WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary amine groups

  1. Chemoselective organocatalytic aerobic oxidation of primary amines to secondary imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-06-01

    Biomimetic aerobic oxidation of primary benzylic amines has been achieved by using a quinone catalyst. Excellent selectivity is observed for primary, unbranched benzylic amines relative to secondary/tertiary amines, branched benzylic amines, and aliphatic amines. The exquisite selectivity for benzylic amines enables oxidative self-sorting within dynamic mixtures of amines and imines to afford high yields of cross-coupled imine products.

  2. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a

  3. Azobisisobutyronitrile initiated aerobic oxidative transformation of amines: coupling of primary amines and cyanation of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianghui; Wang, Zikuan; Fu, Xuefeng; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-11-16

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of radical initiator AIBN, primary amines are oxidatively coupled to imines and tertiary amines are cyanated to α-aminonitriles. These "metal-free" aerobic oxidative coupling reactions may find applications in a wide range of "green" oxidation chemistry.

  4. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: Non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic......) Strecker derived volatiles, (ii) yellowness index (YI), (iii) hydrophobic and (iv) hydrophilic pyrroles content. The oxidative stability of the samples was assessed through measurement of secondary lipid derived volatile oxidation products. The result showed that the presence of PE and amino acids caused...... the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids....

  5. Determination of rate constants of N-alkylation of primary amines by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghong

    2013-09-05

    Macromolecules containing N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are proposed scaffolds for controlled nitrogen oxide (NO) release medical applications. Preparation of these compounds often involves converting primary amine groups to secondary amine groups through N-alkylation. However, N-alkylation results in not only secondary amines but tertiary amines as well. Only N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are suitable for controlled NO release; therefore, the yield of secondary amines is crucial to the total NO load of the carrier. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to estimate the rate constants for formation of secondary amine (k1) and tertiary amine (k2) for alkylation reagents such as propylene oxide (PO), methyl acrylate (MA), and acrylonitrile (ACN). At room temperature, the ratio of k2/k1 for the three reactions was found to be around 0.50, 0.026, and 0.0072.

  6. Iridium-Catalyzed Condensation of Primary Amines To Form Secondary Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Jensen, Paw; Madsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields.......Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields....

  7. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...... to predict if a given compound will be a substrate for CYPs, in order to avoid toxic metabolites, and hence to understand the mechanism that is utilized by CYPs. Two possible mechanisms, for the N-hydroxylation of primary and secondary amines mediated by CYPs, are studied by density functional theory (DFT...

  9. Nickel-Catalyzed Synthesis of Primary Aryl and Heteroaryl Amines via C–O Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2017-03-13

    A nickel-catalyzed protocol for the conversion of aryl and heteroaryl alcohol derivatives to primary and secondary aromatic amines via C(sp2)-O bond cleavage is described. The new amination protocol can be applied to a range of substrates bearing diverse functional groups and uses readily available benzophenone imines as an effective nitrogen source.

  10. Nickel-Catalyzed Synthesis of Primary Aryl and Heteroaryl Amines via C–O Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng; Guo, Lin; Liu, Xiangqian; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    A nickel-catalyzed protocol for the conversion of aryl and heteroaryl alcohol derivatives to primary and secondary aromatic amines via C(sp2)-O bond cleavage is described. The new amination protocol can be applied to a range of substrates bearing diverse functional groups and uses readily available benzophenone imines as an effective nitrogen source.

  11. Environmentally friendly chemoselective oxidation of primary aliphatic amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeron, Martine; Chiaroni, Angèle; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly oxidation of primary aliphatic amines to imines has been successfully achieved, under metal-free conditions, by the use of diverse electrogenerated o-azaquinone mediators. High catalytic performance, together with high chemoselectivity, were observed with electron-poor o-azaquinone catalysts generated from 2-aminoresorcinol derivatives. Similar to copper amine oxidase enzymes, these mediators exhibited lower reactivity toward alpha-branched primary amines and no reactivity toward secondary amines. In the case of 3,4-aminophenol derivatives lacking a 2-hydroxy group, the generated o-azaquinone species failed to catalyze the oxidation of the amine to the corresponding imine. Further mechanistic considerations allowed a rationalization of the crucial role of the 2-hydroxy group in converting a catalytically inert species into a highly effective biomimetic catalyst.

  12. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  13. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Weggemans, W.M.A.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct

  14. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis or primary amines in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Weggemans, W.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct

  15. Continuous-flow oxidative cyanation of primary and secondary amines using singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Gilmore, Kerry; Kopetzki, Daniel; McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-01-07

    Primary and secondary amines can be rapidly and quantitatively oxidized to the corresponding imines by singlet oxygen. This reactive form of oxygen was produced using a variable-temperature continuous-flow LED-photoreactor with a catalytic amount of tetraphenylporphyrin as the sensitizer. α-Aminonitriles were obtained in good to excellent yields when trimethylsilyl cyanide served as an in situ imine trap. At 25°C, primary amines were found to undergo oxidative coupling prior to cyanide addition and yielded secondary α-aminonitriles. Primary α-aminonitriles were synthesized from the corresponding primary amines for the first time, by an oxidative Strecker reaction at -50 °C. This atom-economic and protecting-group-free pathway provides a route to racemic amino acids, which was exemplified by the synthesis of tert-leucine hydrochloride from neopentylamine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. In vitro lipofection with novel series of symmetric 1,3-dialkoylamidopropane-based cationic surfactants containing single primary and tertiary amine polar head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohammad; Feig, Jennifer; Gee, Becky; Li, Song; Savva, Michalakis

    2003-06-01

    A novel series of symmetric double-chained primary and tertiary 1,3-dialkoylamido monovalent cationic lipids were synthesized and evaluated for their transfection activities. In the absence of the helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), only the primary and tertiary dioleoyl derivatives 1,3lmp5 and 1,3lmt5, respectively elicited transfection activity. This is a striking difference between symmetrical 1,2-diacyl glycerol-based monovalent cationic lipids that always found both dioleoyl and dimyristoyl analogues being efficient transfection reagents. In the presence of helper lipid, all cationic derivatives induced marker gene expression, except the dilauroyl analogues 1,3lmp1 and 1,3lmt1 that elicited no transfection activity. Combining electrophoretic mobility data of the lipoplexes at different charge ratios with transfection activity suggested two requirements for high transfection activity with monovalent double-chained cationic lipids, that is, binding/association of the lipid to the plasmid DNA and membrane fusion properties of the lipid layers surrounding the DNA.

  17. A Hydrazone-Based exo-Directing-Group Strategy for β C-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongxing; Wang, Chengpeng; Dong, Guangbin

    2016-04-18

    Described is a new hydrazone-based exo-directing group (DG) strategy developed for the functionalization of unactivated primary β C-H bonds of aliphatic amines. Conveniently synthesized from protected primary amines, the hydrazone DGs are shown to site-selectively promote the β-acetoxylation and tosyloxylation via five-membered exo-palladacycles. Amines with a wide scope of skeletons and functional groups are tolerated. Moreover, the hydrazone DG can be readily removed, and a one-pot C-H acetoxylation/DG removal protocol was also discovered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cu/Nitroxyl Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Amines into Nitriles at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-07-05

    An efficient catalytic method has been developed for aerobic oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles. The reactions proceed at room temperature and employ a catalyst consisting of (4,4'- t Bu 2 bpy)CuI/ABNO (ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N -oxyl). The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and substrate scope, and are effective with benzylic, allylic and aliphatic amines. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that aerobic oxidation of the Cu catalyst is the turnover-limiting step of the reaction.

  19. Cu/Nitroxyl Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Amines into Nitriles at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinho; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient catalytic method has been developed for aerobic oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles. The reactions proceed at room temperature and employ a catalyst consisting of (4,4′-tBu2bpy)CuI/ABNO (ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N-oxyl). The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and substrate scope, and are effective with benzylic, allylic and aliphatic amines. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that aerobic oxidation of the Cu catalyst...

  20. Debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Svetlana; Markovic, Violeta; Joksovic, Milan D.; Joksovic, Ljubinka, E-mail: ljubinka@kg.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac (Serbia); Todorovic, Nina [Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Divjakovic, Vladimir [Department of Physics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Trifunovic, Snezana [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, (Serbia)

    2013-07-15

    Reductive debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with different primary amines followed by imine formation was investigated. This reaction requires simple experimental procedure without any organic solvent, metal or conventional reducing agent. A strong influence of amine polarity on the efficacy of debromination process was observed, and ethanolamine and ethylene diamine having sufficiently high boiling points can debrominate 3-bromocamphor giving corresponding camphanimines in good isolated yields. The mechanisms of debromination of 3-bromocamphor with ethanolamine and n-hexylamine were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The radical mechanism was revealed, and it was shown that the reaction with more polar ethanolamine is energetically more favorable. (author)

  1. Novel primary amine diazeniumdiolates-Chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Melany P; Bradaric, Michael J; Pontikis, John; Cabai, Jonathan; Weyna, Theodore; Tednes, Patrick; Schretzman, Robert; Rickert, Karl; Cao, Zhao; Andrei, Daniela

    2018-05-02

    Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Diazeniumdiolates, also known as NONOates, are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release nitric oxide (NO . ) and/or their congeneric nitroxyl (HNO). The purpose of this work was to synthesize a series of primary amine-based diazeniumdiolates as HNO/NO donors and to determine their efficacy as anticancer and antifungal agents in vivo. The seven compounds (3a-3g) were successfully synthesized and characterized, one of which had been previously reported in the literature (3g). Two compounds showed anti-proliferative effects against ovarian (ES2 and SKOV3) and AML monocyte-derived cancer cells (THP-1) when tested with standard MTT assays. Compounds 3a and 3g demonstrated reduced ovarian cancer cell proliferation when treated at doses from 0.033 to 1.0 mg/mL at the 24 hr time point. These compounds also exhibited moderate and selective antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, one cause of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised patients, inhibiting the growth of the fungi at LD 50 at 10 mg/mL. A third compound (3e) did not exhibit similar activities, possibly due to the alkyl chain. Our results suggest that the primary amine diazeniumdiolates may offer a versatile platform for the development of HNO/NO donors for biomedical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżaniak, Agnieszka; Weggemans, Wilko; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, André B

    2011-12-16

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct analysis of aliphatic amines and diamines in aqueous samples by gas chromatography (GC) with silanol deactivation using ionic liquids (ILs). ILs including trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis 2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinate (Cyphos IL-104), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [pmim][Tf(2)N] and N″-ethyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [etmg][FAP] were tested as deactivating media for the GC liner. Solutions of these ILs in methanol were injected in the system prior to the analysis of primary amines. Butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine, BDA) was used as a reference amine. The best results were obtained using the imidazolium IL [pmim][Tf(2)N]. With this deactivator, excellent reproducibility of the analysis was achieved, and the detection limit of BDA was as low as 1mM. The applicability of the method was proven for the analysis of two different primary amines (C4-C5) and pentane-1,5-diamine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Artifacts Generated During Azoalkane Peroxy Radical Oxidative Stress Testing of Pharmaceuticals Containing Primary and Secondary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefliu, Marcela; Zelesky, Todd; Jansen, Patrick; Sluggett, Gregory W; Foti, Christopher; Baertschi, Steven W; Harmon, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    We report artifactual degradation of pharmaceutical compounds containing primary and secondary amines during peroxy radical-mediated oxidative stress carried out using azoalkane initiators. Two degradation products were detected when model drug compounds dissolved in methanol/water were heated to 40°C with radical initiators such as 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN). The primary artifact was identified as an α-aminonitrile generated from the reaction of the amine group of the model drug with formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, generated as byproducts of the stress reaction. A minor artifact was generated from the reaction between the amine group and isocyanic acid, also a byproduct of the stress reaction. We report the effects of pH, initiator/drug molar ratio, and type of azoalkane initiator on the formation of these artifacts. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for structure elucidation, whereas mechanistic studies, including stable isotope labeling experiments, cyanide analysis, and experiments exploring the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole addition, were employed to support the degradation pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Renewable glycolaldehyde isolation from pyrolysis oil-derived aqueous solution by reactive extraction with primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde can be separated from a pyrolysis oil-derived aqueous phase by reactive extraction employing primary amines dissolved in organic diluents. This work investigates the occurrence of solid imine formation from glycolaldehyde and amines and the competitive reactions in the organic extract

  5. Visible-Light-Promoted Metal-Free Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Amines to Acids and Lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaokai; Yang, Bo; Hu, Xingen; Xu, Qing; Lu, Zhan

    2016-12-05

    A unique metal-free aerobic oxidation of primary amines via visible light photocatalytic double carbon-carbon bonds cleavage and multi carbon-hydrogen bonds oxidation was observed. Aerobic oxidation of primary amines could be controlled to afford acids by using dioxane with 18 W CFL, and lactones by using DMF with 8 W green LEDs, respectively. A plausible mechanism was proposed based on control experiments. This observation showed direct evidences for the fragmentation in the aerobic oxidation of aliphatic primary amines. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine ... As a result ... methods of acetylation of amines are known using ace- ... vents we report here, environmentally benign, eco- ... It was filtered under suction,.

  7. Metal and base free synthesis of primary amines via ipso amination of organoboronic acids mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Goswami, Avijit

    2015-08-07

    A metal and base free synthesis of primary amines has been developed at ambient temperature through ipso amination of diversely functionalized organoboronic acids, employing a combination of [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA)-N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and methoxyamine hydrochloride as the aminating reagent. The amines were primarily obtained as their trifluoroacetate salts which on subsequent aqueous alkaline work up provided the corresponding free amines. The combination of PIFA-NBS is found to be the mildest choice compared to the commonly used strong bases (e.g. n-BuLi, Cs2CO3) for activating the aminating agent. The reaction is expected to proceed via activation of the aminating reagent followed by B-N 1,2-aryl migration.

  8. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahardis, J.; Geddes, S.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA) and hexadecylamine (HDA) is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2- and NO3- ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3- (HNO3). For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL), with pO3≥3×10-7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines) and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) or secondary ozonides (for amides) from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10-3 atm for 17 s). This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3), formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  9. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  10. Selective Grafting of Primary Amines onto Carbon Nanotubes via Free-Radical Treatment in Microwave Plasma Post-Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dubois

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy to graft functional groups at the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs is discussed. Aiming at grafting nitrogen containing groups, and more specifically primary amine covalent functionalization, CNTs were exposed under atomic nitrogen flow arising from an Ar + N2 microwave plasma. The primary amine functions were identified and quantified through chemical derivatization with 4-(trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde and characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The increase of the selectivity in the primary amines grafting onto CNTs, up to 66.7% for treatment of CNT powder, was performed via the reduction of post-treatment oxygen contamination and the addition of hydrogen in the experimental set-up, more particularly in the plasma post-discharge chamber. The analyses of nitrogenated and primary amine functions grafting on the CNT surface suggest that atomic nitrogen (N• and reduced nitrogen species (NH• and NH2• react preferentially with defect sites of CNTs and, then, only atomic nitrogen continues to react on the CNT surface, creating defects.

  11. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  12. Visible light induced green transformation of primary amines to imines using a silicate supported anatase photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavahir, Sifani; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2015-01-26

    Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase)-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  13. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the ...

  14. Products of tungstate ion interaction with primary aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sejfullina, I.I.; Purich, A.N.; Babinets, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Using the methods of conductometric titration, IR-spectroscopic and thermographic analyses precipitates formed in the process of interaction of diluted aqueous solutions of sodium tungstate with alcoholic solutions of dodecyl-, tetradecyl- and octadecylamine have been studied. It is shown that as a result of interaction tungstates of corresponding amines are formed. The structure and thermal stability of singled out products are determined

  15. From caffeine to fish waste: amine compounds present in food and drugs and their interactions with primary amine oxidase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2011-07-01

    Tissue bound primary amine oxidase (PrAO) and its circulating plasma-soluble form are involved, through their catalytic activity, in important cellular roles, including the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells during various inflammatory conditions, the regulation of cell growth and maturation, extracellular matrix deposition and maturation and glucose transport. PrAO catalyses the oxidative deamination of several xenobiotics and has been linked to vascular toxicity, due to the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In this study, a series of amines and aldehydes contained in food and drugs were tested via a high-throughput assay as potential substrates or inhibitors of bovine plasma PrAO. Although none of the compounds analyzed were found to be substrates for the enzyme, a series of molecules, including caffeine, the antidiabetics phenformin and tolbutamide and the antimicrobial pentamidine, were identified as PrAO inhibitors. Although the inhibition observed was in the millimolar and micromolar range, these data show that further work will be necessary to elucidate whether the interaction of ingested biogenic or xenobiotic amines with PrAO might adversely affect its biological roles.

  16. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  17. Primary amines protect against retinal degeneration in mouse models of retinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akiko; Golczak, Marcin; Chen, Yu; Okano, Kiichiro; Kohno, Hideo; Shiose, Satomi; Ishikawa, Kaede; Harte, William; Palczewska, Grazyna; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-25

    Vertebrate vision is initiated by photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis-retinal and is maintained by continuous regeneration of this retinoid through a series of reactions termed the retinoid cycle. However, toxic side reaction products, especially those involving reactive aldehyde groups of the photoisomerized product, all-trans-retinal, can cause severe retinal pathology. Here we lowered peak concentrations of free all-trans-retinal with primary amine-containing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that did not inhibit chromophore regeneration in mouse models of retinal degeneration. Schiff base adducts between all-trans-retinal and these amines were identified by MS. Adducts were observed in mouse eyes only when an experimental drug protected the retina from degeneration in both short-term and long-term treatment experiments. This study demonstrates a molecular basis of all-trans-retinal-induced retinal pathology and identifies an assemblage of FDA-approved compounds with protective effects against this pathology in a mouse model that shows features of Stargardt's disease and age-related retinal degeneration.

  18. Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as an Effective Catalyst for the Transamidation of Primary Amides with Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Subhash Chandra; Li, Cheng Chao; Zeng, Hua Chun; Ngiam, Joyce S Y; Seayad, Abdul M.; Chen, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS), conveniently prepared by a novel antisolvent precipitation approach, have been shown to be an effective catalyst for the transamidation of primary amides with amines. This novel transamidation can be efficiently carried out under solvent-free conditions and is applicable to a wide range of primary amides and amines to provide N-alkyl amides in good to excellent yields. The catalyst is highly stable and reusable. The application of this transamidation reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of antidepressant drug moclobemide and other druglike compounds. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as an Effective Catalyst for the Transamidation of Primary Amides with Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Subhash Chandra

    2014-02-06

    Mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS), conveniently prepared by a novel antisolvent precipitation approach, have been shown to be an effective catalyst for the transamidation of primary amides with amines. This novel transamidation can be efficiently carried out under solvent-free conditions and is applicable to a wide range of primary amides and amines to provide N-alkyl amides in good to excellent yields. The catalyst is highly stable and reusable. The application of this transamidation reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of antidepressant drug moclobemide and other druglike compounds. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  1. Characterization of the in vitro binding and inhibition kinetics of primary amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 by glucosamine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2012-04-01

    Primary-amine oxidase (PrAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of endogenous and exogenous primary amines and also functions, in some tissues, as an inflammation-inducible endothelial factor, known as vascular adhesion protein-1. VAP-1 mediates the slow rolling and adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells in a number of inflammatory conditions, including inflammation of the synovium.

  2. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  3. Electronic and steric influences of pendant amine groups on the protonation of molybdenum bis (dinitrogen) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heiden, Zachariah M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mock, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of a series of PEtPNRR' (PEtPNRR' = Et₂PCH₂CH₂P(CH₂NRR')₂, R = H, R' = Ph or 2,4-difluorophenyl; R = R' = Ph or iPr) diphosphine ligands containing mono- and disubstituted pendant amine groups, and the preparation of their corresponding molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') is described. In situ IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies monitoring the stepwise addition of (HOTf) to trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes in THF at -40 °C show that the electronic and steric properties of the R and R' groups of the pendant amines influence whether the complexes are protonated at Mo, a pendant amine, a coordinated N2 ligand, or a combination of these sites. For example, complexes containing mono-aryl substituted pendant amines are protonated at Mo and pendant amine to generate mono- and dicationic Mo–H species. Protonation of the complex containing less basic diphenyl-substituted pendant amines exclusively generates a monocationic hydrazido (Mo(NNH₂)) product, indicating preferential protonation of an N₂ ligand. Addition of HOTf to the complex featuring more basic diisopropyl amines primarily produces a monocationic product protonated at a pendant amine site, as well as a trace amount of dicationic Mo(NNH₂) product that contain protonated pendant amines. In addition, trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(depe) (depe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PEt₂) without a pendant amine was synthesized and treated with HOTf, generating a monocationic Mo(NNH₂) product. Protonolysis experiments conducted on select complexes in the series afforded trace amounts of NH₄⁺. Computational analysis of the series of trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes provides further insight into the proton affinity values of the metal center, N

  4. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of primary amines using a recyclable palladium nanoparticle catalyst together with lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Karl P J; Lihammar, Richard; Verho, Oscar; Engström, Karin; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2014-05-02

    A catalyst consisting of palladium nanoparticles supported on amino-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam (Pd-AmP-MCF) was used in chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) to convert primary amines to amides in high yields and excellent ee's. The efficiency of the nanocatalyst at temperatures below 70 °C enables reaction conditions that are more suitable for enzymes. In the present study, this is exemplified by subjecting 1-phenylethylamine (1a) and analogous benzylic amines to DKR reactions using two commercially available lipases, Novozyme-435 (Candida antartica Lipase B) and Amano Lipase PS-C1 (lipase from Burkholderia cepacia) as biocatalysts. The latter enzyme has not previously been used in the DKR of amines because of its low stability at temperatures over 60 °C. The viability of the heterogeneous Pd-AmP-MCF was further demonstrated in a recycling study, which shows that the catalyst can be reused up to five times.

  5. Equilibrium and Transport Properties of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines by Molecular Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, Gustavo A.; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos; Lachet, Veronique; Mackie, Allan D.

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular simulation techniques such as Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD), we present several simulation results of thermodynamic and transport properties for primary, secondary and tertiary amines. These calculations are based on a recently proposed force field for amines that follows the Anisotropic United Atom approach (AUA). Different amine molecules have been studied, including n-Butylamine, di-n-Butylamine, tri-n-Butylamine and 1,4-Butanediamine for primary, secondary, tertiary and multi-functional amines respectively. For the transport properties, we have calculated the viscosity coefficients as a function of temperature using the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble. In the case of the pure components, we have investigated different thermodynamic properties using NVT Gibbs ensemble simulations such as liquid-vapor phase equilibrium diagrams, vaporization enthalpies, vapor pressures, normal boiling points, critical temperatures and critical densities. We have also calculated the excess enthalpies for water-n-Butylamine and n-heptane-n-Butylamine mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations in the NPT ensemble. In addition, we present the calculation of liquid-vapor surface tensions of n-Butylamine using a two-phase NVT simulation as well as the radial distribution functions. Finally, we have investigated the physical Henry constants of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and nitrogen (N 2 ) in an aqueous solutions of n-Butylamine. In general, we found a good agreement between the available experimental information and our simulation results for all the studied properties, ratifying the predictive capability of the AUA force field for amines. (authors)

  6. Introduction of various amine groups onto polyethylene bead prepared by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Choi, S.H.; Lee, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation-induced graft polymerization is a good method for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymeric materials because it can endow properties such as membrane quality, ion exchange, blood compatibility, dyeability, protein adsorption, and immobilization of bioactive materials. Polyethylene microbead is very useful material due to the following advantages; low price, simple purchase, high sensitivity, and simple analysis. On the other hand, the epoxy group of the glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can easily be converted to the various functional groups such as amines, alcohols, phosphoric acid, sulfonic acid, and amino acid, etc. Cyclodextrin have been applied universally in various industries such as foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry, analytical chemistry, and chemical industry. In order to obtain cyclodextrins, polyethylene microbead with the epoxy group were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of GMA onto polyethylene microbead. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-induced polyethylene microbeads were investigated by IR, thermal analysis (TGA/DSC), and SEM, respectively. Subsequently, the various amine groups such as diethylamine. diethylenetriamine, triethylamine, triethylenetetramine, and 1,6-hexanediamine were induced onto the epoxy group in polyethylene microbead. Finally, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase were immobilized onto polyethylene microbead with various amines under the various experimental conditions, such as pH, amin content, immobilization time, and etc. The activity of CGTase-immobilized polyethylene microbead was determined by Phenolphthein method. The production of the cyclodextrins from starch is in progress

  7. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2012-01-14

    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  8. Extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Shaoming; Li Deqian; Ni Jiazan

    1987-01-01

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N 1923 (RNH 2 ) has been investigated by means of slope, isomolar continuous variation and saturation methods. The effect of temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) is observed. The extraction equilibrium constant and thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) are obtained. The IR and NMR of extracted compound are measured

  9. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2012-09-06

    Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the junction have been investigated. For nanoribbons with the oligopyrene motif and conventional single amine terminal groups, an increase in the wire length causes an exponential drop in the conductance. In contrast, for the nanoribbons with the oligoperylene motif and dual amine anchoring groups the predicted conductance rises with the wire length over the whole range of investigated lengths. Only when the effects of self-interaction correction are taken into account, the conductance of the oligoperylene ribbons exhibits saturation for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  10. Oxidation using quaternary ammonium polyhalides VII. Oxidation of primary amines and hydrazo compounds by use of benzyltrimethylammonium tribromide

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Akiko; Kohro, Noriaki; Fujisaki, Shizuo; Kajigaeshi, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    The reactions of primary amines and hydrazo compounds with benzyltrimethylammonium tribromide in aqueous sodium hydroxide or in water gave the corresponding nitriles and azo compounds in satisfactory yields, respectively.

  11. Microwave—enhanced Mannich Condensation of Terminal Alkynes,Primary Amines with Paraformaldehyde on cuprous Iodide Doped Alumina under Solvent Free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 李品华

    2003-01-01

    A microwave-enhanced,solventless Mannich condensation of terminal alkynes,primary amines with paraformaldehyde on cuprous iodide doped alumina has been investigated.The structures of products depend on the ratio of alkyne to amine and paraformaldehyde.

  12. Analysis of primary aromatic amines using precolumn derivatization by HPLC fluorescence detection and online MS identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianen; Suo, Yourui

    2008-03-01

    2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro-[9,10-d]imidazole-1-yl)-acetic acid (PPIA) and 2-(9-acridone)-acetic acid (AAA), two novel precolumn fluorescent derivatization reagents, have been developed and compared for analysis of primary aromatic amines by high performance liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection coupled with online mass spectrometric identification. PPIA and AAA react rapidly and smoothly with the aromatic amines on the basis of a condensation reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as dehydrating catalyst to form stable derivatives with emission wavelengths at 380 and 440 nm, respectively. Taking six primary aromatic amines (aniline, 2-methylaniline, 2-methoxyaniline, 4-methylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, and 4-bromoaniline) as testing compounds, derivatization conditions such as coupling reagent, basic catalyst, reaction temperature and time, reaction solvent, and fluorescent labeling reagent concentration have also been investigated. With the better PPIA method, chromatographic separation of derivatized aromatic amines exhibited a good baseline resolution on an RP column. At the same time, by online mass spectrometric identification with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in positive ion mode, the PPIA-labeled derivatives were characterized by easy-to-interpret mass spectra due to the prominent protonated molecular ion m/z [M + H](+) and specific fragment ions (MS/MS) m/z 335 and 295. The linear range is 24.41 fmol-200.0 pmol with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9996-0.9999, and detection limits of PPIA-labeled aromatic amines are 0.12-0.21 nmol/L (S/N = 3). Method repeatability, precision, and recovery were evaluated and the results were excellent for the efficient HPLC analysis. The most important argument, however, was the high sensitivity and ease-of-handling of the PPIA method. Preliminary experiments with wastewater samples collected from the waterspout of a paper mill and its nearby soil where

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, Li; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III; Erupe, M. E.; Silva, P. J.

    2009-03-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (tested) as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  14. Mechanistic insight into benzenethiol catalyzed amide bond formations from thioesters and primary amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Bork, Nicolai; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The influence of arylthiols on cysteine-free ligation, i.e. the reaction between an alkyl thioester and a primary amine forming an amide bond, was studied in a polar aprotic solvent. We reacted the ethylthioester of hippuric acid with cyclohexylamine in the absence or presence of various quantities...... of thiophenol (PhSH) in a slurry of disodium hydrogen phosphate in dry DMF. Quantitative conversions into the resulting amide were observed within a few hours in the presence of equimolar amounts of thiophenol. Ab initio calculations showed that the reaction mechanism in DMF is similar to the well-known aqueous...... reaction mechanism. The energy barrier of the catalyzed amidation reaction is approximately 40 kJ mol(-1) lower than the non-catalyzed amidation reaction. At least partially this can be explained by a hydrogen bond from the amine to the π-electrons of the thiophenol, stabilizing the transition state...

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  16. Amination of activated carbon for enhancing phenol adsorption: Effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guo; Chen, Honglin; Qin, Hangdao; Feng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    To study the contribution of different nitrogen-containing functional groups to enhancement of phenol adsorption, the aminated activated carbons (AC) were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XPS, Boehm titration, and pH drift method and tested for adsorption behaviors of phenol. Adsorption isotherm fitting revealed that the Langmuir model was preferred for the aminated ACs. The adsorption capacity per unit surface area (q m /SSA BET ) was linearly correlated with the amount of pyridinic and pyrrolic N, which suggested that these two functional groups played a critical role in phenol adsorption. The enhancement of adsorption capacity was attributed to the strengthened π–π dispersion between phenol and basal plane of AC by pyridinic, pyrrolic N. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion was one of the rate-controlling steps in the adsorption process.

  17. Analysis of primary aromatic amines (PAA) in black nylon kitchenware 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit

    is 0,01 mg of substance per kg of food or food simulant. The detection limit applies to the sum of primary aromatic amines released’ Since July 1st 2011, an additional EU regulation has come into place, which states that each consignment of polyamide (nylon) kitchen utensils from China and Hong Kong......% acetic acid as food simulant at an exposure temperature of 100°C and time from ½-4 hours, depending on the foreseeable use of the utensil. The samples were collected by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority at importers and retail shops. Of the 20 PAAs analysed. four PAAs were detected, being aniline (ANL...

  18. Asymmetric Formal Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction of Trifluoromethyl Hemiaminals with Enones Catalyzed by Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Cha, Lide; Li, Lijun; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-04-15

    A primary amine-catalyzed asymmetric formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction of trifluoromethyl hemiaminals with enones was developed via a chiral gem-diamine intermediate. This novel protocol allowed facile access to structurally diverse trifluoromethyl-substituted piperidine scaffolds with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this method was further demonstrated through a concise approach to biologically active 4-hydroxypiperidine. More importantly, a stepwise mechanism involving an asymmetric induction process was proposed to rationalize the positive correlation between the chirality of the gem-diamine intermediate and the formal aza-Diels-Alder product.

  19. Metal-Free Oxidation of Primary Amines to Nitriles through Coupled Catalytic Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kyle M; Bobbitt, James M; Eldirany, Sherif A; Kissane, Liam E; Sheridan, Rose K; Stempel, Zachary D; Sternberg, Francis H; Bailey, William F

    2016-04-04

    Synergism among several intertwined catalytic cycles allows for selective, room temperature oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles in 85-98% isolated yield. This metal-free, scalable, operationally simple method employs a catalytic quantity of 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT; TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) radical and the inexpensive, environmentally benign triple salt oxone as the terminal oxidant under mild conditions. Simple filtration of the reaction mixture through silica gel affords pure nitrile products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A colorimetric chiral sensor based on chiral crown ether for the recognition of the two enantiomers of primary amino alcohols and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Na Rae; Li, Yinan; Kim, Hee Jin; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2011-04-01

    A new colorimetric chiral sensor material consisting of three different functional sites such as chromophore (2,4-dinitrophenylazophenol dye), binding site (crown ether), and chiral barrier (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl group) was prepared and applied to the recognition of the two enantiomers of primary amino alcohols and amines. Among five primary amino alcohols and two primary amines tested, the two enantiomers of phenylalaninol show the highest difference in the absorption maximum wavelength (Δλ(max)=43.5 nm) and in the association constants (K(S)/K(R)=2.51) upon complexation with the colorimetric chiral sensor material and, consequently, the two enantiomers of phenylalaninol were clearly distinguished from each other by the color difference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Sequential metabolism of secondary alkyl amines to metabolic-intermediate complexes: opposing roles for the secondary hydroxylamine and primary amine metabolites of desipramine, (s)-fluoxetine, and N-desmethyldiltiazem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kelsey L; VandenBrink, Brooke M; Babu, Kantipudi N; Allen, Kyle E; Nelson, Wendel L; Kunze, Kent L

    2010-06-01

    Three secondary amines desipramine (DES), (S)-fluoxetine [(S)-FLX], and N-desmethyldiltiazem (MA) undergo N-hydroxylation to the corresponding secondary hydroxylamines [N-hydroxydesipramine, (S)-N-hydroxyfluoxetine, and N-hydroxy-N-desmethyldiltiazem] by cytochromes P450 2C11, 2C19, and 3A4, respectively. The expected primary amine products, N-desmethyldesipramine, (S)-norfluoxetine, and N,N-didesmethyldiltiazem, are also observed. The formation of metabolic-intermediate (MI) complexes from these substrates and metabolites was examined. In each example, the initial rates of MI complex accumulation followed the order secondary hydroxylamine > secondary amine > primary amine, suggesting that the primary amine metabolites do not contribute to formation of MI complexes from these secondary amines. Furthermore, the primary amine metabolites, which accumulate in incubations of the secondary amines, inhibit MI complex formation. Mass balance studies provided estimates of the product ratios of N-dealkylation to N-hydroxylation. The ratios were 2.9 (DES-CYP2C11), 3.6 [(S)-FLX-CYP2C19], and 0.8 (MA-CYP3A4), indicating that secondary hydroxylamines are significant metabolites of the P450-mediated metabolism of secondary alkyl amines. Parallel studies with N-methyl-d(3)-desipramine and CYP2C11 demonstrated significant isotopically sensitive switching from N-demethylation to N-hydroxylation. These findings demonstrate that the major pathway to MI complex formation from these secondary amines arises from N-hydroxylation rather than N-dealkylation and that the primary amines are significant competitive inhibitors of MI complex formation.

  2. Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in black nylon and other food-contact materials, 2004-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Okholm, B.; Foverskov, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in migrates from 234 samples of food-contact materials, including black nylon (polyamide) kitchen utensils (n = 136), coloured plastics (28), and clear/printed multilayer film/laminates (41......), from retailers, importers, and food producers. A further 29 utensils in use were obtained from colleagues. Very high PAA migration was found from black nylon kitchen utensils to the food simulant 3% acetic acid: the 'non-detectable' limit (20 mu g aniline equivalents kg-1 food) was exceeded by up...... migration test conditions influenced the final test results. Long-term release of PAAs was fitted by diffusion modelling experiments and long-term release was also seen as expected from used utensils. Toxicologists consider these migration levels of the suspected carcinogenic PAAs as a problem of major...

  3. 3,3'-Diaryl-BINOL phosphoric acids as enantioselective extractants of benzylic primary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; de Vries, Johannes G; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    We report that 3,3'-diaryl-BINOL phosphoric acids are effective enantioselective extractants in chiral separation methods based on reactive liquid-liquid extraction. These new extractants are capable of separating racemic benzylic primary amine substrates. The effect of the nature of the substituents at the 3,3'-positions of the host were examined as well as the structure of the substrate, together with important parameters such as the organic solvent, the pH of the aqueous phase, and the host stoichiometry. Titration of the substrate with the host was monitored by FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, and CD spectroscopy, which provided insight into the structure of the host-guest complex involved in extraction. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Bioinspired Catalytic Aerobic Oxidative C–H Functionalization of Primary Aliphatic Amines: Synthesis of 1,2-Disubstituted Benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khac Minh Huy; Largeron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic oxidative C–H functionalization of primary aliphatic amines has been accomplished with a biomimetic cooperative catalytic system to furnish 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles that play an important role as drug discovery targets. This one-pot atom-economical multistep process, which proceeds under mild conditions, with ambient air and equimolar amounts of each coupling partner, constitutes a convenient environmentally friendly strategy to functionalize non-activated aliphatic amines that remain challenging substrates for non-enzymatic catalytic aerobic systems. PMID:26206475

  5. On salting in effect of the second group metal rhodanides on aqueous-amine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupatkin, I.L.; Ostrovskaya, E.M.; Vorob'eva, L.D.; Kamyshnikova, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    The ''salting in'' effect of rhodanides of Group 2 metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium) on aqueous-amine solutions (water-aniline, and water-o-toluidine systems) is studied. The solubility in these systems has been determined by the isothermal method at 25 deg C. Compositions of the co-existing liquid phases have been determined by refractometry. The phase diagrams of water-aniline-rhodanide of magnesium, calcium and strontium systems have the same qualitative view. These rhodanides ''salt in'' the water-aniline system so strongly that the systems are completely homogenized. According to the decreasing homogenization effect on the water-aniline and water-o-toluidine systems the salts may be arranged into the following series Mg(NCS) 2 >Ca(NCS) 2 >Sr(NCS) 2 >Ba(NCS) 2 . The ''salting in'. effect is weaker in the water-o-toluidine system rather than in the water-aniline one

  6. Ruthenium complexing in sorption by granulated sorbents with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanova, S.A.; Kolmakova, A.I.; Konovalov, L.V.; Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kalalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption process of ruthenium (4) chlorocomplexes - K 2 (RuCl 6 ) macroporous granulated copolymers of glycidylmethacrylate ethylene dimethacrylate with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine has been studied. Sorption has been carried out under the static conditions (at 20 and 98 deg C) from 0.1-2.0 MxHCl and 1.0 M NaCl solutions. It is established that the sorption from acidic solutions proceeds according to anion exchange mechanism with formation of onium chlorocomplexes in the sorbent phase, subjecting to Anderson regrouping during the heating. During the sorption from neutral solutions the second-sphere coordination of polymer amino groups accirs near ruthenium atom and amino-chloride complexes are formed in the sorbent phase

  7. Ruthenium Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine as an Effective Photocaging Group for Nitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) is an effective caging group for nitriles that provides high levels of control over the enzyme activity with light. Two caged nitriles were prepared, [Ru(TPA)(MeCN)2](PF6)2 (1) and [Ru(TPA)(3)2](PF6)2 (2), where 3 is the cathepsin K inhibitor Cbz-Leu-NHCH2CN, and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry. Both 1 and 2 show the release of a single nitrile within 20 min of irradiation with 365 nm light. Complex 2 acts as a potent, photoactivated inhibitor of human cathepsin K. IC50 values were determined for 2 and 3. Enzyme inhibition for 2 was enhanced by a factor of 89 upon exposure to light, with IC50 values of 63 nM (light) and 5.6 μM (dark). PMID:24661182

  8. Metal-Mediated Couplings of Primary Alcohols with Amines and Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    . The reaction is proposed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to the ruthenium centre. Then, nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine. Project 2: Tin-mediated regioselective 6...... from alcohols and amines catalyzed by a ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex. The successful method development and application of a convenient and direct (one step) synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described. The developed method provides quick andextended access to structurally...... and amines have been coupled in the presence of the catalyst to afford the corresponding imines in moderate to good yields. Optically pure amines gave the corresponding imines without any sign of racemization. Moreover, the one-pot diastereoselective addition of different organometallic reagents to the imine...

  9. Comparison between Different Extraction Methods for Determination of Primary Aromatic Amines in Food Simulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shahrestani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aromatic amines (PAAs are food contaminants which may exist in packaged food. Polyurethane (PU adhesives which are used in flexible packaging are the main source of PAAs. It is the unreacted diisocyanates which in fact migrate to foodstuff and then hydrolyze to PAAs. These PAAs include toluenediamines (TDAs and methylenedianilines (MDAs, and the selected PAAs were 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, 4,4′-MDA, 2,4′-MDA, and 2,2′-MDA. PAAs have genotoxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic effects. In this study, extraction methods were applied on a 3% acetic acid as food simulant which was spiked with the PAAs under study. Extraction methods were liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME, and solid-phase extraction (SPE with C18 ec (octadecyl, HR-P (styrene/divinylbenzene, and SCX (strong cationic exchange cartridges. Extracted samples were detected and analyzed by HPLC-UV. In comparison between methods, recovery rate of SCX cartridge showed the best adsorption, up to 91% for polar PAAs (TDAs and MDAs. The interested PAAs are polar and relatively soluble in water, so a cartridge with cationic exchange properties has the best absorption and consequently the best recoveries.

  10. A reagent for safe and efficient diazo-transfer to primary amines: 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mitsuru; Kato, So; Yano, Masakazu; Tashiro, Norifumi; Shiratake, Yuichiro; Sando, Mitsuyoshi; Okauchi, Tatsuo

    2014-07-07

    Organic azides were prepared from primary amines in high yields by a metal free diazo-transfer reaction using 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate (ADMP), which is safe and stable crystalline. The choice of base was important in the diazo-transfer reaction. In general, 4-(N,N-dimethyl)aminopyridine (DMAP) was efficient, but a stronger base such as alkylamine or DBU was more appropriate for the reaction of nucleophilic primary amines. X-ray single crystal structural analysis and geometry optimization using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G**) were conducted to study the ADMP structure, and the diazo-transfer reaction mechanism was explained with the help of the results of these analyses.

  11. Grafting of model primary amine compounds to cellulose nanowhiskers through periodate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalaxmi Dash; Thomas Elder; Arthur Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates regioselective oxidation of cellulose nanowhiskers using 2.80–10.02 mmols of sodium periodate per 5 g of whiskers followed by grafting with methyl and butyl amines through a Schiff base reaction to obtain their amine derivatives in 80–90 % yield. We found a corresponding increase in carbonyl content (0.06–0.14 mmols/g) of the dialdehyde...

  12. A Simple Primary Amine Catalyst for Enantioselective α-Hydroxylations and α-Fluorinations of Branched Aldehydes

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Michael R.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    A new primary amine catalyst for the asymmetric α-hydroxylation and α-fluorination of α-branched aldehydes is described. The products of the title transformations are generated in excellent yields and with high enantioselectivities. Both processes can be performed within short reaction times and on gram scale. The similarity in the results obtained in both reactions, combined with computational evidence, implies a common basis for stereoinduction and the possibility of a general catalytic mec...

  13. Novel protocol for highly efficient gas-phase chemical derivatization of surface amine groups using trifluoroacetic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchoslav, Jiri; Kehrer, Matthias; Hinterreiter, Andreas; Duchoslav, Vojtech; Unterweger, Christoph; Fürst, Christian; Steinberger, Roland; Stifter, David

    2018-06-01

    In the current work, chemical derivatization of amine (NH2) groups with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) as an analytical method to improve the information scope of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is investigated. TFAA is known to successfully label hydroxyl (OH) groups. With the introduction of a newly developed gas-phase derivatization protocol conducted at ambient pressure and using a catalyst also NH2 groups can now efficiently be labelled with a high yield and without the formation of unwanted by-products. By establishing a comprehensive and self-consistent database of reference binding energies for XPS a promising approach for distinguishing hydroxyl from amine groups is presented. The protocol was verified on different polymers, including poly(allylamine), poly(ethyleneimine), poly(vinylalcohol) and chitosan, the latter one containing both types of addressed chemical groups.

  14. Microchip Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (MicronNACE) Method to Analyze Long-Chain Primary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Mora, Maria; Cable, Morgan L.; Stockton, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed as a first step in analyzing the complex organic aerosols present on Saturn's moon Titan, as well as the analogues of these aerosols (tholins) made on Earth. Labeling of primary amines using Pacific Blue succinimidyl ester is effected in ethanol with 25 mM triethylamine to maintain basic conditions. This reaction is allowed to equilibrate for at least one hour. Separation of the labeled primary amines is performed in ethanol with 1.05 M acetic acid, and 50 mM ammonium acetate in a commercial two-layer glass device with a standard crossmicrochannel measuring 50 microns wide by 20 microns deep. Injection potentials are optimized at 2 kV from the sample (negative) to the waste well (positive), with slight bias applied to the other two wells ( 0.4 and 0.8 V) to pinch the injection plug for the 30-s injection. Separation is performed at a potential of 5 kV along the channel, which has an effective separation distance of 7 cm. The use of ethanol in this method means that long-chain primary amines can be dissolved. Due to the low pH of the separation buffer, electro-osmotic flow (EOF) is minimized to allow for separation of both short-chain and longchain amines. As the freezing point of ethanol is much lower than water, this protocol can perform separations at temperatures lower than 0 C, which would not be possible in aqueous phase. This is of particular importance when considering in situ sampling of Titan aerosols, where unnecessary heating of the sample (even to room temperature) would lead to decomposition or unpredictable side reactions, which would make it difficult to characterize the sample appropriately.

  15. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in single and multicomponent fine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahardis, J.; Geddes, S.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2007-10-01

    The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA) and hexadecylamine (HDA) is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2- and NO3- ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitro alkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3-(HNO3). For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL), with pO3≥3×10-7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines) and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) or secondary ozonides (for amides) from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides was shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10-3 atm for 17 s). This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g. NO2, NO3), formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  16. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  17. A bioinspired catalytic aerobic oxidative C-H functionalization of primary aliphatic amines: synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khac Minh Huy; Largeron, Martine

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic oxidative CH functionalization of primary aliphatic amines has been accomplished with a biomimetic cooperative catalytic system to furnish 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles that play an important role as drug discovery targets. This one-pot atom-economical multistep process, which proceeds under mild conditions, with ambient air and equimolar amounts of each coupling partner, constitutes a convenient environmentally friendly strategy to functionalize non-activated aliphatic amines that remain challenging substrates for non-enzymatic catalytic aerobic systems. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  18. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene You Xian

    2014-01-01

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl

  19. Pd-Catalyzed Acetoxylation of γ-C(sp3)-H Bonds of Amines Directed by a Removable Bts-Protecting Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Song, Weibin; Zhu, Yefu; Wei, Bole; Xuan, Lijiang

    2018-02-16

    Pd-catalyzed acetoxylation of γ-C(sp 3 )-H bonds directed by Bts-protected amines using inexpensive PhI(OAc) 2 as oxidant is reported. The Bts-protecting group is easily introduced and removed under mild conditions. This protocol provides an important strategy for the construction of γ-hydroxyl amine derivatives.

  20. Electrochemical and Quantum Chemical Study of Reactivity of Orthophthalaldehyde with Aliphatic Primary Amines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donkeng Dazie, Joel; Liška, Alan; Ludvík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 9 (2016), G127-G132 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-21704S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * quantum chemical study * amines Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.259, year: 2016

  1. Highly Chemoselective Reduction of Amides (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) to Alcohols using SmI2/Amine/H2O under Mild Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Highly chemoselective direct reduction of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O is reported. The reaction proceeds with C–N bond cleavage in the carbinolamine intermediate, shows excellent functional group tolerance, and delivers the alcohol products in very high yields. The expected C–O cleavage products are not formed under the reaction conditions. The observed reactivity is opposite to the electrophilicity of polar carbonyl groups resulting from the nX → π*C=O (X = O, N) conjugation. Mechanistic studies suggest that coordination of Sm to the carbonyl and then to Lewis basic nitrogen in the tetrahedral intermediate facilitate electron transfer and control the selectivity of the C–N/C–O cleavage. Notably, the method provides direct access to acyl-type radicals from unactivated amides under mild electron transfer conditions. PMID:24460078

  2. A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Song, Y.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional

  3. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen; Zhu, Qiang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Yixin

    2011-01-01

    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen

    2011-05-20

    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Facilitated ion transfer of protonated primary organic amines studied by square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, E. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Ortuño, J.A. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Molina, A., E-mail: amolina@um.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Serna, C. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Karimian, F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Facilitated ion transfer of organic protonated amines is studied. • Cyclic square wave voltammetry is used as main technique. • Complexation constants and standard ion transfer potentials are determined. • Diffusion coefficients in the organic and aqueous phases are determined. • The goodness of square wave voltammetry as analytical tool is shown. - Abstract: The transfer of the protonated forms of heptylamine, octylamine, decylamine, procaine and procainamide facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6 from water to a solvent polymeric membrane has been investigated by using cyclic square wave voltammetry. The experimental voltammograms obtained are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The values of the standard ion transfer potential, complexation constant and diffusion coefficient in water have been obtained from these experiments, and have been used to draw some conclusions about the lipophilicity of these species and the relative stability of the organic ammonium complexes with dibenzo-18-crown-6. The results have been compared with those provided by linear sweep voltammetry. Calibration graphs were obtained with both techniques. An interesting chronoamperometric method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the target ion in the membrane has been developed and applied to all these protonated amines.

  6. Ozone Promotes Chloropicrin Formation by Oxidizing Amines to Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Daniel L; Quay, Amanda N; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-02

    Chloropicrin formation has been associated with ozonation followed by chlorination, but the reaction pathway and precursors have been poorly characterized. Experiments with methylamine demonstrated that ozonation converts methylamine to nitromethane at ∼100% yield. Subsequent chlorination converts nitromethane to chloropicrin at ∼50% yield under the conditions evaluated. Similarly high yields from other primary amines were limited to those with functional groups on the β-carbon (e.g., the carboxylic acid in glycine) that facilitate carbon-carbon bond cleavage to release nitromethyl anion. Secondary amines featuring these reactive primary amines as functional groups (e.g., secondary N-methylamines) formed chloropicrin at high yields, likely by facile dealkylation to release the primary nitro compound. Chloropicrin yields from tertiary amines were low. Natural water experiments, including derivatization to transform primary and secondary amines to less reactive carbamate functional groups, indicated that primary and secondary amines were the dominant chloropicrin precursors during ozonation/chlorination. Ozonation followed by chlorination of the primary amine side chain of lysine demonstrated low yields (∼0.2%) of chloropicrin, but high yields (∼17%) of dichloronitrolysine, a halonitroalkane structural analogue to chloropicrin. However, chloropicrin yields increased and dichloronitrolysine yields decreased in the absence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting that future research should characterize the potential occurrence of such halonitroalkane analogues relative to natural radical scavenger (e.g., carbonate) concentrations.

  7. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  8. Health promotion practices in primary care groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa

    2018-04-01

    This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.

  9. Reaction Pathways in Catechol/Primary Amine Mixtures: A Window on Crosslinking Chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    Full Text Available Catechol chemistry is used as a crosslinking tool abundantly in both natural organisms (e.g. mussels, sandcastle worms and synthetic systems to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Despite this abundance and success, the crosslinking chemistry is still poorly understood. In this study, to simplify the system, yet to capture the essential chemistry, model compounds 4-methyl catechol and propylamine are used. The reaction of 4-methyl catechol (2 mM with propylamine (6 mM is carried out in the presence of NaIO4 (2 mM in 10 mM Na2CO3 aqueous solution. A variety of spectroscopic/spectrometric and chromatographic methods such as 1H NMR, LC-MS, and UV-VIS are used to track the reaction and identify the products/intermediates. It is found that the crosslinking chemistry of a catechol and an amine is both fast and complicated. Within five minutes, more than 60 products are formed. These products encompass 19 different masses ranging from molecular weight of 179 to 704. By combining time-dependent data, it is inferred that the dominant reaction pathways: the majority is formed via aryloxyl-phenol coupling and Michael-type addition, whereas a small fraction of products is formed via Schiff base reactions.

  10. Specific determination of 20 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sarah Kelly; Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Foverskov, Annie

    2005-01-01

    A multi-analyte method without any pre-treatment steps using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and applied for the determination of 20 primary aromatic amines (PAA) associated with polyurethane (PUR) products or azo...

  11. Fast and Living Ring-Opening Polymerization of α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydrides Triggered by an "Alliance" of Primary and Secondary Amines at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2015-04-13

    A novel highly efficient strategy, based on an "alliance" of primary and secondary amine initiators, was successfully developed allowing the fast and living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) at room temperature. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fast and Living Ring-Opening Polymerization of α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydrides Triggered by an "Alliance" of Primary and Secondary Amines at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A novel highly efficient strategy, based on an "alliance" of primary and secondary amine initiators, was successfully developed allowing the fast and living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) at room temperature. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Silver salt of 4,6-diazido-N-nitro-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine - characterization of this primary explosive

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, T.; Matyáš, R.; Vala, R.; Růžička, A.; Vlček, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 251-259 ISSN 0721-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : primary explosive * AgDANT * silver salt of 4,6-diazido-N-nitro-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2014

  14. Photocatalytic organic transformation by layered double hydroxides: highly efficient and selective oxidation of primary aromatic amines to their imines under ambient aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Bin; Li, Xu-Bing; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2014-06-25

    We report the first application of layered double hydroxide as a photocatalyst in the transformation of primary aromatic amines to their corresponding imines with high efficiency and selectivity by using oxygen in an air atmosphere as a terminal oxidant under light irradiation.

  15. Metal-free oxidative olefination of primary amines with benzylic C-H bonds through direct deamination and C-H bond activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Xing, Li-Juan; Xu, Tong; Zhu, Xue-Ping; Zhou, Wen; Kang, Ning; Wang, Bin

    2014-09-14

    An oxidative olefination reaction between aliphatic primary amines and benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds has been achieved using N-bromosuccinimide as catalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The olefination proceeds under mild metal-free conditions through direct deamination and benzylic C-H bond activation, and provides easy access to biologically active 2-styrylquinolines with (E)-configuration.

  16. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Alkordi, Mohamed H.; Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  17. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  18. Introduction of 5'-terminal functional groups into synthetic oligonucleotides for selective immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Coull, J.M.; Regnier, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides terminating in a 5'-primary amine group are synthesized using solid-phase supported phosphoramidite chemistry. The 5'-terminal amine group in the deprotected oligomers is further derivatized with either succinic anhydride to give 5'-carboxylic acid or with

  19. A microanalytical method for ammonium and short-chain primary aliphatic amines using precolumn derivatization and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2007-09-14

    A new microscale method is presented for the determination of ammonium and primary short-chain aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, n-butylamine and n-pentylamine) in water. The assay uses precolumn derivatization with the reagent o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) in combination with the thiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and capillary liquid chromatography with UV detection at 330 nm. The described method is very simple and rapid as no preconcentration of the analytes is necessary, and the volume of sample required is only 0.1 mL. Under the proposed conditions good linearity has been obtained up to a concentration of the analytes of 10.0 mgL(-1), the limits of detection being of 8-50 microgL(-1). No matrix effect was found, and recoveries between 97 and 110% were obtained. The precision of the method was good, and the achieved variation coefficients were below 12%. The reliability of the proposed approach has been tested by analyzing a microsample of fogwater collected from leaf surfaces.

  20. Adsorption behavior of Urokinase by the polypropylene film with amine, hydroxylamine and polyol groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Pill; Kang, Hae-Jeong; Joo, Duck-Lae; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of the recovery of urokinase, the polypropylene (PP) films were modified by radiation-induced grafting of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) and subsequent chemical modification of epoxy group of poly-GMA graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated PP film, GMA-grafted PP film and the PP films modified with trimethylamine (TMA), hydroxylamine (HA), diethanolamine (DEA), and tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THMAM) were investigated by IR, SEM, and XPS. The adsorption of urokinase for the PP films modified with TMA, HA, DEA, and THMAM group were examined under various conditions of the functional group content, pH value and salt. It increased with increasing the content of functional group. The adsorption behavior of the PP films modified for different functional groups was in the following order: TMA>DEA>THMAM>HA. The adsorption of urokinase by the PP films with various functional groups at pH=7.4 were higher than that at pH=9.0. In TMA, DEA, and THMAM groups, the adsorption of urokinase without salts was also higher than those with salts. (author)

  1. Automated determination of aliphatic primary amines in wastewater by simultaneous derivatization and headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Anna; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2010-01-22

    This paper presents a fully automated method for determining ten primary amines in wastewater at ng/L levels. The method is based on simultaneous derivatization with pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFBAY) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS-MS). The influence of main factors on the efficiency of derivatization and of HS-SPME is described in detail and optimized by a central composite design. For all species, the highest enrichment factors were achieved using a 85 microm polyacrylate (PA) fiber exposed in the headspace of stirred water samples (750 rpm) at pH 12, containing 360 g/L of NaCl, at 40 degrees C for 15 min. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved detection limits ranging from 10 to 100 ng/L (except for cyclohexylamine). The optimized method was then used to determine the presence of primary amines in various types of wastewater samples, such as influent and effluent wastewater from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a potable water treatment plant. Although the analysis of these samples revealed the presence of up to 1500 microg/L of certain primary amines in influent industrial wastewater, the concentration of these compounds in the effluent and in municipal and potable water was substantially lower, at low microg/L levels. The new derivatization-HS-SPME-GC-IT-MS-MS method is suitable for the fast, reliable and inexpensive determination of primary amines in wastewater in an automated procedure. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of Morpholine Containing Sulfonamides: Introduction of Morpholine Moiety on Amine Functional Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides have been the center of drug structures as this group is quite stable & well tolerated in human beings. The synthesis of these structures was started in search of new pharmacological active reagents. These compounds are being tested for the desired activity (ICAM-1/LFA-1 Interaction inhibitors as anti-adhesion therapeutic agents, the biological activity & structure activity relationship will be published elsewhere. Synthesis of morpholine moiety from amino group is done by using reagent 2-chloroethanol.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of 33 primary aromatic amines of free state in fine pigments by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Zhengyin; Wang, Quanlin; Li, Hesheng; Zhang, Aizhi

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 33 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in fine pigments such as gouache paint, oil painting pigment and acrylic paint. The primary aromatic amines in samples were extracted with acetonitrile. Then the extract was concentrated by centrifugation and nitrogen blow, finally diluted to 2 mL with methanol-water (1:9, v/v) and filtered through 0. 22 im membrane before UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The analytes were separated on a BEH Phenyl column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1. 7 1µm) with 0. 07% (v/v) formic acid in methanol-water as mobile phases in gradient elution. The PAAs were detected by UPLC-MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and quantified by the internal standard method. The separation conditions, fragment voltages and collision energies were optimized. The impacts of extraction times, extraction solvents and concentration methods on recoveries were studied. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation for the 33 primary aromatic amines were 5-50 µg/kg and 15-150 µg/kg respectively. The mean recoveries of three different dye products at three spiked levels were 70. 1% - 115. 8%. The relative standard deviations were 2. 1% - 15%. The expenmental results indicated that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and can meet the requirements for the determination.

  4. The Activity of [60]Fullerene Derivatives Bearing Amine and Carboxylic Solubilizing Groups against Escherichia coli: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry G. Deryabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative investigation of the antibacterial activity of two water-soluble fullerene derivatives bearing protonated amine (AF and deprotonated carboxylic (CF groups appended to the fullerene cage via organic linkers. The negatively charged fullerene derivative CF showed no tendency to bind to the bacterial cells and, consequently, no significant antibacterial activity. In contrast, the compound AF loaded with cationic groups showed strong and partially irreversible binding to the negatively charged Escherichia coli K12 TG1 cells and to human erythrocytes, also possessing negative zeta potential. Adsorption of AF on the bacterial surface was visualized by atomic force microscopy revealing the formation of specific clusters (AF aggregates surrounding the bacterial cell. Incubation of E. coli K12 TG1 with AF led to a dose-dependent bactericidal effect with LD50 = 79.1 µM. The presence of human erythrocytes in the test medium decreased the AF antibacterial activity. Thus we reveal that the water-soluble cationic fullerene derivative AF possesses promising antibacterial activity, which might be utilized in the development of novel types of chemical disinfectants.

  5. Effects of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on the Capture Capacity of a Primary-Amine Based Polymeric CO{sub 2} Sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, Alexander P; Kitchin, John R

    2013-08-01

    Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture is most commonly carried out using an amine solution that results in a high parasitic energy cost in the stripper unit due to the need to heat the water which comprises a majority of the amine solution. It is also well known that amine solvents suffer from stability issues due to amine leaching and poisoning by flue gas impurities. Solid sorbents provide an alternative to solvent systems that would potentially reduce the energy penalty of carbon capture. However, the cost of using a particular sorbent is greatly affected by the usable lifetime of the sorbent. This work investigated the stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion exchange resin in the presence of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, both of which are constituents of flue gas that have been shown to cause degradation of various amines in solvent processes. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity was measured over multiple capture cycles under continuous exposure to two simulated flue gas streams, one containing 12 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 84% N{sub 2}, and the other containing 12.5 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 431 ppm SO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2} using a custom-built packed bed reactor. The resin maintained its CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 1.31 mol/kg over 17 capture cycles in the presence of O{sub 2} without SO{sub 2}. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the resin decreased rapidly under exposure to SO{sub 2} by an amount of 1.3 mol/kg over 9 capture cycles. Elemental analysis revealed the resin adsorbed 1.0 mol/kg of SO{sub 2}. Thermal regeneration was determined to not be possible. The poisoned resin was, however, partially regenerated with exposure to 1.5M NaOH for 3 days resulting in a 43% removal of sulfur, determined through elemental analysis, and a 35% recovery of CO{sub 2} capture capacity. Evidence was also found for amine loss upon prolonged (7 days) continuous exposure to high temperatures (120 C) in air. It is concluded that desulfurization of the flue gas

  6. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Talat, Mahe [Banaras Hindu University, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Unit, Department of Physics (India); Singh, D. P. [Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Physics (United States); Srivastava, O. N., E-mail: hepons@yahoo.co [Banaras Hindu University, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Unit, Department of Physics (India)

    2010-06-15

    We report a simple and cost effective way for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (Au and Ag) using natural precursor clove. Au and Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing the aqueous solution of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with clove extract. One interesting aspect here is that reduction time is quite small (few minutes instead of hours as compared to other natural precursors). We synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles of different shape and size by varying the ratio of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with respect to clove extract, where the dominant component is eugenol. The evolution of Au and Ag nanoparticles from the reduction of different ratios of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with optimised concentration of the clove extract has been evaluated through monitoring of surface plasmon behaviour as a function of time. The reduction of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} by eugenol is because of the inductive effect of methoxy and allyl groups which are present at ortho and para positions of proton releasing -OH group as two electrons are released from one molecule of eugenol. This is followed by the formation of resonating structure of the anionic form of eugenol. The presence of methoxy and allyl groups has been confirmed by FTIR. To the best of our knowledge, use of clove as reducing agent, the consequent very short time (minutes instead of hours and without any scavenger) and the elucidation of mechanism of reduction based on FTIR analysis has not been attempted earlier.

  7. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  8. A metalloenzyme-like catalytic system for the chemoselective oxidative cross-coupling of primary amines to imines under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeron, Martine; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2015-02-23

    The direct oxidative cross-coupling of primary amines is a challenging transformation as homocoupling is usually preferred. We report herein the chemoselective preparation of cross-coupled imines through the synergistic combination of low loadings of Cu(II) metal-catalyst and o-iminoquinone organocatalyst under ambient conditions. This homogeneous cooperative catalytic system has been inspired by the reaction of copper amine oxidases, a family of metalloenzymes with quinone organic cofactors that mediate the selective oxidation of primary amines to aldehydes. After optimization, the desired cross-coupled imines are obtained in high yields with broad substrate scope through a transamination process that leads to the homocoupled imine intermediate, followed by dynamic transimination. The ability to carry out the reactions at room temperature and with ambient air, rather than molecular oxygen as the oxidant, and equimolar amounts of each coupling partner is particularly attractive from an environmentally viewpoint. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanoporous ceramic hybrid materials synthesized by organically modified ceramic precursor with terminal amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Nina E.; Vueva, Yuliya E.; Abdallah, Mohammed E.; Ivanova, Yordanka Y.; Dimitriev, Yanko B. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Salvado, Isabel M.; Fernandes, Maria H. [Ceramic and Glass Engineering Department CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous ceramic materials was functionalized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and different 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) amounts in the presence of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20} ), who was previously dissolved in acid solution with different acid concentrations. Pluronic P123 was used as structure-directing agent and xylene as a swelling agent. Inorganic salt was introduced in order to improve structure ordering and to tailor framework porosity. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR), Fourier –transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. The results from NMR and FT-IR show that the organic functional group is successfuly incorporated in the silica framework and P123 was successfully extracted. The results from all analyzes prove that the acid concentration has significant influence on the materials morphology and properties. Kay words: sol-gel, mesoporous materials, hybrid materials, as structure-directing agent.

  10. Dietary Phenolic Compounds Interfere with the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Adipose Tissue but Do Not Directly Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carpéné

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO. Many substrates or inhibitors of neuronal MAO interact also with other amine oxidases (AO in peripheral organs, such as semicarbazide-sensitive AO (SSAO, known as primary amine oxidase, absent in neurones, but abundant in adipocytes. We asked whether phenolic compounds (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, and caffeic acid behave as MAO and SSAO inhibitors. AO activity was determined in human adipose tissue. Computational docking and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3D models of human AO proteins and in adipocytes, respectively. Phenolic compounds fully inhibited the fluorescent detection of H2O2 generated during MAO and SSAO activation by tyramine and benzylamine. They also quenched H2O2-induced fluorescence in absence of biological material and were unable to abolish the oxidation of radiolabelled tyramine and benzylamine. Thus, phenolic compounds hampered H2O2 detection but did not block AO activity. Only resveratrol and quercetin partially impaired MAO-dependent [14C]-tyramine oxidation and behaved as MAO inhibitors. Phenolic compounds counteracted the H2O2-dependent benzylamine-stimulated glucose transport. This indicates that various phenolic compounds block downstream effects of H2O2 produced by biogenic or exogenous amine oxidation without directly inhibiting AO. Phenolic compounds remain of interest regarding their capacity to limit oxidative stress rather than inhibiting AO.

  11. Characterization of B-H agostic compounds involved in the dehydrogenation of amine-boranes by group 4 metallocenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingwen; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Alikhani, Mohammad Esmaïl

    2016-12-01

    For over a decade, amine-borane has been considered as a potential chemical hydrogen vector in the context of a search for cleaner energy sources. When catalyzed by organometallic complexes, the reaction mechanisms currently considered involve the formation of β-BH agostic intermediates. A thorough understanding of these intermediates may constitute a crucial step toward the identification of ideal catalysts. Topological approaches such as QTAIM and ELF revealed to be particularly suitable for the description of β-agostic interactions. When studying model catalysts, accurate theoretical calculations may be carried out. However, for a comparison with experimental data, calculations should also be carried out on large organo-metallic species, often including transition metals belonging to the second or the third row. In such a case, DFT methods are particularly attractive. Unfortunately, triple-ζ all electrons basis sets are not easily available for heavy transition metal elements. Thus, a subtle balance should be reached between the affordable level of calculations and the required accuracy of the electronic description of the systems. Herein we propose the use of B3LYP functional in combination with the LanL2DZ pseudopotential for the metal atom and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set for the other atoms, followed by a single point using the DKH2 relativistic Hamiltonian in combination with the B3LYP/DZP-DKH level, as a "minimum level of theory" leading to a consistent topological description of the interaction within the ELF and QTAIM framework, in the context of isolated (gas-phase) group 4 metallocene catalysts.

  12. Modification Of Poly(glycidyl Methacrylate) Grafted Onto Crosslinked Pvc With Tertiary Amine Group And Use For Removing Acidic Dyes From Water

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgun, Gülden

    2009-01-01

    In this study, glycidylmethacrylate is grafted onto partially dehydrochlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (DHPVC) using ATRP method and polymerization kinetics of the reaction is studied. Then, the polymeric resin was interacted with excess of diethylamine, giving a tertiary amine containing sorbent. Surface initiated polymerizations have been widely used to overcome inadequate properties of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC). Epoxy group is one of the most important type to be integrated into polymers. T...

  13. Chemical and Molecular Descriptors for the Reactivity of Amines with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.

    2012-10-24

    Amine-based solvents are likely to play an important role in CO{sub 2} capture applications in the future, and the identification of amines with superior performance will facilitate their use in CO{sub 2} capture. While some improvements in performance will be achieved through process modifications, modifying the CO{sub 2} capture performance of an amine also implies in part an ability to modify the reactions between the amine and CO{sub 2} through development of new functionalized amines. We present a computational study of trends in the reactions between CO{sub 2} and functionalized amines with a focus on identifying molecular descriptors that determine trends in reactivity. We examine the formation of bicarbonate and carbamate species on three classes of functionalized amines: alkylamines, alkanolamines, and fluorinated alkylamines including primary, secondary and tertiary amines in each class. These functional groups span electron-withdrawing to donating behavior, hydrogen-bonding, extent of functionalization, and proximity effects of the functional groups. Electron withdrawing groups tend to destabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products, whereas electron-donating groups tend to stabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes CO{sub 2} reaction products. Electronic structure descriptors based on electronegativity were found to describe trends in the bicarbonate formation energy. A chemical correlation was observed between the carbamate formation energy and the carbamic acid formation energy. The local softness on the reacting N in the amine was found to partially explain trends carbamic acid formation energy.

  14. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94, Revision 1 (FGE.94Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA (68th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 12 aliphatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA at the 68th meeting in 2007. This revision of the consideration is made due to additional toxicity data available for two...

  15. Human serum albumin as protecting agent of silver nanoparticles: role of the protein conformation and amine groups in the nanoparticle stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Emilio I.; Bueno-Alejo, Carlos J.; Noel, Christopher W.; Stamplecoskie, Kevin G. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Pacioni, Natalia L. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, INFIQC, Departamento de Quimica Organica (Argentina); Poblete, Horacio [Center for Bioinformatics and Molecular Simulations, Universidad de Talca (Chile); Scaiano, J. C., E-mail: tito@photo.chem.uottawa.ca [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Thermally denatured human serum albumin interacts with {approx}3.0 nm spherical AgNP enhancing the fluorescence of Trp-214 at large protein/nanoparticle ratios. However, using native HSA, no changes in the emission were observed. The observation is likely due to differences between native and denatured protein packing resulting from protein corona formation. We have also found that NH{sub 2} blocking of the protein strongly affects the ability of the protein to protect AgNP from different salts/ions such as NaCl, PBS, Hank's buffer, Tris-HCl, MES, and DMEM. Additionally, AgNP can be readily prepared in aqueous solutions by a photochemical approach employing HSA as an in situ protecting agent. The role of the protein in this case is beyond that of protecting agent; thus, Ag{sup +} ions and I-2959 complexation within the protein structure also affects the efficiency of AgNP formation. Blocking NH{sub 2} in HSA modified the AgNP growth profile, surface plasmon band shape, and long-term stability suggesting that amine groups are directly involved in the formation and post-stabilization of AgNP. In particular, AgNP size and shape are extensively influenced by NH{sub 2} blocking, leading primarily to cubes and plates with sizes around 5-15 nm; in contrast, spherical monodisperse 4.0 nm AgNP are observed for native HSA. The nanoparticles prepared by this protocol are non-toxic in primary cells and have remarkable antibacterial properties. Finally, surface plasmon excitation of native HSA-AgNP promoted loss of protein conformation in just 5 min, suggesting that plasmon heating causes protein denaturation using continuous light sources such as commercial LED.

  16. Human serum albumin as protecting agent of silver nanoparticles: role of the protein conformation and amine groups in the nanoparticle stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, Emilio I.; Bueno-Alejo, Carlos J.; Noel, Christopher W.; Stamplecoskie, Kevin G.; Pacioni, Natalia L.; Poblete, Horacio; Scaiano, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thermally denatured human serum albumin interacts with ∼3.0 nm spherical AgNP enhancing the fluorescence of Trp-214 at large protein/nanoparticle ratios. However, using native HSA, no changes in the emission were observed. The observation is likely due to differences between native and denatured protein packing resulting from protein corona formation. We have also found that NH 2 blocking of the protein strongly affects the ability of the protein to protect AgNP from different salts/ions such as NaCl, PBS, Hank’s buffer, Tris–HCl, MES, and DMEM. Additionally, AgNP can be readily prepared in aqueous solutions by a photochemical approach employing HSA as an in situ protecting agent. The role of the protein in this case is beyond that of protecting agent; thus, Ag + ions and I-2959 complexation within the protein structure also affects the efficiency of AgNP formation. Blocking NH 2 in HSA modified the AgNP growth profile, surface plasmon band shape, and long-term stability suggesting that amine groups are directly involved in the formation and post-stabilization of AgNP. In particular, AgNP size and shape are extensively influenced by NH 2 blocking, leading primarily to cubes and plates with sizes around 5–15 nm; in contrast, spherical monodisperse 4.0 nm AgNP are observed for native HSA. The nanoparticles prepared by this protocol are non-toxic in primary cells and have remarkable antibacterial properties. Finally, surface plasmon excitation of native HSA-AgNP promoted loss of protein conformation in just 5 min, suggesting that plasmon heating causes protein denaturation using continuous light sources such as commercial LED.

  17. Changes in grouping practices over primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Kutnick, P.

    2003-01-01

    The research detailed in this paper provides a systematic description and analysis of grouping practices in primary and secondary schools in England. Practices are compared to main findings in developmental and educational literature with regard to effective contexts for learning and recent ideas about pedagogy. The research is based on an analysis of 4924 groupings from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 primary schools and 248 Year 7 and Year 10 classes in 47 secondary schools....

  18. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  19. Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Mercader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO, involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery.

  20. Novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for highly efficient gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lok, Martin C.; Jiang, Xulin; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s containing multiple disulfide linkages (SS-PAAs) were synthesized and evaluated as nonviral gene vectors. These linear SS-PAAs could be easily obtained by Michael-type polyaddition of various primary amines to the disulfide-containing cystamine

  1. Oxidation of amines by flavoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Many flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, with the transfer of a hydride equivalent from a carbon-nitrogen bond to the flavin cofactor. Most of these amine oxidases can be classified into two structural families, the D-amino acid oxidase/sarcosine oxidase family and the monoamine oxidase family. This review discusses the present understanding of the mechanisms of amine and amino acid oxidation by flavoproteins, focusing on these two structural families. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of 33 primary aromatic amines in polystyrene and polyethylene masterbatches for foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Zhengyin; Wang, Quanlin; Li, Hesheng; Zhang, Aizhi; Shen, Jian

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 33 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) masterbatches for foods. The PS masterbatches were dissolved with dichloromethane, and methanol was added to precipitate after extraction by ultrasound extraction. Then the extract was purified by passing through a carbon graphite solid phase extraction column. The PE masterbatches were swelled and extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasound. The purified PS solution and PE extract were concentrated, and diluted to 2 mL with methanol-water (1:9, v/v), and filtered through the membranes of 0.22 µm before UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The analytes were separated on a BEH Phenyl column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm), eluted by gradient with 0.07% (v/v) formic acid in methanol-water (1:9, v/v). The PAAs were detected by UPLC-MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and quantified by the internal standard method. The separation conditions, fragment voltages and collision energies were optimized. The impacts of extraction times, extraction solvents and concentration methods on recoveries were studied. The limits of detection for the 33 primary aromatic amines were 6-10 µg/kg, and the limits of quantitation were 20-30 µg/kg. The mean recoveries of the two different masterbatch products at three spiked levels of 20, 100, 200 µg/kg were 61.3%-119.8%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.4%-14.8%. The experimental results indicated that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and can meet the related requirements for determination.

  3. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  4. Neurolymphomatosis: An International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grisariu (Sigal); B. Avni (Batia); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); F. Bokstein (Felix); D. Schiff (David); O. Kuittinen (Outi); M.C. Chamberlain (Marc C.); P. Roth (Patrick); A. Nemets (Anatoly); E. Shalom (Edna); D. Ben-Yehuda (Dina); T. Siegal (Tali)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractNeurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical entity. The International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group retrospectively analyzed 50 patients assembled from 12 centers in 5 countries over a 16-year period. NL was related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 90% and to acute leukemia in 10%.

  5. A practical and catalyst-free trifluoroethylation reaction of amines using trifluoroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Keith G.; Faizova, Radmila; Denton, Ross M.

    2017-06-01

    Amines are a fundamentally important class of biologically active compounds and the ability to manipulate their physicochemical properties through the introduction of fluorine is of paramount importance in medicinal chemistry. Current synthesis methods for the construction of fluorinated amines rely on air and moisture sensitive reagents that require special handling or harsh reductants that limit functionality. Here we report practical, catalyst-free, reductive trifluoroethylation reactions of free amines exhibiting remarkable functional group tolerance. The reactions proceed in conventional glassware without rigorous exclusion of either moisture or oxygen, and use trifluoroacetic acid as a stable and inexpensive fluorine source. The new methods provide access to a wide range of medicinally relevant functionalized tertiary β-fluoroalkylamine cores, either through direct trifluoroethylation of secondary amines or via a three-component coupling of primary amines, aldehydes and trifluoroacetic acid. A reduction of in situ-generated silyl ester species is proposed to account for the reductive selectivity observed.

  6. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.

  7. Bifunctional (cyclopentadienone)iron-tricarbonyl complexes: Synthesis, computational studies and application in reductive amination

    KAUST Repository

    Moulin, Solenne; Dentel, Hé lè ne; Pagnoux-Ozherelyeva, Anastassiya; Gaillard, Sylvain; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Lohier, Jean Franç ois; Renaud, Jean Luc

    2013-01-01

    . Festival of amination: Two series of modified Knölker's complexes were synthesised and applied in the reductive amination of various carbonyl derivatives with primary or secondary amines (see scheme, TIPS = triisopropylsilyl). For a mechanistic insight

  8. Target analysis of primary aromatic amines combined with a comprehensive screening of migrating substances in kitchen utensils by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Coscollà, Clara; Roca, Marta; Yusà, Vicent

    2015-06-01

    An analytical strategy including both the quantitative target analysis of 8 regulated primary aromatic amines (PAAs), as well as a comprehensive post-run target screening of 77 migrating substances, was developed for nylon utensils, using liquid chromatography-orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) operating in full scan mode. The accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), and by alternating two acquisition events, ESI+ with and without fragmentation. The target method was validated after statistical optimization of the main ionization and fragmentation parameters. The quantitative method presented appropriate performance to be used in official monitoring with recoveries ranging from 78% to 112%, precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was less than 15%, and the limits of quantification were between 2 and 2.5 µg kg(-1). For post-target screening, a customized theoretical database was built for food contact material migrants, including bisphenols, phthalates, and other amines. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass (<5 ppm) and some diagnostic ions including fragments were used. The strategy was applied to 10 real samples collected from different retailers in the Valencian Region (Spain) during 2014. Six out of eight target PAAs were detected in at least one sample in the target analysis. The most frequently detected compounds were 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 19,715 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 to 283 µg kg(-1), respectively. Two phthalates were identified and confirmed in the post-run target screening analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Practical Synthesis of Amides via Copper/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Alcohols and Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zultanski, Susan L; Zhao, Jingyi; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-05-25

    A modular Cu/ABNO catalyst system has been identified that enables efficient aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines to amides. All four permutations of benzylic/aliphatic alcohols and primary/secondary amines are viable in this reaction, enabling broad access to secondary and tertiary amides. The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and are complete within 30 min-3 h at rt. All components of the catalyst system are commercially available.

  10. Boron-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines using Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-Chen; Shang, Rui; Cheng, Wan-Min; Fu, Yao

    2015-07-27

    A boron-based catalyst was found to catalyze the straightforward alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids in the presence of silane as the reducing agent. Various types of primary and secondary amines can be smoothly alkylated with good selectivity and good functional-group compatibility. This metal-free amine alkylation was successfully applied to the synthesis of three commercial medicinal compounds, Butenafine, Cinacalcet. and Piribedil, in a one-pot manner without using any metal catalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characteristic properties of large subgroups in primary abelian groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1. Introduction. The main purpose of this article is to study the relations between the structures of primary abelian groups and their ..... Case 2. γ − 2 exists. Let Gγ −1 be a direct summand of Gγ . We remark, in connection with Case 1, that any pγ −1. -high subgroup of Gγ is isomorphic to Gγ −1. As far as Case 2 is concerned, ...

  12. Chemical modification of carbon powders with aminophenyl and aryl-aliphatic amine groups by reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations: Applicability of the grafted powder towards CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelie Grondein; Daniel Belanger [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Departement de Chimie

    2011-08-15

    Aminophenyl, p-aminobenzyl and p-aminoethylphenyl groups were grafted at the surface of carbon Vulcan XC72R by spontaneous reduction of the in situ generated diazonium cations from the corresponding amine. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed an amine loading of about 1 mmol/g. The grafting of amine functionalities leads to a decrease of specific surface area from 223 to about 110 m{sup 2}/g with a drastic loss of microporosity. Acid-base properties of the surface are also affected by the modification. Aminophenyl grafted groups make the surface more acidic while aryl-aliphatic amines groups tends to render it more basic. The grafted layer shows in each case a good thermal stability up to 250{sup o}C. The affinity of the modified powder towards CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} has been evaluated by thermal swing adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} of modified carbons is lower than the unmodified carbon but the presence of the amine functionalities involves a better selectivity of the material towards CO{sub 2} adsorption in comparison of N{sub 2} adsorption. 53 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C

    2015-10-01

    Quantity, orientation, conformation and covalent linkage of naturally cell adhesive proteins adsorbed or covalently linked to a surface, are known to influence the preservation of their subsequent long term cell adhesion properties and bioactivity. In the present work, we explore two different strategies for the covalent linking of plasma fibronectin (pFN) - used as a cell adhesive model protein, onto a polystyrene (PS) surface. One is aimed at tethering the protein to the surface in a semi-oriented fashion (via one of the 4 free thiol reactive groups on the protein) with a heterofunctional coupling agent (SSMPB method). The other aims to immobilize the protein in a more random fashion by reaction between the abundant pendant primary amine bearing amino acids of the pFN and activated carboxylic surface functions obtained after glutaric anhydride surface treatment (GA method). The overall goal will be to verify the hypothesis of a correlation between covalent immobilization of a model cell adhesive protein to a PS surface in a semi-oriented configuration (versus randomly oriented) with promotion of enhanced exposure of the protein's cell binding domain. This in turn would lead to enhanced cell adhesion. Ideally the goal is to elaborate substrates exhibiting a long term stable protein monolayer with preserved cell adhesive properties and bioactivity for biomaterial and/or cell adhesion commercial plate applications. However, the initial restrictive objective of this paper is to first quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the reversibly (merely adsorbed) versus covalently irreversibly bound protein to the surface after the immobilization procedure. Although immobilized surface amounts were similar (close to the monolayer range) for all immobilization approaches, covalent grafting showed improved retention and stronger "tethering" of the pFN protein to the surface (roughly 40%) after SDS rinsing compared to that for mere adsorption (0%) suggesting an added value

  14. The success of primary chemotherapy for group D heritable retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, V M L; Kingston, J; Hungerford, J L

    2009-07-01

    To report the ocular survival and event-free survival following primary multiagent chemotherapy for group D, heritable bilateral retinoblastoma (RB). The RB database was used to identify children with heritable, bilateral RB treated with primary chemotherapy (six cycles of vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin). Only Group D eyes with more than 12 months' follow-up were analysed. The timing, number and type of salvage treatments were recorded. Kaplan-Meier estimates for the ocular survival and event-free survival (percentage of eyes that avoided external beam radiotherapy and/or enucleation) were performed as a function of time. Of 18 group D eyes, two (11%) were treated successfully with chemotherapy alone, nine (50%) underwent successful salvage treatment, and seven (39%) were enucleated. The median time from completing chemotherapy to enucleation was 9 months (range 4 to 25 months). Ocular survival was 67% at 2 years. External beam radiotherapy proved successful salvage treatment in five of nine eyes, so the event-free survival was 34% at 2 years. Multiagent chemotherapy alone is rarely sufficient for the preservation of group D eyes. External beam radiotherapy and plaque radiotherapy remain important salvage treatments for advanced, heritable retinoblastoma.

  15. Kinetics of CO2 with primary and secondary amines in aqueous solutions I. Zwitterion deprotonation kinetics for DEA and DIPA in aqueous blends of alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    The deprotonation kinetics of the DEA—CO2 and the DIPA—CO2 zwitterions have been studied in aqueous blends of amines at 298 K. Amine mixtures investigated were: DEA—TEA, DEA—MDEA, DEA—DMMEA, DEA—DEMEA, DIPA—TEA. DIPA—MDEA, DIPA—DMMEA, DIPA—DEMEA. For each blend the zwitterion deprotonation constant

  16. Kinetics of CO2 with primary and secondary amines in aqueous solutions—I. Zwitterion deprotonation kinetics for DEA and DIPA in aqueous blends of alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    The deprotonation kinetics of the DEA—CO2 and the DIPA—CO2 zwitterions have been studied in aqueous blends of amines at 298 K. Amine mixtures investigated were: DEA—TEA, DEA—MDEA, DEA—DMMEA, DEA—DEMEA, DIPA—TEA. DIPA—MDEA, DIPA—DMMEA, DIPA—DEMEA. For each blend the zwitterion deprotonation constant

  17. Inhibitory action of an heterocyclic organic compound containing amine group for copper corrosion in 5,0 M nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M.M.; Abdallah, M. [Benha Univ., Benha (Egypt). Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science

    2000-10-01

    An heterocyclic organic compound containing amine group namely: 3-mercaptomethyl-4amino-5-hydroxy-1, 2, 4-triazole compound 1{sub a} was tested as a new inhibitor for copper corrosion in 5.0 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It proved to have a high value of inhibition efficiency (> 99.9%) at an inhibitor concentration of {>=} 2.5 x 10{sup -}3 M. A parallelism is established between the results obtained from weight loss, thermometric and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The high protective effect of compound I{sub a} is related to the decomposition of HNO{sub 2} formed through the autocatalytic cycle. The decomposition of HNO{sub 2} could be attributed to its reaction with the adsorbed inhibitor amine group. Furthermore, the results indicated that compound I{sub a} provides long-term protection and behaves as a mixed inhibitor type with a predominant cathodic effectiveness. [Italian] E' stato valutato, quale nuovo inibitore della corrosione del rame in soluzione 5.0 M di HNO{sub 3}, un composto organico eterociclico contenente un amino gruppo, chiamato: 3-mercaptometil-4amino-5-idrossi-1, 2, 4-triazolo composto I{sub a}. Questi, ad una concentrazione {>=} 2.5 x 10{sup -}3 M, ha dimostrato di possedere un elevato valore di efficienza di inibizione (> 99.9%). E' stato stabilito un parallelismo tra i risultati ottenuti dalla perdita di peso, da misure termometriche e di polarizzazione galvanostatica. L'elevato effetto protettivo del composto I{sub a} e' correlato alla decomposizione dell'HNO{sub 2} formatosi attraverso il ciclo autocatalitico. La decomposizione di HNO{sub 2} puo' essere attribuita alla sua reazione con il gruppo inibitore aminico adsorbito. Inoltre, i risultati indicano che il composto I{sub a} fornisce una protezione a lungo termine e si comporta come un inibitore di tipo misto con una predominante efficienza catodica.

  18. Morphological and functional diversity of primary producers group in savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.

    1996-01-01

    The meaning of biological diversity for the operation and stability of natural ecosystems is matter of great theoretical and practical interest. The appearance and permanency of species in a given atmosphere indicates its capacity to compete with other species with similar habit and requirements, and to accumulate the resources that allow its reproduction. On the other hand, the coexistence of similar species in the same ecosystem allows to wonder if ever biological redundancy exists, that is to say, if several species coexist with the same function inside the ecosystem, so that the disappearance of one of them would not have biological significant consequences. A strategy to simplify the analysis of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystems operation is by grouping species with similar function, called functional groups. In this work the the primary producers functional group is analyzed, essentially superiors plants, in a savannas ecosystems. The analysis establishes that the gives the primary producers group is heterogeneous and complex, so much morphological as functionally: 1) the structural complexity and diversity forms of life in an savannas ecosystem are associated with the stratified exploitation of resources over (light) and under the floor (nourishment and water). Changes in diversity that affect the system structure will probably also affect its operations. 2 )Very similar morphological species can differ physiologically up to constitute production units with contrasting nutritional requirements. The echo-physiologic analysis of this differentiation can explain the habitat preferences that are naturally observed. 3) The long-time permanency of rare species, of low frequency, show the inability of dominant species to capture all the available resources. 4) The primary producers and the floor microorganisms have strong interactions. Changes in the community composition can generate significant changes in other community. These biotic interactions

  19. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  20. Carbon nanotube-supported Au-Pd alloy with cooperative effect of metal nanoparticles and organic ketone/quinone groups as a highly efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiping; Chen, Jiashu; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-05-21

    Functionalised carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles were highly efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of amines. We achieved the highest turnover frequencies (>1000 h(-1)) for the oxidative homocoupling of benzylamine and the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine. We discovered a cooperative effect between Au-Pd nanoparticles and ketone/quinone groups on CNTs.

  1. Reductive amination with zinc powder in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Giovenzana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc powder in aqueous alkaline media was employed to perform reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines. The corresponding secondary amines were obtained in good yields along with minor amounts of hydrodimerization byproducts. The protocol is a green alternative to the use of complex hydrides in chlorinated or highly flammable solvents.

  2. Direct electrochemical imidation of aliphatic amines via anodic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Su, Ji-Hu; Wang, Sujing; Wan, Changfeng; Zha, Zhenggen; Du, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhiyong

    2011-05-21

    Direct electrochemical synthesis of sulfonyl amidines from aliphatic amines and sulfonyl azides was realized with good to excellent yields. Traditional tertiary amine substrates were broadened to secondary and primary amines. The reaction intermediates were observed and a reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. Platinum-Catalyzed Terminal-Selective C(sp3)–H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the terminal-selective Pt-catalyzed C(sp3)–H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol %. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (ii) it electronically deactivates the C–H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp3)–H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  4. Selective fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoping; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are evaluated for their efficiency and selectivity as fluorescence quenchers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). In general, the quenching efficiency tends to increase from primary to tertiary amine due to a greater number of alkyl groups that increase the electron-donating ability. However, the selectivity decreases from primary to tertiary amine. The effect of low concentrations of water is also examined. Because water can form hydrogen bonds with amines, the nonbonding electron pair is not available for interaction with the fluorophore, thus the quenching constant is decreased. These aliphatic amines are then applied to PAHs and N-PAHs and some interesting trends are observed. Whereas amino-PAHs remain virtually unquenched by different amines, aza-PAHs are all quenched well. The selectivity between aza-PAHs and amino-PAHs is as high as several hundred. This trend provides an easy and effective method to discriminate between these classes of N-PAHs. Moreover, the alternant aza-PAHs are quenched more than their corresponding alternant PAHs

  5. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.

    2014-08-11

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  7. Rapid determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Zhenying; Lu, Wei; Zhu, You; Chen, Yusong; Ren, Hubo; Ji, Lishun

    2017-01-27

    A fully automated, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines (AAs), including o-toluidine (o-TOL), 2, 6-dimethylaniline (2, 6-DMA), o-anisidine (o-ASD), 1-naphthylamine (1-ANP), 2-naphthylamine (2-ANP), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), in mainstream cigarette smoke was established. The proposed method was based on two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The particulate phase of the mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pad and pretreated via ultrasonic extraction with 2% formic acid (FA), while the gas phase was trapped by 2% FA without pretreatment for determination. The two-dimensional online SPE comprised of two cartridges with different absorption characteristics was applied for sample pretreatment. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under multiple reaction monitoring mode. Each sample required about 0.5h for solid phase extraction and analysis. The limit of detections (LODs) for six AAs ranged from 0.04 to 0.58ng/cig and recoveries were within 84.5%-122.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day tests for 3R4F reference cigarette were less than 6% and 7%, respectively, while no more than 7% and 8% separately for a type of Virginia cigarette. The proposed method enabled minimum sample pretreatment, full automation, and high throughput with high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. As a part of the validation procedure, fifteen brands of cigarettes were tested by the designed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Charge stabilization by reaction center protein immobilized to carbon nanotubes functionalized by amine groups and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, T.; Magyar, M.; Nagy, L. [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Nemeth, Z.; Hernadi, K. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Endrodi, B.; Bencsik, G.; Visy, Cs. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Horvath, E.; Magrez, A.; Forro, L. [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A large number of studies have indicated recently that photosynthetic reaction center proteins (RC) bind successfully to nanostructures and their functional activity is largely retained. The major goal of current research is to find the most efficient systems and conditions for the photoelectric energy conversion and for the stability of this bio-nanocomposite. In our studies, we immobilized the RC protein on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through specific chemical binding to amine functional groups and through conducting polymer (poly(3-thiophene acetic acid), PTAA). Both structural (TEM, AFM) and functional (absorption change and conductivity) measurements has shown that RCs could be bound effectively to functionalized CNTs. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that RCs were still active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the CNTs. The light generated photocurrent was measured in an electrochemical cell with transparent CNT electrode designed specially for this experiment. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Thermodynamic study of (heptane + amine) mixtures. III: Excess and partial molar volumes in mixtures with secondary, tertiary, and cyclic amines at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepori, Luciano; Gianni, Paolo; Spanedda, Andrea; Matteoli, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Excess volumes of (sec., tert., or cyclic amines + heptane) mixtures. → Excess volumes are positive for small size amines and decrease as the size increases. → Group contributions to predict the partial molar volumes of amines in heptane. → The void volume is larger for sec. and tert. than for linear amines in heptane. → The void volume is much smaller for cyclic than for linear amines in heptane. - Abstract: Excess molar volumes V E at 298.15 K were determined by means of a vibrating tube densimeter for binary mixtures of {heptane + open chain secondary (diethyl to dibutyl) and tertiary (triethyl to tripentyl) amines} as well as for cyclic imines (C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 6 , and C 7 ) and primary cycloalkylamines (C 5 , C 6 , C 7 , and C 12 ). The V E values were found positive for mixtures involving small size amines, with V E decreasing as the size increases. Negative V E 's were found for tributyl- and tripentylamine, heptamethylenimine, and cyclododecylamine. Mixtures of heptane with cycloheptylamine showed an s-shaped curve. Partial molar volumes V 0 of amines at infinite dilution in heptane were obtained from V E and compared with V 0 of hydrocarbons and other classes of organic compounds taken from literature. An additivity scheme, based on the intrinsic volume approach, was applied to estimate group (CH 3 , CH 2 , CH, C, NH 2 , NH, N, OH, O, CO, and COO) contributions to V 0 . These contributions, the effect of cyclization on V 0 , and the limiting slope of the apparent excess molar volumes were discussed in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions.

  10. Bioinspired organocatalytic aerobic C-H oxidation of amines with an ortho-quinone catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Zhang, Long; Lv, Jian; Luo, Sanzhong; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2015-03-20

    A simple bioinspired ortho-quinone catalyst for the aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to imines is reported. Without any metal cocatalysts, the identified optimal ortho-quinone catalyst enables the oxidations of α-branched primary amines and cyclic secondary amines. Mechanistic studies have disclosed the origins of different performances of ortho-quinone vs para-quinone in biomimetic amine oxidations.

  11. Core/shell-type nanorods of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4}, modified with amine groups, revealing reduced cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runowski, Marcin [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Dąbrowska, Krystyna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Grzyb, Tomasz [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Miernikiewicz, Paulina [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    A simple co-precipitation reaction between Ln{sup 3+} cations (Ln = lanthanide) and phosphate ions in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), including post-treatment under hydrothermal conditions, leads to the formation of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4} crystalline nanorods. The nanoparticles obtained can be successfully coated with amorphous and porous silica, forming core/shell-type nanorods. Both products reveal intensive green luminescence under UV lamp irradiation. The surface of the core/shell-type product can also be modified with –NH{sub 2} groups via silylation procedure, using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a modifier. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirm the desired structure and needle-like shape of the products synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area measurements by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method reveal a successful surface modification with amine groups of the core/shell-type nanoparticles prepared. The nanomaterials synthesized exhibit green luminescence characteristic of Tb{sup 3+} ions, as solid powders and aqueous colloids, examined by spectrofluorometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal different degree toxicity of the products. LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}@NH{sub 2} exhibits the smallest toxicity against B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells and human skin microvascular endothelial cell lines, in contrast to the most toxic LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Thermodynamic study of (heptane + amine) mixtures. II. Excess and partial molar volumes at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepori, Luciano; Gianni, Paolo; Spanedda, Andrea; Matteoli, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Excess and partial molar volumes of primary (amines + heptane) mixtures. → Excess volumes are positive for small size amines and decrease as the size increases. → Group contributions to predict the partial molar volumes of amines in heptane. → The void volume is larger for branched than for linear amines in heptane. - Abstract: Excess molar volumes V E at 298.15 K were determined by means of a vibrating tube densimeter for binary mixtures of heptane + primary n-alkyl (C 3 to C 10 ) and branched amines (iso-propyl-, iso-, sec-, and tert-butyl-, iso-, tert-pentyl-, and pentan-3-amine) in the whole composition range. The apparent molar volumes of solid dodecyl- and tetradecylamine in heptane dilute solution were also determined. The V E values were found positive for mixtures involving C 3 to C 8 linear amines, with V E decreasing with chain lengthening. Heptane + nonyl and decylamine showed s-shaped, markedly asymmetric, curves. Mixtures with branched C 3 to C 5 amines displayed positive V E 's larger than those observed in the mixtures of the corresponding linear isomers. Partial molar volumes V o at infinite dilution in heptane were evaluated for the examined amines and compared with those of alkanes and alkanols taken from the literature. An additivity scheme, based on the intrinsic volume approach, was applied to estimate group (CH 3 , CH 2 , CH, C, NH 2 , and OH) contributions to V o . The effect of branching on V o and the limiting slope of the apparent excess molar volumes were evaluated and discussed in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions.

  13. Cu(ll) mediated ATRP of MMA by using a novel tetradentate amine ligand with oligo(ethylene glycol) pendant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Founier, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    A novel tetradentate amine ligand namely N,N,N,N,N;,N;-hexaoligo(ethylene glycol) triethylenetetramine (HOEGTETA) was employed in the homogenous ATRP of MMA in anisole using CuBr and CuBr2 as the catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as an initiator. The effect of the polymerization

  14. Impacts of Different Functional Groups on the Kinetic Rates of α-Amine Ketoximesilanes Hydrolysis in the Preparation of Room Temperature Vulcanized Silicone Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Liu, Zihou; Liu, Qingyang; Bei, Yiling; Zhu, Qingzeng

    2018-05-13

    α-Amine ketoximesilanes are proven to be effective crosslinkers in the preparation of ketone-oxime one-component room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber without the use of toxic metal catalyst. This work aimed to investigate the hydrolysis kinetic of α-amine ketoximesilanes, which is vitally important for the preparation of RTV silicone rubber. Five kinds of α-amine ketoximesilanes, namely α-(N,N-diethyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (DEMOS), α-(N,N-di-n-butyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (DBMOS), α-(N-n-butyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (n-BMOS), α-(N-cyclohexyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (CMOS) and α-(β-aminomethyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (AEMOS), were successfully obtained and confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance ( ¹H NMR). Kinetics of hydrolysis reactions were measured by FT-IR and conductivity. Our results illustrated that the kinetic constant rates ranged from 12.2 × 10 −4 s −1 to 7.6 × 10 −4 s −1 , with the decreasing order of DEMOS > n-BMOS > DBMOS > CMOS > AEMOS at the given temperature and humidity. Better performances of thermal stability could be achieved when using the α-amine ketoximesilanes as crosslinkers in the preparation of RTV silicon rubber than that of RTV silicone rubber with the use of methyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (MOS) as a crosslinker and organic tin as a catalyst.

  15. Mixed-Age Grouping in Nongraded Primary Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasemko, Judy Guthrie

    This study examined teachers' and parents' perceptions of pedagogical successes in, and problems with, the implementation of mixed-age classes in primary education. Questionnaires were completed by 44 teachers in 2 British Columbia school districts, and by 41 parents of children in mixed-age classes in those districts. Some of the teachers were…

  16. The long term importance of English primary care groups for integration in primary health care and deinstitutionalisation of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, N

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital) services and also, potentially, social care. This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.

  17. The long term importance of English primary care groups for integration in primary health care and deinstitutionalisation of hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Goodwin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Theory: Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital services and also, potentially, social care. Method: This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Results: Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. Conclusions: The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.

  18. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures, and phosphate ester cleavage properties of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine copper(II) complexes with guanidinium pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousoff, Matthew J; Tjioe, Linda; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone

    2008-10-06

    Three new derivatives of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (DPA) featuring ethylguanidinium (L (1)), propylguanidinium (L (2)), or butylguanidinium (L (3)) pendant groups have been prepared by the reaction of N, N- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)alkane-alpha,omega-diamines with 1 H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine hydrochloride. The corresponding mononuclear copper(II) complexes were prepared by reacting the ligands with copper(II) nitrate and were isolated as [Cu(LH (+))(OH 2)](ClO 4) 3. xNaClO 4. yH 2O ( C1: L = L (1), x = 2, y = 3; C2: L = L (2), x = 2, y = 4; C3: L = L (3), x = 1, y = 0) following cation exchange purification. Recrystallization yielded crystals of composition [Cu(LH (+))(X)](ClO 4) 3.X ( C1': L = L (1), X = MeOH; C2': L = L (2), X = H 2O; C3': L = L (3), X = H 2O), which were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of C1', C2', and C3' indicate that the DPA moieties of the ligands coordinate to the copper(II) centers in a meridional fashion, with a water or methanol molecule occupying the fourth basal position. Weakly bound perchlorate anions located in the axial positions complete the distorted octahedral coordination spheres. The noncoordinating, monoprotonated guanidinium groups project away from the Cu(II)-DPA units and are involved in extensive charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding interactions with cocrystallized water/methanol molecules and perchlorate anions within the crystal lattices. The copper(II) complexes were tested for their ability to promote the cleavage of two model phosphodiesters, bis( p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP) and uridine-3'- p-nitrophenylphosphate (UpNP), as well as supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBR 322). While the presence of the guanidine pendants was found to be detrimental to BNPP cleavage efficiency, the functionalized complexes were found to cleave plasmid DNA and, in some cases, the model ribose phosphate diester, UpNP, at a faster rate than the parent copper(II) complex of DPA.

  19. Sillica Gel-Amine from Geothermal Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muljani, S.; Pujiastuti, C.; Wicaksono, P.; Lutfianingrum, R.

    2018-01-01

    Silica Gel-Amine (SGA) has been made from geothermal sludge by grafting amine method. Sodium silicate solution is prepared by extracted geothermal sludge powder using sodium hidroxide solution then acidification in the range of pH 5 - 9 by using tartaric acid 1N. The grafting process uses 1 ml of ammonia solution and 10 ml of toluene at a rate of 0.1 ml min-1 accompanied by a reflux process. The amine grafting is done in two methods. The first method is grafting amine in silicate solution and the second method is grafting amine in washed gel. Product SGA was confirmed by FTIR, TGA-DTG and BET characterization. The results show that the pH affects the amount of amine that is grafted onto silica gel. Differences in grafting method affect the size of the pore and surface area. SGA product prepared by grafting washed gel at pH 8 have pore diameter of 12.06 nm, surface area of 173.44 m2g-1, and mass of decomposed amine compound 0.4 mg. In the presence of amine groups on the silica gel surface, these adsorbents may be able to selectively adsorb CO2 gas from natural gas.

  20. Introducing Farouk's Process Consultation Group Approach in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie; Stringer, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that teacher consultation groups increase teachers' behaviour management skills through discussion and collaborative problem-solving. Unlike the United Kingdom, at the time of this research consultation groups were not widely used in Irish schools. This research introduced Farouk's process consultation approach in three Irish…

  1. Primary occurrence of a vicsite group mineral in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkhanova, G.A.; Sidorenko, G.A.; Moroz, I.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Uranyl silicate of the viksite group with the formula (Ksub(11)Nasub(0.5)Casub(0.2))(UOsub(2))sub(2)(Sisub(2)Osub(5))sub(3).4-5.8Hsub(2)O has been found for the first time in the USSR in a milybdenum-uranium deposit. The mineral differs from uranyl silicates of the uranophane and the kasolite group in having a high stability of its crystalline structure and a wide cation isomorphism exhibiting no changes in the crystalline structure

  2. γ-rays kill grasshopper primary spermatocytes in groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, A.A.; Shawkit, M.A.; Fox, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Primary spermatocyte killing by γ-rays was studied in the grasshopper Heteracris littoralis in which spermatogenic development occurs in cysts containing a maximum of 64 cells during the first meiotic division. Cell killing at this stage is not random and mainly involves the death of whole cysts. The dose-response curve for cell killing has complex kinetics with at least two components but lacks any shoulder at low doses, thus indicating no repair of the lethal damage. Cell loss is apparent from surviving cysts as early as 45 min post irradiation but loss of > 24 cells is incompatible with cyst survival. Loss of fewer than 24 cells also is not random since certain values for cell loss are frequently observed while other, interspersed values are not seen at all. (Auth.)

  3. Amines, Astrocytes and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargani, N.; Attwell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca2+]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

  4. 49 CFR 225.19 - Primary groups of accidents/incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary groups of accidents/incidents. 225.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.19 Primary groups of accidents/incidents. (a) For reporting purposes reportable railroad...

  5. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Trace Amine-Associated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Il Eyun

    Full Text Available Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs are a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are known to be expressed in olfactory sensory neurons. A limited number of molecular evolutionary studies have been done for TAARs so far. To elucidate how lineage-specific evolution contributed to their functional divergence, we examined 30 metazoan genomes. In total, 493 TAAR gene candidates (including 84 pseudogenes were identified from 26 vertebrate genomes. TAARs were not identified from non-vertebrate genomes. An ancestral-type TAAR-like gene appeared to have emerged in lamprey. We found four therian-specific TAAR subfamilies (one eutherian-specific and three metatherian-specific in addition to previously known nine subfamilies. Many species-specific TAAR gene duplications and losses contributed to a large variation of TAAR gene numbers among mammals, ranging from 0 in dolphin to 26 in flying fox. TAARs are classified into two groups based on binding preferences for primary or tertiary amines as well as their sequence similarities. Primary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR1-4 have emerged earlier, generally have single-copy orthologs (very few duplication or loss, and have evolved under strong functional constraints. In contrast, tertiary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR5-9 have emerged more recently and the majority of them experienced higher rates of gene duplications. Protein members that belong to the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR group also showed the patterns of positive selection especially in the area surrounding the ligand-binding pocket, which could have affected ligand-binding activities and specificities. Expansions of the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR gene family may have played important roles in terrestrial adaptations of therian mammals. Molecular evolution of the TAAR gene family appears to be governed by a complex, species-specific, interplay between environmental and evolutionary factors.

  6. Synthesis and bioelectrochemical behavior of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Bolte, Michael; McKee, Vickie

    2017-12-01

    Four aromatic amines 1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene (A 1 ), 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl (A 2 ), 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 3 ) and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 4 ) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR), mass spectrometric and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P2 1 . Intermolecular hydrogen bonds were observed between the amine group and amine/ether acceptors of neighboring molecules. Electrochemical investigations were done using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV studies showed that oxidation of aromatic amines takes place at about 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the electron transfer (ET) process has irreversible nature. After first scan reactive intermediate were generated electrochemically and some other cathodic and anodic peaks also appeared in the succeeding scans. DPV study revealed that ET process is accompanied by one electron. DNA binding study of aromatic amines was performed by CV and UV-visible spectroscopy. These investigations revealed groove binding mode of interaction of aromatic amines with DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct amination of secondary alcohols using Ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pingen, D.L.L.; Müller, C.; Vogt, D.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen shuttle: For the first time secondary alcohols and ammonia can be directly converted into primary amines with a selectivity of up to 99¿% by using a simple ruthenium/phosphine catalyst (see scheme; R1, R2= alkyl, aryl, alkenyl; M=[Ru3(CO)12]; and L=phosphine ligand).

  8. Viral dynamics in primary HIV-1 infection. Karolinska Institutet Primary HIV Infection Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, S; Karlsson, A C; Mittler, J; Blaxhult, A; Carlsson, M; Briheim, G; Sönnerborg, A; Gaines, H

    2000-10-20

    To study the natural course of viremia during primary HIV infection (PHI). Eight patients were followed from a median of 5 days from the onset of PHI illness. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were measured frequently and the results were fitted to mathematical models. HIV-1 RNA levels were also monitored in nine patients given two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor after a median of 7 days from the onset of PHI illness. HIV-1 RNA appeared in the blood during the week preceding onset of PHI illness and increased rapidly during the first viremic phase, reaching a peak at a mean of 7 days after onset of illness. This was followed by a phase of rapidly decreasing levels of HIV-1 RNA to an average of 21 days after onset. Viral density continued to decline thereafter but at a 5- to 50-fold lower rate; a steady-state level was reached at a median of 2 months after onset of PHI. Peak viral density levels correlated significantly with levels measured between days 50 and 600. Initiation of antiretroviral treatment during PHI resulted in rapidly declining levels to below 50 copies/mL. This study demonstrates the kinetic phases of viremia during PHI and indicates two new contributions to the natural history of HIV-1 infection: PHI peak levels correlate with steady-state levels and HIV-1 RNA declines biphasically; an initial rapid decay is usually followed by a slow decay, which is similar to the initial changes seen with antiviral treatment.

  9. Enantioselective Direct α-Amination of Aldehydes via a Photoredox Mechanism: A Strategy for Asymmetric Amine Fragment Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Cecere, Giuseppe; Koenig, Christian M.; Alleva, Jennifer L.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct, asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes has been accomplished via a combination of photoredox and organocatalysis. Photon-generated, nitrogen-centered radicals undergo enantioselective α-addition to catalytically formed chiral enamines to directly produce stable α-amino aldehyde adducts bearing synthetically useful amine substitution patterns. Incorporation of a photolabile group on the amine precursor obviates the need to employ a photoredox catalyst in this transformation. Important...

  10. Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Group Work Practices in Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, A.; Christie, D.; Howe, C. J.; Tolmie, A.; Topping, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a continuing professional development (CPD) initiative that provided collaborative group work skills training for primary school teachers. The study collected data from 24 primary school classrooms in different schools in a variety of urban and rural settings. The sample was composed of 332 pupils,…

  11. Systematic evaluation and optimization of modification reactions of oligonucleotides with amines and carboxylic acids for the synthesis of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Samain, Florent; Abd Elrahman, Maaly; Mikutis, Gediminas; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Scheuermann, Jörg; Hall, Jonathan; Neri, Dario

    2014-08-20

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries are collections of small molecules, attached to DNA fragments serving as identification barcodes, which can be screened against multiple protein targets, thus facilitating the drug discovery process. The preparation of large DNA-encoded chemical libraries crucially depends on the availability of robust synthetic methods, which enable the efficient conjugation to oligonucleotides of structurally diverse building blocks, sharing a common reactive group. Reactions of DNA derivatives with amines and/or carboxylic acids are particularly attractive for the synthesis of encoded libraries, in view of the very large number of building blocks that are commercially available. However, systematic studies on these reactions in the presence of DNA have not been reported so far. We first investigated conditions for the coupling of primary amines to oligonucleotides, using either a nucleophilic attack on chloroacetamide derivatives or a reductive amination on aldehyde-modified DNA. While both methods could be used for the production of secondary amines, the reductive amination approach was generally associated with higher yields and better purity. In a second endeavor, we optimized conditions for the coupling of a diverse set of 501 carboxylic acids to DNA derivatives, carrying primary and secondary amine functions. The coupling efficiency was generally higher for primary amines, compared to secondary amine substituents, but varied considerably depending on the structure of the acids and on the synthetic methods used. Optimal reaction conditions could be found for certain sets of compounds (with conversions >80%), but multiple reaction schemes are needed when assembling large libraries with highly diverse building blocks. The reactions and experimental conditions presented in this article should facilitate the synthesis of future DNA-encoded chemical libraries, while outlining the synthetic challenges that remain to be overcome.

  12. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-16

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  13. The primary care diagnosis of dementia in Europe: an analysis using multidisciplinary, multinational expert groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepeleire, J. De; Wind, A.W.; Iliffe, S.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Wilcock, J.; Gonzalez, V.M.; Derksen, E.W.C.; Gianelli, M.V.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent of variation in the detection of dementia in primary care across Europe, and the potential for the development of European guidelines. METHOD: A mixture of focus group and adapted nominal group methods involving 23 experts of different disciplines and from eight

  14. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Duan, Xiaonan; Choi, Brian Hyun; Abraham, Michael; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing

  15. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  16. Improving insomnia in primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-led group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Christina; Hetta, Jerker; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Westman, Jeanette

    2017-07-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem, and most people who seek help for insomnia consult primary care. In primary care, insomnia treatment typically consists of hypnotic drugs, although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment. However, such treatment is currently available to few primary care patients. To evaluate the effects of a group treatment program for insomnia led by nurses in primary care. were the Insomnia Severity Index, a 2-week sleep diary, and a questionnaire on frequency of hypnotic drug use. A randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-treatment assessment and a 1-year post-treatment follow-up of the intervention group. Routine primary health care; 7 primary care centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Patients consulting primary care for insomnia were assessed for eligibility. To be included, patients had to have insomnia disorder and be 18 years or older. Patients were excluded if they if they worked night shifts or had severe untreated somatic and/or mental illness, bipolar disorder, or untreated sleep disorder other than insomnia. One-hundred and sixty-five patients 20 to 90 years were included. Most were women, and many had co-existing somatic and/or mental health problems. The post-treatment dropout rate was 20%. The intervention was a nurse-led group treatment for insomnia based on the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The nurses had 2days of training in how to deliver the program. Ninety patients were randomized to the intervention and 75 to the control group (treatment as usual). Data from 82 in the intervention and 71 in the control group were analyzed in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Fifty-four of the 72 in the intervention group who participated in the group treatment program were followed up after 1year. Mean Insomnia Severity Index score decreased significantly from 18.4 to 10.7 after group treatment but remained unchanged after treatment as usual (17.0 to 16.6). The effect

  17. Role of amine structure on carbon dioxide adsorption from ultradilute gas streams such as ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Kulkarni, Ambarish R; Sholl, David S; Jones, Christopher W

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental study on the adsorption properties of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine materials is used to evaluate what amine type(s) are best suited for ultradilute CO(2) capture applications. A series of comparable materials comprised of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines ligated to a mesoporous silica support via a propyl linker are used to systematically assess the role of amine type. Both CO(2) and water adsorption isotherms are presented for these materials in the range relevant to CO(2) capture from ambient air and it is demonstrated that primary amines are the best candidates for CO(2) capture from air. Primary amines possess both the highest amine efficiency for CO(2) adsorption as well as enhanced water affinity compared to other amine types or the bare silica support. The results suggest that the rational design of amine adsorbents for the extraction of CO(2) from ambient air should focus on adsorbents rich in primary amines. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  19. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  20. Group-Sequential Strategies in Clinical Trials with Multiple Co-Primary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Asakura, Koko; Evans, Scott R; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Sozu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the decision-making frameworks for clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints in a group-sequential setting. The decision-making frameworks can account for flexibilities such as a varying number of analyses, equally or unequally spaced increments of information and fixed or adaptive Type I error allocation among endpoints. The frameworks can provide efficiency, i.e., potentially fewer trial participants, than the fixed sample size designs. We investigate the operating characteristics of the decision-making frameworks and provide guidance on constructing efficient group-sequential strategies in clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints. PMID:25844122

  1. Analysis of a Buchwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  2. Analysis of a Buckwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  3. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  4. Amine functionalized nanodiamond promotes cellular adhesion, proliferation and neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Haycock, J W; Claeyssens, F; Fox, O J L; May, P W

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the production of amine functionalized nanodiamond. The amine functionalized nanodiamond forms a conformal monolayer on a negatively charged surface produced via plasma polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanodiamond terminated surfaces were studied as substrates for neuronal cell culture. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glyoma hybrid cells were successfully cultured upon amine functionalized nanodiamond coated surfaces for between 1 and 7 d. Additionally, primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells isolated from Wistar rats were also successfully cultured over a period of 21 d illustrating the potential of the coating for applications in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. (paper)

  5. Group motivational intervention in overweight/obese patients in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the primary healthcare area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cristóbal, Juan José; Panisello Royo, Josefa Ma; Alonso-Villaverde Grote, Carlos; Pérez Santos, José Ma; Muñoz Lloret, Anna; Rodríguez Cortés, Francisca; Travé Mercadé, Pere; Benavides Márquez, Francisca; Martí de la Morena, Pilar; González Burgillos, Ma José; Delclós Baulies, Marta; Bleda Fernández, Domingo; Quillama Torres, Elida

    2010-03-18

    The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213.

  6. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  7. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  8. Poly(Amido Amine)s containing agmatine and butanol side chains as efficient gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankone, Martinus J.K.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  10. Preparation and adsorption property of aminated cross linking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    city and blood compatible and biocompatible. The preliminary study on the ... der reduced pressure before being used. Polyvinyl .... above, the difference of the amount of amine groups ... varying of connecting arm in length. Bilirubin mole-.

  11. Factors influencing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines with singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Plutschack, Matthew B; Gilmore, Kerry; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-04-20

    Aerobic amine oxidation is an attractive and elegant process for the α functionalization of amines. However, there are still several mechanistic uncertainties, particularly the factors governing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines and the oxidation rates of mixed primary amines. Herein, it is reported that singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 1° and 2° amines is sensitive to the strength of the α-C-H bond and steric factors. Estimation of the relative bond dissociation energy by natural bond order analysis or by means of one-bond C-H coupling constants allowed the regioselectivity of secondary amine oxidations to be explained and predicted. In addition, the findings were utilized to synthesize highly regioselective substrates and perform selective amine cross-couplings to produce imines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed incorporation of amines into proteins: role of hypochlorous acid and dichloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Jefferson, M M; Grisham, M B

    1982-11-23

    obtained by reacting RNCl2 with polyhistidine or polytyrosine, and to a lesser extent with polylysine at high pH, but not with other poly(amino acids). Precipitable derivatives were also obtained by incubating MPO-containing extracts from leukocyte granules with hydrogen peroxide, Cl-, and labeled amines. The extracts were found to have a high content of substances with primary amino groups, which competed for incorporation. The results account for oxidative incorporation of amines into proteins in leukocytes and provide evidence that HOCl and nitrogen-chlorine (N-Cl) derivatives are formed in these cells. The characteristics of the incorporation reaction suggest that it would not contribute significantly to the antimicrobial activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Nevertheless, the reaction may provide a sensitive method for studying MPO action in vivo.

  13. Drug utilization research in primary health care as exemplified by physicians' quality assessment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J

    1992-11-01

    Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.

  14. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  15. [Team cohesiveness: opinions of a group of primary health care professionals from Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F J; de Cabo, A; Morán, M J; Manzano, J M

    1993-04-01

    To assess the view of a group of Primary care professionals on their level of perception of group cohesiveness in their teams' work dynamic. A descriptive and sectional study. Four urban health centres in Salamanca with a recognised teaching activity. Both health professionals and those outside the Health Service, working in Primary Care, who had been members of their teams for more than a year (N = 90). Descriptive statistics and "Chi squared" tests were employed. 72%. A high level of agreement on the need for team work (95.23%). They perceived their group cohesiveness as being very low (84.21% affirmed that they encounter problems of cohesiveness). The main statements concerning this lack of cohesiveness were: "lack of common objectives" (25.5%), "intolerance between workers" (20.13%), "work not shared" (19.46%) and "the taking of decisions individually" (19.44%). The main causes given were: lack of support from Management (23.74%) and too little training for team work (21.58%). There is a high degree of conviction that the team work model is the most efficacious way of developing Primary Care. However in three of the four teams questioned, there were serious problems preventing the teams' reaching an adequate level of group cohesiveness.

  16. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The EPRI computer programm, 'Aminemod', a PWR chemistry model, has been used to compare the technical advantages of the 'advanced' amines, ethanolamine, 1,2 diaminoethane and 5 aminopentanol over morpholine in generating an elevated pH in the moisture separator and the economics of using these amines has been assessed by using an MS Excel spreadsheet in conjunction with Aminemod. The advanced amines are capable of achieving 1 pH unit above neutrality, the EPRI target for prevention of erosion-corrison, at acceptable cost and, compared with 'conventional' amines, at considerably reduced ionic load on the condensate polisher. The exercise demonstrates that it is essential to evaluate the effect of an amine dosing regime on the total operating cost and that it is not possible to prejudge the economic outcome on the basis of an amine's purchase price. (orig.)

  17. Amines as extracting agents for the quantitative determinations of actinides in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    The use of amines (primary, secondary and tertiary chains and quaternary ammonium salts) as extracting agents for the quantitative determination of actinides in biological samples is reviewed. Among the primary amines, only Primene JM-T is used to determine Pu in urine and bone. No one has investigated the possibility of using secondary amines to quantitatively extract actinides from biological samples. Among the tertiary amines, tri-n-octylamine, tri-iso-octylamine, tyricaprylamine (Alamine) and trilaurylamine (tridodecylamine) are used extensively to extract and separate the actinides from biological samples. Only one quaternary ammonium salt, methyltricapryl ammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), is used to extract Pu from biological samples. (author) 28 refs

  18. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  19. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dicationic and zwitterionic catalysts for the amine-initiated, immortal ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide: facile synthesis of amine-terminated, highly heterotactic PLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Cushion, M.G.; Dyer, H.E.; Schwarz, A.D.; Duchateau, R.; Mountford, P.

    2010-01-01

    Dicationic, zwitterionic and conventional yttrium compounds act as catalysts for the primary or secondary amine-initiated immortal ROP of rac-lactide; amine-terminated, highly heterotactic poly(rac-lactides) with narrow polydispersities and well-controlled molecular weights are prepared in this

  1. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic applications of amine-functionalized mesoporous silica impregnated with transition-metal-monosubstituted polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Liu, Chunming; Geng Aifang; Jiang Chunjie; Guo Yihang; Hu Changwen

    2006-01-01

    Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials impregnated with transition-metal-monosubstituted polyoxometalates, K 5 [M(H 2 O)PW 11 O 39 ]-(EtO) 3 SiCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2 -MCM-48 (M = Co/Ni), were prepared by coordination of nickel/cobalt centers in the clusters with the amine surface groups in amine-functionalized mesoporous silica supports. The materials obtained were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DR), infrared (IR) spectra, magic-angle spinning 31 P MAS NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption measurements, indicating that the primary Keggin structures remained intact in as-prepared composites, and the composites possessed mesoporous structures. The composites exhibited UV-photocatalytic activity to degrade dye rhodamine B (RB), and the pesticides including hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and methylparathion (MPT). Leakage of K 5 [M(H 2 O)PW 11 O 39 ] from the support was hardly observed during the photocatalytic tests, attributed to strong coordination interactions between the Keggin units and the amine-functionalized silica surface. -- Graphical abstract: The K 5 [M(H 2 O)PW 11 O 39 ]-(EtO) 3 SiCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2 -SiO 2 composites were prepared by coordination of M centers in the Keggin units with the amine surface groups in amine-functionalized mesoporous silica supports, and the composites exhibited photocatalytic activity to degrade aqueous rhodamine B, hexachlorobenzene and methyl parathion

  2. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-09-25

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on a combination of two enzymes: an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp., or Bacillus sp.) operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, yielding up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Primary alcohols were aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient cascade possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  4. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.

    2014-09-24

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  5. Important roles of enthalpic and entropic contributions to CO2 capture from simulated flue gas and ambient air using mesoporous silica grafted amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-24

    The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0-0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less efficient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  6. Synthesis of amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' and evaluation for its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Ren, Jianming; Wang, Gang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2014-09-15

    Inulins are a group of abundant, water-soluble, renewable polysaccharides, which exhibit attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of inulin is often performed prior to further utilization. We hereby presented a method to modify inulin at its primary hydroxyls to synthesize amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' to facilitate its chemical manipulation. Additionally, its antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated and the best inhibitory index against S. aureus was 58% at 1mg/mL. As the amphiphilic aminated inulin is easy to prepare and exhibits improved bioactivity, this material may represent as an attractive new platform for chemical modifications of inulin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient and selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols catalysed by manganese pincer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Neumann, Jacob; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Junge, Kathrin; Darcel, Christophe; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing hydrogen (or hydrogen autotransfer) reactions represent straightforward and sustainable C–N bond-forming processes. In general, precious metal-based catalysts are employed for this effective transformation. In recent years, the use of earth abundant and cheap non-noble metal catalysts for this process attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. Here we show that the selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols can be catalysed by defined PNP manganese pincer complexes. A variety of substituted anilines are monoalkylated with different (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic alcohols even in the presence of other sensitive reducible functional groups. As a special highlight, we report the chemoselective monomethylation of primary amines using methanol under mild conditions. PMID:27708259

  8. Well Baby Group Care: Evaluation of a Promising Intervention for Primary Obesity Prevention in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Hildred; Arevalo, Sandra; Hackley, Barbara; Applebaum, Jo; Mishkin, Arielle; Heo, Moonseong; Shapiro, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, approximately 24% of preschool children are overweight or obese, with low-income communities disproportionately affected. Few interventions to prevent obesity in children at greatest risk have demonstrated positive results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel group well-child care intervention for primary obesity prevention at age 2 years. Well Baby Group (WBG) is an alternative to traditional well-child care offered at a federally qualified health center in the South Bronx. Facilitated by a pediatrician and nutritionist, WBG fosters positive dietary behaviors, responsive parenting and feeding practices, and peer support during the first 18 months of life. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test the effect of WBG on rates of overweight/obesity at 2 years (BMI-for-age ≥85th percentile) using a nonrandomized comparison group of children receiving traditional care at our center over the same period. Characteristics of mothers and infants were comparable between intervention (n = 47) and comparison (n = 140) groups. Children enrolled in WBG were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese at 2 years than children receiving traditional well-child care (2.1% vs. 15.0%; OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.94; p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analysis, WBG remained a significant independent protective factor (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.93; p = 0.04), adjusting for birthweight and parity. WBG, a replicable model integrated into primary care visits, affords a unique opportunity to intervene consistently and early, providing families in at-risk communities with increased provider time, intensive education, and ongoing support. Further study of group well-child care for primary obesity prevention is warranted to confirm the effectiveness of the model.

  9. Development of I-123-labeled amines for brain studies: localization of I-123 iodophenylalkyl amines in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Lin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    Localization in rat brain of forty iodophenylalkyl amines labeled with I-123 was evaluated in an attempt to develop I-123-labeled amines useful for brain studies. For the amines studied, the highest activity in brain and the brain-to-blood activity ratios ranked p > m > o as related to iodine position on the benzene ring: for alkyl groups the rank order was α-methylethyl > ethyl > methyl > none; for N additions it was single lipophilic group > H > two lipophilic groups. It is suggested that introduction of a halogen into the ring structure of many amines results in greater concentration of the agent in brain than is seen with the nonhalogenated parent compound. The agent N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was chosen for further study because, in the rat, it showed high brain activity (1.57%/g) and brain-blood ratio (12.6) at 5 min

  10. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith R; Dawson, Samantha; Krsmanovic, Adrijana

    2017-05-02

    Primary care is where many patients with insomnia first ask for professional help. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended treatment for chronic insomnia. Although CBT-I's efficacy is well established, its effectiveness in real-life primary care has seldom been investigated. We examined the effectiveness of CBT-I as routinely delivered in a Canadian primary care setting. The patients were 70 women and 11 men (mean age = 57.0 years, SD = 12.3); 83% had medical comorbidity. For the first 81 patients who took the six-session group program we compared initial and postprogram sleep diaries, sleep medication use, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and visits to the family physician. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and ISI scores improved significantly (p 7). Wait-list data from 42 patients showed minimal sleep and mood improvements with the passage of time. Number of visits to the family physician six months postprogram decreased, although not significantly (p = .108). The CBT-I program was associated with improvement on all sleep and mood measures. Effect sizes were similar to, or larger than, those found in randomized controlled trials, demonstrating the real-world effectiveness of CBT-I in an interdisciplinary primary care setting.

  11. Probing the Compound I-like reactivity of a bare high-valent oxo iron porphyrin complex: the oxidation of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Barbara; Cipollini, Romano; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta; Lanucara, Francesco; Lapi, Andrea

    2008-03-12

    The mechanisms of oxidative N-dealkylation of amines by heme enzymes including peroxidases and cytochromes P450 and by functional models for the active Compound I species have long been studied. A debated issue has concerned in particular the character of the primary step initiating the oxidation sequence, either a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or an electron transfer (ET) event, facing problems such as the possible contribution of multiple oxidants and complex environmental effects. In the present study, an oxo iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation intermediate 1, [(TPFPP)*+ Fe(IV)=O]+ (TPFPP = meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)porphinato dianion), functional model of Compound I, has been produced as a bare species. The gas-phase reaction with amines (A) studied by ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry has revealed for the first time the elementary steps and the ionic intermediates involved in the oxidative activation. Ionic products are formed involving ET (A*+, the amine radical cation), formal hydride transfer (HT) from the amine ([A(-H)]+, an iminium ion), and oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to the amine (A(O), likely a carbinolamine product), whereas an ionic product involving a net initial HAT event is never observed. The reaction appears to be initiated by an ET event for the majority of the tested amines which included tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines as well as a cyclic and a secondary amine. For a series of N,N-dimethylanilines the reaction efficiency for the ET activated pathways was found to correlate with the ionization energy of the amine. A stepwise pathway accounts for the C-H bond activation resulting in the formal HT product, namely a primary ET process forming A*+, which is deprotonated at the alpha-C-H bond forming an N-methyl-N-arylaminomethyl radical, A(-H)*, readily oxidized to the iminium ion, [A(-H)]+. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for proton transfer (PT) increases as the acidity of the amine radical cation increases and the PT reaction to the base

  12. Solvent-free functionalization of carbon nanotube buckypaper with amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, Elena V.; Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Abarca-Morales, Edgar; Pérez-Rey, Luis A.; Re, Marilena; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We demonstrate the possibility of fast and efficient solvent-free functionalization of buckypaper (BP) mats prefabricated from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-ox), by using three representative amines of different structure: one monofunctional aliphatic amine, octadecylamine (ODA), one monofunctional aromatic amine, 1-aminopyrene (AP), and one aromatic diamine, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization procedure, which relies on the formation of amide bonds with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs-ox, is performed at 150–180 °C under reduced pressure and takes about 4 h including auxiliary degassing. The amine-treated BP samples (BP-ODA, BP-AP and BP-DAN, respectively) were characterized by means of a variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The highest amine content was found for BP-ODA, and the lowest one was observed for BP-DAN, with a possible contribution of non-covalently bonded amine molecules in all three cases. Despite of some differences in spectral and morphological characteristics for amine-functionalized BP samples, they have in common a dramatically increased stability in water as compared to pristine BP and, on the other hand, a relatively invariable electrical conductivity.

  13. The implementation evaluation of primary care groups of practice: a focus on organizational identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzebon Marlei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. Methods An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Results Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. Conclusions The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care

  14. Oxidative degradation and non-enzymatic browning due to the interaction between oxidised lipids and primary amine groups in different marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    investigated through the measurement of secondary volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dynamic headspace (DHS) connected to gas chromatography (GC–MS). Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through the measurement of Strecker derived volatiles, colour changes and pyrrole...

  15. Exploring levers and barriers to accessing primary care for marginalised groups and identifying their priorities for primary care provision: a participatory learning and action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-12-03

    The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.

  16. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face interview....... RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers and 4...

  17. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research carried out over the past decade in the USA (funded by EPRI) and by the CEGB/Nuclear Electric in the UK has identified several thermally stable, low-toxicity 'advanced' amines with good high-temperature basicity and low steam-water distribution ratio. As a direct result of this work several US PWR stations are now evaluating monoethanolamine (ETA) and Nuclear Electric's Wylfa Power Station (magnox) now doses 5 aminopentanol (5AP) instead of AMP, which had successfully combated erosion-corrosion for the past nine years. It has recently been stated that the use of 5AP ''...could save Nuclear Electric up to 1.5M pounds per year''. To provide US power station chemists with a tool for tailoring amine dosage to their own plant requirements EPRI has developed a computer model, Aminmod, which can, with user-defined circuit parameters and amine feed concentrations, calculate amine concentrations and pH(t) values at various points around the circuit. To complement this model a user-friendly spreadsheet program is being developed which will work in conjunction with Aminmod, via active links, to calculate the total operating cost associated with the selected amine dosing regime and compare alternative scenarios. This paper discusses the relationship between the technical and economic aspects of choosing an amine dosing regime and draws on combined Aminmod/spreadsheet results to illustrate how differences in amine properties can influence the optimum economic solution for a typical PWR. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  18. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals working in challenging environments: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  19. N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) catalysed N-methylation of amines using CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Santoro, Orlando

    2015-09-30

    The N-methylation of amines using CO2 and PhSiH3 as source of CH3 was efficiently performed using a N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) complex. The methodology was found compatible with aromatic and aliphatic primary and secondary amines. Synthetic and computational studies have been carried out to support the proposed reaction mechanism for this transformation.

  20. Extension of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Mads Kristian; Derawi, Samer; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2005-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been extended to modeling mixtures containing amines. Special focus was given to primary and secondary amines, which are known to self-associate, thus forming hydrogen bonds in mixtures with alkanes. Pure-compound parameters have been determi...

  1. N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) catalysed N-methylation of amines using CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Santoro, Orlando; Lazreg, Faï ma; Minenkov, Yury; Cavallo, Luigi; Cazin, Catherine S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methylation of amines using CO2 and PhSiH3 as source of CH3 was efficiently performed using a N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) complex. The methodology was found compatible with aromatic and aliphatic primary and secondary amines. Synthetic and computational studies have been carried out to support the proposed reaction mechanism for this transformation.

  2. A one-pot chemoselective synthesis of secondary amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largeron, Martine

    2009-01-01

    A one-pot electrochemically induced oxidation-imine formation-reduction route to secondary amines is described in detail. The key step of the process consists of the o-iminoquinone-mediated chemoselective catalytic oxidation of a primary aliphatic amine substrate, in the presence of a second amine used as the alkylating agent. Through the examination of the scope of the reaction by systematically varying both amine substrate and amine alkylating agent, it can be shown that this reaction sequence, leaving ammonia as the sole by-product, allows the rapid synthesis of various secondary amines in moderate to good yields. This process, that highlights the pre-eminent green advantages of electrochemical synthesis, especially the utilization of electricity as energy instead of chemical reagents, high atom economy as well as ambient temperature and pressure, could be a mild alternative to already reported synthetic methods.

  3. A one-pot chemoselective synthesis of secondary amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Largeron, Martine [UMR CNRS 8638, Synthese et Structure de Molecules d' nteret Pharmacologique, Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: martine.largeron@parisdescartes.fr

    2009-09-01

    A one-pot electrochemically induced oxidation-imine formation-reduction route to secondary amines is described in detail. The key step of the process consists of the o-iminoquinone-mediated chemoselective catalytic oxidation of a primary aliphatic amine substrate, in the presence of a second amine used as the alkylating agent. Through the examination of the scope of the reaction by systematically varying both amine substrate and amine alkylating agent, it can be shown that this reaction sequence, leaving ammonia as the sole by-product, allows the rapid synthesis of various secondary amines in moderate to good yields. This process, that highlights the pre-eminent green advantages of electrochemical synthesis, especially the utilization of electricity as energy instead of chemical reagents, high atom economy as well as ambient temperature and pressure, could be a mild alternative to already reported synthetic methods.

  4. Moving toward a United States strategic plan in primary care informatics: a White Paper of the Primary Care Informatics Working Group, American Medical Informatics Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Little

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Care Informatics Working Group (PCIWG of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA has identified the absence of a national strategy for primary care informatics. Under PCIWG leadership, major national and international societies have come together to create the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics (NAPCI, to promote a connection between the informatics community and the organisations that support primary care. The PCIWG clinical practice subcommittee has recognised the necessity of a global needs assessment, and proposed work in point-of-care technology, clinical vocabularies, and ambulatory electronic medical record development. Educational needs include a consensus statement on informatics competencies, recommendations for curriculum and teaching methods, and methodologies to evaluate their effectiveness. The research subcommittee seeks to define a primary care informatics research agenda, and to support and disseminate informatics research throughout the primary care community. The AMIA board of directors has enthusiastically endorsed the conceptual basis for this White Paper.

  5. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO 2 . • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO 2 through OH group. • SO 2 absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO 2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO 2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO 2 − group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO 2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities

  6. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO{sub 2} absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunjoo [Clean Energy Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je Seung, E-mail: leejs70@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO{sub 2}. • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO{sub 2} through OH group. • SO{sub 2} absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO{sub 2} absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO{sub 2} through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO{sub 2}{sup −} group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO{sub 2} through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities.

  7. Detection of cometary amines in samples returned by Stardust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-02-01

    The abundances of amino acids and amines, as well as their enantiomeric compositions, were measured in samples of Stardust comet-exposed aerogel and foil using liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, β-alanine (BALA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), ɛ-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), ethanolamine (MEA), methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in acid-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts of these Stardust materials above background levels. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in cometexposed aerogel fragments C2054,4 and C2086,1 were also present in the flight aerogel witness tile that was not exposed to the comet, indicating that most amines are terrestrial in origin. The enhanced relative abundances of MA and EA in comet-exposed aerogel compared to controls, coupled with MA to EA ratios (C2054,4: 1.0 ± 0.2; C2086,1: 1.8 ± 0.2) that are distinct from preflight aerogels (E243-13C and E243-13F: 7 ± 3), suggest that these volatile amines were captured from comet Wild 2. MA and EA were present predominantly in an acid-hydrolyzable bound form in the aerogel, rather than as free primary amines, which is consistent with laboratory analyses of cometary ice analog materials. It is possible that Wild 2 MA and EA were formed on energetically processed icy grains containing ammonia and approximately equal abundances of methane and ethane. The presence of cometary amines in Stardust material supports the hypothesis that comets were an important source of prebiotic organic carbon and nitrogen on the early Earth.

  8. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  9. Surface grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) onto poly(acrylamide-co-vinyl amine) cross-linked films under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Sefton, M V

    1998-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was grafted onto poly(acrylamide-co-vinyl amine) (poly(AM-co-VA)) film using tresylated PEG (TPEG) at 37 degrees C in aqueous buffers (pH 7.4) with a view to surface-modifying microencapsulated mammalian cells. Poly(AM-co-VA) film was synthesized by Hofmann degradation of a cross-linked poly(acrylamide) film. Conversion to vinyl amine on the surface of the film was approximately 50%, but bulk conversion was not observed; surface specificity was thought to be the result of cleavage of aminated polymer chains at the surface due to chain scission. Reaction between primary amine and TPEG gave a graft yield of 2 mol% (based on XPS) with respect to available surface amine groups, equivalent to 54 mol% ethylene oxide based on monomer units. Physical adsorption of non-activated polymer was done under identical conditions as a control and the difference in oxygen content was significant compared to TPEG. The type of buffer agent and buffer concentration did not influence graft yields. This graft reaction, which was completed in as little as 2 h was considered to be mild enough to be used for a surface modification of microcapsules containing cells without affecting their viability. Such a surface modification technique may prove to be a useful means of enhancing the biocompatibility of microcapsules (or any tissue engineering construct) even after cell encapsulation or seeding.

  10. Carbon Dioxide-Mediated C(sp3)-H Arylation of Amine Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mohit; Liu, Daniel; Young, Michael C

    2018-05-25

    Elaborating amines via C-H functionalization has been an important area of research over the past decade but has generally relied on an added directing group or sterically hindered amine approach. Since free-amine-directed C(sp 3 )-H activation is still primarily limited to cyclization reactions and to improve the sustainability and reaction scope of amine-based C-H activation, we present a strategy using CO 2 in the form of dry ice that facilitates intermolecular C-H arylation. This methodology has been used to enable an operationally simple procedure whereby 1° and 2° aliphatic amines can be arylated selectively at their γ-C-H positions. In addition to potentially serving as a directing group, CO 2 has also been demonstrated to curtail the oxidation of sensitive amine substrates.

  11. Diagnosing and managing anorexia nervosa in UK primary care: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D; Churchill, R

    2013-08-01

    Anorexia is a leading cause of adolescent hospital admission and death from psychiatric disorder. Despite the potential role of general practitioners in diagnosis, appropriate referral and coordinating treatment, few existing studies provide fine-grained accounts of GPs' beliefs about anorexia. To identify GPs' understandings and experiences of diagnosing and managing patients with anorexia in primary care. Case-based focus groups with co-working general practitioners in the East Midlands region of England were used to explore attitudes towards issues common to patients with eating disorders. Group discussions were transcribed and analysed using corpus linguistic and discourse analytic approaches. Participants' discussion focused on related issues of making hesitant diagnoses, the utility of the body mass index, making referrals and overcoming patient resistance. Therapeutic relationships with patients with anorexia are considered highly complex, with participants using diagnostic tests as rhetorical strategies to help manage communicative obstacles. Overcoming patient repudiation and securing referrals are particular challenges with this patient group. Successfully negotiating these problems appears to require advanced communication skills.

  12. Amine synergism in uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinelli, G.; Abbruzzese, C.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial products based on C 8 to C 12 tertiary amine mixtures are now widely used in the solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric pregnant solutions. The satisfactory results generally obtained have never required an analysis of the synergistic effects of amine combinations similar to that carried out for the organo-phosphorus compounds. In the research described the increase in the extraction power of an organic phase composed of an amine binary mixture was studied with regard to an aqueous solution from the sulphuric acid treatment of uranium ore. On the basis of the experimental results obtained, it is possible to select the best composition of the amine mixture to ensure a percentage increase in uranium recovery. Bearing in mind the tendency for the yellow-cake price to rise, the study is considered to be a useful contribution in the context of commercial products currently available on the market. (author)

  13. The development of English primary care group governance. A scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaff, R

    1999-01-01

    At present there is a policy vacuum about what English Primary Care Groups' (PCGs) governance will be when they develop into Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Draft legislation leaves many options open, so PCT governance is likely to 'emerge' as PCTs are created. It also remains uncertain how general practitioners (GPs) will react to the formation of PCTs and how the UK government will then respond in turn. A scenario analysis suggests three possible lines of development. The base (likeliest) scenario predicts a mainly networked form of PCT governance. An alternative scenario is of PCT governance resembling the former National Health Service internal market. A third scenario predicts 'franchise model' PCTs employing some GPs and subcontracting others. To different degrees all three scenarios predict that PCTs will retain elements of networked governance. If it fails to make GPs as accountable to NHS management as the UK government wishes, networked governance may prove only a transitional stage before English PCTs adopt either quasi-market or hierarchical governance.

  14. Implementing clinical governance in English primary care groups/trusts: reconciling quality improvement and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S M; Sheaff, R; Sibbald, B; Marshall, M N; Pickard, S; Gask, L; Halliwell, S; Rogers, A; Roland, M O

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the concept of clinical governance being advocated by primary care groups/trusts (PCG/Ts), approaches being used to implement clinical governance, and potential barriers to its successful implementation in primary care. Qualitative case studies using semi-structured interviews and documentation review. Twelve purposively sampled PCG/Ts in England. Fifty senior staff including chief executives, clinical governance leads, mental health leads, and lay board members. Participants' perceptions of the role of clinical governance in PCG/Ts. PCG/Ts recognise that the successful implementation of clinical governance in general practice will require cultural as well as organisational changes, and the support of practices. They are focusing their energies on supporting practices and getting them involved in quality improvement activities. These activities include, but move beyond, conventional approaches to quality assessment (audit, incentives) to incorporate approaches which emphasise corporate and shared learning. PCG/Ts are also engaged in setting up systems for monitoring quality and for dealing with poor performance. Barriers include structural barriers (weak contractual levers to influence general practices), resource barriers (perceived lack of staff or money), and cultural barriers (suspicion by practice staff or problems overcoming the perceived blame culture associated with quality assessment). PCG/Ts are focusing on setting up systems for implementing clinical governance which seek to emphasise developmental and supportive approaches which will engage health professionals. Progress is intentionally incremental but formidable challenges lie ahead, not least reconciling the dual role of supporting practices while monitoring (and dealing with poor) performance.

  15. Diet of a muriqui group (Brachyteles arachnoides) in continuous primary forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Oswaldo; Ferrari, Stephen F; Strier, Karen B

    2004-07-01

    The feeding behaviour of a group of free-ranging muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) was monitored in the 380 km(2) Carlos Botelho State Park (PECB), between February 1992 and November 1993. Scan sample data indicated that 59.1% of feeding time was devoted to fruit, 33.2% to leaves, 4.1% to flowers, and 3.6% to other items (twigs, stem and bark). Little seasonal variation was recorded. These results contrast with those of all previous studies of Brachyteles, in which the consumption of leaves was generally double that of fruit. One key difference in comparison with previous studies is that the PECB is part of the largest remaining continuous area of primary Atlantic forest, in the Serra do Mar coastal range. Such intraspecific differences in ecology may have important implications for the conservation of the species.

  16. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-05-28

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional

  17. One step gold (bio)functionalisation based on CS{sub 2}-amine reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ines [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cascalheira, Antonio C. [Lumisense, Lda, Campus Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. ICAT, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Viana, Ana S., E-mail: anaviana@fc.ul.p [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Dithiocarbamates have been regarded as alternative anchor groups to thiols on gold surfaces, and claimed to be formed in situ through the reaction between secondary amines and carbon disulphide. In this paper, we further exploit this methodology for a convenient one step biomolecule immobilisation onto gold surfaces. First, the reactivity between CS{sub 2} and electroactive compounds containing amines, primary (dopamine), secondary (epinephrine), and an amino acid (tryptophan) has been investigated by electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetric characterisation of the modified electrodes confirmed the immobilisation of all the target compounds, allowing the estimation of their surface concentration. The best result was obtained with epinephrine, a secondary amine, for which a typical quasi-reversible behaviour of surface confined electroactive species could be clearly depicted. Electrochemical reductive desorption studies enabled to infer on the extent of the reaction and on the relative stability of the generated monolayers. Bio-functionalisation studies have been accomplished through the reaction of CS{sub 2} with glucose oxidase in aqueous medium, and the catalytic activity of the immobilised enzyme was evaluated towards glucose, by electrochemical methods in the presence of a redox mediator. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used respectively, to characterize the gold electrodes and Glucose Oxidase coverage and distribution on the modified surfaces.

  18. Bioinspired aerobic oxidation of secondary amines and nitrogen heterocycles with a bifunctional quinone catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2014-01-08

    Copper amine oxidases are a family of enzymes with quinone cofactors that oxidize primary amines to aldehydes. The native mechanism proceeds via an iminoquinone intermediate that promotes high selectivity for reactions with primary amines, thereby constraining the scope of potential biomimetic synthetic applications. Here we report a novel bioinspired quinone catalyst system consisting of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione/ZnI2 that bypasses these constraints via an abiological pathway involving a hemiaminal intermediate. Efficient aerobic dehydrogenation of non-native secondary amine substrates, including pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen heterocycles, is demonstrated. The ZnI2 cocatalyst activates the quinone toward amine oxidation and provides a source of iodide, which plays an important redox-mediator role to promote aerobic catalytic turnover. These findings provide a valuable foundation for broader development of aerobic oxidation reactions employing quinone-based catalysts.

  19. Redox reactions of Cu(II)-amine complexes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Kishore, Kamal

    2003-01-01

    A number of amines can be employed for all volatile treatment (AVT) of steam generator (SG) systems of nuclear power reactors. These amines form complexes with Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ ions which come into water due to corrosion. The redox reactions of a number of Cu(II)-AVT amine complexes and the stability of the transient species formed have been studied by pulse radiolysis technique. Rate constants for the reaction of e aq - with a number of Cu(II)-amine complexes have been determined by following the decay of e aq - absorption. Stability of Cu(I)-amine complexes was studied by following the kinetics of the bleaching signal formed at the λ max of the Cu(II) amine complex. Except for Cu(I)-triethanolamine complex all other Cu(I)-amine complexes were found to be stable. One-electron oxidation of Cu(II) amine complexes was studied using azidyl radicals for the oxidation reaction as OH radicals react with the alcohol groups present in the amines used in this study. Cu(III)-amine complexes were found to be unstable and decayed by second-order kinetics

  20. The Dinosaur in the Classroom: What We Stand to Lose through Ability-Grouping in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Embedding setting (subject-based ability-grouping) into the primary school environment creates structural conflict--physically and culturally--fundamentally changing the nature of primary schools through the imposition of secondary practices and cultures and the loss of pastoral care. This article examines the hidden implications for teachers and…

  1. The mysterious trace amines: protean neuromodulators of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Scott A; Hicks, T Philip

    2006-08-01

    The trace amines are a structurally related group of amines and their isomers synthesized in mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues. They are closely associated metabolically with the dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitter systems in mammalian brain. Like dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition. The trace amines are unique as they are present in trace concentrations, exhibit high rates of metabolism and are distributed heterogeneously in mammalian brain. While some are synthesized in their parent amine neurotransmitter systems, there is also evidence to suggest other trace amines may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic amine-based synaptic physiology. At high concentrations, they have well-characterized presynaptic "amphetamine-like" effects on catecholamine and indolamine release, reuptake and biosynthesis; at lower concentrations, they possess postsynaptic modulatory effects that potentiate the activity of other neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin. The trace amines also possess electrophysiological effects that are in opposition to these neurotransmitters, indicating to some researchers the existence of receptors specific for the trace amines. While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has impeded significant development of their detailed mechanistic roles in the coordination of catecholamine and indolamine synaptic physiology. The recent discovery and characterization of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors responsive to trace amines such as beta-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and octopamine, including socially ingested psychotropic drugs such as amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N

  2. Direct α-C-H bond functionalization of unprotected cyclic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Ma, Longle; Paul, Anirudra; Seidel, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic amines are ubiquitous core structures of bioactive natural products and pharmaceutical drugs. Although the site-selective abstraction of C-H bonds is an attractive strategy for preparing valuable functionalized amines from their readily available parent heterocycles, this approach has largely been limited to substrates that require protection of the amine nitrogen atom. In addition, most methods rely on transition metals and are incompatible with the presence of amine N-H bonds. Here we introduce a protecting-group-free approach for the α-functionalization of cyclic secondary amines. An operationally simple one-pot procedure generates products via a process that involves intermolecular hydride transfer to generate an imine intermediate that is subsequently captured by a nucleophile, such as an alkyl or aryl lithium compound. Reactions are regioselective and stereospecific and enable the rapid preparation of bioactive amines, as exemplified by the facile synthesis of anabasine and (-)-solenopsin A.

  3. Purification and characterization of the amine dehydrogenase from a facultative methylotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J P; Perry, J J

    1984-01-01

    Strain RA-6 is a pink-pigmented organism which can grow on a variety of substrates including methylamine. It can utilize methylamine as sole source of carbon via an isocitrate lyase negative serine pathway. Methylamine grown cells contain an inducible primary amine dehydrogenase [primary amine: (acceptor) oxidoreductase (deaminating)] which is not present in succinate grown cells. The amine dehydrogenase was purified to over 90% homogeneity. It is an acidic protein (isoelectric point of 5.37) with a molecular weight of 118,000 containing subunits with approximate molecular weights of 16,500 and 46,000. It is active on an array of primary terminal amines and is strongly inhibited by carbonyl reagents. Cytochrome c or artificial electron acceptors are required for activity; neither NAD nor NADP can serve as primary electron acceptor.

  4. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp(3))-H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-02-17

    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp(3))-H olefination reactions. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp(3))-H activation of alkyl amines is also a significant step toward practical C-H functionalizations of alkyl amines.

  5. Nucleophilic addition of amines to the activated ethylene bond in non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepichka, Igor F.; Popov, Anatolii F.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of addition of a number of primary and secondary aliphatic amines to trans-(2-furyl) nitro ethylene (1) has been studied in solvents of various polarities (from acetonitrile, ε 37.5, to heptane, ε 1.89). It has been shown that the reaction is catalysed both by the amine reagent and by tertiary amines. On the basis of analyzing the observed kinetic regularities a stepwise reaction mechanism has been proposed which involves formation of zwitterionic intermediate (3) at the first equilibrium step (k 1 , K 1 ) which is then converted into the reaction product by means of proton transfer in parallel routes, the non-catalytic one (k 2 ) and that catalysed by the initial (K 3 ) or tertiary (K 4 ) amine. The observed high values of the deuterium isotope effects in the reaction (K H /K D ∼ 2.3 - 8.9) confirm that proton transfer occurs in the rate-limiting step of the reaction (primary kinetic isotope effect). The third order by amine kinetic route is observed in low polar media which is due to participation of amine dimers (R 2 NH HNR 2 ) in the reaction. The observed kinetic regularities are compared with those for the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions in low-polar media, and the conclusion has been made that the reaction route of the third order by amine proceeds as reversible nucleophilic attack by amine dimer and following base-catalysed transformation of the intermediate into the product. (author)

  6. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO{sub 2} in industrial fumes; Etude des mecanismes de degradation des amines utilisees pour le captage du CO{sub 2} dans les fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepaumier, H

    2008-10-15

    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O{sub 2} pressure whereas CO{sub 2} induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric

  7. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  8. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  9. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  10. Genetic educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: a focus group study with multiple perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten Cees

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available evidence suggests that improvements in genetics education are needed to prepare primary care providers for the impact of ongoing rapid advances in genomics. Postgraduate (physician training and master (midwifery training programmes in primary care and public health are failing to meet these perceived educational needs. The aim of this study was to explore the role of genetics in primary care (i.e. family medicine and midwifery care and the need for education in this area as perceived by primary care providers, patient advocacy groups and clinical genetics professionals. Methods Forty-four participants took part in three types of focus groups: mono-disciplinary groups of general practitioners and midwives, respectively and multidisciplinary groups composed of a diverse set of experts. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. Results Four themes emerged regarding the educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: (1 genetics knowledge, (2 family history, (3 ethical dilemmas and psychosocial effects in relation to genetics and (4 insight into the organisation and role of clinical genetics services. These themes reflect a shift in the role of genetics in primary care with implications for education. Although all focus group participants acknowledged the importance of genetics education, general practitioners felt this need more urgently than midwives and more strongly emphasized their perceived knowledge deficiencies. Conclusion The responsibilities of primary care providers with regard to genetics require further study. The results of this study will help to develop effective genetics education strategies to improve primary care providers' competencies in this area. More research into the educational priorities in genetics is needed to design courses that are suitable for postgraduate and master programmes for

  11. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO2 in industrial fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepaumier, H.

    2008-10-01

    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO 2 capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO 2 emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO 2 using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO 2 and O 2 which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO 2 , and O 2 on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O 2 pressure whereas CO 2 induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric hindrance. (author)

  12. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  13. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek J.; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Aronson, Daniel [Academisch Medisch Centrum/Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Clapuyt, Philippe; Ville de Goyet, Jean de; Otte, Jean-Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Departments of Surgery and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Czauderna, Piotr [Medical University of Gdansk, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Gdansk (Poland); Gauthier, Frederic; Pariente, Daniele [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Bicetre APHP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre cedex (France); MacKinlay, Gordon [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Maibach, Rudolf [SIAK Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Plaschkes, Jack [Inselspital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Childs, Margaret [United Kingdom Children' s Cancer Study Group, Leicester (United Kingdom); Perilongo, Giorgio [Padua University Hospital, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Padua (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. (orig.)

  14. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, Derek J.; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oeystein E.; Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Ville de Goyet, Jean de; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Czauderna, Piotr; Gauthier, Frederic; Pariente, Daniele; MacKinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. (orig.)

  15. Video Interaction Guidance in Collaborative Group Work: Impact on Primary School Pupils' Self-Esteem and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musset, Matthew; Topping, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Video interaction guidance (VIG) is an increasingly recognised evidence-based intervention. VIG was used to enhance pupil responses during a group work programme. Fifteen primary-aged classes across a range of socio-economic status received regular group work over a year. A mixed methods repeated measures design involved nine experimental classes…

  16. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-15

    Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption-desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound OSO2(-) group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amine-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, optical properties and their use in bioimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso-Vasic, M.; Spruijt, E.; Popovic, Z.; Overgaag, K.; Lagen, van B.; Grandidier, B.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Domínguez-Gutiérrez, D.; Cola, de L.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    Very stable and bright emitting amine-terminated Si nanoparticles (NPs) with different alkyl chain lengths between the Si core and amine end-group are synthesized. The obtained NPs have a spherical shape and homogeneous size distribution (1.57 ± 0.24 nm). Their emission can be tuned from the UV to

  18. In Situ Preparation of Polyether Amine Functionalized MWCNT Nanofiller as Reinforcing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayber Yıldrım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ preparation of polyether amine functionalized cross-linked multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT nanofillers may improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites in which they are used as reinforcing agents. The reduction and functionalization of MWCNT using ethylenediamine in the presence of polyether amine produced stitched MWCNT's due to the presence of two amine (–NH2 functionalities on both sides of the polymer. Polyether amine was chosen to polymerize the carboxylated MWCNT due to its potential to form bonds with the amino groups and carboxyl groups of MWCNT which produces a resin used as polymeric matrix for nanocomposite materials. The attachment of the polyether amine (Jeffamine groups was verified by TGA, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature at which the curing enthalpy is maximum, observed by DSC, was shifted to higher values by adding functionalized MWCNT. SEM images show the polymer formation between MWCNT sheets.

  19. The role of protein crystallography in defining the mechanisms of biogenesis and catalysis in copper amine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klema, Valerie J; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2012-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a ubiquitous group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of primary amines to aldehydes coupled to the reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2). These enzymes utilize a wide range of substrates from methylamine to polypeptides. Changes in CAO activity are correlated with a variety of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. CAOs contain a cofactor, 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ), that is required for catalytic activity and synthesized through the post-translational modification of a tyrosine residue within the CAO polypeptide. TPQ generation is a self-processing event only requiring the addition of oxygen and Cu(II) to the apoCAO. Thus, the CAO active site supports two very different reactions: TPQ synthesis, and the two electron oxidation of primary amines. Crystal structures are available from bacterial through to human sources, and have given insight into substrate preference, stereospecificity, and structural changes during biogenesis and catalysis. In particular both these processes have been studied in crystallo through the addition of native substrates. These latter studies enable intermediates during physiological turnover to be directly visualized, and demonstrate the power of this relatively recent development in protein crystallography.

  20. The Role of Protein Crystallography in Defining the Mechanisms of Biogenesis and Catalysis in Copper Amine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M. Wilmot

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases (CAOs are a ubiquitous group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of primary amines to aldehydes coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O2. These enzymes utilize a wide range of substrates from methylamine to polypeptides. Changes in CAO activity are correlated with a variety of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory disorders. CAOs contain a cofactor, 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ, that is required for catalytic activity and synthesized through the post-translational modification of a tyrosine residue within the CAO polypeptide. TPQ generation is a self-processing event only requiring the addition of oxygen and Cu(II to the apoCAO. Thus, the CAO active site supports two very different reactions: TPQ synthesis, and the two electron oxidation of primary amines. Crystal structures are available from bacterial through to human sources, and have given insight into substrate preference, stereospecificity, and structural changes during biogenesis and catalysis. In particular both these processes have been studied in crystallo through the addition of native substrates. These latter studies enable intermediates during physiological turnover to be directly visualized, and demonstrate the power of this relatively recent development in protein crystallography.

  1. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-07-23

    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng; Chen, Tao; Gong, Dirong; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Developments in motivation and achievement during primary school: A longitudinal study on group-specific differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.; van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.; Volman, M.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight in developmental trajectories of motivation during upper primary school, the present study focused on how different aspects of students' motivation, i.e., task-orientation, self-efficacy, and school investment develop from grade three to six of primary school and how these

  5. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  6. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  7. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  8. Development and validation of an LC?MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and ?-phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be tox...

  9. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care : a focus group study into influential factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephanie Anna Lenzen; Trudy van der Weijden; Anna Beurskens; Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Ramon Daniëls; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding

  10. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.J. van; Lenzen, S.A.; Bokhoven, M.A. van; Daniels, R.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Beurskens, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding

  11. Quantification of diabetes consultations by the main primary health care nurse groups in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Scragg, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes prevalence continues to increase, with most diabetes patients managed in primary care. This report quantifies the number of diabetes consultations undertaken by primary healthcare nurses in Auckland, New Zealand. Of 335 primary healthcare nurses randomly selected, 287 (86%) completed a telephone interview in 2006-2008. On a randomly sampled day (from the past seven) for each nurse, 42% of the nurses surveyed (n=120) consulted 308 diabetes patients. From the proportion of nurses sampled in the study, it is calculated that the number of diabetes patients consulted by primary healthcare nurses per week in Auckland between September 2006 and February 2008 was 4210, with 61% consulted by practice, 23% by specialist and 16% by district nurses. These findings show that practice nurses carry out the largest number of community diabetes consultations by nurses. Their major contribution needs to be incorporated into future planning of the community management of diabetes.

  12. The primary case is not enough: Variation among individuals, groups and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Ziemba, Michael J; Kothamasu, Krishna S; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2018-03-01

    The traits of the primary case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their aetiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the primary case interacts. We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the primary case, group phenotypic composition and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labelled cuticular bacterium. We also compared bacterial transmission across experimentally generated "daisy-chain" vs. "star" networks of social interactions. Finally, we compared social network structure across groups of different sizes. Groups of 10 spiders experienced more bacterial transmission events compared to groups of 30 spiders, regardless of groups' behavioural composition. Groups containing only one bold spider experienced the lowest levels of bacterial transmission regardless of group size. We found no evidence for the traits of the primary case influencing any transmission dynamics. In a second experiment, bacteria were transmitted to more individuals in experimentally induced star networks than in daisy-chains, on which transmission never exceeded three steps. In both experimental network types, transmission success depended jointly on the behavioural traits of the interacting individuals; however, the behavioural traits of the primary case were only important for transmission on star networks. Larger social groups exhibited lower interaction density (i.e. had a low ratio of observed to possible connections) and were more modular, i.e. they had more connections between nodes within a subgroup and fewer connections across subgroups. Thus, larger groups may restrict transmission by forming fewer interactions and by isolating subgroups that interacted with the primary case. These findings suggest that accounting for the traits of single exposed hosts has less power in predicting transmission

  13. Molecular recognition of chromophore molecules to amine terminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Perez, Rosangelly; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2007-01-01

    We report the design and characterization of quartz surfaces that can bind to three retinal based chromophores. The amine terminated surfaces were engineered in order to mimic the environment of the opsin protein that accommodates binding of chromophore molecules in the human eye. Each surface coupling step was characterized by water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission infrared spectroscopy. The spectroscopic techniques confirmed that the three chromophore molecules can bind to the surface using a Schiff base mode. Our data suggests that the availability of the amine groups on the surface is critical in the accommodation of the binding of different chromophores

  14. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing surface area or pore volume available for CO2 capture, leading to a CO2 capture capacity of 3.2 mmol g−1 under simulated flue gas conditions. The sorbent is readily regenerated at 100°C and exhibits good stability over repetitive adsorption-desorption cycling.

  15. Synthesis of 3-Bromotetronamides via Amination of 3,4-Dibromofuran-2(5H)-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Caio C., E-mail: silviodc@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia (INCT) em Energia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sabino, Jose R. [Universidade Federal de Goias (IF/UFG), Goiania (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the direct synthesis of 3-bromotetronamides in good yields through the reaction of 3,4-dibromofuran-2(5H)-one, obtained from furfural, with primary and secondary amines. Aromatic amines were more tolerated than aliphatic and heteroaromatic ones. The X-ray structures of five derivatives are described. (author)

  16. Relation between separation factor of carbon isotope and chemical reaction of CO2 with amine in nonaqueous solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1989-01-01

    The separation factor for carbon isotope exchange reaction between CO 2 and amine in nonaqueous solvent was related to absorption reaction of CO 2 in a solution. The test solutions were mixtures of primary amine (such as butylamine and tert-butylamine) or secondary amine (such as diethylamine, dipropylamine and dibutylamine) diluted with nonpolar solvent (octane or triethyalmine) or polar solvent (methanol), respectively. The isotope exchange reaction consists of three steps related to chemical reaction of CO 2 in amine and nonaqueous solvent mixture, namely the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid, that between CO 2 and amine carbamate, and that between CO 2 and carbamic ion. Above all, the isotope separation factor between CO 2 and carbamic acid had the highest value. The overall separation factor can be higher in amine-nonaqueous solvent mixture where the concentration of carbamic acid becomes higher. (author)

  17. Strategies for improving patient recruitment to focus groups in primary care: a case study reflective paper using an analytical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilling Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting to primary care studies is complex. With the current drive to increase numbers of patients involved in primary care studies, we need to know more about successful recruitment approaches. There is limited evidence on recruitment to focus group studies, particularly when no natural grouping exists and where participants do not regularly meet. The aim of this paper is to reflect on recruitment to a focus group study comparing the methods used with existing evidence using a resource for research recruitment, PROSPeR (Planning Recruitment Options: Strategies for Primary Care. Methods The focus group formed part of modelling a complex intervention in primary care in the Resources for Effective Sleep Treatment (REST study. Despite a considered approach at the design stage, there were a number of difficulties with recruitment. The recruitment strategy and subsequent revisions are detailed. Results The researchers' modifications to recruitment, justifications and evidence from the literature in support of them are presented. Contrary evidence is used to analyse why some aspects were unsuccessful and evidence is used to suggest improvements. Recruitment to focus group studies should be considered in two distinct phases; getting potential participants to contact the researcher, and converting those contacts into attendance. The difficulty of recruitment in primary care is underemphasised in the literature especially where people do not regularly come together, typified by this case study of patients with sleep problems. Conclusion We recommend training GPs and nurses to recruit patients during consultations. Multiple recruitment methods should be employed from the outset and the need to build topic related non-financial incentives into the group meeting should be considered. Recruitment should be monitored regularly with barriers addressed iteratively as a study progresses.

  18. Effect of immobilized amine density on cadmium(II) adsorption capacities for ethanediamine-modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Tingting [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Liangrong, E-mail: lryang@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Feng; Xing, Huifang; Wang, Li; Yu, Jiemiao [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu, Hongnan [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Rong, Meng [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Huizhou, E-mail: hzliu@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A series of ethanediamine (EDA) – modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. The results showed that the cadmium saturation adsorption capacity increased with the immobilized amine density. However, they did not show strong positive linear correlation in the whole range of amine density examined. The molar ratio of amine groups to the adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. It suggested that low immobilized amine density led to low coordination efficiency of the amine. It is hypothesized that the immobilized amine groups needed to be physically close enough to form stable amine-metal complex. When the amine density reached to a critical value 1.25 m mol m{sup −2}, stable amine-cadmium complex (4:1 N/Cd) was proposed to form. To illustrate the coordination mechanism (structure and number) of amine and Cd, FT-IR spectra of m-PGMA-EDA and m-PGMA-EDA-Cd , and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of PGMA–EDA and PGMA-EDA-Cd were examined and analyzed. - Highlights: • A series of magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. • The molar ratio of amine groups to adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. • when the amine density reached high enough, 4:1 N/Cd complex was proposed to form, and the hydroxyl also participated in the chelating with Cd.

  19. Electron beam induced electronic transport in alkyl amine-intercalated VOx nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dwyer, C.; Lavayen, V.; Clavijo-Cedeno, C.; Torres, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The electron beam induced electronic transport in primary alkyl amine-intercalated V 2 O 5 nanotubes is investigated where the organic amine molecules are employed as molecular conductive wires to an aminosilanized substrate surface and contacted to Au interdigitated electrode contacts. The results demonstrate that the high conductivity of the nanotubes is related to the non-resonant tunnelling through the amine molecules and a reduced polaron hopping conduction through the vanadium oxide itself. Both nanotube networks and individual nanotubes exhibit similarly high conductivities where the minority carrier transport is bias dependent and nanotube diameter invariant. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Primary Renal Sarcomas in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Experience, 1972–2005: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Beverly; Anderson, James; Arndt, Carola; Crist, Willam; Maurer, Harold; Qualman, Stephen; Wharam, Moody; Meyer, William

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics and outcome of patients with renal sarcomas. Patients/Methods The IRSG database includes newly diagnosed patients Anaplasia was present in six (60%) of the tumors. Patients’ ages ranged from 2.6–17.8 years. Tumor diameters ranged from 7–15 cm (median, 12 cm). At diagnosis, seven patients had localized disease: four underwent complete removal of tumor (Group I), two had microscopic residual (Group II), and one had gross residual tumor (Group III). Three patients had distant metastases (Group IV) in lungs and bone. Nine patients received vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC). Two Group I patients received no radiation therapy (XRT); others received XRT to the primary tumor and to some metastatic sites. Nine patients achieved complete disappearance of tumor, six due to the initial operation. Tumors recurred in lung (N=2) or brain (N=1) in Group IV patients; each died within 16 months. The Group III patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia. The six Group I and II patients survive, continuously disease-free, at 2.7 to 17.3 years (median, 4.7 years). Conclusions Patients with renal sarcomas often present with large tumors, many of them containing anaplastic features. Removing all gross disease at diagnosis, if feasible, is a critical component of treatment to curing patients with renal sarcoma. PMID:18523987

  1. Maillard reaction of lactose and fluoxetine hydrochloride, a secondary amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D D; Baertschi, S W; Johnson, R A; Maple, S R; Miller, M S; Hallenbeck, D K; Gregg, S M

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of commercially available generic formulations of fluoxetine HCl revealed the presence of lactose as the most common excipient. We show that such formulations are inherently less stable than formulations with starch as the diluent due to the Maillard reaction between the drug, a secondary amine hydrochloride, and lactose. The Amadori rearrangement product was isolated and characterized; the characterization was aided by reduction with sodium borohydride and subsequent characterization of this reduced adduct. The lactose-fluoxetine HCl reaction was examined in aqueous ethanol and in the solid state, in which factors such as water content, lubricant concentration, and temperature were found to influence the degradation. N-Formylfluoxetine was identified as a major product of this Maillard reaction and it is proposed that N-formyl compounds be used as markers for this drug-excipient interaction since they are easy to prepare synthetically. Many characteristic volatile products of the Maillard reaction have been identified by GC/MS, including furaldehyde, maltol, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H-pyran-4-one. Close similarity between the degradation products of simple mixtures and formulated generic products was found; however, at least one product decomposed at a rate nearly 10 times that predicted from the simple models. Maillard products have also been identified in unstressed capsules. The main conclusion is that drugs which are secondary amines (not just primary amines as sometimes reported) undergo the Maillard reaction with lactose under pharmaceutically relevant conditions. This finding should be considered during the selection of excipients and stability protocols for drugs which are secondary amines or their salts, just as it currently is for primary amines.

  2. A Bioinspired Organocatalytic Cascade for the Selective Oxidation of Amines under Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeron, Martine; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2017-05-17

    A bioinspired organocatalytic cascade reaction for the selective aerobic oxidative cross-coupling of primary amines to imines is described. This approach takes advantages of commercially available pyrogallol monomeric precursor to deliver low loadings of natural purpurogallin in situ, under air. This is further engaged in a catalytic process with the amine substrate affording, under single turnover, the active biomimetic quinonoid organocatalyst and the homocoupled imine intermediate, which is then converted into cross-coupled imine after dynamic transimination. This organocatalytic cascade inspired by both purpurogallin biosynthesis and copper amine oxidases allows the aerobic oxidation of non-activated primary amines that non-enzymatic organocatalysts were not able to accomplish alone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A focus group study on primary health care in Johannesburg Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nurse conflict and poor teamwork. This may threaten attempts to re-engineer primary health care in order to increase the presence of doctors at clinic level. The discipline of family medicine can make a difference, but reorganisation of the system ...

  4. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a non-articular rheumatic condition characterized by chronic muscular pain. We have performed screening for autoantibodies in 20 women with PFS and in 19 age-matched healthy women. Fifty-five percent of the PFS patients had anti-smooth muscle antibodies and 40...

  5. Factor Structure of the 10 WISC-V Primary Subtests across Four Standardization Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2018-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler 2014a) "Technical and Interpretation Manual" (Wechsler 2014b) dedicated only a single page to discussing the 10-subtest WISC-V primary battery across the entire 6 to 16 age range. Users are left to extrapolate the structure of the 10-subtest battery from the…

  6. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Mozo, Ismael; Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la; Cobos, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G E ), molar excess enthalpies (H E ), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C P E ) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S CC (0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C P E of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H E (pyridine)>H E (methylpyridine)

  7. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  8. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Burton

    Full Text Available People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem.To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses.75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis.Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting.We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  9. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexandra; Osborn, David; Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan; Gray, Ben; Stevenson, Fiona; Gilbert, Hazel; Walters, Kate

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses. 75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis. Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting. We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  10. Synthesis of Guanidines via Reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides in the Presence of Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Shaghayeghi Toosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different ionic liquids (ILs were synthesized and evaluated for the preparation of substituted guanidines from the reaction of amines and carbodiimides. 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [HMIm]BF4 was found to be the best ionic liquid for this reaction. This IL acted as a promoter for the addition of primary and secondary amines to carbodiimides. By this efficient approach, various guanidines were prepared in excellent yields.

  11. "Psychiatry is not a science like others" - a focus group study on psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenrud, Tove M; Svensson, Staffan A; Wallerstedt, Susanna M

    2013-08-12

    Psychotropic drug prescribing is problematic and knowledge of factors affecting the initiation and maintenance of such prescribing is incomplete. Such knowledge could provide a basis for the design of interventions to change prescribing patterns for psychotropics. The aim of this study was to explore the views of general practitioners (GPs), GP interns, and heads of primary care units on factors affecting the prescribing of psychotropic drugs in primary care. We performed four focus group discussions in Gothenburg, Sweden, with a total of 21 participants (GPs, GP interns, and heads of primary care units). The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using manifest content analysis. Three different themes emerged from the focus group discussions. The first theme Seeking care for symptoms, reflects the participants' understanding of why patients approach primary care and comprised categories such as knowledge, attitudes, and society and the media. The second theme, Lacking a framework, resources, and treatment alternatives, which reflects the conditions for the physician-patient interaction, comprised categories such as economy and resources, technology, and organizational aspects. The third theme, Restricting or maintaining prescriptions, with the subthemes Individual factors and External influences, reflects the physicians' internal decision making and comprised categories such as emotions, knowledge, and pharmaceutical industry. The results of the present study indicate that a variety of factors may affect the prescribing of psychotropic medications in primary care. Many factors were related to characteristics of the patient, the physician or their interaction, rather than the patients' medical needs per se. The results may be useful for interventions to improve psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

  12. Primary Children's Management of Themselves and Others in Collaborative Group Work: "Sometimes It Takes Patience…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth; Warwick, Paul; Mercer, Neil; Kleine Staarman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    We focus on children's approaches to managing group work in classrooms where collaborative learning principles are explicit. Small groups of 8-10 year olds worked on collaborative science activities using an interactive whiteboard. Insubsequent interviews, they spoke of learning to "be patient" and "wait", for multiple social…

  13. Effect of supervised brushing with fluoride gel during primary school, taking into account the group prevention schedule in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Ladda, Annett; Pieper, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    In one region of Germany, a group of children took part in regular fluoride gel applications during primary school following intensified prevention in kindergarten. This observational study aimed to ascertain whether the dental health of primary school children can be improved by introducing a group prevention program based on applications of fluoride gel. The subjects were distributed among six groups with varying preventive measures in kindergarten and at school. The basis for determining caries experience and calculating the caries increment consisted of dental findings gathered in the second and fourth grade. While second graders without professionally supported daily toothbrushing in kindergarten exhibited an average d 3 -6 mft of 2.17, in those who had enjoyed intensive dental prevention, the corresponding value was 19% lower (d 3-6 mft = 1.74). The caries increment was significantly lower mainly among children who had received the maximum of group prevention (intensive prevention in kindergarten and gel program at school). The results show that intensified preventive programs in kindergartens and schools, based mainly on supervised toothbrushing, have a positive effect on the dental health of primary school children. Such programs are efficient in reducing caries experience especially in socially deprived areas.

  14. Preparation of aminated chitosan/alginate scaffold containing halloysite nanotubes with improved cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir Afshar, Hamideh; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2016-10-20

    The chemical nature of biomaterials play important role in cell attachment, proliferation and migration in tissue engineering. Chitosan and alginate are biodegradable and biocompatible polymers used as scaffolds for various medical and clinical applications. Amine groups of chitosan scaffolds play an important role in cell attachment and water adsorption but also associate with alginate carboxyl groups via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding, consequently the activity of amine groups in the scaffold decreases. In this study, chitosan/alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Amine treatment on the scaffold occurred through chemical methods, which in turn caused the hydroxyl groups to be replaced with carboxyl groups in chitosan and alginate, after which a reaction between ethylenediamine, 1-ethyl-3,(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and scaffold triggered the amine groups to connect to the carboxyl groups of chitosan and alginate. The chemical structure, morphology and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated by FTIR, CHNS, SEM/EDS and compression tests. The electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between chitosan, alginate and halloysite was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength compared with chitosan/alginate scaffolds. CHNS and EDS perfectly illustrate that amine groups were effectively introduced in the aminated scaffold. The growth and cell attachment of L929 cells as well as the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were investigated by SEM and Alamar Blue (AB). The results indicated that the aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffold has better cell growth and cell adherence in comparison to that of chitosan/alginate/halloysite samples. Aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering, ideally in

  15. Prevalence and impact of primary headache disorders among students and working population in 18-25 years age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Aishwarya S, Eswari N, Chandrasekar M, Chandra Prabha J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache or cephalalgia is defined as pain in the head. Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have a profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. According to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD, they are Primary and Secondary headaches. Primary Headaches are triggered by stress, alcohol, changes in sleep pattern, anxiety, poor posture, all of which are part and parcel our day-to-day life. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of primary headache disorders and its severity of impact among students and working population in the age group 18-25. Methods: The study was conducted on 718 subjects of which 483 subjects were medical and engineering students from the age group 18-21 and 235 subjects were working people from the age group 22-25. Written consent was taken from each of them. Headache Impact Test-6 (version 1.1 and the HARDSHIP Questionnaire by Timothy Steiner et al. were the questionnaires used to diagnose the severity of impact and the type of headache respectively. The study was ethically approved by Ethical Clearance Board of MAHER University. People suffering from psychiatric illness were excluded from the study. Result: There was increased prevalence of migraine in the age group 18-21 and tension type headache in the age group 22-25.Over 50%of subjects from both the age groups had headaches that have substantial to severe impact on their lives. There was no significant gender variation in headache prevalence.

  16. Group supervision for healthcare professionals within primary care for patients with psychosomatic health problems: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, Jennifer; Cronqvist, Agneta

    2018-03-01

    In primary health care, efficacious treatment strategies are lacking for these patients, although the most prominent symptoms accounting for consultation in primary care often cannot be related to any biological causes. The aim was to explore whether group supervision from a specific phenomenological theory of psychosomatics could provide healthcare professionals treating patients with psychosomatic health issues within primary care a deeper understanding of these conditions and stimulate profession-specific treatment strategies. Our research questions were as follows: (i) What is the healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics before and after the intervention? (ii) What are the treatment strategies for this group of patients before and after the intervention? The study was an explorative qualitative intervention pilot study. The six participants from a primary healthcare setting in a medium-sized city in Sweden participated in the study. A supervision group was formed, based on a mix of professions, age, gender and years of clinical experience. Supervision consisted of one 75-minutes meeting every month during the course of 6 months. Participants were interviewed before and after the supervision intervention. The study showed two distinct categories emerged from the data. One category of healthcare professionals espoused a psycho-educative approach, while the other lacked a cohesive approach. The supervision improved the second category of healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics. The psycho-educative group did not change their understanding of psychosomatics, although they felt strengthened in their approach by the supervision. Profession-specific strategies were not developed. This pilot study indicates that a relatively short supervision intervention can aid clinicians in their clinical encounters with these patients; however, further research is necessary to ascertain the value of the specific phenomenologically based

  17. The impact of case mix on timely access to appointments in a primary care group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Asli; Balasubramanian, Hari

    2013-06-01

    At the heart of the practice of primary care is the concept of a physician panel. A panel refers to the set of patients for whose long term, holistic care the physician is responsible. A physician's appointment burden is determined by the size and composition of the panel. Size refers to the number of patients in the panel while composition refers to the case-mix, or the type of patients (older versus younger, healthy versus chronic patients), in the panel. In this paper, we quantify the impact of the size and case-mix on the ability of a multi-provider practice to provide adequate access to its empanelled patients. We use overflow frequency, or the probability that the demand exceeds the capacity, as a measure of access. We formulate problem of minimizing the maximum overflow for a multi-physician practice as a non-linear integer programming problem and establish structural insights that enable us to create simple yet near optimal heuristic strategies to change panels. This optimization framework helps a practice: (1) quantify the imbalances across physicians due to the variation in case mix and panel size, and the resulting effect on access; and (2) determine how panels can be altered in the least disruptive way to improve access. We illustrate our methodology using four test practices created using patient level data from the primary care practice at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. An important advantage of our approach is that it can be implemented in an Excel Spreadsheet and used for aggregate level planning and panel management decisions.

  18. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  19. Criminal characteristics of a group of primary criminals diagnosed with aspd: approach to criminal recidivis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Larrotta-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is commonly associated with the risk of criminal recidivism. Knowing more about the factors associated with this pattern of behaviour can help with the design of effective prevention strategies. The purpose of this article is to establish if there are differences in socio-criminogenic variables of a group of criminals sentenced for the first time and with APSD compared to another group of first-time offenders who do not present this disorder. Materials and methods: Analytical observation study of 70 men classified into 2 groups according to the presence of ASPD TPA (n=47; age: 29.98±7.8 years or absence of ASPD (n=23; age: 32.35±8.7 years. Results: The inmates with ASPD showed higher frequencies of current consumption of psychoactive substances (31.9%, criminal associations and simultaneous use of psychoactive substances (70.2%, having committed the crime under the effects of a psychoactive substance (55.3%, not having the possibility of distancing themselves from criminal associations (83% and a lack of legal resources for proceedings for defence and release (76.6%. Discussion: This sample contains a group of variables called dynamic that are more commonly present amongst first time offenders with ASPD; said variables have been associated as major predictors of recidivism. Given that they are regarded as dynamic, they may well be modifiable.

  20. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-01-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  1. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  2. Long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-04-01

    Despite a fairly good prognosis, many breast-cancer patients suffer from symptoms such as anxiety, depression and fatigue, which may affect health-related quality of life and may persist for several years. The aim of the present study was to perform a long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women after primary breast cancer treatment. Three hundred and eighty two women with primary breast cancer were randomized to support group intervention or control group, 181 in each group. Women in the intervention group participated in 1 week of intervention followed by 4 days of follow-up 2 months later. This is a long-term follow-up undertaken, in average, 6.5 years after randomization. Patients answered the questionnaires the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the breast cancer module questionnaire (BR 23), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD) and the Norwegian version of the fatigue scale (FQ). After adjusting for treatment with chemotherapy, age, marriage, education and children at home, there was a significant improvement in physical, mental and total fatigue (FQ), cognitive function, body image and future perspective (EORTC QLQ C30 and BR23) in the intervention group compared with controls. The proportion of women affected by high anxiety and depression scores were not significantly different between the groups. Support intervention significantly improved cognitive function, body image, future perspective and fatigue, compared with to the findings in the control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occlusion in the primary and early mixed dentitions in a group of Tanzanian and Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, H

    1990-01-01

    Two high and two low socioeconomic areas were selected for the Tanzanian portion of this study, with all nursery schools located in those areas included, for a subtotal of 580 children. The Finnish group was comprised of a total of 575 Caucasian children examined. The Tanzanian children (83 percent Black African, 10 percent Asian, 7 percent Arab) had fewer occlusal anomalies than the Finnish children did. Finnish children had a 13-percent incidence rate of lateral cross-bite; among African children, 8 percent showed anterior crossbite; and among the combined Asian/Arab group of children, 10 percent had an anterior open bite. African children had significantly fewer prevalences of distal bite, lateral crossbite and crowding than Finnish children did.

  4. Electrochemical degradation of aromatic amines on BDD electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, M.J.; Santos, V.; Ciriaco, L.; Lopes, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of four aromatic amines, with different substituent groups, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (A1), 5-amino-2-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid (A2), 2,4-dihydroxyaniline hydrochloride (A3) and benzene-1,4-diamine (A4), was performed using as anode a boron-doped diamond electrode, commercially available at Adamant Technologies. Tests were run at room temperature with model solutions of the different amines, with concentrations of 200 ppm, using as electrolyte 0.035 M Na 2 SO 4 aqueous solutions, in a batch cell with recirculation, at different current densities (200 and 300 A m -2 ). The following analyses were performed with the samples collected during the assays: UV-Vis spectrophotometry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrates and HPLC. Results have shown a good electrodegradation of all the amines tested, with COD removals, after 6 h assays, higher than 90% and TOC removals between 60 and 80%. Combustion efficiency (η C ), which measures the tendency to convert organic carbon to CO 2 , was also determined for all the amines, being η CA1 CA2 CA3 CA4 = 0.99.

  5. Social work in a pediatric primary health care team in a group practice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J V; Lebowitz, M L; Anderson, F P

    1976-01-01

    The inclusion of a psychiatric social worker as a member of a pediatric team in a prepaid group practice extends the range of pediatric mental health services to children. This paper discusses the collaboration of the social worker with the pediatricians and allied health personnel on the team in dealing with the emotional problems of referred children and their parents. Case examples are included. All cases seen by the social worker during a 6-month period are reviewed. With available psychiatric backup a wide range of emotional problems are identified, and effective mental health care is provided.

  6. How are clinical commissioning groups managing conflicts of interest under primary care co-commissioning in England? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Allen, Pauline; McDermott, Imelda; Checkland, Kath; Warwick-Giles, Lynsey; Gore, Oz; Bramwell, Donna; Coleman, Anna

    2017-11-08

    From April 2015, NHS England (NHSE) started to devolve responsibility for commissioning primary care services to clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). The aim of this paper is to explore how CCGs are managing potential conflicts of interest associated with groups of GPs commissioning themselves or their practices to provide services. We carried out two telephone surveys using a sample of CCGs. We also used a qualitative case study approach and collected data using interviews and meeting observations in four sites (CCGs). We conducted 57 telephone interviews and 42 face-to-face interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and CCG staff involved in primary care co-commissioning and observed 74 meetings of CCG committees responsible for primary care co-commissioning. Conflicts of interest were seen as an inevitable consequence of CCGs commissioning primary care. Particular problems arose with obtaining unbiased clinical input for new incentive schemes and providing support to GP provider federations. Participants in meetings concerning primary care co-commissioning declared conflicts of interest at the outset of meetings. Different approaches were pursued regarding GPs involvement in subsequent discussions and decisions with inconsistency in the exclusion of GPs from meetings. CCG senior management felt confident that the new governance structures and policies dealt adequately with conflicts of interest, but we found these arrangements face limitations. While the revised NHSE statutory guidance on managing conflicts of interest (2016) was seen as an improvement on the original (2014), there still remained some confusion over various terms and concepts contained therein. Devolving responsibility for primary care co-commissioning to CCGs created a structural conflict of interest. The NHSE statutory guidance should be refined and clarified so that CCGs can properly manage conflicts of interest. Non-clinician members of committees involved in commissioning primary care

  7. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  8. Primary adrenal insufficiency in adult population: a Portuguese Multicentre Study by the Adrenal Tumours Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lia; Silva, João; Garrido, Susana; Bello, Carlos; Oliveira, Diana; Simões, Hélder; Paiva, Isabel; Guimarães, Joana; Ferreira, Marta; Pereira, Teresa; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Martins, Ana Filipa; Silva, Tiago; Fernandes, Vera; Pereira, Maria Lopes

    2017-11-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening condition. No previous studies have characterized Portuguese patients with PAI. To characterize the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, treatment and follow-up of Portuguese patients with confirmed PAI. This multicentre retrospective study examined PAI patients in 12 Portuguese hospitals. We investigated 278 patients with PAI (55.8% were females), with a mean age of 33.6 ± 19.3 years at diagnosis. The most frequent presenting clinical features were asthenia (60.1%), mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation (55.0%) and weight loss (43.2%); 29.1% of the patients presented with adrenal crisis. Diagnosis was established by high plasma ACTH and low serum cortisol in most patients (43.9%). The most common aetiology of PAI was autoimmune adrenalitis (61.0%). There were 38 idiopathic cases. Autoimmune comorbidities were found in 70% of the patients, the most frequent being autoimmune thyroiditis (60.7%) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (17.3%). Seventy-nine percent were treated with hydrocortisone (mean dose 26.3 ± 8.3 mg/day) mostly in three (57.5%) or two (37.4%) daily doses. The remaining patients were treated with prednisolone (10.1%), dexamethasone (6.2%) and methylprednisolone (0.7%); 66.2% were also on fludrocortisone (median dose of 100 µg/day). Since diagnosis, 33.5% of patients were hospitalized for disease decompensation. In the last appointment, 17.2% of patients had complaints (7.6% asthenia and 6.5% depression) and 9.7% had electrolyte disturbances. This is the first multicentre Portuguese study regarding PAI. The results emphasize the need for standardization in diagnostic tests and etiological investigation and provide a framework for improving treatment. © 2017 The authors.

  9. The state of primary care in the United States of America and lessons for primary care groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperski, M

    2000-04-01

    The health care system of the United States of America (USA) is lavishly funded and those with adequate insurance usually receive excellent attention. However, the system is fragmented and inequitable. Health workers often find it difficult to separate vocational roles from business roles. Care tends to focus on the acute rather than the chronic, on 'episodes of illness' rather than 'person-centred' care, on short-term fixes rather than long-term approaches, on scientific/technical solutions rather than discourse or the 'art of healing', and on individual health rather than population health. The majority of US doctors are trained in the 'hightech' hospital paradigm and there is no equivalent of the United Kingdom (UK) general practitioner (GP), who lies at the hub of a primary health care team (PHCT) and who is charged with taking a long-term view, co-ordinating health care for individual patients, and acting as patient advocate without major conflicting financial incentives. However, primary care groups/trusts (PCGs) could learn from US management and training techniques, case management, NHS Direct equivalents, and the effects of poorly developed PHCTs. PCGs could develop the UK's own version of utilisation management. A cash-limited, unified budget within an underfunded National Health Service poses threats to general practice. In both the USA and the UK, primary care is a prominent tool in new attempts at cost control. PCGs offer the opportunity of better integration with public health and social services, but threaten GPs' role as independent advocates by giving them a rationing role. Managed care has forced a similar role onto our US counterparts with consequent public displeasure and professional disillusion. UK GPs will have to steer a careful course if they are to avoid a similar fate.

  10. [Genetic Study of Primary Dystonias: Recommendations from the Centro Hospitalar São João Neurogenetics Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Massano, João; Leão, Miguel; Garrett, Carolina

    2017-04-28

    The primary dystonias are a particular group of dystonias of presumed genetic origin, with a wide age of onset and variable progression. The diagnosis is, therefore, a challenge and the issue of the genetic investigation presents frequently in clinical practice. In the past few years several gene mutations have been identified as causative of primary dystonias. The choice of molecular testing is complex, given the clinical specificities and low frequency of these entities and the cost of genetic testing. It must follow observation by specialized clinicians highly differentiated in this area and be supported by a rational plan of investigation. The Centro Hospitalar São João Neurogenetics Group, a multidisciplinary team of Neurologists and Geneticists with special interest in neurogenetic disorders, devised consensus recommendations for the investigation of the genetic etiology of the primary dystonias, based on international consensus documents and recent published scientific evidence. This manuscript adopts the new classification system for genetic movement disorders, allowing for its systematic and standardized use in clinical practice.

  11. Analysis of the quality of diagnosis and treatment of primary headache in different social groups of the Ural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Lebedeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the quality of diagnosis and treatment of primary headache (HA in different social groups of the Ural Region. Patients and methods. The study enrolled 3124 persons who were divided into three groups: 1 1042 students; of them there were 719 women; mean age 20.6 years; range 17–40 years; 2 1075 workers; of them there were 146 women; mean age 40.4 years; range 21–67 years; 3 1007 blood donors; of them there were 484 women; mean age, 34.1 years; range 18–64 years. Semi-structured interviews involving the characteristics of HA and its prior diagnosis and treatment were conducted face-to-face in all those included in the study. HA was diagnosed using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version. Results and discussion. The following factors decreasing the quality of diagnosis and treatment of HA were identified in all the study groups: 1 low physician visit rates. Despite the high prevalence of all types of primary HA in 3 groups (67%, only 496 (23% out of 2110 participants with HA visited their physician with this problem. Among the patients with HA, physicians were visited most often by 342 (35% out of 968 students, least often by 60 (13% out of 457 workers and by 94 (14% out of 685 donors; 2 inadequate diagnosis of HA. Only 12 and 11.7% of the patients were correctly diagnosed with migraine and tension HA (THA, respectively; 3 the practically complete absence of preventive treatment for HA. The majority of patients used drugs to arrest HA attacks; preventive treatment for migraine was performed in 2 (0.4% and not performed in any of the patients with THA. It is necessary to improve the diagnosis and treatment of primary HA and to elaborate new Russian clinical guidelines for patient management on the basis of international standards. 

  12. ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols and amines with acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Farhadi; Kosar Jahanara

    2014-01-01

    A ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared from metal nitrates and tetraethyl orthosilicate by the sol-gel process, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines under solvent-free conditions. Under optimized conditions, efficient acetylation of these substrates with acetic anhy-dride over the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was obtained. Acetylation of anilines and primary aliphatic amines proceeded rapidly at room temperature, while the reaction time was longer for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols, showing that an amine NH2 group can be selectively acetylated in the presence of alcoholic or phenolic OH groups. The catalyst can be reused without obvious loss of catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was higher than that of pure ZnAl2O4. The method gives high yields, and is clean, cost effective, compatible with sub-strates having other functional groups and it is suitable for practical organic synthesis.

  13. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakhov, Anton; Nečas, David; Čechal, Jan; Pavliňák, David; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH x environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH x concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH x (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high water stability

  14. PRACTICE THE VALUE OF RESPECT IN A GROUP OF FIFTH GRADE PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Selene Uranga-Alvídrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today humanity is facing various problems of social nature, the absence of values and its practice are a precedent favoring the imbalance of a society. The lack of respect is a wish Inquirer in the present ethnographic research, with the intention of favor in an documentary with a critical analysis links the affective and self-regulation of the emotions in a group of 5° B of the MelchorOcampo Elementary School. The research focuses in the study with approach a qualitative, its content analytical describes the scenario that conceived the interpersonal relations, the main results indicate that there are multiple factors the assistance, the inhospitable courtly space, the mediation, the influence of the core family, the geographical cultural context and the level of performance of the master for create environments of learning free of violence.

  15. NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic study of methylcobalt(III) compounds with saturated amine ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Harris, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The C-13 chemical shifts of methylcobalt(III) compounds with saturated amine ligands in cis positions to the methyl group and a monodentate ligand, L = CN-, NH3, NO2, N-3(-), H2O, or OH-, in the trans position are reported. The amine ligands used, 1,2-ethanediamine (en), 1,3-propanediamine (tn), N...

  16. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  17. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  18. Factors Associated with Primary Headache According to Diagnosis, Sex, and Social Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis V.

    2016-01-01

    . To be a student was associated with the highest risk of migraine (OR 6.6; 95% CI 4.2-10.4) and TTH (OR 3.6; 95% Cyrillic capital letter esI 2.7-4.8). Low physical activity (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and family history of headache (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5-2.9) were associated only with migraine. Current smoking and BMI...... alcoholic beverages was associated with TTH (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.0) and in females consumption of light alcoholic beverages was associated with migraine (OR 3.49; 2.03-6.02) and TTH (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.93-4.66). Low physical activity was associated with migraine in females (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). (3...... were specific to a social group: consumption of strong alcoholic beverages was associated with TTH in blood donors (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1), low physical activity was associated with migraine in students (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.04-3.74) and with TTH in workers (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.7). Conclusion Most...

  19. Manganese-catalysed benzylic C(sp3)-H amination for late-stage functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph R; Feng, Kaibo; Sookezian, Anasheh; White, M Christina

    2018-06-01

    Reactions that directly install nitrogen into C-H bonds of complex molecules are significant because of their potential to change the chemical and biological properties of a given compound. Although selective intramolecular C-H amination reactions are known, achieving high levels of reactivity while maintaining excellent site selectivity and functional-group tolerance remains a challenge for intermolecular C-H amination. Here, we report a manganese perchlorophthalocyanine catalyst [MnIII(ClPc)] for intermolecular benzylic C-H amination of bioactive molecules and natural products that proceeds with unprecedented levels of reactivity and site selectivity. In the presence of a Brønsted or Lewis acid, the [MnIII(ClPc)]-catalysed C-H amination demonstrates unique tolerance for tertiary amine, pyridine and benzimidazole functionalities. Mechanistic studies suggest that C-H amination likely proceeds through an electrophilic metallonitrene intermediate via a stepwise pathway where C-H cleavage is the rate-determining step of the reaction. Collectively, these mechanistic features contrast with previous base-metal-catalysed C-H aminations and provide new opportunities for tunable selectivities.

  20. The impact of team-based primary care on health care services utilization and costs: Quebec's family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Erin; Ammi, Mehdi; Diop, Mamadou; Fiset-Laniel, Julie; Tousignant, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the effects on health care costs and utilization of team-based primary care delivery: Quebec's Family Medicine Groups (FMGs). FMGs include extended hours, patient enrolment and multidisciplinary teams, but they maintain the same remuneration scheme (fee-for-service) as outside FMGs. In contrast to previous studies, we examine the impacts of organizational changes in primary care settings in the absence of changes to provider payment and outside integrated care systems. We built a panel of administrative data of the population of elderly and chronically ill patients, characterizing all individuals as FMG enrollees or not. Participation in FMGs is voluntary and we address potential selection bias by matching on GP propensity scores, using inverse probability of treatment weights at the patient level, and then estimating difference-in-differences models. We also use appropriate modelling strategies to account for the distributions of health care cost and utilization data. We find that FMGs significantly decrease patients' health care services utilization and costs in outpatient settings relative to patients not in FMGs. The number of primary care visits decreased by 11% per patient per year among FMG enrolees and specialist visits declined by 6%. The declines in costs were of roughly equal magnitude. We found no evidence of an effect on hospitalizations, their associated costs, or the costs of ED visits. These results provide support for the idea that primary care organizational reforms can have impacts on the health care system in the absence of changes to physician payment mechanisms. The extent to which the decline in GP visits represents substitution with other primary care providers warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amine Measurements in Boreal Forest Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Amines are reactive, volatile bases in the air with a general formula of RNH2, R2NH or R3N. Especially small amines can stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and hence affect nucleation. Amines react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH˙) thus affecting oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The amine concentrations are higher in forest air than in urban air (Hellén et al., 2014), but the sources are not known. In order to get more information concerning amine sources, we conducted a measurement campaign in a boreal forest. At SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland (61°510'N, 24°170'E, 180 m a.s.l.) The measurements cover seven months, from June to December 2014. For sampling and measuring we used MARGA (The instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air) which is an on-line ion chromatograph (IC) connected to a sampling system. The IC component of the MARGA system was coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) to improve sensitivity of amine measurements. This new set-up enabled amine concentration measurements in ambient air both in aerosol and gas phases with a time resolution of only 1 hour. With MARGA-MS we analysed 7 different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA) and butylamine (BA). In preliminary data-analysis we found out, that in June and July most of the measured amines were in gas phase, and particle phase amine concentrations were mostly under detection limits (<1.7 pptv). In June the gaseous amine concentrations were higher than in July. The measured concentrations of gaseous amines followed temperature variation, which could indicate that amines are produced and emitted from the environment or re-emitted from the surfaces as temperature rises after deposition during night-time. All measured amines had similar diurnal variation with maxima during afternoon and minima during night. Results from other months will also

  2. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  3. Community Engagement in a complex intervention to improve access to primary mental health care for hard-to-reach groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jonathan; Dowrick, Christopher; Burroughs, Heather; Beatty, Susan; Edwards, Suzanne; Bristow, Kate; Clarke, Pam; Hammond, Jonathan; Waheed, Waquas; Gabbay, Mark; Gask, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Despite the availability of effective evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety, many 'harder-to-reach' social and patient groups experience difficulties accessing treatment. We developed a complex intervention, the AMP (Improving Access to Mental Health in Primary Care) programme, which combined community engagement (CE), tailored (individual and group) psychosocial interventions and primary care involvement. To develop and evaluate a model for community engagement component of the complex intervention. This paper focuses on the development of relationships between stakeholders, their engagement with the issue of access to mental health and with the programme through the CE model. Our evaluation draws on process data, qualitative interviews and focus groups, brought together through framework analysis to evaluate the issues and challenges encountered. A case study of the South Asian community project carried out in Longsight in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Complex problems require multiple local stakeholders to work in concert. Assets based approaches implicitly make demands on scarce time and resources. Community development approaches have many benefits, but perceptions of open-ended investment are a barrier. The time-limited nature of a CE intervention provides an impetus to 'do it now', allowing stakeholders to negotiate their investment over time and accommodating their wider commitments. Both tangible outcomes and recognition of process benefits were vital in maintaining involvement. CE interventions can play a key role in improving accessibility and acceptability by engaging patients, the public and practitioners in research and in the local service ecology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  5. A Primary Exploration on the Systemization of Information of the Cultural Resources of Bulang Ethnic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caiwen; LIANG Rui

    2014-01-01

    heritage resources: The first is whether or not the cultural heritage resources could be “systematized”” or digitized using present tech-niques; the second is whether or not the cultural heritage has the value to be “systemematized” or digitized . For the purpose of systematizing the management of the resource and information of the ethnic cultural resources , doing a digital collection of cultural resources is the first step .Then , after making an assessment of the value of the ethnic cultural resources , we should adopt different “sys-tematized information resource management ” tech-niques with regard to the different types of re-sources. Taking the systematized management of “Bu-lang singing with playing stringed instruments tra-dition” as an example , in addition to the digitiza-tion of the melodic text of the folk song , the related cultural space , the inheritors , musical instru-ments, other objects (such as costume, other arti-cles for use ) should also be protected through digi-tization .The digitization of “Bulang ’ s singing with playing stringed instruments” should be done on several levels .The first level is the digitization of text;the second is the digitization of image;the third is the building of a three -dimensional im-age;and the fourth is making virtual products . Ethnic culture is not only a representation of the ethnic spiritual world , but is also a crystalliza-tion of material culture and spiritual culture created by the ethnic group .This discussion of the digiti-zation of the cultural resources of the Bulang , an ethnic group with a small population , can provide some experience and reference for the protection and transmission of China ’ s ethnic cultures .

  6. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due to the alteration in the main polymeric chains of waste rubber. This project aims to answer the question of whether the usage of amine can produce high quality rubber, where the properties of recycled rubber is almost the same as new/virgin rubber. With known potential of amine, it is a challenge for the chemical to selectively cleave the sulfur bonds without affecting the main carbon backbone chain in the rubber structure and diminishing much of the rubber properties. To study this research, amine-treated rubber must undergo devulcanisation process by applying heat and sonication energy. Then, the properties of the amine-treated rubber were determined through a set of characterization tests and analysis which are: gel content test to determine the weight of rubber before and after devulcanization, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal degradation and stability of rubber, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to determine any structural change of the rubber. In this research so far, the first two preliminary analysis tests have been performed. The gel content test has shown that tertiary amine samples possessed a lower gel content (% of (77 – 63 %, compared to primary amine samples (falls within the range of 80%, as well as the TGA test in which tertiary amine samples degrade faster than primary amine samples (suggesting a higher degree of rubber structure breakdown. For each type of amine, the concertation of amine did

  7. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-11-21

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other functional groups. Furthermore, the acetaldehyde/Fmoc amino acid method can be used as a selective colorimetric test for secondary amines in solution.

  8. A study of structure–activity relationships of commercial tertiary amines for post-combustion CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Helei; Idem, Raphael; Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon; Liang, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethyl group is beneficial for tertiary amines of CO_2 absorption. • The existence of side carbon chain may promote the activity of tertiary amine. • Hydroxyl group reduces the equilibrium CO_2 solubility, k_2 and pKa. • Heterocyclic structure decrease the equilibrium CO_2 solubility, k_2 and pKa. • Hydroxyl group results in higher CO_2 absorption heat. - Abstract: This work examined the relationship between the structure of various commercial tertiary amines and their activity in CO_2 absorption/desorption in terms of rate of CO_2 absorption, equilibrium CO_2 loading, pKa and heat of CO_2 absorption in order to establish possible guidelines for selection of tertiary amine components for amine blends. Results show that any electron donating group linked directly to the nitrogen atom increases their reactivity with CO_2. In addition, the presence of steric hindrance effect and good water solubility also show enhancements in activity. In contrast, the existence of a hydroxyl group leads to a decrease in all the activity of the tertiary amine. The heat of CO_2 absorption of tertiary amines, which is closely related to the regeneration energy, can be reduced by decreasing the number of hydroxyethyl groups or by positing the hydroxyl group at the proper carbon relative to the nitrogen atom.

  9. Cultivar-Specific Changes in Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Pak Choi (Brassica Rapa, Chinensis Group by Methyl Jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 aromatic glucosinolates, indole glucosinolate concentrations (153–229% and their hydrolysis products increased with MeJA treatment. Changes in the total isothiocyanates by MeJA were associated with epithiospecifier protein activity estimated as nitrile formation. Goitrin, a goitrogenic compound, significantly decreased by MeJA treatment in all cultivars. Changes in glucosinolates, especially aliphatic, significantly differed among cultivars. Primary metabolites including amino acids, organic acids and sugars also changed with MeJA treatment in a cultivar-specific manner. A decreased sugar level suggests that they might be a carbon source for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in MeJA-treated pak choi. The result of the present study suggests that MeJA can be an effective agent to elevate indole glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and to reduce a goitrogenic compound in pak choi. The total glucosinolate concentration was the highest in “Chinese cabbage” in the control group (32.5 µmol/g DW, but indole glucosinolates increased the greatest in “Asian” when treated with MeJA.

  10. Cardiovascular risk management of different ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in primary care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.

  11. Characteristics of physicians and patients who join team-based primary care practices: evidence from Quebec's Family Medicine Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Natalie; Strumpf, Erin; Fiset-Laniel, Julie; Tousignant, Pierre; Roy, Yves

    2014-06-01

    New models of delivering primary care are being implemented in various countries. In Quebec, Family Medicine Groups (FMGs) are a team-based approach to enhance access to, and coordination of, care. We examined whether physicians' and patients' characteristics predicted their participation in this new model of primary care. Using provincial administrative data, we created a population cohort of Quebec's vulnerable patients. We collected data before the advent of FMGs on patients' demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses and health service use, and their physicians' demographics, and practice characteristics. Multivariate regression was used to identify key predictors of joining a FMG among both patients and physicians. Patients who eventually enrolled in a FMG were more likely to be female, reside outside of an urban region, have a lower SES status, have diabetes and congestive heart failure, visit the emergency department for ambulatory sensitive conditions and be hospitalized for any cause. They were also less likely to have hypertension, visit an ambulatory clinic and have a usual provider of care. Physicians who joined a FMG were less likely to be located in urban locations, had fewer years in medical practice, saw more patients in hospital, and had patients with lower morbidity. Physicians' practice characteristics and patients' health status and health care service use were important predictors of joining a FMG. To avoid basing policy decisions on tenuous evidence, policymakers and researchers should account for differential selection into team-based primary health care models. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Hemoglobin binding of aromatic amines: molecular dosimetry and quantitative structure-activity relationships for N-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, G

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic amines are important intermediates in industrial manufacturing. N-Oxidation to N-hydroxyarylamines is a key step in determining the genotoxic properties of aromatic amines. N-Hydroxyarylamines can form adducts with DNA, with tissue proteins, and with the blood proteins albumin and hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. The determination of hemoglobin adducts is a useful tool for biomonitoring exposed populations. We have established the hemoglobin binding index (HBI) [(mmole compound/mole hemoglobin)/(mmole compound/kg body weight)] of several aromatic amines in female Wistar rats. Including the values from other researchers obtained in the same rat strain, the logarithm of hemoglobin binding (logHBI) was plotted against the following parameters: the sum of the Hammett constants(sigma sigma = sigma p + sigma m), pKa, logP (octanol/water), the half-wave oxidation potential (E1/2), and the electronic descriptors of the amines and their corresponding nitrenium ions obtained by semi-empirical calculations (MNDO, AMI, and PM3), such as atomic charge densities, energies of the highest occupied molecular orbit and lowest occupied molecular orbit and their coefficients, the bond order of C-N, the dipole moments, and the reaction enthalpy [MNDOHF, AM1HF or PM3HF = Hf(nitrenium) - Hf(amine)]. The correlation coefficients were determined from the plots of all parameters against log HBI for all amines by means of linear regression analysis. The amines were classified in three groups: group 1, all parasubstituted amines (maximum, n = 9); group 2, all amines with halogens (maximun, n = 11); and group 3, all amines with alkyl groups (maximum, n = 13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8319626

  13. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Lynn, E-mail: lmillion@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  14. Using Amines and Alkanes as Thermal-Runaway Retardants for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang

    Thermal runaway imposes major challenges to large-scale lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The working temperature of a LIB is usually around room temperature. However, upon mechanical abuse such as an impact or nail penetration, LIB cell components may fail and internal short circuits could be formed. As a result, a series of exothermic electrochemical reactions and decompositions would take place and the local temperature can rapidly increase. In this thesis, a few novel techniques are investigated to mitigate thermal runaway of LIBs. Mechanically triggered approach has been employed. Thermal-runaway retardant (TRR) is encapsulated in mechanically responsive packages made of materials inert to the battery environment, and upon external mechanical loadings the packages can be broken apart and release the TRR. This mechanism allows for the use of aggressive chemicals to suppress the short circuit discharge and reduce the subsequent exothermic phenomena, immediately after the battery is damaged even before temperature increase begins. The best TRR candidates are identified to be amines and alkanes. Among amines, secondary amines and tertiary amines perform better than primary amines. The reduction in electrolyte ionic conductivity and the displacement of electrolyte are the thermal-runaway-mitigation mechanisms of the secondary and the tertiary amines, respectively. Pentadecane is the best candidate among the alkanes under investigation, with the major working mechanism being electrolyte displacement. Impact tests on large pouch cells and high-energy battery chemistry were also performed; the results were quite encouraging.

  15. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  16. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Wojczewski, Silvia; Kutalek, Ruth; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2016-01-01

    Background Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG) was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced. PMID:27345024

  17. The roles of tertiary amine structure, background organic matter and chloramine species on NDMA formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Kim, Daekyun; Ates, Nuray; Karanfil, Tanju

    2013-02-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a probable human carcinogen, is a disinfection by-product that has been detected in chloraminated and chlorinated drinking waters and wastewaters. Formation mechanisms and precursors of NDMA are still not well understood. The main objectives of this study were to systematically investigate (i) the effect of tertiary amine structure, (ii) the effect of background natural organic matter (NOM), and (iii) the roles of mono vs. dichloramine species on the NDMA formation. Dimethylamine (DMA) and 20 different tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines were carefully examined based on their functional groups attached to the basic DMA structure. The wide range (0.02-83.9%) of observed NDMA yields indicated the importance of the structure of tertiary amines, and both stability and electron distribution of the leaving group of tertiary amines on NDMA formation. DMA associated with branched alkyl groups or benzyl like structures having only one carbon between the ring and DMA structure consistently gave higher NDMA yields. Compounds with electron withdrawing groups (EWG) reacted preferentially with monochloramine, whereas compounds with electron donating group (EDG) showed tendency to react with dichloramine to form NDMA. When the selected amines were present in NOM solutions, NDMA formation increased for compounds with EWG while decreased for compounds with EDG. This impact was attributed to the competitions between NOM and amines for chloramine species. The results provided additional information to the commonly accepted mechanism for NDMA formation including chloramine species reacting with tertiary amines and the role of the leaving group on overall NDMA conversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunable, chemoselective amination via silver catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Alderson, Juliet M; Vo, Brian T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2013-11-20

    Organic N-containing compounds, including amines, are essential components of many biologically and pharmaceutically important molecules. One strategy for introducing nitrogen into substrates with multiple reactive bonds is to insert a monovalent N fragment (nitrene or nitrenoid) into a C-H bond or add it directly to a C═C bond. However, it has been challenging to develop well-defined catalysts capable of promoting predictable and chemoselective aminations solely through reagent control. Herein, we report remarkable chemoselective aminations that employ a single metal (Ag) and a single ligand (phenanthroline) to promote either aziridination or C-H insertion by manipulating the coordination geometry of the active catalysts.

  19. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  20. Bromide-free TEMPO-mediated oxidation of primary alcohol groups in starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragd, P L; Besemer, A C; van Bekkum, H

    2000-09-22

    TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation of potato starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MGP) was performed in the absence of sodium bromide (NaBr) as co-catalyst, solely using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as the primary oxidant. The low reaction rate associated with a bromide-free process was increased by performing the oxidation at increased temperatures. The reaction proceeded stoichiometrically and with high selectivity and with only minor depolymerisation, provided that temperature and pH were kept or = 25 degrees C) and under more alkaline conditions (pH > or = 9.0) degradation of the starch skeleton occurred. Simultaneously, side-reactions of the nitrosonium ion lowered the yield of the oxidation. Despite the absence of the NaBr catalyst, the reaction rate-controlling step was found to be the oxidation of the primary hydroxyl groups with the nitrosonium ion. The reaction was first-order in MGP and in TEMPO.

  1. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  2. Adsorption of CO2 on amine-functionalised MCM-41: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thiago Custódio; Bourrelly, Sandrine; Llewellyn, Philip L; Carneiro, José Walkimar de M; Ronconi, Célia Machado

    2015-04-28

    Adsorption of CO2 on MCM-41 functionalised with [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (MCM-41-N2), N(1)-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (MCM-41-N3), 4-aminopyridine (MCM-41-aminopyridine), 4-(methylamino)pyridine (MCM-41-methylaminopyridine) and 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MCM-41-guanidine) was investigated. The amine-functionalised materials were characterised by (29)Si and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. CO2 adsorption at 1.0 bar and 30 °C showed that the amount of CO2 (nads/mmol g(-1)) adsorbed on MCM-41-N2 and MCM-41-N3 is approximately twice the amount adsorbed on MCM-41. For MCM-41-aminopyridine, MCM-41-methylaminopyridine and MCM-41-guanidine, the CO2 adsorption capacity was smaller than that of MCM-41 at the same conditions. The proton affinity (computed with wB97x-D/6-311++G(d,p)) of the secondary amino groups is higher than that of the primary amino groups; however, the relative stabilities of the primary and secondary carbamates are similar. The differential heat of adsorption decreases as the number of secondary amino groups increases.

  3. Influence of amine structure on the post-cured photo-yellowing of novel amine diacrylate terminated ultraviolet and electron beam cured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, N.S.; Lo, D.

    1990-01-01

    The post ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) cured photo-yellowing of nine novel amine terminated diacrylate monomers has been compared with that of standard commercial diethylamine diacrylate monomer using second order derivative UV absorption spectroscopy. Whilst all the UV cured monomers exhibited an initial rapid growth in UV absorption followed by a rapid photo-bleaching, the EB cured monomers exhibited a very slow growth in absorption followed by a plateau and subsequent slow photo-bleaching. In the former case the residual benzophenone photo-initiator is sensitising the photo-yellowing reaction and its subsequent photo-bleaching. Differences in the rates may be determined by the nature of the exciplex between the terminal amine groups and the benzophenone initiator. With regard to the nature of the amine structure all the simple alkylamines exhibit the greatest degree of photo-yellowing whilst hydroxyl containing amines are generally lower. In the former case methylene hydrogen atoms alpha to the nitrogen atom are important for abstraction. Dicyclohexylamine provides the most stable monomer toward photo-yellowing due to the stability of the alpha methylene hydrogen atoms and steric hindrance by the two bulky cyclohexane rings towards the formation of conjugated chromophores. For the EB cured monomers the degree of photo-yellowing increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the amine group due to the increased possibility of the formation of conjugated chromophores. (author)

  4. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  5. Transition metals in the amination of chloroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdyuk, O V [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany); Abaev, Vladimir T [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    The review is devoted to the catalytic amination of chloroarenes and chlorohetarenes. Examples of the formation of the C-N bond in the presence of iron-, nickel- and copper-based catalytic systems are given.

  6. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  7. Redox self-sufficient whole cell biotransformation for amination of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-10-15

    Whole cell biotransformation is an upcoming tool to replace common chemical routes for functionalization and modification of desired molecules. In the approach presented here the production of various non-natural (di)amines was realized using the designed whole cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli W3110/pTrc99A-ald-adh-ta with plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for an l-alanine dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase and a transaminase. Cascading alcohol oxidation with l-alanine dependent transamination and l-alanine dehydrogenase allowed for redox self-sufficient conversion of alcohols to the corresponding amines. The supplementation of the corresponding (di)alcohol precursors as well as amino group donor l-alanine and ammonium chloride were sufficient for amination and redox cofactor recycling in a resting buffer system. The addition of the transaminase cofactor pyridoxal-phosphate and the alcohol dehydrogenase cofactor NAD(+) was not necessary to obtain complete conversion. Secondary and cyclic alcohols, for example, 2-hexanol and cyclohexanol were not aminated. However, efficient redox self-sufficient amination of aliphatic and aromatic (di)alcohols in vivo was achieved with 1-hexanol, 1,10-decanediol and benzylalcohol being aminated best. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure-Activity Relationships for Rates of Aromatic Amine Oxidation by Manganese Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Bylaska, Eric J; Lyon, Molly A; Ness, Stuart C; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-05-17

    New energetic compounds are designed to minimize their potential environmental impacts, which includes their transformation and the fate and effects of their transformation products. The nitro groups of energetic compounds are readily reduced to amines, and the resulting aromatic amines are subject to oxidation and coupling reactions. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is a common environmental oxidant and model system for kinetic studies of aromatic amine oxidation. In this study, a training set of new and previously reported kinetic data for the oxidation of model and energetic-derived aromatic amines was assembled and subjected to correlation analysis against descriptor variables that ranged from general purpose [Hammett σ constants (σ(-)), pKas of the amines, and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO)] to specific for the likely rate-limiting step [one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox)]. The selection of calculated descriptors (pKa, EHOMO, and Eox) was based on validation with experimental data. All of the correlations gave satisfactory quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), but they improved with the specificity of the descriptor. The scope of correlation analysis was extended beyond MnO2 to include literature data on aromatic amine oxidation by other environmentally relevant oxidants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and phosphate and carbonate radicals) by correlating relative rate constants (normalized to 4-chloroaniline) to EHOMO (calculated with a modest level of theory).

  9. Structure-Activity Relationships for Rates of Aromatic Amine Oxidation by Manganese Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J.; Lyon, Molly A.; Science University, Portland, OR; Ness, Stuart C.; Science University, Portland, OR; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Science University, Portland, OR

    2016-01-01

    New energetic compounds are designed to minimize their potential environmental impacts, which includes their transformation and the fate and effects of their transformation products. The nitro groups of energetic compounds are readily reduced to amines, and the resulting aromatic amines are subject to oxidation and coupling reactions. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) is a common environmental oxidant and model system for kinetic studies of aromatic amine oxidation. Here in this study, a training set of new and previously reported kinetic data for the oxidation of model and energetic-derived aromatic amines was assembled and subjected to correlation analysis against descriptor variables that ranged from general purpose [Hammett σ constants (σ − ), pK a s of the amines, and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E HOMO )] to specific for the likely rate-limiting step [one-electron oxidation potentials (E ox )]. The selection of calculated descriptors (pK a ), E HOMO , and E ox ) was based on validation with experimental data. All of the correlations gave satisfactory quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), but they improved with the specificity of the descriptor. The scope of correlation analysis was extended beyond MnO 2 to include literature data on aromatic amine oxidation by other environmentally relevant oxidants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and phosphate and carbonate radicals) by correlating relative rate constants (normalized to 4-chloroaniline) to E HOMO (calculated with a modest level of theory).

  10. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2012-11-21

    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Tris{2-[(2-aminobenzylideneamino]ethyl}amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Elizondo Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base, C27H33N7, is a tripodal amine displaying C3 symmetry, with the central tertiary N atom lying on the threefold crystallographic axis. The N—CH2—CH2—N conformation of the pendant arms is gauche [torsion angle = 76.1 (3°], which results in a claw-like molecule, with the terminal aniline groups wrapped around the symmetry axis. The lone pair of the apical N atom is clearly oriented inwards towards the cavity, and should thus be chemically inactive. The amine NH2 substituents lie in the plane of the benzene ring to which they are bonded. With such an arrangement, one amine H atom forms an S(6 motif through a weak N—H...N hydrogen bond with the imine N atom, while the other is engaged in an intermolecular N—H...π contact involving the benzene ring of a neighbouring molecule related by inversion. The benzene rings also participate in an intramolecular C—H...π contact of similar strength. In the crystal structure, molecules are separated by empty voids (ca 5% of the crystal volume, although the crystal seems to be unsolvated.

  12. Room temperature aerobic oxidation of amines by a nanocrystalline ruthenium oxide pyrochlore nafion composite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Shanmuganathan; Kumar, Annamalai Senthil; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2012-05-14

    The aerobic oxidation of primary amines to their respective nitriles has been carried out at room temperature using a highly reusable nanocrystalline ruthenium oxide pyrochlore Nafion composite catalyst (see figure). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Transition of Primary Care Group Practices to Next Generation Models: Satisfaction of Staff, Clinicians, and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Kralewski, John; Dowd, Bryan

    Restructuring primary care is essential to achieve the triple aim. This case study examines the human factors of extensive redesign on 2 midsized primary care clinics (clinics A and B) in the Midwest United States that are owned by a large health care system. The transition occurred when while the principles for patient-centered medical home were being rolled out nationally, and before the Affordable Care Act. After the transition, interviews and discussions were conducted with 5 stakeholder groups: health system leaders, clinic managers, clinicians, nurses, and reception staff. Using a culture assessment instrument, the responses of personnel at clinics A and B were compared with comparison clinics from another health system that had not undergone transition. Patient satisfaction scores are presented. Clinics A and B were similar in size and staffing. Three human factor themes emerged from interviews: responses to change, professional and personal challenges due to role redefinition, and the importance of communication. The comparison clinics had an equal or higher mean culture scores compared with the transition clinics (A and B). Patient satisfaction in improved in Clinic A. The transition took more time than expected. Health system leaders underestimated the stress and the role adjustments for clinicians and nurses. Change leaders need to anticipate the challenge of role redefinition until health profession schools graduate trainees with more experience in new models of team-based care. Incorporating experience with team based, interprofessional care into training is essential to properly prepare future health professionals. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  15. Oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and structurally related amines by chlorine dioxide: Reaction kinetics, product and pathway evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; He, Yi-Liang; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a group of widely prescribed antibiotics and have been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. The reaction kinetics and transformation of seven FQs (ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), lomefloxacin (LOM), pipemidic acid (PIP) and flumequine (FLU)) and three structurally related amines (1-phenylpiperazine (PP), N-phenylmorpholine (PM) and 4-phenylpiperidine (PD)) toward chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) were investigated to elucidate the behavior of FQs during ClO(2) disinfection processes. The reaction kinetics are highly pH-dependent, can be well described by a second-order kinetic model incorporating speciation of FQs, and follow the trend of OFL > ENR > CIP ∼ NOR ∼ LOM > > PIP in reactivity. Comparison among FQs and related amines and product characterization indicate that FQs' piperazine ring is the primary reactive center toward ClO(2). ClO(2) likely attacks FQ's piperazinyl N4 atom followed by concerted fragmentation involving piperazinyl N1 atom, leading to dealkylation, hydroxylation and intramolecular ring closure at the piperazine moiety. While FQs with tertiary N4 react faster with ClO(2) than FQs with secondary N4, the overall reactivity of the piperazine moiety also depends strongly on the quinolone ring through electronic effects. The reaction rate constants obtained in clean water matrix can be used to model the decay of CIP by ClO(2) in surface water samples, but overestimate the decay in wastewater samples. Overall, transformation of FQs, particularly for those with tertiary N4 amines, could be expected under typical ClO(2) disinfection conditions. However, the transformation may not eliminate antibacterial activity because of little destruction at the quinolone ring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mild and Efficient Deoxygenation of Amine-N-Oxides with FeCl{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O-Indium System under Ultrasonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Woo; Hwang, Sun Kyun; Kim, Dong Yoon; Choi, Jin Woo; Kang, Sang Ook [Korea University, Jochiwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byoung Seung [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Il; Kim, Joong Hyup [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    We believe that the mild and efficient method described here will present an attractive alternative to the existing methods available for the reduction of amine-N-oxides to the corresponding amines. Further investigations of FeCl{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/In system as reducing agent in organic synthesis are currently in progress. The deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides to amines in the presence of other functional groups is an important transformation in the synthesis of nitrogenous aromatic heterocycles. Many reagents have been employed for the deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides, including agents such as: low-valent titanium, phosphorous and sulphur compounds, tributyltin hydride, Pd/C, tetrathiomolybdate, SmI{sub 2}, indium/NH{sub 4}Cl. Recently we reported that Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}/In system could be used for the deoxygenation of various amine-N-oxides.

  17. Mild and Efficient Deoxygenation of Amine-N-Oxides with FeCl3·6H2O-Indium System under Ultrasonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Woo; Hwang, Sun Kyun; Kim, Dong Yoon; Choi, Jin Woo; Kang, Sang Ook; Yoo, Byoung Seung; Choi, Kyung Il; Kim, Joong Hyup

    2004-01-01

    We believe that the mild and efficient method described here will present an attractive alternative to the existing methods available for the reduction of amine-N-oxides to the corresponding amines. Further investigations of FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O/In system as reducing agent in organic synthesis are currently in progress. The deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides to amines in the presence of other functional groups is an important transformation in the synthesis of nitrogenous aromatic heterocycles. Many reagents have been employed for the deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides, including agents such as: low-valent titanium, phosphorous and sulphur compounds, tributyltin hydride, Pd/C, tetrathiomolybdate, SmI 2 , indium/NH 4 Cl. Recently we reported that Cp 2 TiCl 2 /In system could be used for the deoxygenation of various amine-N-oxides

  18. Primary care-led commissioning: applying lessons from the past to the early development of clinical commissioning groups in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; McDermott, Imelda; Segar, Julia; Miller, Rosalind; Petsoulas, Christina; Wallace, Andrew; Harrison, Stephen; Peckham, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    The current reorganisation of the English NHS is one of the most comprehensive ever seen. This study reports early evidence from the development of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs), a key element in the new structures. To explore the development of CCGs in the context of what is known from previous studies of GP involvement in commissioning. Case study analysis from sites chosen to provide maximum variety across a number of dimensions, from September 2011 to June 2012. A case study analysis was conducted using eight detailed qualitative case studies supplemented by descriptive information from web surveys at two points in time. Data collection involved observation of a variety of meetings, and interviews with key participants. Previous research shows that clinical involvement in commissioning is most effective when GPs feel able to act autonomously. Complicated internal structures, alongside developing external accountability relationships mean that CCGs' freedom to act may be subject to considerable constraint. Effective GP engagement is also important in determining outcomes of clinical commissioning, and there are a number of outstanding issues for CCGs, including: who feels 'ownership' of the CCG; how internal communication is conceptualised and realised; and the role and remit of locality groups. Previous incarnations of GP-led commissioning have tended to focus on local and primary care services. CCGs are keen to act to improve quality in their constituent practices, using approaches that many developed under practice-based commissioning. Constrained managerial support and the need to maintain GP engagement may have an impact. CCGs are new organisations, faced with significant new responsibilities. This study provides early evidence of issues that CCGs and those responsible for CCG development may wish to address.

  19. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk

    2010-01-01

    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...... are presented that all employ 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene (IiPr) as the carbene ligand. In addition, potassium tert-butoxide and a tricycloalkylphosphine are required for the amidation to proceed. In the first system, the active catalyst is generated in situ from [RuCl2(cod)] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), 1...... chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do...

  20. Vapour pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of aliphatic poly-amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, Anastasia A.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Chernyak, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic poly-amines: 1,4-dimethylpiperazine [106-58-1], 1-(2-aminoethyl)-piperazine, [140-31-8], 1-(2-aminoethyl)-4-methyl-piperazine [934-98-5], and triethylenetetramine [112-24-3] were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure measured by the transpiration method. A large number of the primary experimental results on temperature dependences of vapour pressures of the parent compounds have been collected from the literature and have been treated uniformly in order to derive vaporization enthalpies of poly-amines at the reference temperature 298.15 K. An internal consistency check was performed on enthalpy of vaporization values for poly-amines studied in this work.

  1. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Attitudes of a group of primary school teachers towards the educational inclusion of hearing-impaired learners in regular classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, K; Ross, E

    1998-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated a link between the attitudes of regular education teachers and the success of inclusion of learners with special educational needs. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of a group of junior primary school teachers from the Gauteng area towards the inclusion of hearing-impaired children into regular classes. A survey research design was employed which utilized a questionnaire as the research tool. Analysis of results indicated that the teachers surveyed were relatively positive in their attitudes towards inclusion. Greater exposure to disability in terms of training and experience was related to more positive attitudes. Similarly, more positive attitudes were related to greater perceived competence in teaching hearing-impaired pupils. All of the teachers surveyed felt that speech-language pathologists and audiologists (SLPs & As) should be involved in facilitating inclusion of hearing-impaired children. Many of the respondents expressed concern regarding their lack of training, knowledge and skills. The findings from the research project highlight the need for an adequate training and support system for teachers prior to the implementation of an inclusive educational policy, and the potential role of SLPs & As in this regard.

  3. Bifunctional (cyclopentadienone)iron-tricarbonyl complexes: Synthesis, computational studies and application in reductive amination

    KAUST Repository

    Moulin, Solenne

    2013-11-15

    Reductive amination under hydrogen pressure is a valuable process in organic chemistry to access amine derivatives from aldehydes or ketones. Knölker\\'s complex has been shown to be an efficient iron catalyst in this reaction. To determine the influence of the substituents on the cyclopentadienone ancillary ligand, a series of modified Knölker\\'s complexes was synthesised and fully characterised. These complexes were also transformed into their analogous acetonitrile iron-dicarbonyl complexes. Catalytic activities of these complexes were evaluated and compared in a model reaction. The scope of this reaction is also reported. For mechanistic insights, deuterium-labelling experiments and DFT calculations were undertaken and are also presented. Festival of amination: Two series of modified Knölker\\'s complexes were synthesised and applied in the reductive amination of various carbonyl derivatives with primary or secondary amines (see scheme, TIPS = triisopropylsilyl). For a mechanistic insight, deuterium-labelling experiments and DFT calculations were undertaken and are also presented. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Reduced Reactivity of Amines against Nucleophilic Substitution via Reversible Reaction with Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz S. Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reversible reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2 with primary amines to form alkyl-ammonium carbamates is demonstrated in this work to reduce amine reactivity against nucleophilic substitution reactions with benzophenone and phenyl isocyanate. The reversible formation of carbamates has been recently exploited for a number of unique applications including the formation of reversible ionic liquids and surfactants. For these applications, reduced reactivity of the carbamate is imperative, particularly for applications in reactions and separations. In this work, carbamate formation resulted in a 67% reduction in yield for urea synthesis and 55% reduction for imine synthesis. Furthermore, the amine reactivity can be recovered upon reversal of the carbamate reaction, demonstrating reversibility. The strong nucleophilic properties of amines often require protection/de-protection schemes during bi-functional coupling reactions. This typically requires three separate reaction steps to achieve a single transformation, which is the motivation behind Green Chemistry Principle #8: Reduce Derivatives. Based upon the reduced reactivity, there is potential to employ the reversible carbamate reaction as an alternative method for amine protection in the presence of competing reactions. For the context of this work, CO2 is envisioned as a green protecting agent to suppress formation of n-phenyl benzophenoneimine and various n-phenyl–n-alky ureas.

  5. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  6. Facile synthesis of amine-functional reduced graphene oxides as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for multi-pesticide residues analysis of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guicen; Zhang, Minglu; Zhu, Li; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-01-05

    Amine-functional reduced graphene oxide (amine-rGO) with different carbon chain length amino groups were successfully synthesized. The graphene oxides (GO) reduction as well as amino grafting were achieved simultaneously in one step via a facile solvothermal synthetic strategy. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the modification of GO with different amino groups. The adsorption performance of catechins and caffeine from tea acetonitrile extracts on different amine functional rGO samples were evaluated. It was found that tributylamine-functional rGO (tri-BuA-rGO) exhibited the highest adsorption ability for catechins and caffeine compared to GO and other amino group functional rGO samples. It was worth to note that the adsorption capacity of catechins on tri-BuA-rGO was 11 times higher than that of GO (203.7mgg -1 vs 18.7mgg -1 ). Electrostatic interaction, π-π interaction and surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of tri-BuA-rGO played important roles in the adsorption of catechins as well as caffeine. The gravimetric analysis confirmed that the tri-BuA-rGO achieved the highest efficient cleanup preformance compared with traditional dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) adsorbents like primary-secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) or C18. A multi-pesticides analysis method based on tri-BuA-rGO is validated on 33 representative pesticides in tea using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis method gave a high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.99) for each pesticide and satisfactory recoveries in a range of 72.1-120.5%. Our study demonstrated that amine functional rGO as a new type of QuEChERS adsorbent is expected to be widely applied for analysis of pesticides at trace levels. Copyright © 2017

  7. Annealing-free synthesis of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical spheres by using amine agents via microwave-assisted solvothermal method and their photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Chun, E-mail: yuchunwu@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Ju, Lung-Shen

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • The synthesis method for C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical spheres is proposed. • Microwave-assisted solvothermal method is applied. • C and N are doped into TiO{sub 2} via a direct chelating reaction of amine compounds. • The photodegradation rate is eightfold higher than the commercial P25 powders. - Abstract: The annealing-free synthesis of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical spheres is proposed in this study. C and N were doped into the TiO{sub 2} structure via a direct chelating process to the Ti-precursor by using different amine agents, including hexadecylamine (HDA), diethylamine (DEA), trimethylamine (TMA), and diethylenetriamine (DETA). C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} spheres (300 nm to 500 nm) composed of nanoparticles approximately 11 nm to 13 nm in size were obtained via an efficient microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction at 190 °C for 60 min. The effects of C and N doping by using different amine compounds on the bandgap energy and photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} were investigated. Among the amine compounds, DETA provided the highest chelating efficiency because it provides two primary amine groups, which resulted in the highest C and N doping concentrations and the largest degree of bandgap narrowing (2.77 eV); nevertheless, the high chelating ratio of C and N restrained the crystallization of TiO{sub 2} and considerably decreased its photocatalytic activity. The use of TMA produced optimal C and N doping concentrations, which effectively reduced the bandgap of TiO{sub 2} to 2.85 eV without affecting its crystallization. Its photodecomposition activity to rhodamine B was eightfold of that of commercial Degussa P25 powders under visible light irradiation.

  8. "Mi Bebé y Yo": A Primary Care Group for Latina/o Infants and Their Spanish-Speaking Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kate L.; Dunn, Dena M.; Herbst, Rachel Becker; Bunik, Maya; Buchholz, Melissa; Martinez, Dailyn; Talmi, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Culturally informed health interventions for linguistic minorities are crucial in promoting optimal child development. "Mi Bebé y Yo" is a primary care group for Spanish-speaking, Latina/o caregivers and their babies during their first year. Group visits occur in conjunction with well-baby checks and are designed to support families with…

  9. Amine binding and oxidation at the catalytic site for photosynthetic water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Anthony J. A.; Anderson, Lorraine B.; Barry, Bridgette A.

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetic water oxidation occurs at the Mn-containing catalytic site of photosystem II (PSII). By the use of 14C-labeled amines and SDS-denaturing PAGE, covalent adducts derived from primary amines and the PSII subunits, CP47, D2/D1, and the Mn-stabilizing protein, can be observed. When PSII contains the 18- and 24-kDa extrinsic proteins, which restrict access to the active site, no 14C labeling is obtained. NaCl, but not Na2SO4, competes with 14C labeling in Mn-containing PSII preparations, and the concentration dependence of this competition parallels the activation of oxygen evolution. Formation of 14C-labeled adducts is observed in the presence or in the absence of a functional manganese cluster. However, no significant Cl− effect on 14C labeling is observed in the absence of the Mn cluster. Isolation and quantitation of the 14C-labeled aldehyde product, produced from [14C]benzylamine, gives yields of 1.8 ± 0.3 mol/mol PSII and 2.9 ± 0.2 mol/mol in Mn-containing and Mn-depleted PSII, respectively. The corresponding specific activities are 0.40 ± 0.07 μmol(μmol PSII-hr)−1 and 0.64 ± 0.04 μmol(μmol PSII-hr)−1. Cl− suppresses the production of [14C]benzaldehyde in Mn-containing PSII, but does not suppress the production in Mn-depleted preparations. Control experiments show that these oxidation reactions do not involve the redox-active tyrosines, D and Z. Our results suggest the presence of one or more activated carbonyl groups in protein subunits that form the active site of PSII. PMID:9482863

  10. An innovative strategy for secondary side system lay-up using film-forming amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramminger, U.; Drexler, A.; Fandrich, J.

    2012-01-01

    The major safety function of steam generators (SG) in pressurized reactors is well known as acting as a barrier between the radioactive primary side and the non-radioactive secondary side. The main reason for SG tube failure is known to be the accumulation of deposits contributing to formation of local aggressive conditions. Consequently the SG has to be kept as clean as possible and the corrosion product transport into the SG has to be minimized. In order to reach this target, plant operators are making worldwide huge efforts to protect plant systems against corrosion during standstill and outages. Especially in case of large component replacements campaigns like steam generator or fuel channel replacements which are linked to prolonged outages lay-up strategies become important. The use of surface active agents like film-forming amines (FFA) has become very popular in the fossil power plant sector, showing a decrease of corrosion product generation by improving the surface conditions. The adherent non wettable film built by FFA acts as a shield that limits the access of water and hydrated species to the metal or metal oxide surface. This barrier lowers the corrosion rate by inhibiting the mass transfer between surface and solution. The hydrocarbon chain imparts a hydrophobic character while the amine group bounds to the metal. Advantages of the FFA application for lay-up: Significant reduction of lay-up efforts; Long-term stability of the protective film even in aggressive environmental conditions; No influence on existing oxide layers; No negative influence on plant operation and performance; No environmental hazards of the waste water after system lay-up. Nevertheless application of film-forming amines are applied in fossil fired power plants, the requirement of nuclear power reactors are more ambitious. This paper deals with a possible lay-up application scenario in pressurized heavy water reactors. The proposed lay-up strategy will consider AREVA

  11. Design of amine modified polymer dispersants for liquid-phase exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets and their photodetective nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinseong; Hahnkee Kim, Richard; Yu, Seunggun; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Lee, Hyeokjung; Park, Chanho; Cho, Suk Man; Jeong, Beomjin; Sol Kang, Han; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-12-01

    Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets is a facile, cost-effective approach to large-area photoelectric devices including photodetectors and non-volatile memories. Non-destructive exfoliation of nanosheets using macromolecular dispersing agents is beneficial in rendering the TMD nanocomposite films suitable for mechanically flexible devices. Here, an efficient LPE of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with an amine modified poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) co-polymer (AM-PSMA) is demonstrated, wherein the maleic anhydrides were converted into maleic imides with primary amines using N-Boc-(CH2) n -NH2. The exfoliation of nanosheets was facilitated through Lewis acid-base interaction between the primary amine and transition metal. The results demonstrate that the exfoliation depends upon both the fraction of primary amines in the polymer chain and their distance from the polymer backbone. Under optimized conditions of primary amine content and its distance from the backbone, AM-PSMA gave rise to a highly concentrated MoS2 nanosheet suspension that was stable for over 10 d. Exfoliation of several other TMDs was also achieved using the optimized AM-PSMA, indicating the scope of AM-PSMA applications. Furthermore, a flexible composite film of AM-PSMA and MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration showed excellent photoconductive performances including a high I on/I off ratio of 102 and a fast photocurrent switching of 300 ms.

  12. Supported polytertiary amines: highly efficient and selective SO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ritesh; Abboud, Mohamed; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary amine containing poly(propyleneimine) second (G2) and third (G3) generation dendrimers as well as polyethyleneimine (PEI) were developed for the selective removal of SO2. N-Alkylation of primary and secondary amines into tertiary amines was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. Such modified polyamines were impregnated on two nanoporous supports, namely, SBA-15PL silica with platelet morphology and ethanol-extracted pore-expanded MCM-41 (PME) composite. In the presence of 0.1% SO2/N2 at 23 °C, the uptake of modified PEI, G2, and G3 supported on SBA-15PL was 2.07, 2.35, and 1.71 mmol/g, respectively; corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.22, 0.4, and 0.3. Under the same conditions, the SO2 adsorption capacity of PME-supported modified PEI and G3 was significantly higher, reaching 4.68 and 4.34 mmol/g, corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.41 and 0.82, respectively. The working SO2 adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, reflecting the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption capacity of these materials was enhanced dramatically in the presence of humidity in the gas mixture. FTIR data before SO2 adsorption and after adsorption and regeneration did not indicate any change in the materials. Nonetheless, the SO2 working capacity decreased in consecutive adsorption/regeneration cycles due to evaporation of impregnated polyamines, rather than actual deactivation. FTIR and (13)C and (15)N CP-MAS NMR of fresh and SO2 adsorbed modified G3 on PME confirmed the formation of a complexation adduct.

  13. Couches minces organiques riches en amines primaires par photo-polymerisation ultraviolette : Caracterisation et applications biomedicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Georges-Robillard, Amelie

    Biomaterials have evolved significantly over the past decades. There are now several types of polymeric biomaterials with physical characteristics suited to different applications. This project focuses on improving the physico-chemical properties of the surface of these materials by incorporating primary amines (R-NH2), a functional group known to promote adhesion and cell growth, in the context of two biomedical applications. First, it is necessary to develop a cell culture surface that enables the adhesion of U937 monocytes. These cells are used to evaluate the effect of wear particles produced by the prosthesis in periprosthetic osteolysis, a major cause of failure of a hip replacement. Second, one of the strategies used to improve the success rate of polymeric vascular grafts is to create a layer of endothelial cells on the lumen of the prosthesis. A coating that promotes the adhesion and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is required to achieve that layer. Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of R-NH2 groups on the coating allows the adhesion of U937 monocytes, provided that their concentration [NH2] is higher than a certain critical value, [NH2]crit; R-NH2 groups were also found to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of HUVEC. Two different primary amine-rich coatings are investigated in this work: organic thin films deposited by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photo-polymerization, UV-PE:N; and parylene diX AM, deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The physico-chemical stability of these coatings in air and in water, essential for biomedical applications, was first studied. “Aging” of parylene diX AM in contact with the ambient air caused a diminution of [NH2]/[C] of around 6 % during 22 days and is caused by the oxidation of R-NH2 by atmospheric oxygen, while in the case of UV-PE:N, the diminution is only of 2,5 % over 26 days. Also, a second aging mechanism is present: the reaction of trapped free radicals in

  14. Monofunctional primary amine: A new class of organocatalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the compounds were recorded by open capillary method and were ..... Then, the p- nitrobenzaldehyde (151 mg, 1 mmol) was added and the mix- ..... Therefore, the approach of the .... Buffeteau T and Landais Y 2007 A concise organocat-.

  15. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie [Ottawa, CA; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey [Pearland, TX; Baker, Ralph Thomas [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, K. K.; Sheshadri, B. S; Ahmed, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO 4 . The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  17. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  18. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  19. Impact of biogenic amine molecular weight and structure on surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun

    2016-02-01

    The oligoamines, such as ethylenediamine to pentaethylenetetramine, and the aliphatic biogenic amines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, strongly interact with anionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS. It has been shown that this results in pronounced surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface and the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption which depends upon solution pH and oligoamine structure. In the neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, results presented here the role of the oligoamine structure on the adsorption of SDS is investigated more fully using a range of different biogenic amines. The effect of the extent of the intra-molecular spacing between amine groups on the adsorption has been extended by comparing results for cadavarine with putrescine and ethylenediamine. The impact of more complex biogenic amine structures on the adsorption has been investigated with the aromatic phenethylamine, and the heterocyclic amines histamine and melamine. The results provide an important insight into how surfactant adsorption at interfaces can be manipulated by the addition of biogenic amines, and into the role of solution pH and oligoamine structure in modifying the interaction between the surfactant and oligoamine. The results impact greatly upon potential applications and in understanding some of the important biological functions of biogenic amines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  1. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  2. Factor structure and measurement invariance across various demographic groups and over time for the PHQ-9 in primary care patients in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Blanch

    Full Text Available The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 is a widely-used screening tool for depression in primary care settings. The purpose of the present study is to identify the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and to examine the measurement invariance of this instrument across different sociodemographic groups and over time in a sample of primary care patients in Spain. Data came from 836 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (PsicAP study and a subsample of 218 patients who participated in a follow-up assessment at 3 months. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test one- and two-factor structures identified in previous studies. Analyses of multiple-group invariance were conducted to determine the extent to which the factor structure is comparable across various demographic groups (i.e., gender, age, marital status, level of education, and employment situation and over time. Both one-factor and two-factor re-specified models met all the pre-established fit criteria. However, because the factors identified in the two-factor model were highly correlated (r = .86, the one-factor model was preferred for its parsimony. Multi-group CFA indicated measurement invariance across different demographic groups and across time. The present findings suggest that physicians in Spain can use the PHQ-9 to obtain a global score for depression severity in different demographic groups and to reliably monitor changes over time in the primary care setting.

  3. Self-assembly of a superparamagnetic raspberry-like silica/iron oxide nanocomposite using epoxy-amine coupling chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-02-28

    The fabrication of colloidal nanocomposites would benefit from controlled hetero-assembly of ready-made particles through covalent bonding. Here we used epoxy-amine coupling chemistry to promote the self-assembly of superparamagnetic raspberry-like nanocomposites. This adaptable method induced the covalent attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles sparsely coated with amine groups onto epoxylated silica cores in the absence of other reactants.

  4. Amine terminated SAMs: Investigating why oxygen is present in these films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baio, J.E.; Weidner, T.; Brison, J.; Graham, D.J.; Gamble, Lara J.; Castner, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold prepared from amine-terminated alkanethiols have long been employed as model positively charged surfaces. Yet in previous studies significant amounts of unexpected oxygen containing species are always detected in amine terminated SAMs. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to determine the source of these oxygen species and minimize their presence in the SAM. The surface composition, structure, and order of amine-terminated SAMs on Au were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS determined compositions of amine-terminated SAMs in the current study exhibited oxygen concentrations of 2.4 ± 0.4 atomic %, a substantially lower amount of oxygen than reported in previously published studies. High-resolution XPS results from the S 2p , C 1s and N 1s regions did not detect any oxidized species. Angle-resolved XPS indicated that the small amount of oxygen detected was located at or near the amine head group. Small amounts of oxidized nitrogen, carbon and sulfur secondary ions, as well as ions attributed to water, were detected in the ToF-SIMS data due to the higher sensitivity of ToF-SIMS. The lack of N-O, S-O, and C-O stretches in the SFG spectra are consistent with the XPS and ToF-SIMS results and together show that oxidation of the amine-terminated thiols alone can only account for, at most, a small fraction of the oxygen detected by XPS. Both the SFG and angle-dependent NEXAFS indicated the presence of gauche defects in the amine SAMs. However, the SFG spectral features near 2865 cm -1 , assigned to the stretch of the methylene group next to the terminal amine unit, demonstrate the SAM is reasonably ordered. The SFG results also show another broad feature near 3200 cm -1 related to hydrogen-bonded water. From this multi-technique investigation it is

  5. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakhov, Anton [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Nečas, David [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Čechal, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Eliáš, Marek [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-04-30

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH{sub x} environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH{sub x} concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH{sub x} (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high

  6. Aqueous amine solution characterization for post-combustion CO_2 capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadri, Nabil; Quang, Dang Viet; Goetheer, Earl L.V.; Abu Zahra, Mohammad R.M.

    2017-01-01

    reaction kinetics between aqueous amine solutions and CO_2, was studied by using stopped-flow equipment to measure the pseudo-first order reaction (k_0, s"−"1) at different amine concentrations. A determination of the second order rate constants (k_2, m"3 mole"−"1 s"−"1) at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K was performed by using the proposed reaction mechanisms. The base catalysis mechanism was used to correlate the experimental data of the tertiary amines and the zwitterion mechanism was used to correlate the experimental data of the primary/secondary amines. The kinetics results show that 2EAE, a secondary amine, was very high in comparison with MDEA, 1DMA2P, 2DMAE, 3DMA1P and TMPDA, all of which are tertiary amines that are very close to MEA, which is the reference case. This result shows that 2EAE is a good candidate for CO_2 capture as an alternative to MEA because it has good CO_2 absorption, a low heat of absorption and high kinetic reaction with CO_2. Moreover, the outcomes for the thermodynamic and kinetic properties indicate that the following 5 amine blends have emerged from this study: 2EAE/MDEA, 2EAE/1DMA2P, 2EAE/2DMAE, 2EAE/3DMA1P and 2EAE/TMPDA.

  7. The reaction between reducing sugars and amine groups of amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salamatdoust

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... experiment was performed using the nylon bag technique. Samples for ... for rheumatism or as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and ... amino acid (AA) for high producing dairy cows is to .... Digestion kinetics of crude protein.

  8. Amine functionalized graphene oxide/CNT nanocomposite for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablok, Kavita; Bhalla, Vijayender; Sharma, Priyanka; Kaushal, Roohi; Chaudhary, Shilpa [Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR) Sector-39A, Chandigarh160036 (India); Suri, C. Raman, E-mail: raman@imtech.res.in [Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR) Sector-39A, Chandigarh160036 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Binding of electron-deficient trinitrotoluene to the electron rich amino groups to form JM complexes. ► rGO/CNT based platform for enhanced electrochemical detection. ► Functionalization and characterization of rGO/CNT with amine derivative. ► Ultrasenstitive and specific detection of TNT. -- Abstract: Binding of electron-deficient trinitrotoluene (TNT) to the electron rich amine groups on a substrate form specific charge-transfer Jackson–Meisenheimer (JM) complex. In the present work, we report formation of specific JM complex on amine functionalized reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes- (a-rGO/CNT) nanocomposite leading to sensitive detection of TNT. The CNT were dispersed using graphene oxide that provides excellent dispersion by attaching to CNT through its hydrophobic domains and solubilizes through the available -OH and -COOH groups on screen printed electrode (SPE). The GO was reduced electrochemically to form reduced graphene that remarkably increases electrochemical properties owing to the intercalation of high aspect CNT on graphene flakes as shown by TEM micrograph. The surface amine functionalization of dropcasted and rGO/CNT was carried out using a bi-functional cross linker ethylenediamine. The extent of amine functionalization on modified electrodes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal microscopy. The FTIR and Raman spectra further suggested the formation of JM complex between amine functionalized electrodes and TNT leading to a shift in peak intensity together with peak broadening. The a-rGO/CNT nanocomposite prepared electrode surface leads to ultra-trace detection of TNT upto 0.01 ppb with good reproducibility (n = 3). The a-rGO/CNT sensing platform could be an alternate for sensitive detection of TNT explosive for various security and environmental applications.

  9. Amine functionalized graphene oxide/CNT nanocomposite for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablok, Kavita; Bhalla, Vijayender; Sharma, Priyanka; Kaushal, Roohi; Chaudhary, Shilpa; Suri, C. Raman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binding of electron-deficient trinitrotoluene to the electron rich amino groups to form JM complexes. ► rGO/CNT based platform for enhanced electrochemical detection. ► Functionalization and characterization of rGO/CNT with amine derivative. ► Ultrasenstitive and specific detection of TNT. -- Abstract: Binding of electron-deficient trinitrotoluene (TNT) to the electron rich amine groups on a substrate form specific charge-transfer Jackson–Meisenheimer (JM) complex. In the present work, we report formation of specific JM complex on amine functionalized reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes- (a-rGO/CNT) nanocomposite leading to sensitive detection of TNT. The CNT were dispersed using graphene oxide that provides excellent dispersion by attaching to CNT through its hydrophobic domains and solubilizes through the available -OH and -COOH groups on screen printed electrode (SPE). The GO was reduced electrochemically to form reduced graphene that remarkably increases electrochemical properties owing to the intercalation of high aspect CNT on graphene flakes as shown by TEM micrograph. The surface amine functionalization of dropcasted and rGO/CNT was carried out using a bi-functional cross linker ethylenediamine. The extent of amine functionalization on modified electrodes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal microscopy. The FTIR and Raman spectra further suggested the formation of JM complex between amine functionalized electrodes and TNT leading to a shift in peak intensity together with peak broadening. The a-rGO/CNT nanocomposite prepared electrode surface leads to ultra-trace detection of TNT upto 0.01 ppb with good reproducibility (n = 3). The a-rGO/CNT sensing platform could be an alternate for sensitive detection of TNT explosive for various security and environmental applications

  10. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  11. Direct Amination of alpha-Hydroxy Amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandgude, Ajay L.; Dömling, Alexander

    A TiCl4-mediated reaction for the direct amination of alpha-hydroxy amides has been developed. This simple, general, additive/base/ligand-free reaction is mediated by economical TiCl4. The reaction runs under mild conditions. This highly efficient C-N bond formation protocol is valid for diverse

  12. Study of the structure of H2SO4-amine Primene 81R and Fe(III-amine Primene 81R sulphate compounds by infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary amine Primene 81R extracts sulphuric acid from aqueous solutions to form the corresponding sulphate and bisulphate salts. The infrared study shows that in the sulphate salt, the sulphate group presents a Td symmetry, whereas the amine bisulphate presents a C3v symmetry for the bisulphate group. The former of the above compounds, the amine sulphate, is complexed to Fe(III in sulphate media, and two complexes are extracted depending on temperature. At 8°C or lower temperatures a complex with the stoichiometric formula 4(RNH32SO4 (Fe(OHSO42 is formed, whereas at 50°C or higher temperatures the complex with the stoichiometric formula 3(RNH32SO4 (Fe(OHSO42 is formed. The infrared spectrum of both complexes is very similar and it is consistent with a weaker interaction between the protons associated with the amine group and the anion, and with a change in the symmetry of the sulphate group respect to the symmetry presented in the amine sulphate salt.

    La amina primaria Primene 81R extrae al ácido sulfúrico de los medios acuosos para formar las sales sulfato y bisulfato. El estudio IR muestra que en la sal sulfato, el grupo sulfato presenta una simetría Td, mientras que en la sal bisulfato este grupo presenta una simetría C3v. La sal sulfato compleja al Fe(III, formando dos compuestos en función de la temperatura de reacción. A temperaturas iguales a 8°C o inferiores se forma el compuesto de estequiometría 4(RNH32SO4 (Fe(OHSO42, mientras que a temperaturas iguales o superiores a 50°C la estequiometría del compuesto extraído es 3(RNH32SO4 (Fe(OHSO42. El espectro infrarrojo de ambos compuestos es muy parecido y es consistente, tanto con una interacción d

  13. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 °C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C 10 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Ubip2), [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} (UDAB), [C 2 H 10 N 2 ] 2 {(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 ) 2 ] 2 ·0.5H 2 O} (Uethyl), and [C 12 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO 7 units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also shown. The structure is constructed from UO 7 pentagonal bipyramids (yellow), oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, and nitrogen=blue. Highlights: ► Organic amines act both as charge-balancing and as structure-directing agents. ► Extensive hydrogen bonding interactions with solvent water molecules and amines

  14. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" >Santos, S.C.G.; Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido; Souza, M.J.B.; Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO 2 capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO 2 capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO 2 and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity

  15. Lactoperoxidase, an Antimicrobial Milk Protein, as a Potential Activator of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmad; Jiffri, Essam Hussain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Beg, Mohd Amin

    2017-11-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an antimicrobial protein secreted from mammary, salivary and other mucosal glands. It is an important member of heme peroxidase enzymes and the primary peroxidase enzyme present in breast tissues. In addition to the antimicrobial properties, LPO has been shown to be associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines, an important class of environmental and dietary carcinogens, have been increasingly associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines undergo activation in breast tissue as a result of oxidation by LPO. The current study includes three important heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), that have carcinogenic activity. The structural binding characterization of IQ, MeIQx and PhIP with LPO was done using in silico approaches. Their binding pattern and interactions with LPO amino acid residues were analyzed. The three compounds bound in the distal heme cavity of LPO without replacing the important water molecule required for oxidation of substrate compounds. PhIP displayed lesser binding affinity for LPO in comparison to IQ and MeIQx. The binding mode of heterocyclic amines in distal heme cavity of LPO resembled to that of substrate binding pattern. The three heterocyclic amines are suggested to act as LPO substrate. The undisturbed water molecule present in distal heme cavity of the LPO is expected to facilitate the oxidation and activation of the three heterocyclic amines. These activated compounds may potentially bind with DNA in breast tissues forming DNA adducts and may subsequently lead to breast cancer initiation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  17. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; van Dusseldorp, Marijke; Bottema, Kathelijne C; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and adverse. Additionally, the keywords histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine were combined with headache, migraine, urticaria, oral challenge, and oral provocation. Articles were also selected from references in relevant literature. Only oral challenge studies in susceptible patients were considered. Studies with positive results (ie, studies in which an effect was reported) were only eligible when a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Eligible positive result studies were further evaluated according to a number of scientific criteria. Studies with negative results (ie, studies in which no effect was reported) were examined for factors in their design or methods that could be responsible for a false-negative outcome. Results of methodologically weak or flawed studies were considered inconclusive. A total of 13 oral challenge studies (5 with positive results and 8 with negative results) were found. Three of them (all with positive results) were considered ineligible. By further evaluation of the 10 eligible studies, 6 were considered inconclusive. The 4 conclusive studies all reported negative results. One conclusive study showed no relation between biogenic amines in red wine and wine intolerance. Two conclusive studies found no effect of tyramine on migraine. One conclusive study demonstrated no relation between the amount of phenylethylamine in chocolate and headache attacks in individuals with headache. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. There is therefore no scientific basis for dietary recommendations concerning biogenic amines in such patients.

  18. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  19. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

  20. Dimethylzinc-Initiated Radical Coupling of β-Bromostyrenes with Ethers and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Ahlburg, Andreas; Madsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A new coupling reaction has been developed in which β-bromostyrenes react with ethers and tertiary amines to introduce the styryl group in the α-position. The transformation is mediated by Me2Zn/O2 with 10 % MnCl2 and is believed to proceed by a radical addition-elimination mechanism. The ether...... and the amine are employed as solvent and the coupling takes place through the most stable α radical for unsymmetrical substrates. The products are obtained in moderate to good yields as the pure E isomers. The coupling can be achieved with a range of smaller cyclic and acyclic ethers/amines as well as various...

  1. Cost Analysis of Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Manual-Based Speech-and-Language Therapy for Primary School-Age Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Kirstin; Marshall, Marjorie; Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study is the first within trial cost analysis of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech-and-language therapy for children with primary language impairment. Aims: To compare the short-run resource consequences of the four interventions alongside the effects achieved measured by standardized scores on a…

  2. Effect of titanium tetrafluoride, amine fluoride and fluoride varnish on enamel erosion in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 1 and 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) gels, amine fluoride (AmF) 1 and 0.25% and a fluoride varnish (FP) on the prevention of dental erosion. Two experimental groups served as controls, one with no pretreatment and another one pre-treated with a

  3. A metal-free general procedure for oxidation of secondary amines to nitrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gella, Carolina; Ferrer, Eric; Alibés, Ramon; Busqué, Félíx; de March, Pedro; Figueredo, Marta; Font, Josep

    2009-08-21

    An efficient and metal-free protocol for direct oxidation of secondary amines to nitrones has been developed, using Oxone in a biphasic basic medium as the sole oxidant. The method is general and tolerant with other functional groups or existing stereogenic centers, providing rapid access to enantiomerically pure compounds in good yields.

  4. Recyclable surfaces for amine conjugation chemistry via redox reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Inseong; Yeo, Woon Seok [Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Se Won [Green Materials and Process Group, Research Institute of Sustainable Manufacturing System, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we extended this strategy to present a switchable surface that allows surface functionalization and removal of functional groups repeatedly. The substrate presenting a benzoquinone acid group is first used to immobilize with an amine-containing (bio)molecule using well-known conjugation chemistry. The benzoquinone group is then converted to the corresponding hydroquinone by treating with a reducing agent. We have described a strategy for the dynamic control of surface properties with recyclability via a simple reduction/ oxidation reaction. A stimuli-responsive quinone derivative was harnessed for the repeated immobilization and release of (bio)molecules, and thus, for the repeated dynamic change of the surface properties according to the characteristics of the immobilized (bio)molecules.

  5. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp3)–H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp3)–H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp3)–H olefination reaction. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp3)–H activation of alkyl amine is also a significant step towards practical C–H functionalizations of alkyl amines. PMID:26796676

  6. Examination of Amine-Functionalised Anion-Exchange Membranes for Possible Use in the All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallinson, Sarah L.; Varcoe, John R.; Slade, Robert C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of amine-functionalised anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) for use in the all-vanadium redox flow battery has been studied. A selection of radiation-grafted aminated membranes functionalised with dimethylamine, trimethylamine or diazabicyclo(2,2,2)octane were extensively tested. The success of each grafting process was confirmed by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, titrimetry and ionic conductivity measurements. The amine-functionalised membranes were found to have poor thermo-oxidative stability and high vanadium cation permeabilities. The results highlight the importance of balancing ionic conductivity with vanadium cation permeability and indicate that amine-based functional groups may not be suitably stable for the membranes to remain true AEMs when in use in the all-vanadium redox flow battery

  7. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines; Extraction des sulfates par les amines a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boirie, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-05-15

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [French] L'extraction de l'acide sulfurique par des amines a longues chaines en solution organique a ete etudiee en vue de la determination de la valeur des constantes de stabilite des sulfates et bisulfates d'amines formes. Parmi les sulfates, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses au sulfate d'uranium et au sulfate de thorium. Nous avons determine les formules des complexes extractibles avec les amines, ainsi que les constantes de dissociation correspondantes. Nous avons remarque que pour le sulfate d'uranium, la formule du complexe ne depend que de la nature de l'amine, alors que pour le thorium cette formule varie avec la structure de l'amine. Les formules determinees et la valeur des constantes calculees, nous ont permis de decrire les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium et du thorium ainsi que celles d'une separation de ces deux elements. Nous proposons enfin une application de cette etude au dosage de l'uranium dans les minerais, ou la separation de l'uranium par cette methode est

  8. Continuing Education for Early Primary School Leavers. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Chiang Mai, Thailand, October 4-11, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes discussions of a working group meeting on the continuing education needs of early primary school leavers in Asia and the Pacific. An introduction summarizes the welcoming addresses. Chapter 1 presents highlights of experiences of these countries in providing continuing education to school leavers: Bangladesh, China, India,…

  9. Neighboring Hetero-Atom Assistance of Sacrificial Amines to Hydrogen Evolution Using Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Yasuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic H2 evolution was examined using Pt-loaded TiO2-photocatalyst in the presence of amines as sacrificial agents. In the case of amines with all of the carbon attached to the hetero-atom such as 2-aminoethanol, 1,2-diamonoethane, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, and 3-amino-1,2-propanediol, they were completely decomposed into CO2 and water to quantitatively evolve H2. On the other hand, the amines with both hetero-atoms and one methyl group at the β-positions (neighboring carbons of amino group such as 2-amino-1-propanol and 1,2-diaminopropane were partially decomposed. Also, the photocatalytic H2 evolution using amines without the hetero-atoms at the β-positions such as ethylamine, propylamine, 1-butylamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 2-propylamine, and 2-butylamine was inefficient. Thus, it was found that the neighboring hetero-atom strongly assisted the degradation of sacrificial amines. Moreover, rate constants for H2 evolution were compared among amines. In conclusion, the neighboring hetero-atom did not affect the rate constants but enhanced the yield of hydrogen evolution.

  10. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and β -phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be toxic at high concentrations; therefore, their control is very important. Analysis of biogenic amines in alcoholic drinks (beers and wines) was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS after their derivatization with p -toluenesulfonyl chloride (tosyl chloride). The developed method has been applied for analysis of seventeen biogenic amines in twenty-eight samples of lager beers and in twelve samples of different homemade wines (white grape, red grape, strawberry, chokeberry, black currant, plum, apple, raspberry, and quince). The developed method is sensitive and repeatable for majority of the analytes. It is versatile and can be used for the determination of biogenic amines in various alcoholic beverages.

  11. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  12. The effect of amine protonation on the electrical properties of spin-assembled single-walled carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opatkiewicz, Justin P; LeMieux, Melburne C; Bao Zhenan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Patil, Nishant P; Wei Hai; Mitra, Subhasish, E-mail: zbao@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been shown to selectively adsorb semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWNTs). Previous studies have shown that when deposited by spin coating, the resulting nanotube networks (SWNTnts) can be strongly influenced by the charge state of the amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary). When the amine surfaces were exposed to varying pH solutions, the conductivity and overall quality of the resulting fabricated networks were altered. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography had shown that the density of the SWNTnts was reduced as the amine protonation decreased, indicating that the electrostatic attraction between the SWNTs in solution and the surface influenced the adsorption. Simultaneously, {mu}-Raman analysis had suggested that when exposed to more basic conditions, the resulting networks were enhanced with sc-SWNTs. To directly confirm this enhancement, Ti/Pd contacts were deposited and devices were tested in air. Key device characteristics were found to match the enhancement trends previously observed by spectroscopy. For the primary and secondary amines, on/off current ratios were commensurate with the Raman trends in metallic contribution, while no trends were observed on the tertiary amine (due to weaker interactions). Finally, differing SWNT solution volumes were used to compensate for adsorption differences and yielded identical SWNTnt densities on the various pH-treated samples to eliminate the influence of network density. These results further the understanding of the amine-SWNT interaction during the spin coating process. Overall, we provide a convenient route to provide SWNT-based TFTs with highly tunable electronic charge transport through better understanding of the influence of these specific interactions.

  13. The effect of amine protonation on the electrical properties of spin-assembled single-walled carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opatkiewicz, Justin P; LeMieux, Melburne C; Bao Zhenan; Patil, Nishant P; Wei Hai; Mitra, Subhasish

    2011-01-01

    Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been shown to selectively adsorb semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWNTs). Previous studies have shown that when deposited by spin coating, the resulting nanotube networks (SWNTnts) can be strongly influenced by the charge state of the amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary). When the amine surfaces were exposed to varying pH solutions, the conductivity and overall quality of the resulting fabricated networks were altered. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography had shown that the density of the SWNTnts was reduced as the amine protonation decreased, indicating that the electrostatic attraction between the SWNTs in solution and the surface influenced the adsorption. Simultaneously, μ-Raman analysis had suggested that when exposed to more basic conditions, the resulting networks were enhanced with sc-SWNTs. To directly confirm this enhancement, Ti/Pd contacts were deposited and devices were tested in air. Key device characteristics were found to match the enhancement trends previously observed by spectroscopy. For the primary and secondary amines, on/off current ratios were commensurate with the Raman trends in metallic contribution, while no trends were observed on the tertiary amine (due to weaker interactions). Finally, differing SWNT solution volumes were used to compensate for adsorption differences and yielded identical SWNTnt densities on the various pH-treated samples to eliminate the influence of network density. These results further the understanding of the amine-SWNT interaction during the spin coating process. Overall, we provide a convenient route to provide SWNT-based TFTs with highly tunable electronic charge transport through better understanding of the influence of these specific interactions.

  14. Tailoring Enzyme-Like Activities of Gold Nanoclusters by Polymeric Tertiary Amines for Protecting Neurons Against Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ping; Wu, Te-Haw; Lin, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chia-Yeh; Wang, Sabrina; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2016-08-01

    The cytotoxicity of nanozymes has drawn much attention recently because their peroxidase-like activity can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to produce highly toxic hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under acidic conditions. Although catalytic activities of nanozymes are highly associated with their surface properties, little is known about the mechanism underlying the surface coating-mediated enzyme-like activities. Herein, it is reported for the first time that amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoclusters (AuNCs-NH2 ) unexpectedly lose their peroxidase-like activity while still retaining their catalase-like activity in physiological conditions. Surprisingly, the methylated form of AuNCs-NH2 (i.e., MAuNCs-N(+) R3 , where R = H or CH3 ) results in a dramatic recovery of the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity while blocking most primary and tertiary amines (1°- and 3°-amines) of dendrimers to form quaternary ammonium ions (4°-amines). However, the hidden peroxidase-like activity is also found in hydroxyl-terminated dendrimer-encapsulated AuNCs (AuNCs-OH, inside backbone with 3°-amines), indicating that 3°-amines are dominant in mediating the peroxidase-like activity. The possible mechanism is further confirmed that the enrichment of polymeric 3°-amines on the surface of dendrimer-encapsulated AuNCs provides sufficient suppression of the critical mediator •OH for the peroxidase-like activity. Finally, it is demonstrated that AuNCs-NH2 with diminished cytotoxicity have great potential for use in primary neuronal protection against oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Group therapy for somatization disorders in primary care: maintenance of treatment goals of short cognitive-behavioural treatment one-and-a-half-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidbeck, J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the maintenance of treatment goals of a short cognitive-behavioural group treatment programme for the management of somatization disorders in primary care. In a previous controlled 6-month follow-up study, patients with somatization disorders (n=32) improved with respect to illness and somatic preoccupation, hypochondriasis, and medication usage. In the present report the same group of patients were also investigated one-and-a-half year after initial treatment. The long-term follow-up manifested maintained improvement with respect to hypochondriasis. There was additional reduction of anxiety and psychosocial preoccupation, whereas somatization and depression-anxiety scores improved progressively. A short cognitive-behavioural group treatment of psychosomatic patients can be useful in primary care and may manifest maintained or progressive beneficial outcome.

  16. Amine Analysis Using AlexaFluor 488 Succinimidyl Ester and Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Kendall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent probes enable detection of otherwise nonfluorescent species via highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence. Organic amines are predominantly nonfluorescent and are of analytical interest in agricultural and food science, biomedical applications, and biowarfare detection. Alexa Fluor 488 N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (AF488 NHS-ester is an amine-specific fluorescent probe. Here, we demonstrate low limit of detection of long-chain (C9 to C18 primary amines and optimize AF488 derivatization of long-chain primary amines. The reaction was found to be equally efficient in all solvents studied (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide. While an organic base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine is required to achieve efficient reaction between AF488 NHS-ester and organic amines with longer hydrophobic chains, high concentrations (>5 mM result in increased levels of ethylamine and propylamine in the blank. Optimal incubation times were found to be >12 hrs at room temperature. We present an initial capillary electrophoresis separation for analysis using a simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC buffer consisting of 12 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and 5 mM carbonate, pH 10. Limits of detection using the optimized labeling conditions and these separation conditions were 5–17 nM. The method presented here represents a novel addition to the arsenal of fluorescent probes available for highly sensitive analysis of small organic molecules.

  17. Palladium-catalysed anti-Markovnikov selective oxidative amination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Daniel G.; Gockel, Samuel N.; Kennemur, Jennifer L.; Waller, Peter J.; Hull, Kami L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the synthesis of amines and other nitrogen-containing motifs has been a major area of research in organic chemistry because they are widely represented in biologically active molecules. Current strategies rely on a multistep approach and require one reactant to be activated prior to the carbon-nitrogen bond formation. This leads to a reaction inefficiency and functional group intolerance. As such, a general approach to the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds from readily available and benign starting materials is highly desirable. Here we present a palladium-catalysed oxidative amination reaction in which the addition of the nitrogen occurs at the less-substituted carbon of a double bond, in what is known as anti-Markovnikov selectivity. Alkenes are shown to react with imides in the presence of a palladate catalyst to generate the terminal imide through trans-aminopalladation. Subsequently, olefin isomerization occurs to afford the thermodynamically favoured products. Both the scope of the transformation and mechanistic investigations are reported.

  18. Systematic review of the primary research on minority ethnic groups and end-of-life care from the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Koffman, J.; Harding, R.; Higginson, I.J.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. Objectives To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic groups

  19. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  20. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  1. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ritwika; Hazari, Arijit Singha; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar; Maiti, Debabrata

    2018-01-18

    Amine oxidation is one of the fundamental reactions in organic synthesis as it leads to a variety of value-added products such as oximes, nitriles, imines, and amides among many others. These products comprise the key N-containing building blocks in the modern chemical industry, and such transformations, when achieved in the presence of molecular oxygen without using stoichiometric oxidants, are much preferred as they circumvent the production of unwanted wastes. In parallel, the versatility of ruthenium catalysts in various oxidative transformations is well-documented. Herein, this review focuses on aerobic oxidation of amines specifically by using ruthenium catalysts and highlights the major achievements in this direction and challenges that still need to be addressed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. One-Pot Two-Step Multicomponent Process of Indole and Other Nitrogenous Heterocycles or Amines toward α-Oxo-acetamidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ariza, Guillermo; McConnell, Nicholas; Hulme, Christopher

    2016-04-15

    A cesium carbonate promoted three-component reaction of N-H containing heterocycles, primary or secondary amines, arylglyoxaldehydes, and anilines is reported. The key step involves a tandem sequence of N-1 addition of a heterocycle or an amine to preformed α-iminoketones, followed by an air- or oxygen-mediated oxidation to form α-oxo-acetamidines. The scope of the reaction is enticingly broad, and this novel methodology is applied toward the synthesis of various polycyclic heterocycles.

  4. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references

  5. Thermometric titrations of amines with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, T; Kiliç, E; Cakirer, O

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen aliphatic and four aromatic amines, namely diethylamine, triethylamine, n-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isopropylamine, di-isopropylamine, n-butylamine, di-n-butylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isobutylamine, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2-nitroaniline and 4-nitroaniline were titrated thermometrically with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent. All the aliphatic amines gave very well-shaped thermometric titration curves. The calculated recovery values of the amines were very good. In comparison, the aromatic amines, aniline and N,N-dimethylaniline gave rather well-shaped titration curves, but the recovery values were fairly low. 2-Nitro- and 4-nitro anilines gave no thermometric response at all. The heats of reaction of the amines with nitrosyl perchlorate are rather high. However, the average heat of reaction of the aromatic amines is approximately two-thirds that of the average heat of the aliphatic amines. To support this method all the amines were also titrated potentiometrically and very similar results to those obtained with the thermometric method are seen. The nitrosyl ion is a Lewis acid, strong enough to titrate quantitatively aliphatic amines in acetonitrile solvent, but not strong enough to titrate aromatic amines at the required level in the same solvent.

  6. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB. Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL, white rice (WR and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  7. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlanti, Eleonora; Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Zijno, Andrea; D’Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria; Sanchez, Massimo; Fattibene, Paola; Falchi, Mario; Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased levels and different types of intracellular radical species as well as an altered glutathione redox state characterize XP-A human cells when compared to normal. • A more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels are associated with alteration of mitochondrial morphology and response to mitochondrial toxicants when XPA is defective. • XP-A human cells show increased spontaneous micronuclei frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O_2_−· and H_2O_2 being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ("1H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a hallmark of cancer

  8. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlanti, Eleonora [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara [Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Zijno, Andrea; D’Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Sanchez, Massimo [Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, Paola [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Falchi, Mario [National AIDS Center, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, Eugenia, E-mail: dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increased levels and different types of intracellular radical species as well as an altered glutathione redox state characterize XP-A human cells when compared to normal. • A more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels are associated with alteration of mitochondrial morphology and response to mitochondrial toxicants when XPA is defective. • XP-A human cells show increased spontaneous micronuclei frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O{sub 2−}· and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a

  9. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlanti, Eleonora; Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Zijno, Andrea; D'Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria; Sanchez, Massimo; Fattibene, Paola; Falchi, Mario; Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O₂₋• and H₂O₂ being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. The increased MN frequency was not affected by inhibition of ROS to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Titanium dioxide modified with various amines used as sorbents of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapica-Kozar, Joanna; Pirog, Ewa; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Wrobel, Rafal J.; Gesikiewicz-Puchalska, Andzelika; Morawski, Antoni W.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide was modified with various amines through hydrothermal treatment for adsorption of CO_2. The carbon dioxide adsorption performance of the prepared samples was measured using an STA 449 C thermo-balance (Netzsch Company, Germany). The morphological structures, functional groups and elemental compositions of the unmodified and amine-modified titanium dioxide sorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/DR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that modification of TiO_2 with amines through hydrothermal treatment is a simple method to prepare CO_2 sorbents with high adsorption capacities. Moreover, the results revealed that TEPA-modified titanium dioxide shoved the highest adsorption capacity, enabling an increase in CO_2 uptake from 0.45 mmol CO_2 g"-"1 in the case of raw TiO_2 to 1.63 mmol CO_2 g"-"1. This result could be indirectly related to the fact that TEPA has the highest amino group content among the three amines used in our research. Additionally, durability tests performed by cyclic adsorption-desorption revealed that TEPA modified titanium dioxide also possesses excellent stability, despite a slight decrease in adsorption capacity over time. (authors)

  11. Health and beyond…strategies for a better India: using the "prison window" to reach disadvantaged groups in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Mathew, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    As of 2013, the latest statistics available, more than 400,000 individuals are lodged in Indian prisons. Prisoners represent a heterogeneous population, belonging to socially diverse and economically disadvantaged sections of society with limited knowledge about health and healthy lifestyles. There is considerable evidence to show that prisoners in India have an increased risk of mental disorders including self-harm and are highly susceptible to various communicable diseases. Coupled together with abysmal living conditions and poor quality of medical services, health in prisons is a matter of immense human rights concern. However, the concept and the subsequent need to view prison health as an essential part of public health and as a strategic investment to reach persons and communities out of the primary health system ambit is poorly recognized in India. This article discusses the current status of prison healthcare in India and explores various potential opportunities the "prison window" provides. It also briefly deliberates on the various systematic barriers in the Indian prison health system and how these might be overcome to make primary healthcare truly available for all.

  12. Health and beyond...strategies for a better India: using the "prison window" to reach disadvantaged groups in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Bhaumik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As of 2013, the latest statistics available, more than 400,000 individuals are lodged in Indian prisons. Prisoners represent a heterogeneous population, belonging to socially diverse and economically disadvantaged sections of society with limited knowledge about health and healthy lifestyles. There is considerable evidence to show that prisoners in India have an increased risk of mental disorders including self-harm and are highly susceptible to various communicable diseases. Coupled together with abysmal living conditions and poor quality of medical services, health in prisons is a matter of immense human rights concern. However, the concept and the subsequent need to view prison health as an essential part of public health and as a strategic investment to reach persons and communities out of the primary health system ambit is poorly recognized in India. This article discusses the current status of prison healthcare in India and explores various potential opportunities the "prison window" provides. It also briefly deliberates on the various systematic barriers in the Indian prison health system and how these might be overcome to make primary healthcare truly available for all.

  13. Amine Functionalization via Oxidative Photoredox Catalysis: Methodology Development and Complex Molecule Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus While the use of visible light to drive chemical reactivity is of high importance to the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations, the concomitant use of a stoichiometric electron donor or acceptor is often required to steer the desired redox behavior of these systems. The low-cost and ubiquity of tertiary amine bases has led to their widespread use as reductive additives in photoredox catalysis. Early use of trialkylamines in this context was focused on their role as reductive excited state quenchers of the photocatalyst, which in turn provides a more highly reducing catalytic intermediate. In this Account, we discuss some of the observations and thought processes that have led from our use of amines as reductive additives to their use as complex substrates and intermediates for natural product synthesis. Early attempts by our group to construct key carbon–carbon bonds via free-radical intermediates led to the observation that some trialkylamines readily behave as efficient hydrogen atom donors under redox-active photochemical conditions. In the wake of in-depth mechanistic studies published in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, this understanding has in turn allowed for a systematic approach to the design of a number of photochemical methodologies through rational tuning of the amine component. Minimization of the C–H donicity of the amine additive was found to promote desired C–C bond formation in a number of contexts, and subsequent elucidation of the amine’s redox fate has sparked a reevaluation of the amine’s role from that of reagent to that of substrate. The reactivity of tertiary amines in these photochemical systems is complex, and allows for a number of mechanistic possibilities that are not necessarily mutually exclusive. A variety of combinations of single-electron oxidation, C–H abstraction, deprotonation, and β-scission result in the formation of reactive intermediates such as α-amino radicals and iminium ions

  14. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D., E-mail: nelsoa@umich.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institut fuer Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  15. Amine promoted, metal enhanced degradation of Mirex under high temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallad, Karim N. [American University of Sharjah, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)]. E-mail: kjallad@runbox.com; Lynn, Bert C. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, KY 40506-055 (United States); Alley, Earl G. [Mississippi State University, Department of Chemistry, MS State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, zero-valent metal dehalogenation of mirex was conducted with amine solvents at high temperatures. Mirex was treated with excess amine in sealed glass tube reactors under nitrogen. The amines used were n-butyl amine (l), ethyl amine (l), dimethyl amine (g), diethyl amine (l), triethyl amine (l), trimethyl amine (g) and ammonia (g). The metals used were copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and calcium. The most suitable amine solvent and metal were selected by running a series of reactions with different amines and different zero-valent metals, in order to optimize the conditions under which complete degradation of mirex takes place. These dehalogenation reactions illustrated the role of zero-valent metals as reductants, whereas the amine solvents acted as proton donors. In this study, we report that mirex was completely degraded with diethyl amine (l) in the presence of copper at 100 deg. C and the hydrogenated products accounted for more than 94 of the degraded mirex.

  16. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  17. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol...

  18. Systematic Review of the Primary Research on Minority Ethnic Groups and End-of-Life Care From the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.; Koffman, J.; Harding, R.; Higginson, I.J.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. Objectives: To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic

  19. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2008-01-01

    care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...

  20. Systematic review of the primary research on minority ethnic groups and end-of-life care from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin V W; Koffman, Jonathan; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J; Pool, Robert; Gysels, Marjolein

    2012-02-01

    Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the U.K. and appraise their quality. Searches were carried out in 13 electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and the gray literature. Studies of minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the U.K. were included. Studies were graded for quality and key themes were identified. Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Study quality was good on average. Identified key themes included age structure; inequality by disease group; referrals; caregivers; place of care and death; awareness of services and communication; and cultural competency. Strategies described for the reduction of inequities were partial and reactive. The format of 10 studies prevented quality grading; these were, however, reviewed as they provided unique insights. Variations in terminology and sampling frames complicated comparison across studies. The results highlight the multiple and related factors that contribute to low service use and substandard quality of services experienced by minority ethnic groups, and the need for authors to clarify what they mean by "culturally competent" EoL care. The synthesis of diverse and disparate studies underpins a number of key recommendations for health care professionals and policymakers. Tackling these epidemiological, demographic, institutional, social, and cultural factors will require a systematic and organization-wide approach rather than the current piecemeal and reactive interventions. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusak, K N; Ignatovich, Zh V; Koroleva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references

  2. Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base by two amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Selvarani, P.; Chenthamarai, S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base (RhB) in DMF solution has been studied at different concentrations of the amine Triethyl amine (TEA) and n-butyl amine (NBA) at room temperature. It has been observed that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decrease with increase in the concentration of the TEA and NBA. It has been observed that the quenching due to amines proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The rate constants for the quenching process have been calculated using Stern-Volmer equation. Time resolved fluorescence study and 1H NMR spectral study have also been carried out and discussed.

  3. [Study of the nutritional status and eating habits on a group of patients in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinescu, Gabriela; Gavăt, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of medical and biological status of the study group; analyzing the nutritional status and the way of eating by food investigation; and evaluation of the knowledge about eating behavior and the role of physical activity in health. The study was conducted from 2010-2011 on a sample of 375 patients aged 18-74, patients within a family medicine cabinet in our town. The questionnaire included demographic data (age, education, social, financial situation, the belonging religious) and questions about nutrition on food groups and questions about rational knowledge about nutrition, eating behavior and the role of physical activity. In the study group by gender distribution was 225 women (60%) and 150 men (40%) with a ratio F/M = 1.5/1 Evaluation of the nutritional status and somatometric exam revealed the following issues: 105 cases (28%) with, 103 cases (27.46%), 52 cases (13.86%) 72 (19.2%) and 43 cases (11.46%). Most patients were overweight normo and 27.46% respectively 28% and is followed by those with grade II obesity (19.2%), obesity grade I (13.86%) and final grade III obesity (11.46%).The food investigation on food groups showed no significant differences between the two years of study configuring same eating behavior. Metabolic and nutritional diseases became increasingly aggressive in recent decades and obesity is a widespread disease in the population with a multifactorial etiology and with a chronic evolution. The family doctor been in the forefront of the health system can contribute to increasing the quality of life that heis monitoring the implementation of educational programs related to food and eating behavior.

  4. Attitudes, barriers and facilitators for health promotion in the elderly in primary care. A qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badertscher, Nina; Rossi, Pascal Olivier; Rieder, Arabelle; Herter-Clavel, Catherine; Rosemann, Thomas; Zoller, Marco

    2012-07-11

    Effective health promotion is of great importance from clinical as well as from public health perspectives and therefore should be encouraged. Especially regarding health promotion in the elderly, general practitioners (GPs) have a key role. Nevertheless, evidence suggests a lack of health promotion by GPs, especially in this age group. The aim of our study was to assess self-perceived attitudes, barriers and facilitators of GPs to provide health promotion in the elderly. We performed a qualitative focus group study with 37 general practitioners. The focus group interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed literally and analysed with ATLAS.ti, a software program for qualitative text analysis. Among the participating GPs, definitions of health promotion varied widely and the opinions regarding its effectiveness were very heterogeneous. The two most important self-perceived barriers for GPs to provide health promotion in the elderly were lack of time and insufficient reimbursement for preventive and health promotion advice. As intervention to increase health promotion in the elderly, GPs suggested, for example, integration of health promotion into under and postgraduate training. Changes at the practice level such as involving the practice nurse in health promotion and counselling were discussed very controversially. Health promotion, especially in the elderly, is crucial but in the opinion of the GPs we involved in our study, there is a gap between public health requirements and the reimbursement system. Integration of health promotion in medical education may be needed to increase knowledge as well as attitudes of GPs regarding this issue.

  5. Geochemical study for primary dispersion of trace elements in uranium bearing black slates of the Ogcheon Group, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O.B.

    1980-01-01

    Total 145 boring core samples of Deogpyongri, Geosan and Mogsori, Geumsan in Ogcheon Group have been collected and analyzed for uranium and trace elements such as lead, zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, vanadium and mloybdenium. All the data of the elments analyzed have been processed statistically by computer in order to estimate the correlation co-efficient between elements. The vertical distribution pattern of trace elements has been discussed. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Uranium has high correlation co-efficients with vanadium and molybdenium. And the last two can be used as indicator elements for the geochemical prospecting of uranium. The occurrence of uranium is closely related with the carbonaceous material in boring core of Ogcheon Group. Considering the vertical distribution pattern of uranium, it can't be said that the epigenetic uranium absorption to the carbonaceous material is in progress. The uranium minerals in the carbonanceous material must be correctly defined to resolve the genetic problems of uranium deposit in Ogcheon Group. (Author)

  6. Preparation and reactivity studies of maleimidophenyl glycidylether with amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid thermosetting maleimido epoxy compound 4-(N-maleimidophenyl glycidylether (N-MPGE was prepared by reacting N-(4-hydroxyphenyl maleimide (HPM with epichlorohydrin by using benzyltrimethylammonium chloride as a catalyst. The resulting compound possessed both the oxirane ring and maleimide group. The curing reaction of N-MPGE with amines as curing agents such as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA, bishexamethylenetriamine (BHMT, 2-methyl pentamethylenediamine (2-MPMDA and 2,2,4-trimethy diamines (2,2,4-TMDA was studied. The cured samples exhibited good thermal stability and excellent chemical (acid/alkali/solvent and water absorption resistance. Morphological studies by the SEM technique further confirmed the phase homogeneity network of the cured systems.

  7. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly Sm; Rijmen, Frank; Cornel, Martina C; de Kinderen, Marja; Plass, Anne Marie C

    2009-09-15

    In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Perceived behavioural control, i.e. the feeling that they could actually get tested if they wanted to, increased in the targeted age group of 18-45 years (N = 41; p ethnic groups was positive, yet they did not show strong intention to effectuate carrier testing of their patients on the basis of ethnicity. The main factor which explained their (lack of) intention was social norm, i.e. their perception of negative peer opinion (41% variance explained). The majority of primary health care providers felt that policy change was

  8. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  9. Business Process Modelling is an Essential Part of a Requirements Analysis. Contribution of EFMI Primary Care Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, S; Krause, P; Michalakidis, G; Vicente, M Tristan; Thompson, S; McGilchrist, M; Sullivan, F; van Royen, P; Agreus, L; Desombre, T; Taweel, A; Delaney, B

    2012-01-01

    To perform a requirements analysis of the barriers to conducting research linking of primary care, genetic and cancer data. We extended our initial data-centric approach to include socio-cultural and business requirements. We created reference models of core data requirements common to most studies using unified modelling language (UML), dataflow diagrams (DFD) and business process modelling notation (BPMN). We conducted a stakeholder analysis and constructed DFD and UML diagrams for use cases based on simulated research studies. We used research output as a sensitivity analysis. Differences between the reference model and use cases identified study specific data requirements. The stakeholder analysis identified: tensions, changes in specification, some indifference from data providers and enthusiastic informaticians urging inclusion of socio-cultural context. We identified requirements to collect information at three levels: micro- data items, which need to be semantically interoperable, meso- the medical record and data extraction, and macro- the health system and socio-cultural issues. BPMN clarified complex business requirements among data providers and vendors; and additional geographical requirements for patients to be represented in both linked datasets. High quality research output was the norm for most repositories. Reference models provide high-level schemata of the core data requirements. However, business requirements' modelling identifies stakeholder issues and identifies what needs to be addressed to enable participation.

  10. Photometric Characterization of the Reductive Amination Scope of the Imine Reductases from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and Streptomyces ipomoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Philipp; Krautschick, Lukas; Höhne, Matthias

    2017-10-18

    Imine reductases (IREDs) have emerged as promising enzymes for the asymmetric synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines starting from carbonyl substrates. Screening the substrate specificity of the reductive amination reaction is usually performed by time-consuming GC analytics. We found two highly active IREDs in our enzyme collection, IR-20 from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and IR-Sip from Streptomyces ipomoeae, that allowed a comprehensive substrate screening with a photometric NADPH assay. We screened 39 carbonyl substrates combined with 17 amines as nucleophiles. Activity data from 663 combinations provided a clear picture about substrate specificity and capabilities in the reductive amination of these enzymes. Besides aliphatic aldehydes, the IREDs accepted various cyclic (C 4 -C 8 ) and acyclic ketones, preferentially with methylamine. IR-Sip also accepted a range of primary and secondary amines as nucleophiles. In biocatalytic reactions, IR-Sip converted (R)-3-methylcyclohexanone with dimethylamine or pyrrolidine with high diastereoselectivity (>94-96 % de). The nucleophile acceptor spectrum depended on the carbonyl substrate employed. The conversion of well-accepted substrates could also be detected if crude lysates were employed as the enzyme source. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of amine structure on CO2 capture by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Ikuo; Kinugasa, Kae; Toyoda, Mariko; Minezaki, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine)s (PAMAMs) incorporated into a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) exhibited excellent CO 2 separation properties over H 2 . However, the CO 2 permeability should be increased for practical applications. Monoethanolamine (MEA) used as a CO 2 determining agent in the current CO 2 capture technology at demonstration scale was readily immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix by solvent casting of aqueous mixture of PVA and the amine. The resulting polymeric membranes can be self-standing with the thickness above 3 μm and the amine fraction less than 80 wt%. The gas permeation properties were examined at 40 °C and under 80% relative humidity. The CO 2 separation performance increased with increase of the amine content in the polymeric membranes. When the amine fraction was 80 wt%, the CO 2 permeability coefficient of MEA containing membrane was 604 barrer with CO 2 selectivity of 58.5 over H 2 , which was much higher than the PAMAM membrane (83.7 barrer and 51.8, respectively) under the same operation conditions. On the other hand, ethylamine (EA) was also incorporated into PVA matrix to form a thin membrane. However, the resulting polymeric membranes exhibited slight CO 2 -selective gas permeation properties. The hydroxyl group of MEA was crucial for high CO 2 separation performance.

  12. DFT Rationalization of the Diverse Outcomes of the Iodine(III)-Mediated Oxidative Amination of Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Sameera, W M C; Romero, R Martín; Martínez, Claudio; Souto, José A; Sampedro, Diego; Muñiz, Kilian; Maseras, Feliu

    2016-05-23

    A computational study of the mechanism for the iodine(III)-mediated oxidative amination of alkenes explains the experimentally observed substrate dependence on product distribution. Calculations with the M06 functional have been carried out on the reaction between PhI(N(SO2 Me)2 )2 and three different representative substrates: styrene, α-methylstyrene, and (E)-methylstilbene. All reactions start with electrophilic attack by a cationic PhI(N(SO2 Me)2 )(+) unit on the double bond, and formation of an intermediate with a single C-I bond and a planar sp(2) carbocationic center. The major path, leading to 1,2-diamination, proceeds through a mechanism in which the bissulfonimide initially adds to the alkene through an oxygen atom of one sulfonyl group. This behavior is now corroborated by experimental evidence. An alternative path, leading to an allylic amination product, takes place through deprotonation at an allylic C-H position in the common intermediate. The regioselectivity of this amination depends on the availability of the resonant structures of an alternate carbocationic intermediate. Only in cases where a high electronic delocalization is possible, as in (E)-methylstilbene, does the allylic amination occur without migration of the double bond. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Colorimetric Sensor for Qualitative Discrimination and Quantitative Detection of Volatile Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel colorimetric sensor based on a digital camera and white LED illumination. Colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs were made from a set of six chemically responsive dyes impregnated on an inert substrate plate by solution casting. Six common amine aqueous solutions, including dimethylamine, triethylamine, diisopropyl-amine, aniline, cyclohexylamine, and pyridine vaporized at 25 °C and six health-related trimethylamine (TMA concentrations including 170 ppm, 51 ppm, 8 ppm, 2 ppm, 125 ppb and 50 ppb were analyzed by the sensor to test its ability for the qualitative discrimination and quantitative detection of volatile amines. We extracted the feature vectors of the CSA's response to the analytes from a fusional color space, which was obtained by conducting a joint search algorithm of sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection (SFS&SBS based on the linear discriminant criteria (LDC in a mixed color space composed of six common color spaces. The principle component analysis (PCA followed by the hierarchical cluser analysis (HCA were utilized to discriminate 12 analytes. Results showed that the colorimetric sensor grouped the six amine vapors and five TMA concentrations correctly, while TMA concentrations of 125 ppb and 50 ppb were indiscriminable from each other. The limitation of detection (LOD of the sensor for TMA was found to be lower than 50 ppb. The CSAs were reusable for TMA concentrations below 8 ppm.

  14. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  15. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-04

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  16. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21, a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde.

  17. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  18. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines by the Extrusion of Dihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Vogt, Henning; Madsen, R.

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally friendly method for synthesis of amides is presented where a simple ruthenium catalyst mediates the direct coupling between an alcohol and an amine with the liberation of two molecules of dihydrogen. The active catalyst is generated in situ from an easily available ruthenium...... complex, an N-heterocyclic carbene and a phosphine. The reaction allows primary alcohols to be coupled with primary alkyamines to afford the corresponding secondary amides in good yields. The amide formation presumably proceeds through a catalytic cycle where the intermediate aldehyde and hemiaminal...

  19. Ionic networks derived from the protonation of dendritic amines with carboxylic acid end‐functionalized PEGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel ionic networks linked by the ammonium salts of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers of the first (PPI G1) and second (PPI G2) generation and two short bis carboxymethyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (DiCOOH‐PEG) with different molecular...... weights (Mn ∼ 250 and Mn ∼ 600) are reported. Likewise, an ionic network based on PPI G1 and a long αω‐dicarboxylic acid functionalized PEG (Mn ∼ 4800) were evaluated. Simpler ionic structures based on tris(2‐aminoethyl)amine or hexamethylene diamine and the short DiCOOH‐PEGs are also investigated....... The ionic structures formed were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated‐total‐reflection mode, and 1H‐13C NMR spectroscopy. A comprehensive 1H NMR analysis revealed that only the primary amines of the PPI G1 dendrimer residing...

  20. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ePei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the classical biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS, and hence referred to as trace amines (TAs, are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioural functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1, a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signalling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  1. Effect of a group intervention in the primary healthcare setting on continuing adherence to physical exercise routines in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey-Moya, Luz Maria; Castilla-Álvarez, Carmen; Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Rico-Blázquez, Milagros; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Gómez-Quevedo, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    To determine the effect of a seven-week-long, group-delivered, nurse-monitored, exercise training programme on the adherence of obese women to physical exercise routines at 12 months. The worldwide obesity epidemic is posing huge public health challenges. The main cause of obesity in Europe is very possibly a sedentary lifestyle. Uncertainty exists regarding whether people will continue to exercise once a structured intervention programme of physical activity ends. No-control-group (before-after) intervention study. One Hundred Seventy-Four women from the Madrid region (Spain) aged ≥ 45 years with a body mass index of ≥30 undertook a maximum of 21 × 1 hour exercise training programme sessions (three per week) over seven weeks starting in February 2009. The number of women making use of exercise training programme before the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months postintervention, was recorded using the Nursing Outcome Classification. Information was collected by interviewing the study subjects. Bivariate (McNemar and Student's t-tests) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) analyses were then performed. The Nursing Outcome Classification Indicator 'Does the subject follow an exercise training programme?' showed that at the end of one year, the percentage of women who remained adhered to exercise training programme increased in those who completed the study (from 11-41%). As the number of programmed exercise training programme sessions completed increased beyond 14, so too did the likelihood of adhering to an exercise training programme regime at one year. The results show that an exercise training programme intervention can encourage obese women to continue exercising after exercise interventions end. This type of intervention could provide a valuable means of helping women lose weight and improve their health. It may also have important economic benefits for health systems. Clinical trials with longer follow-up times and in other populations are needed

  2. The impact of patient participation direct enhanced service on patient reference groups in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Lorraine; Agarwal, Shona; Harrad, Fawn; Lester, Louise; Cross, Ainsley; Wray, Paula; Smith, Gordon; Locke, Anthony; Sinfield, Paul

    2014-01-01

    NHS policy documents continue to make a wide-ranging commitment to patient involvement. The Patient Participation Direct Enhanced Service (PP-DES), launched in 2011, aimed to ensure patients are involved in decisions about the range and quality of services provided and commissioned by their practice through patient reference groups (PRGs). The aim of this exploratory study is to review the impact of the PP-DES (2011-13) on a sample of PRGs and assess how far it has facilitated their involvement in decisions about the services of their general practices. A qualitative methods design, using semi- structured interviews and focus groups, was employed to explore the experiences and views of GP practice staff (n = 24), PRG members (n = 80) at 12 GP practices, and other stakeholders (n = 4). Wide variation in the role and remit of the participating PRGs was found, which broadly ranged from activities to improve practice resources to supporting health promotion activities. The majority of PRG members were unfamiliar with the PP-DES scheme and its aims and purpose. Stakeholders and practice staff felt strongly that the main success of the PP-DES was that it had led to an increase in the number of PRGs being established in the locality. The PP-DES scheme has been a catalyst to establish PRGs. However, the picture was mixed in terms of the PRGs involvement in decisions about the services provided at their general practice as there was wide variation in the PRGs role and remit. The financial incentive alone, provided via the DES scheme, did not secure greater depth of PRG activity and power, however, as social factors were identified as playing an important role in PRGs' level of participation in decision making. Many PRGs have to become more firmly established before they are involved as partners in commissioning decisions at their practice.

  3. Reliability and Maintainability Analysis for the Amine Swingbed Carbon Dioxide Removal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    I have performed a reliability & maintainability analysis for the Amine Swingbed payload system. The Amine Swingbed is a carbon dioxide removal technology that has gone through 2,400 hours of International Space Station on-orbit use between 2013 and 2016. While the Amine Swingbed is currently an experimental payload system, the Amine Swingbed may be converted to system hardware. If the Amine Swingbed becomes system hardware, it will supplement the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) as the primary CO2 removal technology on the International Space Station. NASA is also considering using the Amine Swingbed as the primary carbon dioxide removal technology for future extravehicular mobility units and for the Orion, which will be used for the Asteroid Redirect and Journey to Mars missions. The qualitative component of the reliability and maintainability analysis is a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). In the FMEA, I have investigated how individual components in the Amine Swingbed may fail, and what the worst case scenario is should a failure occur. The significant failure effects are the loss of ability to remove carbon dioxide, the formation of ammonia due to chemical degradation of the amine, and loss of atmosphere because the Amine Swingbed uses the vacuum of space to regenerate the Amine Swingbed. In the quantitative component of the reliability and maintainability analysis, I have assumed a constant failure rate for both electronic and nonelectronic parts. Using this data, I have created a Poisson distribution to predict the failure rate of the Amine Swingbed as a whole. I have determined a mean time to failure for the Amine Swingbed to be approximately 1,400 hours. The observed mean time to failure for the system is between 600 and 1,200 hours. This range includes initial testing of the Amine Swingbed, as well as software faults that are understood to be non-critical. If many of the commercial parts were switched to military-grade parts, the expected

  4. Composites of ionic liquid and amine-modified SAPO 34 improve CO2 separation of CO2-selective polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-07-01

    Mixed matrix membranes with ionic liquids and molecular sieve particles had high CO2 permeabilities, but CO2 separation from small gas molecules such as H2 was dissatisfied because of bad interfacial interaction between ionic liquid and molecular sieve particles. To solve that, amine groups were introduced to modify surface of molecular sieve particles before loading with ionic liquid. SAPO 34 was adopted as the original filler, and four mixed matrix membranes with different fillers were prepared on the outer surface of ceramic hollow fibers. Both surface voids and hard agglomerations disappeared, and the surface became smooth after SAPO 34 was modified by amine groups and ionic liquid [P66614][2-Op]. Mixed matrix membranes with composites of amine-modified SAPO 34 and ionic liquid exhibited excellent CO2 permeability (408.9 Barrers) and CO2/H2 selectivity (22.1).

  5. Improving the fitness and physical activity levels of primary school children: results of the Fit-4-Fun group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a multi-component school-based physical activity intervention (Fit-4-Fun) on health-related fitness and objectively measured physical activity in primary school children. Four Hunter primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into treatment or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.72 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week Fit-4-Fun Program. Participants were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up, with a 91% retention rate. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) (20 m shuttle run) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included body composition (BMI, BMI(Z)), muscular fitness (7-stage sit-up test, push-up test, basketball throw test, Standing Jump), flexibility (sit and reach) and physical activity (7 days pedometry). After 6-months, significant treatment effects were found for CRF (adjusted mean difference, 1.14 levels, p < 0.001), body composition (BMI mean, -0.96 kg/m(2), p < 0.001 and BMI z-score mean -0.47 z-scores, p < 0.001), flexibility (sit and reach mean, 1.52 cm, p = 0.0013), muscular fitness (sit-ups) (mean 0.62 stages, p = 0.003) and physical activity (mean, 3253 steps/day, p < 0.001). There were no group by time effects for the other muscular fitness measures. A primary school-based intervention focusing on fitness education significantly improved health-related fitness and physical activity levels in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  7. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  8. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  9. Amine-selective bioconjugation using arene diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Stefan; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-08-01

    A novel bioconjugation strategy is presented that relies on the coupling of diazonium terephthalates with amines in proteins. The diazonium captures the amine while the vicinal ester locks it through cyclization, ensuring no reversibility. The reaction is highly efficient and proceeds under mild conditions and short reaction times. Densely functionalized, complex natural products were directly coupled to proteins using low concentrations of coupling partners.

  10. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R

    2009-06-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  11. Astramol polypropyleneimine dendrimers as Norrish Type II amine synergists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Dias, A.A.; Hartwig, H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    UV-curable coatings for various applications . In most of these applications they serve a dual role ie as initiator and as oxygen scavenger. Dimethylethanolamine is one of the more frequently employed aliphatic amines. However, this amine is a highly volatile . AstramolTM polypropyleneimine

  12. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  13. Trace amine-associated receptor 1-Family archetype or iconoclast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, David K

    2007-12-01

    Interest has recently been rekindled in receptors that are activated by low molecular weight, noncatecholic, biogenic amines that are typically found as trace constituents of various vertebrate and invertebrate tissues and fluids. The timing of this resurgent focus on receptors activated by the "trace amines" (TA) beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TYR), octopamine (OCT), synephrine (SYN), and tryptamine (TRYP) is the direct result of 2 publications that appeared in 2001 describing the cloning of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) referred to by their discoverers Borowsky et al. as TA1 and Bunzow et al. as TA receptor 1 (TAR1). When heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and various eukaryotic cell lines, recombinant rodent and human TAR dose-dependently couple to the stimulation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production. Structure-activity profiling based on this functional response has revealed that in addition to the TA, other biologically active compounds containing a 2-carbon aliphatic side chain linking an amino group to at least 1 benzene ring are potent and efficacious TA receptor agonists with amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine, 3-iodothyronamine, thyronamine, and dopamine (DA) among the most notable. Almost 100 years after the search for TAR began, numerous TA1/TAR1-related sequences, now called TA-associated receptors (TAAR), have been identified in the genome of every species of vertebrate examined to date. Consequently, even though heterologously expressed TAAR1 fits the pharmacological criteria established for a bona fide TAR, a major challenge for those working in the field is to discern the in vivo pharmacology and physiology of each purported member of this extended family of GPCR. Only then will it be possible to establish whether TAAR1 is the family archetype or an iconoclast.

  14. A CROSS-SECTIONAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS BELONGING TO LOW INCOME GROUP FAMILIES ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES AT BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Chandrashekar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  15. Lasting impact of an implemented self-management programme for people with type 2 diabetes referred from primary care: a one-group, before-after design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløde, Mari; Iversen, Marjolein M; Aarflot, Morten; Haltbakk, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    Research interventions in uniform clinical settings and in patients fulfilling well-defined inclusion criteria might show a more pronounced effect than implementing the same intervention in existing practice. Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) is complex, and should be assessed in existing practice as it is an intervention widely implemented. To examine the impact of an established group-based DSME in unselected people with type 2 diabetes referred from primary care. A one-group, before-after design was used for assessments before, immediately after, and 3 months after participation in a group-based DSME programme conducted at two Learning and Mastering Centres in Norway between November 2013 and June 2014. Participants completed a questionnaire before (n = 115), immediately after (n = 95) and 3 months after (n = 42) the DSME programme. Primary outcome measure was diabetes knowledge (Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test). Also patient activation (Patient Activation Measure [PAM]) and self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy scale [GSE]) were measured. Changes in outcome measures were analysed using paired t-tests for normally distributed data and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for skewed data. Mean knowledge improved significantly from baseline (p < 0.001). Changes persisted at the 3-month assessment. Mean PAM scores improved significantly from baseline (p < 0.001), and changes persisted for 3 months. Mean GSE scores improved from baseline (p = 0.022) and persisted for 3 months. However, when results were stratified for participants who responded at all three time points, GSE showed no change during the study period. The complexity self-management in the individual is challenging to reflect in DSME. This implemented DSME programme for people with type 2 diabetes improved levels of diabetes knowledge and patient activation, persisting for at least 3 months. Hence, the DSME programme appears to be robust beyond standardised research settings, in educating unselected

  16. Adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System to the cost of primary healthcare in Catalonia (Spain): a observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Bolibar-Ribas, Buenaventura; Violan-Fors, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    To describe the adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) system to the cost of care in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia (Spain). Retrospective study (multicentres) conducted using computerised medical records. 13 primary care teams in 2008 were included. All patients registered in the study centres who required care between 1 January and 31 December 2008 were finally studied. Patients not registered in the study centres during the study period were excluded. Demographic (age and sex), dependent (cost of care) and case-mix variables were studied. The cost model for each patient was established by differentiating the fixed and variable costs. To evaluate the adaptive capacity of the ACG system, Pearson's coefficient of variation and the percentage of outliers were calculated. To evaluate the explanatory power of the ACG system, the authors used the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The number of patients studied was 227 235 (frequency: 5.9 visits per person per year), with a mean of 4.5 (3.2) episodes and 8.1 (8.2) visits per patient per year. The mean total cost was €654.2. The explanatory power of the ACG system was 36.9% for costs (56.5% without outliers). 10 ACG categories accounted for 60.1% of all cases and 19 for 80.9%. 5 categories represented 71% of poor performance (N=78 887, 34.7%), particularly category 0300-Acute Minor, Age 6+ (N=26 909, 11.8%), which had a coefficient of variation =139% and 6.6% of outliers. The ACG system is an appropriate manner of classifying patients in routine clinical practice in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia, although improvements to the adaptive capacity through disaggregation of some categories according to age groups and, especially, the number of acute episodes in paediatric patients would be necessary to reduce intra-group variation.

  17. Physiotherapy in Primary Care Triage - the effects on utilization of medical services at primary health care clinics by patients and sub-groups of patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhöft, Lena; Larsson, Maria E H; Thorn, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Primary Care Triage is a patient sorting system used in some primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in Sweden where patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are triaged directly to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sorting/triaging patients seeking a PHCC for MSD directly to physiotherapists affects their utilization of medical services at the clinic for the MSD and to determine whether the effects of the triaging system vary for different sub-groups of patients. A retrospective case-control study design was used at two PHCCs. At the intervention clinic, 656 patients with MSD were initially triaged to physiotherapists. At the control clinic, 1673 patients were initially assessed by general practitioners (GPs). The main outcome measures were the number of patients continuing to visit GPs after the initial assessment, the number of patients receiving referrals to specialists/external examinations, doctors' notes for sick-leave or prescriptions for analgesics during one year, all for the original MSD. Significantly fewer patients triaged to physiotherapists required multiple GP visits for the MSD or received MSD-related referrals to specialists/external examinations, sick-leave recommendations or prescriptions during the following year compared to the GP-assessed group. This applies to all sub-groups except for the group with lower extremity disorders, which did not reach significance for either multiple GP visits or sick-leave recommendations. The reduced utilization of medical services by patients with MSD who were triaged to physiotherapists at a PHCC is likely due to altered management of MSD with initial assessment by physiotherapists.

  18. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  19. Matrix-isolation FTIR, theoretical structural analysis and reactivity of amino-saccharins: N-(1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)- N-methyl amine and - N,N-dimethyl amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Kaczor, A.; Ismael, A.; Cristiano, M. L. S.; Fausto, R.

    2009-12-01

    In this work, two novel amino-substituted derivatives of saccharin, N-(1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)- N-methyl amine (MBAD) and N-(1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)- N, N-dimethyl amine (DMBAD), were synthesized and characterized, and their molecular structure and vibrational properties were investigated by matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations undertaken using different levels of approximation. The calculations predicted the existence of two conformers of MBAD. The lowest energy form was predicted to be considerably more stable than the second conformer (Δ E > ca. 20 kJ mol -1) and was the sole form contributing to the infrared spectrum of the compound isolated in solid xenon. Both conformers have planar amine moieties. In the case of DMBAD, only one doubly-degenerated-by-symmetry conformer exists, with the amine nitrogen atom considerably pyramidalized. The effect of the electron-withdrawing saccharyl ring on the C-N bond lengths is discussed. The different structural preferences around the amine nitrogen atom in the two molecules were explained in terms of repulsive interactions involving the additional methyl group of DMBAD. Observed structural features are correlated with the reactivity exhibited by the two compounds towards nucleophiles. The experimentally obtained spectra of the matrix-isolated monomers of MBAD and DMBAD were fully assigned by comparison with the corresponding calculated spectra.

  20. Dual C-H functionalization of N-aryl amines: synthesis of polycyclic amines via an oxidative Povarov approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chang; Sanchawala, Abbas; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-05-16

    Iminium ions generated in situ via copper(I) bromide catalyzed oxidation of N-aryl amines readily undergo [4 + 2] cycloadditions with a range of dienophiles. This method involves the functionalization of both a C(sp(3))-H and a C(sp(2))-H bond and enables the rapid construction of polycyclic amines under relatively mild conditions.

  1. Amine functionalization of carbon nanotubes for the preparation of CNT based polyactide composites - A comparative study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available . They are proven to have unique electronic, mechanical, and physical properties.1,2 However, the limited solubility of CNTs in most organic solvents limits their chemical manipulation, quantitative characterization, and wide application. In recent years... (SWCNTs) can be solubilized in common organic solvents by noncovalent (ionic) functionalization of the carboxylic acid groups by using octadecyl amine (ODA). They found that the same dissolution process applied to arc-produced MWCNTs, average length < 1...

  2. School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: multi-group cross-lagged analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  3. School Belongingness and Mental Health Functioning across the Primary-Secondary Transition in a Mainstream Sample: Multi-Group Cross-Lagged Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students’ school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students. PMID:24967580

  4. School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: multi-group cross-lagged analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  5. Primary social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions: a qualitative study of factors affecting implementation and the role of Local Authority support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Humphrey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the factors affecting implementation of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions in primary schools and to explore the role of support from Local Authorities (LAs in the implementation process. Telephone interviews were conducted with lead SEAL staff in 12 LAs across England as part of a larger national evaluation of this educational initiative. Data were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Subsequently, a tentative model was developed to document the relationship between the nature of support provided by LAs (e.g. training events, developing/providing additional materials, factors affecting implementation at school level (e.g. school readiness, the profile of SEAL and perceived barriers to success (e.g. misconceptions about the purpose of small group interventions. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the implementation of social-emotional initiatives and interventions in education.

  6. "They Are Talking About Me, but Not with Me": A Focus Group Study to Explore the Patient Perspective on Interprofessional Team Meetings in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; de Wit, Maarten; Smeets, Hester Wilhelmina Henrica; Stoffers, Esther; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon

    2017-08-01

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions receiving primary care services is growing. To deal with their increasingly complex health care demands, professionals from different disciplines need to collaborate. Interprofessional team (IPT) meetings are becoming more popular. Several studies describe important factors related to conducting IPT meetings, mostly from a professional perspective. However, in the light of patient-centeredness, it is valuable to also explore the patients' perspective. The aim was to explore the patients' perspectives regarding IPT meetings in primary care. A qualitative study with a focus group design was conducted in the Netherlands. Two focus group meetings took place, for which the same patients were invited. The participants, chronically ill patients with experience on interprofessional collaboration, were recruited through the regional patient association. Participants discussed viewpoints, expectations, and concerns regarding IPT meetings in two rounds, using a focus group protocol and selected video-taped vignettes of team meetings. The first meeting focused on conceptualization and identification of themes related to IPT meetings that are important to patients. The second meeting aimed to gain more in-depth knowledge and understanding of the priorities. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by means of content analysis. The focus group meetings included seven patients. Findings were divided into six key categories, capturing the factors that patients found important regarding IPT meetings: (1) putting the patient at the center, (2) opportunities for patients to participate, (3) appropriate team composition, (4) structured approach, (5) respectful communication, and (6) informing the patient about meeting outcomes. Patients identified different elements regarding IPT meetings that are important from their perspective. They emphasized the right of patients or their representatives to take part

  7. Translational study of obesity management using the Diabetes Prevention Program "Group Lifestyle Balance" in primary care clinics and public hospitals from Mexico: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Giovanni Díaz-Zavala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is the main modifiable risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in Mexico. Several randomized controlled trials have shown that intensive lifestyle programs are efficacious for the management of obesity. These programs include frequent sessions (14 or more contacts in the first 6 months focused on diet and physical activity and use a behavior change protocol. However, most Mexican primary care clinics and public hospitals apply traditional treatments for obesity management with limited results on weight loss. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP “Group Lifestyle Balance” for weight loss among adults with overweight and obesity from baseline to 6 months and from baseline to 12 months in primary care clinics and public hospitals from Sonora, Mexico. Material and Methods: This is a translational, multi-center, non-controlled, 6 and 12-month follow-up clinical study with a pre-test and post-test design. Healthcare providers from two primary care clinics, two hospitals and one university clinic will be trained with the DPP protocol to implement on their patients with overweight and obesity. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, depression, quality of life and stress scales will be measured in participants receiving the program at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Biochemical parameters will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome is the change in body weight at 6 and 12 months. Discussion: This study will provide scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the DPP protocol as a model for obesity management in real world clinical practice among the adult Mexican population.

  8. Transition Metal-Free Selective Double sp(3) C-H Oxidation of Cyclic Amines to 3-Alkoxyamine Lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Nieto, Urbano; Chamorro-Arenas, Delfino; Quintero, Leticia; Höpfl, Herbert; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2016-09-16

    The first chemical method for selective dual sp(3) C-H functionalization at the alpha-and beta positions of cyclic amines to their corresponding 3-alkoxyamine lactams is reported. Unlike traditional Cα-H oxidation of amines to amides mediated by transition metals, the present protocol, which involves the use of NaClO2/TEMPO/NaClO in either aqueous or organic solvent, not only allows the Cα-H oxidation but also the subsequent functionalization of the unreactive β-methylene group in an unprecedented tandem fashion and using environmentally friendly reactants.

  9. A comparative analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profiles of five Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice: PREDICT CVD-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Corina; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Drury, Paul; Elley, Raina; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gentles, Dudley; Erick-Peletiy, Stephanie; Bell, Fionna; Kerr, Andrew; Jackson, Rod

    2010-11-05

    Data on the cardiovascular disease risk profiles of Pacific peoples in New Zealand is usually aggregated and treated as a single entity. Little is known about the comparability or otherwise of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between different Pacific groups. To compare CVD risk profiles for the main Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice to determine if it is reasonable to aggregate these data, or if significant differences exist. A web-based clinical decision support system for CVD risk assessment and management (PREDICT) has been implemented in primary care practices in nine PHOs throughout Auckland and Northland since 2002, covering approximately 65% of the population of these regions. Between 2002 and January 2009, baseline CVD risk assessments were carried out on 11,642 patients aged 35-74 years identifying with one or more Pacific ethnic groups (4933 Samoans, 1724 Tongans, 1366 Cook Island Maori, 880 Niueans, 1341 Fijians and 1398 people identified as Other Pacific or Pacific Not Further Defined). Fijians were subsequently excluded from the analyses because of a probable misclassification error that appears to combine Fijian Indians with ethnic Fijians. Prevalences of smoking, diabetes and prior history of CVD, as well as mean total cholesterol/HDL ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and Framingham 5-year CVD risk were calculated for each Pacific group. Age-adjusted risk ratios and mean differences stratified by gender were calculated using Samoans as the reference group. Cook Island women were almost 60% more likely to smoke than Samoan women. While Tongan men had the highest proportion of smoking (29%) among Pacific men, Tongan women had the lowest smoking proportion (10%) among Pacific women. Tongan women and Niuean men and women had a higher burden of diabetes than other Pacific ethnic groups, which were 20-30% higher than their Samoan counterparts. Niuean men and women had lower blood pressure levels than all

  10. The Cambridge Prognostic Groups for improved prediction of disease mortality at diagnosis in primary non-metastatic prostate cancer: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanapragasam, V J; Bratt, O; Muir, K; Lee, L S; Huang, H H; Stattin, P; Lophatananon, A

    2018-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to validate a new five-tiered prognostic classification system to better discriminate cancer-specific mortality in men diagnosed with primary non-metastatic prostate cancer. We applied a recently described five-strata model, the Cambridge Prognostic Groups (CPGs 1-5), in two international cohorts and tested prognostic performance against the current standard three-strata classification of low-, intermediate- or high-risk disease. Diagnostic clinico-pathological data for men obtained from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) and the Singapore Health Study were used. The main outcome measure was prostate cancer mortality (PCM) stratified by age group and treatment modality. The PCBaSe cohort included 72,337 men, of whom 7162 died of prostate cancer. The CPG model successfully classified men with different risks of PCM with competing risk regression confirming significant intergroup distinction (p study of nearly 75,000 men confirms that the CPG five-tiered prognostic model has superior discrimination compared to the three-tiered model in predicting prostate cancer death across different age and treatment groups. Crucially, it identifies distinct sub-groups of men within the old intermediate-risk and high-risk criteria who have very different prognostic outcomes. We therefore propose adoption of the CPG model as a simple-to-use but more accurate prognostic stratification tool to help guide management for men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

  11. An internet-based intervention with brief nurse support to manage obesity in primary care (POWeR+): a pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, Fd Richard; Kelly, Jo; Smith, Emily R; Bradbury, Katherine J; Hughes, Stephanie; Smith, Peter W F; Moore, Michael V; Lean, Mike E J; Margetts, Barrie M; Byrne, Chris D; Griffin, Simon; Davoudianfar, Mina; Hooper, Julie; Yao, Guiqing; Zhu, Shihua; Raftery, James; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-10-01

    The obesity epidemic has major public health consequences. Expert dietetic and behavioural counselling with intensive follow-up is effective, but resource requirements severely restrict widespread implementation in primary care, where most patients are managed. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based behavioural intervention (POWeR+) combined with brief practice nurse support in primary care. We did this pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial at 56 primary care practices in central and south England. Eligible adults aged 18 years or older with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more (or ≥28 kg/m(2) with hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, or diabetes) registered online with POWeR+-a 24 session, web-based, weight management intervention lasting 6 months. After registration, the website automatically randomly assigned patients (1:1:1), via computer-generated random numbers, to receive evidence-based dietetic advice to swap foods for similar, but healthier, choices and increase fruit and vegetable intake, in addition to 6 monthly nurse follow-up (control group); web-based intervention and face-to-face nurse support (POWeR+Face-to-face [POWeR+F]; up to seven nurse contacts over 6 months); or web-based intervention and remote nurse support (POWeR+Remote [POWeR+R]; up to five emails or brief phone calls over 6 months). Participants and investigators were masked to group allocation at the point of randomisation; masking of participants was not possible after randomisation. The primary outcome was weight loss averaged over 12 months. We did a secondary analysis of weight to measure maintenance of 5% weight loss at months 6 and 12. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of each intervention. We did analysis by intention to treat, with multiple imputation for missing data. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN21244703. Between Jan 30, 2013, and March 20, 2014, 818

  12. Electrochemical characterization of platinum nanoparticles stabilized by amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Meneses, E.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Montiel-Palma, V.; Chavez-Herrera, V.H.; Gomez, E.; Hernandez-Tapia, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis by Chaudret approach of Pt nanoparticles stabilized by primary amine (-NH 2 ) compounds. Their electrochemical performance as cathodes in low temperature polymer electrolite fuel cells on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is also presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the samples show Pt nanostructures with particle size varying from 10 to 100 nm depending on the kind of the stabilizer used during the catalyst preparation. In some cases well-dispersed isolated platinum nanoparticles were observed. The activity of the dispersed catalysts (Pt/C) with respect to the ORR was investigated using steady state polarization measurements. The kinetic parameters showed that although no significant differences between the Tafel slopes of the Pt catalysts exist, transfer coefficients and exchange current densities show higher activities when the Pt nanoparticles were stabilized by tert-butylamine (TBA). The performance with respect to the ORR of the Pt/C catalyst on vulcan carbon substrate is active and comparable to that reported in the literature for state-of-art electrocatalysts.

  13. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers, are produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA content in cooked meat products (beef, chicken, pork, fish) prepared by various cooking methods (pan frying, oven broiling, and oven baking at 170 to 230°C) that are preferred by U.S. meat consumers. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (1.49-10.89ng/g), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-4.0ng/g), and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.57ng/g). Type and content of HCAs in cooked meat samples were highly dependent on cooking conditions. The total HCA content in well-done meat was 3.5 times higher than that of medium-rare meat. Fried pork (13.91ng/g) had higher levels of total HCAs than fried beef (8.92ng/g) and fried chicken (7.00ng/g). Among the samples, fried bacon contained the highest total HCA content (17.59ng/g). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers reported by patients receiving diabetes and hypertension primary health care in Barbados: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams O Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados that might contribute to these deficiencies. Methods Five structured focus groups were conducted for randomly selected people with diabetes and hypertension. Results Twenty-one patients (5 diabetic, 5 hypertensive, and 11 with both diseases with a mean age of 59 years attended 5 focus group sessions. Patient factors that affected care included the difficulty in maintaining behaviour change. Practitioner factors included not considering the "whole person" and patient expectations, and not showing enough respect for patients. Health care system factors revolved around the amount of time spent accessing care because of long waiting times in public sector clinics and pharmacies. Society related barriers included the high cost and limited availability of appropriate food, the availability of exercise facilities, stigma of disease and difficulty taking time off work. Attendees were not familiar with guidelines for diabetes and hypertension management, but welcomed a patient version detailing a place to record results, the frequency of tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose targets. Appropriate education from practitioners during consultations, while waiting in clinic, through support and education groups, and for the general public through the schools, mass media and billboards were recommended. Conclusions Primary care providers should take a more patient centred approach to the care of those with diabetes and hypertension. The care system should provide better service by reducing waiting times. Patient self-management could be encouraged by a patient version of care guidelines and greater educational efforts.

  15. One-pot radioiodination of aryl amines via stable diazonium salts: preparation of 125I-imaging agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Nikki L.; Luthra, Sajinder K.; McRobbie, Graeme; Pimlott, Sally L.; Sutherland, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An operationally simple, one-pot, two-step tandem procedure that allows the incorporation of radioactive iodine into aryl amines via stable diazonium salts is described. The mild conditions are tolerant of various functional groups and substitution patterns, allowing late-stage, rapid access to a wide range of 125I-labelled aryl compounds and SPECT radiotracers.

  16. A one-pot radioiodination of aryl amines via stable diazonium salts: preparation of 125I-imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Nikki L; Luthra, Sajinder K; McRobbie, Graeme; Pimlott, Sally L; Sutherland, Andrew

    2017-10-05

    An operationally simple, one-pot, two-step tandem procedure that allows the incorporation of radioactive iodine into aryl amines via stable diazonium salts is described. The mild conditions are tolerant of various functional groups and substitution patterns, allowing late-stage, rapid access to a wide range of 125 I-labelled aryl compounds and SPECT radiotracers.

  17. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  18. Interaction of amines with native aluminium oxide layers in non-aqueous environment: Application to the understanding of the formation of epoxy-amine/metal interphases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, D.; Rouchaud, J.-C.; Barthes-Labrousse, M.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction of propylamine (PA), 1,2-diaminoethane (DAE) or 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexylamine (isophorone diamine, IPDA) with native aluminium oxide layers in non-aqueous environment has been studied using time-resolved inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of several surface complexes has been evidenced. Monodentate and bidentate metal-bond surface complexes (MBSC) result from interactions between the amine terminations of the molecule and aluminium cations by donation of the N lone electron pair to the metal ion (Lewis-like mechanism leading to O-Al...N bonds). Monodentate and bidentate hydrogen-bond surface complexes (HBSC) are due to interaction of the amino group with surface hydroxyl groups by protonation of the amine termination (Bronsted-like mechanism leading to the formation of Al-OH...N bonds) or interaction with carbonaceous contamination (C x O y H z ...N bonds). Diamines can also form mixed complexes with one amino group forming an O-Al...N bond and the other group forming an Al-OH...N or C x O y H z ...N bond. Al-OH...N and C x O y H z ...N bonds are less stable under vacuum than O-Al...N bonds, leading to partial desorption of the DAE molecules in vacuum and modification of the interaction modes. Only DAE and IPDA can lead to partial dissolution of the aluminium native (hydr)oxide films. A detailed mechanism of dissolution has been proposed based on the formation of mononuclear bidentate (chelate) MBSC by ligand exchange between the terminal η 1 -OH and bridged μ 2 -OH surface sites and the amino terminations of the molecule. The detachment of this complex from the surface is likely to be the precursor step to the formation of the interphase in epoxy-amine/metal systems

  19. A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Polly H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP, and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adaptive system (CAS characteristics of the primary care setting. A CAS is comprised of individuals who can learn, interconnect, self-organize, and interact with their environment in a way that demonstrates non-linear dynamic behavior. One implementation strategy that may be used to leverage these properties is practice facilitation (PF. PF creates time for learning and reflection by members of the team in each clinic, improves their communication, and promotes an individualized approach to implement a strategy to improve patient outcomes. Specific objectives The specific objectives of this protocol are to: evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of PF to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes across a variety of primary care settings; assess the implementation of the CCM in response to the intervention; examine the relationship between communication within the practice team and the implementation of the CCM; and determine the cost of the intervention both from the perspective of the organization conducting the PF intervention and from the perspective of the primary care practice. Intervention The study will be a group randomized trial conducted in 40 primary care clinics. Data will be collected on all clinics, with 60 patients in each clinic, using a multi-method assessment process at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The intervention, PF, will consist of a series of practice improvement team meetings led by trained facilitators over 12

  20. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.