinal tumors. This collection of articles serves as a reference for recognizing impactful studies in the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Immunocytochemical characterization of primary cell culture in canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M.M. Flórez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Immunochemistry with anti-vimentin, anti-lysozyme, anti-alpha 1 antitrypsin, anti-CD3 and anti-CD79α antibodies has been used for characterization of primary cell culture in the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT. Samples for primary cell culture and immunohistochemistry assays were taken from eight dogs with cytological and clinical diagnosis of TVT. To validate the immunochemical results in the primary cell culture of TVT, a chromosome count was performed. For the statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test with p<0.05 was used. TVT tissues and culture cells showed intense anti-vimentin immunoreactivity, lightly to moderate immunoreactivity for anti-lysozyme, and mild for anti-alpha-antitrypsin. No marking was achieved for CD3 and CD79α. All culture cells showed chromosomes variable number of 56 to 68. This is the first report on the use of immunocytochemical characterization in cell culture of TVT. Significant statistic difference between immunochemistry in tissue and culture cell was not established, what suggests that the use of this technique may provide greater certainty for the confirmation of tumors in the primary culture. This fact is particularly important because in vitro culture of tumor tissues has been increasingly used to provide quick access to drug efficacy and presents relevant information to identify potential response to anticancer medicine; so it is possible to understand the behavior of the tumor.

  13. Bone scintigraphy in Ewing's sarcoma during and after treatment - prognostic information from the primary tumor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piers, D.A.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Kamps, W.A.; Woldring, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    A bone scan can be negative in Ewing's sarcoma. The bone scan during and after treatment can give prognostic information on the primary tumor site: A persisting hot spot strongly suggests the presence of local malignancy, while a hot spot becomming negative points to local cure of Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  14. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  15. Fibulectomy for primary proximal fibular bone tumors: A functional and clinical outcome in 46 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zile Singh Kundu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary benign and malignant tumors of the proximal fibula are not very common. Upper fibula being an expendable bone; the majority of the primary bone tumors at this site are usually treated with en bloc proximal fibulectomy. There is scarce literature on functional results, difficulties faced during dissection when to preserve or sacrifice common peroneal nerve and importance of lateral collateral ligament repair after proximal fibulectomy. The present study attempts at assessing these variables. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 46 patients; 30 males and 16 females with age ranging from 12 to 44 years (average: 26 years operated between 2003 and 2014. There were 34 benign and 12 malignant tumors. All were treated with proximal en bloc fibulectomy as indicated and decided by the operating surgeon keeping in view its extent on magnetic resonance imaging. Peroneal nerve sacrifice or preservation was decided as per the type (benign/malignant, its involvement by the tumor and the extent of the tumor. In 14 (for 12 malignant and two benign giant cell tumors [GCTs] patients, the peroneal nerve required resection for the margins. Partial upper tibial resection was performed in cases of malignant tumors and three GCTs. The followup ranged between 24 and 120 months (median: 48 months. Results: Patients with peroneal nerve resection had inferior functional outcome than those without peroneal nerve resection. There was no higher risk of tibia fracture in patients with partial tibial resection. Lateral collateral reconstruction yielded better results and should be performed in all cases. Functional outcome was significantly better in patients with benign tumors than in patients with malignant tumors as these required neither resection of the peroneal nerve nor large amount of muscle excision. The functional results were evaluated using Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using

  16. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  17. Comparison of ultrasound and computed tomography in staging of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Bunzo

    1982-01-01

    Preoperative staging of bladder cancer is very important for decision of treating methods and prognostication. The present author used ultrasound via the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of 83 patients with bladder cancer. I estimated the extent of bladder tumor infiltration by ultrasound via the abdominal wall according to Shiraishi's criteria. Ultrasound scans, pelvic angiograms and CT scans were reviewed to determine their accuracy in staging of bladder tumors. Ultrasound scans were excellent in staging of non-infiltrated bladder tumors, while pelvic angiograms and CT scans were excellent in staging of infiltrated bladder tumors. (author)

  18. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  19. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  20. [Leiomyoma of the bladder causing the destruction of a kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare benign tumor deemed to have a good prognosis after surgical treatment. This is unfortunately not always true. We report the case of a 33 year-old patient who consulted for lumbar pain on right side. Exploration of patient revealed bladder floor solid tumor with non-functioning right kidney and left urinary tract dilation. Cystoscopy objectified solid tumor of the right perimeatal bladder. Tumor biopsies were performed together with the insertion of a left double J stent. Anatomo-pathologic study showed leiomyoma of the bladder. The patient underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological effect and sequelae was complete distruction of kidney.

  1. Tumor Hypoxia is Independent of Hemoglobin and Prognostic for Loco-regional Tumor Control after Primary Radiotherapy in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Overgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that tumor hypoxia adversely affects loco-regional tumor control and survival in head and neck cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare pretreatment tumor oxygenation measured by Eppendorf pO2 electrodes with known prognostic factors in advanced head and neck tumors after definitive radiotherapy, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of these parameters on loco-regional tumor control. Sixty-seven patients, median age 56 years (22-82), all with primary stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma were available for survival analysis. Tumor oxygenation was described as the fraction of pO2 values=2.5 mmHg (HP2.5) and the median tumor pO2. By regression analysis HP2.5 was independent of known prognostic factors including stage, pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and the largest tumor diameter at the site of pO2 measurement. By Kaplan-Meier analysis loco-regional tumor control at 5 years was in favor of less hypoxic tumors using either HP2.5 or median tumor pO2 as descriptors and stratifying by the median values. Also, Hb was prognostic of loco-regional tumor control at 5 years using the median value as cut off. HP2.5 as continuous parameter was highly significant for loco-regional tumor control in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion both HP2.5 and total Hb were prognostic for loco-regional tumor control, but HP2.5 as continuous variable was independently the strongest prognostic indicator for loco-regional tumor control after definitive primary radiotherapy in advanced head and neck tumors

  2. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  3. Mammographic Features of Local Recurrence after Conservative Surgery and Radiation Therapy: Comparison with that of the Primary Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, I.; Oktay, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the mammographic features of recurrent breast cancer with those of the primary tumor and to determine whether certain mammographic features are associated with a higher risk of local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of mammograms of 421 patients who were treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy revealed 41 recurrent tumors. Mammographic findings, location, and histopathologic characteristics were retrospectively compared between primary and recurrent tumors. Results: Recurrent tumors were similar in mammographic appearance to primary tumors in 27 (66%) cases. Of 27 primary tumors that occurred as masses without calcifications, 19 (70%) recurred as a mass, and of the six isolated calcifications, five (83%) recurred with calcifications. Ten (53%) of the 19 recurrent masses and five (100%) of the five recurrent calcifications had morphologic features that were similar to those of the primary tumor. Ninety-two percent (11/12) of the recurrences containing microcalcifications (isolated or associated with a mass) had microcalcifications in their primary tumor. Of 27 masses that recurred, the morphology of the primary tumor was obscured in 13 (48%), ill defined in 10 (37%), and spiculated in four (15%) of the masses. Seventy-six percent (31/41) of recurrences were within the lumpectomy quadrant. In 25 (61%) cases, the histologic findings from the primary tumor and the recurrence were identical. Conclusion: The majority of recurrent tumors appear to be mammographically similar to primary tumors. Therefore, it is important to review preoperative mammograms during follow-up of these patients. Although the study population is small, it was noted that mass with spiculated contour is associated with a lower risk for local recurrence

  4. Morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveeva O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to show the possibility of morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary tumors of bones. Material and Methods. 105 (72% patients with primary bone tumors aged from 15 to 66 years and 42 (28% patients with metastatic bone lesions aged from 42 to 70 years were examined and treated for the period from 2008 till 2015. Material for morphological studies was prepared using an open biopsy tissue slices and a scraping resected tumor during surgery. Soft-tissue component is subjected to cytology. The material for histological study included changes in bone and soft tissue. Results. Giant cell tumor was verified in 45% of cases by histological examination. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in 15% of patients. Osteogenic sarcoma was diagnosed in 14% of cases. Ewing's sarcoma was diagnosed in 3%, 2% of cases were matched by diagnosed chordoma. According to the data received, cancer metastasis of kidney and lung is mostly diagnosed in men from the group of patients with secondary bone defeat. Metastasis of cancer of the breast in women was predominated. Conclusion. The morphological (histological, cytological study plays an important role in the diagnosis of bone tumors. The coincidence of the cytological and histological diagnoses was 97%.

  5. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannikaki Elpida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets per year. The literature on the phenomenon of multiple primary malignancies in a single patient is reviewed and the data is summarized. Conclusion It is important for the clinicians to keep in mind the possibility of a metachronous (successive or a synchronous (simultaneous malignancy in a cancer patient. It is worthy mentioning this case because clustering of three primary malignancies (synchronous and metachronous is of rare occurrence in a single patient, and, to our knowledge, this is the first report this combination of three carcinomas appearing in the same patient.

  6. Bladder and bowel dysfunctions in 1748 children referred to pelvic physiotherapy: clinical characteristics and locomotor problems in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Marieke L; Bols, Esther M J; Benninga, Marc A; Verwijs, Wim A; de Bie, Rob A

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate in a pragmatic cross-sectional study, the clinical characteristics of childhood bladder and/or bowel dysfunctions (CBBD) and locomotor problems in the primary through tertiary health care setting. It was hypothesized that problems would increase, going from primary to tertiary healthcare. Data were retrieved from patient-records of children (1-16 years) presenting with CBBD and visiting pelvic physiotherapists. Prevalence's of dysfunctions were compared between healthcare settings and gender using ANOVA and chi-square test. Agreement between physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms was evaluated (Cohen's Kappa). One thousand seventy hundred forty-eight children (mean age 7.7 years [SD 2.9], 48.9% boys) were included. Daytime urinary incontinence (P = 0.039) and enuresis (P physiotherapy are comparable in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings. • Concomitant CBBD appeared to be more prevalent than earlier reported. • Discrepancies exist between referring physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms.

  7. Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Sun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hy-Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2007-08-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES-PNET) of the uterus is an extremely rare malignancy. A 30-year-old Korean woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. A computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge uterine mass measuring 18 x 20 x 21 cm, metastasis to both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, and omental infiltration. The pathology report of the uterine mass described a uniformly hypercellular tumor, which was arranged in diffuse solid sheets of uniform, small, rounded, and sometimes spindle-shaped cells, with scanty cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the mass tested positive for vimentin, CD99, and chromogranin. The patient received several courses of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but died from tumor progression 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary uterine ES-PNET in a woman of reproductive age. A review of the literature indicates that primary uterine ES-PNET requires early diagnosis and multimodality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The behavior of this tumor is potentially aggressive.

  8. The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Robbert B. T.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of second primary tumors in patients treated for thyroid cancer. Furthermore, we wanted to assess the standardized risk rates for all second primary tumors, but especially for breast cancer, as data in the literature indicate an excessive risk

  9. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  10. Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a giant cell tumor: One case in the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzaa, M R; Bennis, A; Iken, M; Abouzzahir, A; Boussouga, M; Jaafar, A

    2015-10-01

    Hyperparathyroidism can present itself as brown tumors (or osteolytic expansive lesions) that usually disappear after normalization of calcium and phosphate levels. It rarely occurs simultaneously with a giant cell tumor. The authors report one case of a localized form at the distal radius in a patient being followed for primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnostic challenges related to the clinical and radiological similarities of these two pathological entities are discussed, as they can lead to delays in therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) E5 oncoprotein binds to the subunit D of the V₁-ATPase proton pump in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita Georgia; Raso, Cinzia; Gaspari, Marco; Ceccarelli, Dora Maria; Galasso, Rocco; Roperto, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Active infection by bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) was documented for fifteen urinary bladder tumors in cattle. Two were diagnosed as papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), nine as papillary and four as invasive urothelial cancers. In all cancer samples, PCR analysis revealed a BPV-2-specific 503 bp DNA fragment. E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the virus, was shown both by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical analysis. E5 was found to bind to the activated (phosphorylated) form of the platelet derived growth factor β receptor. PDGFβR immunoprecipitation from bladder tumor samples and from normal bladder tissue used as control revealed a protein band which was present in the pull-down from bladder cancer samples only. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry as "V₁-ATPase subunit D", a component of the central stalk of the V₁-ATPase vacuolar pump. The subunit D was confirmed in this complex by coimmunoprecipitation investigations and it was found to colocalize with the receptor. The subunit D was also shown to be overexpressed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence also revealed that E5 oncoprotein was bound to the subunit D. For the first time, a tri-component complex composed of E5/PDGFβR/subunit D has been documented in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the proteolipid c ring of the V₀-ATPase sector. We suggest that the E5/PDGFβR/subunit D complex may perturb proteostasis, organelle and cytosol homeostasis, which can result in altered protein degradation and in autophagic responses.

  12. Immunostimulatory sutures that treat local disease recurrence following primary tumor resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intra, Janjira; Zhang Xueqing; Salem, Aliasger K [Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Williams, Robin L; Zhu Xiaoyan [Department of Surgery, Roy J and Lucille Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Sandler, Anthony D, E-mail: aliasger-salem@uiowa.edu [Department of Surgery and Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Neuroblastoma is a common childhood cancer that often results in progressive minimal residual disease after primary tumor resection. Cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligonucleotides (CpG ODN) have been reported to induce potent anti-tumor immune responses. In this communication, we report on the development of a CpG ODN-loaded suture that can close up the wound following tumor excision and provide sustained localized delivery of CpG ODN to treat local disease recurrence. The suture was prepared by melt extruding a mixture of polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA 75:25 0.47 dL g{sup -1}) pellets and CpG ODN 1826. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the sutures were free of defects and cracks. UV spectrophotometry measurements at 260 nm showed that sutures provide sustained release of CpG ODN over 35 days. Syngeneic female A/J mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} Neuro-2a murine neuroblastoma wild-type cells and tumors were grown between 5 to 10 mm before the tumors were excised. Wounds from the tumor resection were closed using CpG ODN-loaded sutures and/or polyglycolic acid Vicryl suture. Suppression of neuroblastoma recurrence and mouse survival were significantly higher in mice where wounds were closed using the CpG ODN-loaded sutures relative to all other groups. (communication)

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLINICAL COURSE OF METASTATIC AND PRIMARY OVARIAN TUMORS IN COLON CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dzhanyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate clinical pecuiliarities of ovarian tumors in colon cancer patients and determination of complex diagnostic methods.Subject and methods. Russian N.N.  Blokhin Cancer Research Center archives were used for retrospective study, patients, who underwent treatment during 1989–2013  were included. Colon cancer patients with ovarian metastases and with synchronous or metachronous tumors were included.Results. 141 patients were included: 91 patients had colon cancer with ovarian metastases (group 1 and 50 patients had synchronous or metachronous ovarian tumours (group 2. Ovarian tumors were diagnosed during the 1 year in 74 (81.3 % patients in group 1 and in 23 (46 % in group 2. Patients in group 2 less frequently had children (9 (18.0 % vs 5 (5.5 + 2.3 %, р < 0.05, family history of cancer (3 (6 % vs 16 (17.6 %, р < 0.05 and concomitant diseases. Median CA 125 level in group 1 was 64.96 ng/ml and 180 ng/ml in group 2. Ovarian tumors had solid and cystic structure during US examination in 66 (73 % patients in group 1 and 31 (62 % patients in group 2 had solid ovarian tumors on US examination.Conclusions. The differential diagnostics of primary and metastatic ovarian tumors must include CEA, CA 19–9 and CA 125 serum levels and pelvic US.

  14. Ultrastructural characterization of primary cilia in pathologically characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J; Rattner, Jerome B

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that are involved in cell cycle progression. Ultrastructurally, the primary cilium region is complex, with normal ciliogenesis progressing through five distinct morphological stages in human astrocytes. Defects in early stages of ciliogenesis are key features of astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines and provided the impetus for the current study which describes the morphology of primary cilia in molecularly characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Seven surgically resected human GBM tissue samples were molecularly characterized according to IDH1/2 mutation status, EGFR amplification status and MGMT promoter methylation status and were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. We report for the first time that primary cilia are disrupted in the early stages of ciliogenesis in human GBM tumors. We confirm that immature primary cilia and basal bodies/centrioles have aberrant ciliogenesis characteristics including absent paired vesicles, misshaped/swollen vesicular hats, abnormal configuration of distal appendages, and discontinuity of centriole microtubular blades. Additionally, the transition zone plate is able to form in the absence of paired vesicles on the distal end of the basal body and when a cilium progresses beyond the early stages of ciliogenesis, it has electron dense material clumped along the transition zone and a darkening of the microtubules at the proximal end of the cilium. Primary cilia play a role in a variety of human cancers. Previously primary cilia structure was perturbed in cultured cell lines derived from astrocytomas/glioblastomas; however there was always some question as to whether these findings were a cell culture phenomena. In this study we confirm that disruptions in ciliogenesis at early stages do occur in GBM tumors and that these ultrastructural findings bear resemblance to those previously

  15. Long-term results of radiation combined with cisplatin in localized muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takahiro; Nishijima, Jun; Miyachika, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Sakano, Shigeru; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Naito, Katsusuke

    2011-01-01

    Although radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for localized muscle invasive-bladder cancer, bladder preservation therapies have been tried for selective patients in several institutes. However, the indication of bladder preservation therapy remains controversial. To select patients who are good candidates for bladder preservation therapy, we evaluated our long-term experience with radiation therapy (conformal radiotherapy (CRT)) combined with cisplatin. Between 1994 and 2009, 90 patients with bladder cancer (clinical stage T2-4N0M0) with no evidence of upper urinary tract cancer were treated with CRT. The response was evaluated by transurethral resection (TUR) of the tumor, urine cytology and CT scan. Thirty-seven cases (41.1%) achieved pathological complete response (CR) which was defined as no microscopic residual tumor in the bladder. After TUR, 74 cases (82.2%) achieved local control of the cancer that was considered as clinical CR. Among 16 patients for whom clinical CR was not achieved, 8 cases were treated with immediate radical cystectomy. We evaluated the long-term results of CRT in 82 cases with bladder preservation. The median follow-up was 36.6 months (range, 4.1-155.1). The five-year overall survival rate and the 5-year progression-free survival rate were 73.0% and 59.2%, respectively. Clinical T stage and type of tumor (primary or recurrent) were prognostic factors for overall survival (p=0.003 and p=0.017). Likewise, clinical T stage and type of tumor were prognostic factors for progression-free survival (p=0.022 and p=0.033). In addition, primary cT2 cases had a significantly better prognosis than those with other T stage and recurrence in overall survival and progression-free survival (p=0.007 and p=0.018). Based on these data, we concluded that primary cT2 tumors were good candidates for radiation combined with cisplatin for bladder preservation therapy. (author)

  16. Primary combined carcinoid and adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional carcinoma of the bladder. Single case report Causa infrecuente de disfagia en el postoperatorio tardío de la cirugía de la hernia de hiato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Venizelos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite neoplasms, carcinoid and adenocarcinoma have been reported to occur in several parts of the body, including the stomach, ampulla of Vater, large bowel, lung, and urinary bladder. Here we report a case of a 74-year-old male with a composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The microscopical examination of the composite tumor showed an admixture of typical carcinoid tumor and moderately a differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the two components showed clear-cut differentiations. A review of the literature revealed that this is the first reported case of composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.Las neoplasias compuestas, el carcinoide y el adenocarcinoma se ha observado que aparecen en varias partes del organismo, como el estómago, la ampolla de Vater, el intestino grueso, el pulmón y la vejiga urinaria. Publicamos aquí el caso de un varón de 74 años con un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma vesical de células transicionales. El examen macroscópico del tumor compuesto mostró una mezcla de tumor carcinoide típico y adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado. Desde el punto de vista inmunohistoquímico, los dos componentes estaban claramente diferenciados. Una revisión de la bibliografía reveló que este es el primer caso que se publica de un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma de células transicionales de la vejiga urinaria.

  17. Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring in carcinomas of unknown primary site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies. The aim of this report was to present the prognostic and predictive value of 8 serum tumor markers in this group of patients. Methods. The study involved 63 patients. On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma - 8 patients; adenocarcinoma - 33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated carcinoma - 22 patients. In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP, chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG, neuron specific enolase (NSE, marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125, prostate-specific antigene (PSA, marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3, marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA at the time of diagnosis. The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present. The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR, partial response (PR or stable disease (SD had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression. Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males, aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria. The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50mg/m2 (day 1, cisplatin 60mg/m2 (day 1, and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3. The period between two chemotherapy

  18. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Blumenthal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC.

  19. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Laura; VandenBoom, Timothy; Melian, Edward; Peterson, Anthony; Hutchens, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC. PMID:26594171

  20. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis of high grade glioma primary cultures and matched tumor in situ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, R

    2012-10-15

    Developing targeted therapies for high grade gliomas (HGG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, relies largely on glioma cultures. However, it is unclear if HGG tumorigenic signaling pathways are retained under in-vitro conditions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical profiling, we contrasted the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/PDGFR) in-vitro pathway status of twenty-six primary HGG cultures with the pathway status of their original HGG biopsies. Genomic gains or amplifications were lost during culturing while genomic losses were more likely to be retained. Loss of EGFR amplification was further verified immunohistochemically when EGFR over expression was decreased in the majority of cultures. Conversely, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were more abundantly expressed in primary cultures than in the original tumor (p<0.05). Despite these genomic and proteomic differences, primary HGG cultures retained key aspects of dysregulated tumorigenic signaling. Both in-vivo and in-vitro the presence of EGFR resulted in downstream activation of P70s6K while reduced downstream activation was associated with the presence of PDGFR and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. The preserved pathway dysregulation make this glioma model suitable for further studies of glioma tumorigenesis, however individual culture related differences must be taken into consideration when testing responsiveness to chemotherapeutic agents.

  1. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A

    2011-06-13

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  2. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  3. The relationship between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Rajabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant melanoma is the most invasive cutaneous tumor which is associated with an incredibly high mortality rate. The most reliable histological factors associated with melanoma prognosis are tumor thickness- measured by the Breslow index- and invasion depth- measured by Clark level. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2 gene inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis. An increase in MDM2 expression has been found in many tumors. This study aimed to investigate MDM2 expression and its correlation with tumor thickness and invasion level in malignant melanoma. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated paraffin blocks from 43 randomly selected patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who referred to the main university pathology center in Isfahan, Iran. MDM2 expression rate was assessed via immunohistochemical techniques and hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine tumor thickness and invasion level. Correlations between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion were analyzed using Spearman′s correlation coefficient in SPSS 17 . Results: The mean age of patients was 61.2 ± 15 years. Men and women constituted 55.8% and 44.2% of the participants, respectively. The rate of MDM2 positivity was 28.9%. MDM2 expression was directly associated with tumor thickness (r = 0.425; p = 0.002 and weakly with invasion level (r = 0.343; p = 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the low MDM2 expression rate observed in this study, direct relationships between MDM2 positivity and tumor thickness and invasion level were identified. MDM2 expression can thus be suggested as a potential new predictive prognostic factor.

  4. Assessment of the long-term effects of primary radiation therapy for brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Marquette, C.; Mulgrew, L.; Kramer, S.

    1982-01-01

    One-hundred-twelve children with primary brain tumors received definitive radiotherapy between the years 1958-1979. Sixty-nine patients were alive at intervals of 1-21 years. Thirty-eight patients underwent neurologic and endocrine evaluation, psychologic and intelligence testing, and assessment for second malignancy post-treatment. A second intracranial malgnancy developed in one child, for an incidence of 1.6%. Performance status was good to excellent in 89% of the patients studied. Seventeen percent of the group were mentally retarded. Behavioral disorders were identified in 39% of the patients, 59% of the mothers, and 43% of the fathers. Of the 23 patients with nonparasellar tumors, six were found to have growth hormone deficiency, including two patients with panhypopituitarism. Disability was related to age under 3 years at the time of treatment and tumor extension to the hypothalamus

  5. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarcoma is quite good in terms of morbidity, and conservative surgery is generally recommended. However, in cases originating in the bladder neck, tumorectomy or partial cystectomy has adverse effects on bladder function. A 2-year-old girl underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-BT, chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide, and radiotherapy. She was in remission for 3 years when frequent urination became evident. Her bladder capacity and compliance were low; however, her urinary symptom was controlled using anticholinergic medication. Accordingly, TUR-BT could be an optional approach for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Transurethral resection, Conservative surgery

  6. Nuclear imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with unknown primary: why, when and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Chandramahanti, Sangeeta [Marshall University, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kroiss, Alexander [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Yu, Run [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology and Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumor Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ruszniewski, Philippe [Beaujon Hospital and Paris-Diderot University, Department of Gastroenterology-Pancreatology, Paris (France); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Taieb, David [Aix-Marseille University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, La Timone University Hospital, Marseille (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Inserm UMR1068 Marseille Cancerology Research Center, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, European Center for Research in Medical Imaging, Marseille (France)

    2015-03-13

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with unknown primary (CUP-NET) are associated with a poor prognosis (10-year survival 22 %), grade 1 and 2 NETs having a more favorable outcome than grade 3 (also called carcinoma). There is evidence that an effort should be made to localize the primary tumor even in the presence of metastasis because resection of the primary tumor(s) may improve disease-free and overall survival, and because the choice of chemotherapeutic agent depends on the location of the primary tumor. Localization of the tumors remains challenging and often relies on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and functional imaging. The functional imaging protocol for evaluation of these patients has historically relied on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of SRS may be unsatisfactory, especially for NETs of midgut origin. Newer PET radiotracers such as {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa) and {sup 18}F-DOPA have shown promise. In direct comparisons between {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-octreotide/{sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT(/CT), {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa performed better than other techniques, giving a compelling reason for switching from SPECT/CT to PET/CT imaging. {sup 18}F-DOPA performs better than SRS and CT in well-differentiated NETs of the small intestine. For detecting pancreatic NETs, the high background uptake of {sup 18}F-DOPA by the normal exocrine pancreas can be somewhat overcome by pretreatment with carbidopa. We have suggested a protocol in which SRS is replaced by one of the two agents (preferably with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa, alternatively {sup 18}F-DOPA) as first-line nuclear tracer for detection of CUP-NET in patients with well-differentiated NETs and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be an additional diagnostic test for poorly differentiated tumors and for prognostication. In the near future, it is expected that patients with CUP-NET will benefit from newly

  7. Nuclear imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with unknown primary: why, when and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Chandramahanti, Sangeeta; Kroiss, Alexander; Yu, Run; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Kumar, Rakesh; Taieb, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with unknown primary (CUP-NET) are associated with a poor prognosis (10-year survival 22 %), grade 1 and 2 NETs having a more favorable outcome than grade 3 (also called carcinoma). There is evidence that an effort should be made to localize the primary tumor even in the presence of metastasis because resection of the primary tumor(s) may improve disease-free and overall survival, and because the choice of chemotherapeutic agent depends on the location of the primary tumor. Localization of the tumors remains challenging and often relies on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and functional imaging. The functional imaging protocol for evaluation of these patients has historically relied on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of SRS may be unsatisfactory, especially for NETs of midgut origin. Newer PET radiotracers such as 68 Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs ( 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa) and 18 F-DOPA have shown promise. In direct comparisons between 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa PET/CT and 99m Tc-HYNIC-octreotide/ 111 In-pentetreotide SPECT(/CT), 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa performed better than other techniques, giving a compelling reason for switching from SPECT/CT to PET/CT imaging. 18 F-DOPA performs better than SRS and CT in well-differentiated NETs of the small intestine. For detecting pancreatic NETs, the high background uptake of 18 F-DOPA by the normal exocrine pancreas can be somewhat overcome by pretreatment with carbidopa. We have suggested a protocol in which SRS is replaced by one of the two agents (preferably with 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa, alternatively 18 F-DOPA) as first-line nuclear tracer for detection of CUP-NET in patients with well-differentiated NETs and 18 F-FDG PET/CT may be an additional diagnostic test for poorly differentiated tumors and for prognostication. In the near future, it is expected that patients with CUP-NET will benefit from newly developed PET approaches (radiopharmaceuticals) and

  8. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  9. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  10. Primary Cyst adenocarcinoma: exceptional etiology of a retroperitoneal cystic tumor.First National Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Ruso, L.; Ettlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the clinical case of a 29 year old patient who consulted for right lank pain, where a tumor was identified. Ultrasound confirmed the existence of a cystic process, and complete surgical abscission/exeresis was performed next to an area in the in the abdominal wall. Anatomopathological report confirmed a primary retroperitoneal cistoadenocarcinoma. No adjuvant treatment was applied, evolution was good 11 months after surgery, no evidence of the disease

  11. Primary Lung Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Cavitary Pancoast Tumor in a 32-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvini, Michael; Koorji, Alysha; Sgroe, Erica; Nguyen, Uyen

    2018-06-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma, a subtype of adenocarcinoma, is a rare cause of primary lung cancer. The authors report a case of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma presenting as a cavitary Pancoast tumor in a 32-year-old male smoker. Beyond the rarity of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma itself, the youth of the patient, his smoking status, the presence of cavitation, and the location of the tumor in the superior sulcus make it especially atypical.

  12. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  13. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossmeisl JH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available John H Rossmeisl,1–3 Kelli Hall-Manning,4 John L Robertson,1,3,5 Jamie N King,1,2 Rafael V Davalos,3,5 Waldemar Debinski,3 Subbiah Elankumaran6,† 1Veterinary and Comparative Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, 3The Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, 4Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA†The authors regret to advise of the passing of Dr Subbiah Elankumaran prior to publicationBackground: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs.Methods: We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real

  14. Bone and Gallium scintigraphy in primary malignant and benign bone tumors of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepahdari, S.; Martin, W.B.; Ryan, J.; Simon, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-01-01

    A six yer prospective evaluation of 129 patients suspected of having a primary bone tumor included Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy followed by Ga-67 imaging at 48-72 hours. Blood pool images were part of bone scintigraphy in nearly half of the patients. Extent and intensity of tracer uptake in tumor and adjacent bone and joints were recorded for each tracer by two observers blind to the diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained in every patient by biopsy or tumor excision after scintigraphy, revealed 72 malignant and 57 benign bone tumors. The bone scan was positive in 95% (69/72) of malignancies. The scintigraphic intensity of benign and malignant lesions was comparable with both Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67. On the other hand, bone scintigraphy showed 72% (52/72) of bone malignancies to have abnormal proximal and distal bone/joint uptake whereas the Ga-67 images revealed this in only 6% (4/65) of malignancies. Benign lesions manifested this enhanced contiguous bone/joint uptake on only 8% (5/55) of bone and 0% of Ga-67 scans. This study concludes positive bone, blood pool, or Ga-67 images have less specificity for malignancy than the presence of increased Tc-99m MDP deposition in a contiguous bone/joint, but negative scintigraphic results strongly favor a benign lesion. Ga-67 was more accurate than Tc-99m MDP in portraying intraosseous extent of malignant tumors; however, this is now preferably done with C.T

  15. Brain scintigraphy (SPECT) using 201thallium in patients with primary tumors of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, G.; Schubert, C.; Richter, W.; Calder, D.; Eichstaedt, H.; Felix, R.; Baerwald, M.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the role of thallium 201 Single-Photon-Emission-Computed-Tomography (SPECT) in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and follow-up of 33 patients with primary brain tumors. 27 of 33 lesions were detectable by Tl-201-SPECT because only two of eight low-grade (grade 1 and 2) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation up to a tumor to nontumor ratio of 2.6. High grade (grade 3 and 4) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation in the range of 2.2 up to 13.0 and were different from low-grade astrocytomas. Noninvasive grading of astrocytomas is therefore possible, whereas differential diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas or meningeomas was not possible with Tl-201. In the follow-up of six patients, we could demonstrate, that tumor progression is correlated with increasing and tumor regression with decreasing Tl-201 accumulations. This functional changings proceed morphological findings in CT. But vanishing of Tl-201 accumulation during therapy does not mean vanishing of tumor as could be demonstrated by follow-up. (orig.) [de

  16. Staging of primary head and neck tumors and detection of recurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Baum, R.P.; Knecht, R.; Hoer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas represent the vast majority of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor affecting survival of patients with head and neck cancer. The effectiveness of surgical treatment depends on the complete excision of all tumor tissue and an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging is therefore mandatory. In comparison to positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET), morphological imaging modalities (CT, MRI) have been applied for the localization of primary head and neck tumors because of their better anatomical resolution. Metabolic tumor imaging using FDG PET is superior to morphological imaging by CT and MRI in the detection of small cervical lymph node metastases (Class 1a indication). Increased FDG uptake has also been observed in benign inflammatory lesions after radiation therapy, therefore detection of local recurrence with FDG PET can be problematic. To ensure a high diagnostic accuracy it is been suggested to perform FDG PET not earlier than 3 months after radiation therapy (Class 1a indication for the diagnosis of local recurrence). (orig.) [de

  17. Preliminary clinical results of locoregional hyperthermia for primary and secondary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.L.; Nagata, Yasushi; Kanamori, Shuichi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Okuno, Yoshishige; Horii, Naotoshi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Masunaga, Shinitiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-03-01

    Nineteen primary and secondary bone tumors in 16 patients were treated with hyperthermia plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between 1982 and 1997 at Kyoto University Hospital. The thermometric and clinical results were analyzed retrospectively. In 55 of 86 hyperthermia sessions, the intratumor temperature was measured using a thermometer. Of the 19 tumors, 16 (84%) received heat treatment 4-7 times, and 3 (16%) received 1 or 2 treatments of hyperthermia. The mean maximum, mean minimum and average intratumor temperatures were 42.9, 40.4 and 41.6 deg C, respectively, and 12 (67%) reached a tumor maximum temperature above 42.5 deg C. The durations that intratumor points exceeded 42, 41 and 40 deg C were 27, 34 and 38 min, respectively. The local tumor response to treatment was assessed using X-ray computed tomography. The local response rate was 16% and the local pain relief rate was 63%. The 1-year cumulative survival rate was 60%. Our preliminary results indicated that thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy are clinicaly feasible and potentially beneficial in the management of locally advanced bone tumors. (author)

  18. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  19. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A G van Tilborg

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in the genome. Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To use microsatellite markers for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer, we aimed to select markers without stutter peaks and a constant ratio between alleles, thereby avoiding the need for a control DNA sample. We investigated 49 microsatellite markers with tri- and tetranucleotide repeats in regions commonly lost in bladder cancer. Based on analysis of 50 blood DNAs the 12 best performing markers were selected with few stutter peaks and a constant ratio between peaks heights. Per marker upper and lower cut off values for allele ratios were determined. LOH of the markers was observed in 59/104 tumor DNAs. We then determined the sensitivity of the marker panel for detection of recurrent bladder cancer by assaying 102 urine samples of these patients. Sensitivity was 63% when patients were stratified for LOH in their primary tumors. We demonstrate that up-front selection of microsatellite markers obliterates the need for a corresponding blood sample. For diagnosis of bladder cancer recurrences in urine this significantly reduces costs. Moreover, this approach facilitates retrospective analysis of archival tumor samples for allelic imbalance.

  20. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Chitra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations. In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Methods Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM. The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. Results The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb.

  1. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Anjan; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad; Chosdol, Kunzang; Sarkar, Chitra; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Sinha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations). In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA) and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM). The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s) scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb

  2. Primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor of the testis in a 46-year-old man-differential diagnosis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikaus, Sebastian; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Eucker, Jan; Hogrebe, Esther; Danebrock, Raihanatou; Wai, Daniel H; Krenn, Veit; Gabbert, Helmut E; Poremba, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumors are rare bone and soft tissue malignancies with a highly aggressive clinical course and early metastases occurring at multiple peripheral sites. Here, we present for the first time a case of a 46-year-old man with a primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor of the testis. The diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor was established by histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular pathology. The tumor revealed a rapid progress in 2 months' time. Therefore, the patient was included in the EURO-E.W.I.N.G.99 study and was placed on chemotherapy. However, the tumor progressed during ongoing therapy, and the patient died in March 2008. In conclusion, though being reported here for the first time, peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of blue round cell tumors of the testis. A rapid and correct diagnosis of this entity is crucial for fast and accurate therapy, which is stressed by the fatal case presented here.

  3. Self-targeting of TNF-releasing cancer cells in preclinical models of primary and metastatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Dobroff, Andrey S; Marchiò, Serena; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Hosoya, Hitomi; Libutti, Steven K; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-23

    Circulating cancer cells can putatively colonize distant organs to form metastases or to reinfiltrate primary tumors themselves through a process termed "tumor self-seeding." Here we exploit this biological attribute to deliver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), a potent antitumor cytokine, directly to primary and metastatic tumors in a mechanism that we have defined as "tumor self-targeting." For this purpose, we genetically engineered mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA), melanoma (B16-F10), and Lewis lung carcinoma cells to produce and release murine TNF. In a series of intervention trials, systemic administration of TNF-expressing tumor cells was associated with reduced growth of both primary tumors and metastatic colonies in immunocompetent mice. We show that these malignant cells home to tumors, locally release TNF, damage neovascular endothelium, and induce massive cancer cell apoptosis. We also demonstrate that such tumor-cell-mediated delivery avoids or minimizes common side effects often associated with TNF-based therapy, such as acute inflammation and weight loss. Our study provides proof of concept that genetically modified circulating tumor cells may serve as targeted vectors to deliver anticancer agents. In a clinical context, this unique paradigm represents a personalized approach to be translated into applications potentially using patient-derived circulating tumor cells as self-targeted vectors for drug delivery.

  4. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  5. A role of multimodality bladder-preserving therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer plus hydronephrosis with or without pelvic nodal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chiang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: With trimodality treatment involving visually complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor, cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy, and CCRT, patients with unfavorable factors maintained satisfactory bladder preservation but not systemic control.

  6. Reovirus FAST Protein Enhances Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolytic Virotherapy in Primary and Metastatic Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Le Boeuf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins are the smallest known viral fusogens (∼100–150 amino acids and efficiently induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation in multiple cell types. Syncytium formation enhances cell-cell virus transmission and may also induce immunogenic cell death, a form of apoptosis that stimulates immune recognition of tumor cells. These properties suggest that FAST proteins might serve to enhance oncolytic virotherapy. The oncolytic activity of recombinant VSVΔM51 (an interferon-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] mutant encoding the p14 FAST protein (VSV-p14 was compared with a similar construct encoding GFP (VSV-GFP in cell culture and syngeneic BALB/c tumor models. Compared with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 exhibited increased oncolytic activity against MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer spheroids in culture and reduced primary 4T1 breast tumor growth in vivo. VSV-p14 prolonged survival in both primary and metastatic 4T1 breast cancer models, and in a CT26 metastatic colon cancer model. As with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 preferentially replicated in vivo in tumors and was cleared rapidly from other sites. Furthermore, VSV-p14 increased the numbers of activated splenic CD4, CD8, natural killer (NK, and natural killer T (NKT cells, and increased the number of activated CD4 and CD8 cells in tumors. FAST proteins may therefore provide a multi-pronged approach to improving oncolytic virotherapy via syncytium formation and enhanced immune stimulation.

  7. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  8. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  9. Health economics perspective of fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin as first-time therapy for overactive bladder syndrome in the primary care setting in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Ruiz-Torrejón, Amador; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi; Kvasz, Marion

    2013-10-21

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is associated with high healthcare costs, which may be partially driven by drug treatment. There is little comparative data on antimuscarinic drugs with respect to resource use and costs. This study was conducted to address this gap and the growing need for naturalistic studies comparing health economics outcomes in adult patients with OAB syndrome initiating treatment with different antimuscarinic drugs in a primary care setting in Spain. Medical records from the databases of primary healthcare centres in three locations in Spain were assessed retrospectively. Men and women ≥18 years of age who initiated treatment with fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin for OAB between 2008 and 2010 were followed for 52 weeks. Healthcare resource utilization and related costs in the Spanish National Health System were compared. Comparisons among drugs were made using multivariate general linear models adjusted for location, age, sex, time since diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, and medication possession ratio. A total of 1,971 medical records of patients (58.3% women; mean age, 70.1 [SD:10.6] years) initiating treatment with fesoterodine (n = 302), solifenacin (n = 952) or tolterodine (n = 717) were examined. Annual mean cost per patient was €1798 (95% CI: €1745; €1848). Adjusted mean (95% bootstrap CI) healthcare costs were significantly lower in patients receiving fesoterodine (€1639 [1542; 1725]) compared with solifenacin (€1780 [€1699; €1854], P = 0.022) or tolterodine (€1893 [€1815; €1969], P = 0.001). Cost differences occurred because of significantly fewer medical visits, and less use of absorbent products and OAB-related concomitant medication in the fesoterodine group. Compared with solifenacin and tolterodine, fesoterodine was a cost-saving therapy for treatment of OAB in the primary care setting in Spain.

  10. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  11. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of transvaginal scan (TVS) in ... bladder tumors in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. ... tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were found.

  12. Detection of primary tumor by 18F-FDG-TEP in patients with cup syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Belhocine, T.; Daenen, F.; Hustinx, R.; Rigo, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the performance of whole body 18 F-FDG-PET in the detection of the primary tumor in patients with unknown primary carcinoma in comparison with conventional imaging. Patients and methods: Forty-one patients, without previous history of known cancer, (18 women and 23 men; average age 64,1 years) with bone, brain, lymph node, liver, cutaneous, pleural and epidural metastases were included in a retrospective study. Results of PET (UGM Penn PET 240 H) were compared with those of techniques used in the current conventional procedure. There were 26 true positives, 2 false negatives (1 renal carcinoma and 1 myeloma) and one false positive results. Origins were lung [16], gut [6], breast [3] and head and neck [1] but stayed undetermined in 8 patients. Results of PET were superior to conventional diagnostic procedure in 12 patients and led to modify the therapy management in 11 patients. All known metastatic lesions were detected by PET. FDG-PET can be useful to determine the origin of metastasis. It allows detection of the primary tumor (26/33 patients) and allows evaluation of the spread of the disease. These results have to be confirmed and particularly in patients with highly treatable unknown primary carcinoma. (author)

  13. Contaminação tumoral em trajeto de biópsia de tumores ósseos malignos primários Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Parente Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores possivelmente associados à contaminação tumoral do trajeto de biópsia de tumores ósseos malignos primários. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 35 pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico com diagnóstico de osteossarcoma, tumor de Ewing e condrossarcoma. A amostra foi analisada para caracterização quanto à técnica de biópsia empregada, tipo histológico do tumor, realização de quimioterapia neoadjuvante, ocorrência de recidiva local e contaminação tumoral no trajeto da biópsia. RESULTADOS: Nos 35 pacientes avaliados ocorreram quatro contaminações (11,43%. Um caso era de osteossarcoma, dois casos de tumor de Ewing e um caso de condrossarcoma, não se observando associação entre o tipo de tumor e a presença de contaminação tumoral no trajeto da biópsia (p = 0,65. Também não se observou associação entre a presença de contaminação tumoral e a técnica de biópsia (p = 0,06. Por outro lado, observou-se associação entre a presença de contaminação tumoral e a ocorrência de recidiva local (p = 0,01 e entre a presença de contaminação e a não realização de quimioterapia neoadjuvante (p = 0,02. CONCLUSÃO: A contaminação tumoral no trajeto de biópsia de tumores ósseos malignos primários esteve associada à ocorrência de recidiva local. Por outro lado, não mostrou ser influenciada pelo tipo de biópsia realizada e pelo tipo histológico de tumor estudado. A quimioterapia neoadjuvante mostrou um efeito protetor contra esta complicação. A despeito desses achados, a contaminação tumoral é uma complicação que deve sempre ser considerada, sendo recomendada a remoção do trajeto da biópsia na cirurgia de ressecção do tumor.OBJECTIVE: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. METHOD: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and

  14. Three-dimensional organoid culture reveals involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sopko, Nikolai A; Kates, Max; Liu, Xiaopu; Joice, Gregory; McConkey, David J; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2018-02-16

    There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells. Here we report that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator, CHIR99021, promoted proliferation of established human bladder cancer cell lines when they were grown in organoid culture but not when they were grown in conventional adherent cultures. CHIR99021 activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in bladder cancer cell lines in organoid culture. CHIR99021 also stimulated proliferation and the Wnt/b-catenin pathway in primary human bladder cancer organoids. RNAi-mediated knockdown of β-catenin blocked growth of organoids. The effects of CHIR99021 were associated with decreased expression of the urothelial terminal differentiation marker, cytokeratin 20. Our data suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for the proliferation of bladder cancer cells in three-dimensional organoid culture and provide a concrete example of why organoid culture is important for cancer research.

  15. Analysis of nodal coverage utilizing image guided radiation therapy for primary gynecologic tumor volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Faisal [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Sarkar, Vikren; Gaffney, David K.; Salter, Bill [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation dose delivered to pelvic lymph nodes, if daily Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) was implemented with treatment shifts based on the primary site (primary clinical target volume [CTV]). Our secondary goal was to compare dosimetric coverage with patient outcomes. Materials and methods: A total of 10 female patients with gynecologic malignancies were evaluated retrospectively after completion of definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to their pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor site. IGRT consisted of daily kilovoltage computed tomography (CT)-on-rails imaging fused with initial planning scans for position verification. The initial plan was created using Varian's Eclipse treatment planning software. Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 45 Gy (range: 37.5 to 50 Gy) to the primary volume and 45 Gy (range: 45 to 64.8 Gy) to nodal structures. One IGRT scan per week was randomly selected from each patient's treatment course and re-planned on the Eclipse treatment planning station. CTVs were recreated by fusion on the IGRT image series, and the patient's treatment plan was applied to the new image set to calculate delivered dose. We evaluated the minimum, maximum, and 95% dose coverage for primary and nodal structures. Reconstructed primary tumor volumes were recreated within 4.7% of initial planning volume (0.9% to 8.6%), and reconstructed nodal volumes were recreated to within 2.9% of initial planning volume (0.01% to 5.5%). Results: Dosimetric parameters averaged less than 10% (range: 1% to 9%) of the original planned dose (45 Gy) for primary and nodal volumes on all patients (n = 10). For all patients, ≥99.3% of the primary tumor volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose (V95%) and the average minimum dose was 96.1% of the prescribed dose. In evaluating nodal CTV coverage, ≥ 99.8% of the volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose and the average minimum dose was 93%. In

  16. Knockdown of Ki-67 by dicer-substrate small interfering RNA sensitizes bladder cancer cells to curcumin-induced tumor inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakamasundari Pichu

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR. However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7 in rat (AY-27 and human (T-24 bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM and curcumin (10 µM, when treated independently, were moderately effective. However, in their combined presence, proliferation of bladder cancer cells was profoundly (>85% inhibited; the rate of apoptosis in the combined presence of curcumin and Ki-67-7 (36% was greater than that due to Ki-67-7 (14% or curcumin (13% alone. A similar synergy between curcumin and Ki-67-7 in inducing cell cycle arrest was also observed. Western blot analysis suggested that pretreatment with Ki-67-7 sensitized bladder cancer cells to curcumin-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53- and p21-independent mechanisms. These data suggest that a combination of anti-Ki-67 siRNA and curcumin could be a viable treatment against the proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

  17. Impact of Primary Tumor Location on First-line Bevacizumab or Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Matthew; Bottiglieri, Sal; Almhanna, Khaldoun

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the United States, with a large proportion of patients presenting with metastatic disease or developing a recurrence. Systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of therapy in this setting. There is a clear benefit in the addition of bevacizumab or cetuximab (for rat sarcoma [RAS] wild type tumors) to oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based regimens which can be considered for first-line therapy. However, many significant questions remain as to which agent reflects best practice. Our review aimed to elucidate the benefit of adding bevacizumab and cetuximab to initial therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer based on primary tumor location and a variety of other disease- and patient-related factors, addressing the paucity of evidence that currently exists in this area and contributing to current literature and clinical practices. The primary endpoints of the study were first Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included best response to first- and second-line therapies, Treatment- Related Adverse Events (TRAEs), second PFS, cost of therapy, and an assessment of other patient- and disease-related factors affecting PFS and OS. While there were trends towards improved OS in patients with left-sided primary tumors (n=57) compared to those with right-sided disease (n=23), there were no significant differences between the two groups in either primary endpoint. While no differences were found for patients with left- or right- sided tumors stratified by add-on agent, these analyses were limited by the small number of patients receiving cetuximab with first-line therapy (n=4). However, the bevacizumab cohort (n=76) was sizable enough to provide ample data and produce clinically relevant results. Add-on therapy with bevacizumab in our study achieved impressive survival outcomes in both left-sided (median first PFS = 13 months, 95% CI 11-15 months; median OS = 37 months, 95% CI 21

  18. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  19. A Study of Patients with Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Treated Using Multimodal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCTs are rare, which often makes them difficult to treat. Herein, we examined patients with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment. Methods. We examined 6 patients (median age: 25 years, range: 19–27 years with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment between April 2001 and March 2015. Three patients had seminomas, 2 patients had yolk sac tumors, and 1 patient had choriocarcinoma. The median observation period was 32.5 months (range: 8–84 months. Results. Three of the 6 patients received initial operation followed by 3-4 courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP or etoposide and cisplatin (EP. One patient developed multiple lung metastases 17 months after surgery; received salvage chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin; and achieved complete remission. The remaining 3 patients received initial BEP and EP chemotherapy. Multiple lung metastases and supraclavicular lymph node metastases were detected in 2 of these patients at the initial diagnosis. The patients underwent resections to remove residual tumor after treatment, and no viable tumor cells were found. Conclusions. Reliable diagnosis and immediate multimodal treatments are necessary for patients with PMGCTs. The 6 patients treated in our hospital have never experienced recurrence after the multimodal treatment.

  20. Tumor Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cell as a Prognostic Marker in Primary Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Jin Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation from brain tumors of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs suggests that these cells play a role in creating a microenvironment for tumor initiation and progression. The clinical characteristics of patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM positive for tMSLCs have not been determined. This study analyzed samples from 82 patients with pGBM who had undergone tumor removal, pathological diagnosis, and isolation of tMSLC from April 2009 to October 2014. Survival, extent of resection, molecular markers, and tMSLC culture results were statistically evaluated. Median overall survival was 18.6 months, 15.0 months in tMSLC-positive patients and 29.5 months in tMSLC-negative patients (P=0.014. Multivariate cox regression model showed isolation of tMSLC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1~5.6, P=0.021 showed poor outcome while larger extent of resection (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2~0.8, P=0.011 has association with better outcome. The presence of tMSLCs isolated from the specimen of pGBM is associated with the survival of patient.

  1. Clinical experience with RF thermotherapy for nonresectable primary and secondary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Fujimura, Takashi; Takegawa, Shigeru; Miyata, Ryuwa; Kamata, Toru; Miyazaki, Itsuo; Nakajima, Kazuyoshi; Hisazumi, Haruo; Saito, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    Twenty two patients with primary or secondary liver tumors were treated by radiofrequency hyperthermia (8 MHz) combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia was administered twice a week for 40 - 60 minutes per session up to a total of 5 - 48 sessions. Five fractions per week of irradiation (10 MV X ray) at 180 - 200 cGy or intraarterial chemotherapy using mitomycin C, cis-diamminedichroloplatinum or adriamycine were carried out. Intratumor temperature over 42.5 deg C were obtained in 9 of 17 patients. Of the 22 patients treated, 2 (9 %) showed complete response, 8 (36 %) partial response, 3 (14 %) minor response, 7 (32 %) no change and 2 (9 %) progressive disease. 7 out of 14 tumors, heated over 42.5 deg C showed complete or partial response but only 1 out of 5 tumors, heated under 42.5 deg C was responder. Complication observed were thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in 30 % of cases. These results showed that combined treatment of hyperthermia radiation and chemotherapy appear to be useful from of therapy for the patients with liver tumor. (author)

  2. Brief descriptive epidemiology of primary malignant brain tumors from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumee; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Munlima

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are a mixed group of neoplasms that originate from the intracranial tissues and the meninges with degrees of malignancy varying greatly from benign to aggressive. Not much is known about the epidemiology of primary malignant brain tumors (PMBTs) in our population in North-East India. In this analysis, an attempt was made to identify the age groups, gender distribution, topography and different histological types of PMBT with data from a hospital cancer registry. A total of 231 cases of PMBT were identified and included for the present analysis. Our analysis has shown that most of PMBT occur at 20-60 years of age, with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Some 70.5% of cases occurred in cerebral lobes except for the occipital lobe, and astrocytic tumors were the most common broad histological type. In our population the prevalence of PMBT is 1% of all cancers, mostly affecting young and middle aged patients. As brain tumors are rare, so case-control analytic epidemiological studies will be required to establish the risk factors prevalent in our population.

  3. NBI - plasma vaporization hybrid approach in bladder cancer endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, F; Geavlete, B; Georgescu, D; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-06-15

    A prospective study was performed aiming to evaluate the surgical efficacy, perioperative safety profile, diagnostic accuracy and medium term results of a multi-modal approach consisting in narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy and bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) when compared to the standard protocol represented by white light cystoscopy (WLC) and transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 260 patients with apparently at least one bladder tumor over 3 cm were included in the trial. In the first group, 130 patients underwent conventional and NBI cystoscopy followed by BPV, while in a similar number of cases of the second arm, classical WLC and TURBT were applied. In all non-muscle invasive bladder tumors' (NMIBT) pathologically confirmed cases, standard monopolar Re-TUR was performed at 4-6 weeks after the initial intervention, followed by one year' BCG immunotherapy. The follow-up protocol included abdominal ultrasound, urinary cytology and WLC, performed every 3 months for a period of 2 years. The obturator nerve stimulation, bladder wall perforation, mean hemoglobin level drop, postoperative bleeding, catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly reduced for the plasma vaporization technique by comparison to conventional resection. Concerning tumoral detection, the present data confirmed the NBI superiority when compared to standard WLC regardless of tumor stage (95.3% vs. 65.1% for CIS, 93.3% vs. 82.2% for pTa, 97.4% vs. 94% for pT1, 95% vs. 84.2% overall). During standard Re-TUR the overall (6.3% versus 17.4%) and primary site (3.6% versus 12.8%) residual tumors' rates were significantly lower for the NBI-BPV group. The 1 (7.2% versus 18.3%) and 2 (11.5% versus 25.8%) years' recurrence rates were substantially lower for the combined approach. NBI cystoscopy significantly improved diagnostic accuracy, while bipolar technology showed a higher surgical efficiency, lower morbidity and faster postoperative recovery. The combined

  4. Survivin Expression as a Predictive Marker for Local Control in Patients With High-Risk T1 Bladder Cancer Treated With Transurethral Resection and Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Christian; Roemer, Felix von; Capalbo, Gianni; Ott, Oliver J.; Wittlinger, Michael; Krause, Steffen F.; Sauer, Rolf; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of survivin in tumor samples from patients with high-risk T1 bladder cancer and to correlate its expression with clinicopathologic features as well as clinical outcomes after initial transurethral resection (TURBT) followed by radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Survivin protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tumor specimen (n = 48) from the initial TURBT, and was correlated with clinical and histopathologic characteristics as well as with 5-year rates of local failure, tumor progression, and death from urothelial cancer after primary bladder sparring treatment with RT/RCT. Results: Survivin was not expressed in normal bladder urothelium but was overexpressed in 67% of T1 tumors. No association between survivin expression and clinicopathologic factors (age, gender, grading, multifocality, associated carcinoma in situ) could be shown. With a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 3-140 months), elevated survivin expression was significantly associated with an increased probability of local failure after TURBT and RCT/RT (p = 0.003). There was also a clear trend toward a higher risk of tumor progression (p = 0.07) and lower disease-specific survival (p = 0.10). Conclusions: High survivin expression is a marker of tumor aggressiveness and may help to identify a subgroup of patients with T1 bladder cancer at a high risk for recurrence when treated with primary organ-sparing approaches such as TURBT and RCT.

  5. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  6. Induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in liver and epithelial hyperplasia in urinary bladder, but no tumor development in male Fischer 344 rats treated with monomethylarsonic acid for 104 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Wei Min; Doi, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Kaoru; Endo, Ginji; Morimura,; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics in human and experimental animals, was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. A total of 129 rats at 10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups and received drinking water containing MMA(V) at doses of 0 (Control), 50, and 200 ppm ad libitum for 104 weeks. No significant differences were found between the control and the MMA(V)-treated groups regarding clinical signs, mortality, hematological, and serum biochemistry findings. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver revealed a significant increase of numbers and areas in the 200 ppm MMA(V)-treated group. In the urinary bladder MMA(V) induced simple hyperplasia and significantly elevated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the urothelium. A variety of tumors developed in rats of all groups, including the controls, but all were histologically similar to those known to occur spontaneously in F344 rats and there were no significant differences among the groups. Thus, it could be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, MMA(V) induced lesions in the liver and urinary bladder, but did not cause tumor development in male F344 rats even after 2 years exposure

  7. Primary oral and nasal transmissible venereal tumor in a mix-breed dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a coitally transmitted tumor of dogs with widespread distribution. The present study describes the occurrence of the primary oral and nasal TVT in a 10-year-old, female, mix-breed dog. The case was presented with a history of anorexia, inability to swallow and dyspnea. Clinical examinations revealed the emaciation, muzzle deformity due to the presence of a friable, fleshy, cauliflower-like mass in the oral cavity and submandibular lymphadenopathy. TVT was diagnosed based on histopathological findings. The dog was discharged with therapeutic intervention with vincristine. Unfortunately, the case died before readmission because of the progressive worsening of the general condition. Our findings highlight the need for considering TVT for the differential diagnosis of the extragenital masses in dogs.

  8. Immunological considerations of modern animal models of malignant primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in animal models of glioma have facilitated a better understanding of biological mechanisms underlying gliomagenesis and glioma progression. The limitations of existing therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, have prompted numerous investigators to search for new therapeutic approaches to improve quantity and quality of survival from these aggressive lesions. One of these approaches involves triggering a tumor specific immune response. However, a difficulty in this approach is the the scarcity of animal models of primary CNS neoplasms which faithfully recapitulate these tumors and their interaction with the host's immune system. In this article, we review the existing methods utilized to date for modeling gliomas in rodents, with a focus on the known as well as potential immunological aspects of these models. As this review demonstrates, many of these models have inherent immune system limitations, and the impact of these limitations on studies on the influence of pre-clinical therapeutics testing warrants further attention.

  9. ER, HER2, and TOP2A expression in primary tumor, synchronous axillary nodes, and asynchronous metastases in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette Dupont; Knoop, Ann; Ewertz, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    with the primary tumors with respect to ER, HER2, and TOP2A. In the prospective tissue-collection study, 81 patients had biopsy from a suspected relapse. Additional archived paired material was included, leaving a total of 119 patients with paired primary tumor, synchronous axillary nodes (available in 52 patients......At recurrence of breast cancer, the therapeutic target is the metastases. However, it is current practice to base the choice of systemic treatment on the biomarker profile of the primary tumor. In the present study, confirmatory biopsies were obtained from suspected metastatic lesions and compared......) and asyncronous metastases available for analysis. ER, HER2, and TOP2A expression of primary tumors, axillary nodes and metastases were re-analysed and determined centrally by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 81 patients with a biopsy from...

  10. Feasibility of the evidence-based cognitive telerehabilitation program ReMind for patients with primary brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.D.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Gehring, K.

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with primary brain tumors experience cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation programs focus on alleviating these deficits, but availability of such programs is limited. Our large randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated positive effects of the cognitive rehabilitation

  11. Expression and lymphatic microvessel density in primary tumors of node-neagtive colorectal cancer patients predict disease recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, F.S.; Morreau, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Speetjens, F.M.; Dekker-Ensink, N.G.; Putter, H.; vand e Velde, C.J.H.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Kuppen, P.J.K.; Sialyl lewis, X.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 30% of curatively resected colorectal cancer patients with tumor-negative lymph nodes, show disease recurrence. We assessed whether these high-risk patients can be identified by examining primary tumors for the following blood and lymphatic vasculature markers: A) sialyl Lewis X (sLeX),

  12. Multicenter results of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-resectable primary liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Rafael A.; Rojas, Daniel; Sanabria, Juan R. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospitals-Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)], email: juan.sanabria@uhhospitals.org [and others

    2012-05-15

    Background. An excess of 100 000 individuals are diagnosed with primary liver tumors every year in USA but less than 20% of those patients are amenable to definitive surgical management due to advanced local disease or comorbidities. Local therapies to arrest tumor growth have limited response and have shown no improvement on patient survival. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an alternative local ablative therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor response to SBRT in a combined multicenter database. Study design. Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 21) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC, n = 11) treated with SBRT from four Academic Medical Centers were entered into a common database. Statistical analyses were performed for freedom from local progression (FFLP) and patient survival. Results. The overall FFLP for advanced HCC was 63% at a median follow-up of 12.9 months. Median tumor volume decreased from 334.2 to 135 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.004). The median time to local progression was 6.3 months. The 1- and 2-years overall survival rates were 87% and 55%, respectively. Patients with ICC had an overall FFLP of 55.5% at a median follow-up of 7.8 months. The median time to local progression was 4.2 months and the six-month and one-year overall survival rates were 75% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of grade 1-2 toxicities, mostly nausea and fatigue, was 39.5%. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were present in two and one patients, respectively. Conclusion. Higher rates of FFLP were achieved by SBRT in the treatment of primary liver malignancies with low toxicity.

  13. Feasibility of the evidence-based cognitive telerehabilitation program Remind for patients with primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sophie D; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Rutten, Geert-Jan M; Gehring, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Many patients with primary brain tumors experience cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation programs focus on alleviating these deficits, but availability of such programs is limited. Our large randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated positive effects of the cognitive rehabilitation program developed by our group. We converted the program into the iPad-based cognitive rehabilitation program ReMind, to increase its accessibility. The app incorporates psychoeducation, strategy training and retraining. This pilot study in patients with primary brain tumors evaluates the feasibility of the use of the ReMind-app in a clinical (research) setting in terms of accrual, attrition, adherence and patient satisfaction. The intervention commenced 3 months after resective surgery and patients were advised to spend 3 h per week on the program for 10 weeks. Of 28 eligible patients, 15 patients with presumed low-grade glioma or meningioma provided informed consent. Most important reason for decline was that patients (7) experienced no cognitive complaints. Participants completed on average 71% of the strategy training and 76% of the retraining. Some patients evaluated the retraining as too easy. Overall, 85% of the patients evaluated the intervention as "good" or "excellent". All patients indicated that they would recommend the program to other patients with brain tumors. The ReMind-app is the first evidence-based cognitive telerehabilitation program for adult patients with brain tumors and this pilot study suggests that postoperative cognitive rehabilitation via this app is feasible. Based on patients' feedback, we have expanded the retraining with more difficult exercises. We will evaluate the efficacy of ReMind in an RCT.

  14. Vessel co-option in primary human tumors and metastases: an obstacle to effective anti-angiogenic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnem, Tom; Hu, Jiangting; Ferguson, Mary; Adighibe, Omanma; Snell, Cameron; Harris, Adrian L; Gatter, Kevin C; Pezzella, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Angiogenesis has been regarded as essential for tumor growth and progression. Studies of many human tumors, however, suggest that their microcirculation may be provided by nonsprouting vessels and that a variety of tumors can grow and metastasize without angiogenesis. Vessel co-option, where tumor cells migrate along the preexisting vessels of the host organ, is regarded as an alternative tumor blood supply. Vessel co-option may occur in many malignancies, but so far mostly reported in highly vascularized tissues such as brain, lung, and liver. In primary and metastatic lung cancer and liver metastasis from different primary origins, as much as 10-30% of the tumors are reported to use this alternative blood supply. In addition, vessel co-option is introduced as a potential explanation of antiangiogenic drug resistance, although the impact of vessel co-option in this clinical setting is still to be further explored. In this review we discuss tumor vessel co-option with specific examples of vessel co-option in primary and secondary tumors and a consideration of the clinical implications of this alternative tumor blood supply.

  15. What is the fate of artificial urinary sphincters among men undergoing repetitive bladder cancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitchell Heiner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional characteristics and durability of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS among patients who develop bladder cancer has been poorly characterized. We sought to evaluate AUS outcomes among patients subsequently diagnosed with bladder cancer, in order to describe device survivability when subject to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as cystoscopy, transurethral resection, and cystectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1,803 male patients treated with AUS surgery at a single institution between 1983–2014. We describe AUS device outcomes among patients undergoing surveillance and treatment for bladder cancer. Results: Following AUS placement, 14 (0.8% patients were subsequently diagnosed with and treated for bladder cancer and 4 patients with bladder cancer undergoing treatment and screening, subsequently received AUS placement. The median follow-up from device placement was 7.2 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.8–11.5, and the median time from AUS placement to bladder cancer diagnosis was 6 (IQR, 0–9. There were a total of 8 primary and 1 secondary devices failures. Despite a median of 2 diagnostic cystoscopies (IQR, 1–6 and 0 bladder tumor resections (IQR, 0–0 per patient following device implantation, only 1 (5.6% patient experienced an iatrogenic erosion related to urethral manipulation. Among those undergoing cystectomy (n=4, 1 device was left in situ without complication. Conclusions: Bladder cancer surveillance and treatment with an AUS device in place appears to confer minimal additional risk to AUS survival. Careful attention should be given to device deactivation and use of the smallest caliber instruments available to minimize the risk of iatrogenic urethral erosion.

  16. Surgical management and perioperative morbidity of patients with primary borderline ovarian tumor (BOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillsch, Fabian; Ruetzel, Jan David; Herwig, Uwe; Doerste, Ulrike; Woelber, Linn; Grimm, Donata; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mahner, Sven

    2013-07-09

    Surgery is the cornerstone for clinical management of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). As these patients have an excellent overall prognosis, perioperative morbidity is the critical point for decision making when the treatment strategy is developed and the primary surgical approach is defined. Clinical and surgical parameters of patients undergoing surgery for primary BOT at our institutions between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed with regard to perioperative morbidity depending on the surgical approach (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy). A total of 105 patients were analyzed (44 with primary laparoscopy [42%], 61 with primary laparotomy [58%]). Complete surgical staging was achieved in 33 patients at primary surgical approach (31.4%) frequently leading to formal indication of re-staging procedures. Tumor rupture was significantly more frequent during laparoscopy compared to laparotomy (29.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.038) but no other intraoperative complications were seen in laparoscopic surgery in contrast to 7 of 61 laparotomies (0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.020). Postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (19.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.848). Irrespective of the surgical approach, surgical management of BOT has acceptable rates of perioperative complications and morbidity. Choice of initial surgical approach can therefore be made independent of complication-concerns. As the recently published large retrospective AGO ROBOT study observed similar oncologic outcome for both approaches, laparoscopy can be considered for staging of patients with BOT if this appears feasible. An algorithm for the surgical management of BOT patients has been developed.

  17. Primary benign tumors in chiropractic practice and the importance of x-ray diagnosis: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jacques C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of primary benign bone tumors were diagnosed radiographically in a chiropractic practice. Although primary osseous tumors are somewhat uncommon, their potential presence emphasizes the importance of x-ray diagnosis as an essential adjunct to chiropractic practice. This procedure may preclude underlying lesions before considering treatment of seemingly uncomplicated injuries. Two such cases are presented: unicameral bone cyst and osteochondroma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  18. Comparing Image Perception of Bladder Tumors in Four Different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System Modalities Using the íSPIES App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Guido M.; de Bruin, D. Martijn; Brandt, Martin J.; Knoll, Thomas; Conort, Pierre; Lapini, Alberto; Dominguez-Escrig, Jose L.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the variation of interpretation of the same bladder urothelium image in different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES) modalities. SPIES contains a White light (WL), Spectra A (SA), Spectra B (SB), and Clara and Chroma combined (CC) modality. An App for the iPAD retina was

  19. Temporalis myofascial flap for primary cranial base reconstruction after tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaly, Ahmed; Magdy, Emad A; Nour, Yasser A; Gaafar, Alaa H

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the use of the temporalis myofascial flap in primary cranial base reconstruction following surgical tumor ablation and to explain technical issues, potential complications, and donor site consequences along with their management. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Forty-one consecutive patients receiving primary temporalis myofascial flap reconstructions following cranial base tumor resections in a 4-year period. Flap survival, postoperative complications, and donor site morbidity. Patients included 37 males and 4 females ranging in age from 10 to 65 years. Two patients received preoperative and 18 postoperative radiation therapy. Patient follow-up ranged from 4 to 39 months. The whole temporalis muscle was used in 26 patients (63.4%) and only part of a coronally split muscle was used in 15 patients (36.6%). Nine patients had primary donor site reconstruction using a Medpor((R)) (Porex Surgical, Inc., Newnan, GA) temporal fossa implant; these had excellent aesthetic results. There were no cases of complete flap loss. Partial flap dehiscence was seen in six patients (14.6%); only two required surgical débridement. None of the patients developed cerebrospinal leaks or meningitis. One patient was left with complete paralysis of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Three patients (all had received postoperative irradiation) developed permanent trismus. The temporalis myofascial flap was found to be an excellent reconstructive alternative for a wide variety of skull base defects following tumor ablation. It is a very reliable, versatile flap that is usually available in the operative field with relatively low donor site aesthetic and functional morbidity.

  20. The Many Faces of Primary Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome: A Reflection of Adrenocortical Tumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Ozgur; Duan, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, morphological, and molecular features. Recent discoveries of specific genotype-phenotype correlations in adrenal cortical adenomas have transformed our understanding of their respective endocrine syndromes. Indeed, a proportion of patients with primary aldosteronism are now known to harbor adrenal cortical adenomas with heterogeneous molecular alterations ( KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D ) involving the calcium/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that KCNJ5 -mutant aldosterone-producing adenomas have distinct clinicopathological phenotype compared to those harboring ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D mutations. Benign adrenal cortical tumors presenting with Cushing syndrome often have diverse mutations ( PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A , and PDE8B ) involving the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. In addition to cortisol-producing adenomas, bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease and primary bilateral macronod